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Almost half (20 of 32) of the v;ctirns
lusi iheir

tics, 334; (13 of 42) of the .!,r:.. ..bIIIII> _ ..-J-.. “J !-.I!--.u.:uT;, LC IIruIL”IC” 1 /hat they WCI~ in a hurried rtcte. TGos$ over 65 62X (26 of hod Strdica:cd that ~hcy ware 10) hurried. 42) of the victims

slipped art:1

‘uolauce.

I

of (43),

!IIC totol CUP.: rtvdi;,s T6 involvec’ cor:tuof 15 irlvc~lv~:d to ~IIC mid

3,;d of the victims wcrc trtiaied smc rcquircd A liish and rclrosed l/4 (6 of t;le day while

sions and loccrations the head, various frccturcr of limbs. injuries

over 20 cre

hospitalization. pcrccri:age

They all suffer with dizziness cmd

fomc form of incomI ity

section and 6 involved and dislacotion Of the two one was due to loss

15) case in the 65 and over group required exten ded hospitalization.

!XAi

prr~bla~X&

UCCOUil’

<nown inca,pcci tiias and in .pite of this condition, >nly 3 were ottendcd by Inothcr person (43)

1

iin;

for atmos! l/2 of all 1 he frequency 16.5% of oil

n’cuths irlvolvcd, 1 by drowning

LCKCS. I l+leserts

There were no special >hysicol provisions in the >athroom nor bothtub ;ho;Ner environment for the victims

Almost half (20 of 42) of the victims slipped on

’ 1

of consciousness and the other by burning duo to a fall into hot water.3/4 full into the rcngc. of the injuries 3 to 5 severity

i

the tub or shower surfocz;.

.‘f.:,

,FREQUENCY

e

DJRECT

ACTION

BY A SECOND

PARTY

Bathtub

and shower area related Misjudgement, evolution

accidents

are directly

or indirectly

the responsibility are at the core these

of human capabilities. of the accident These accidents errors

incapacities

or other

miscalculations ofthe user;

and also at the core of the solution. design or in education and as such, the responsibility 1, educating of those charged with design or information

can occur in product

are indirectly

dissemination. As seen in Scenario the use of t$e bathroom of responsible judgement the incapacitated and reduced accident in the continuity user may have increased his care in In a more direct sense, the lack incidence. of those charged with the care of :, (‘;fi ? sequence through willfull action,

of attendance

minors lead’directly to fatalities as seen in Scenario 4. When a second party is actually involved in the injurious

the most direct errors in judgement are.evident. In reviewing the case studies, this direct involvement of a second party in the accident evolution was present in the twelve case studies. It is possible These cover that injury had would have occurred to the victim related in other environrnents had the other if the party

actions
not

of the other party been an active

taken place.
have been placed thus, 2. in other scenarios applicable intervention . strategies. to these scenarios wit I

cases would

participant;

those cases in Scenario

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FREQUENCY 20

BATHROOM AND
.i I

ACTIVITY FALLS

WITH

SLIPS TUB
I

AGAINST
.

Activity A variety

within

or entering

or leaving

the tub or shower area was found to be only one sequence that involved the tub. injuries in tub injury when tub related the tub or shower area, strategies emerged &rticular

way in which the user might enter into an accident of bathroom activity These patterns were examined.

was found to result

were seen as unique since the us& may not have been planfrom outside usually to this against the outer tub.

ning to skewer or bathe and was interacting Given sequence. these considerations, a field

from the bathroom floor where he ‘slipped and fell

of intervention

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FREQUENCY 4

.

-..w.,

i

TUB

BATHING UNDER TWO

OF

UNDER-ATTENDED RESULTING

CHILDREN

‘IN DROWNING

Factors%f little bearing Within children

attendance on accidents

and continuity relating which the correlation consequence.

of attendance of attendance

of responsible with to continuity describing

persokoften

had and falls. of

1-0 children;

particularly

regard to slips

the drownings, indicated a pattern of this fatal

in the drownings the circumstances

emerged as a scenario

and conditions

.

.

ENVRONMNT

DESCRIPTION

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’ FREQUGNCY 13 -

..

. TUB WJTH BATHING HEATED OF CHILDREN WATER RESULTING UNDER IN FIVE BURNS

.-

.

Following of chil&en When pattern children other

the lead of age severity emerged as a correlated conditions

categories

similarities

and burn injuries, , very young

burns

subgroup of injury with

and age group. scalding

of these subgroups were analyzed, and tub filled left alone. heated water briefly

what emerged was a

of hot faucet water who were often

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.

FREQUENCY
0.

38

-

TUB

BATHING SLlPS

OF AND

CHILDREN FALLS

UNDER RESULTING TO THE

TEN IN-., = * . HEAD

WJTH LACERATIONS

; :’ .

OR CONTUSfONS

White . showered, When dents

adults *

of a vakety

of ages engaged in shower

activity,

children

under ten rarefy

the tub bathing

activities

and $ostcri tical of this

incident

of these children were correlated against critical incia pattern of bathing with slips and fE;‘lls against the factors, a to interact to produce a high frequency considering . of injuries

tub edge developed. Height user and tub appealed sub-scenario to the head. Perhaps a chin injury of this body part injured. . . . ,+ would have been justified the frequency

t

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8 ?

P@vw

“~‘Pl!Y3 0’11

FREQUENCY

4

TUB

LEAVING .

ACTIVITY WITH SLIPS

OF ON

CHILDREN FLOOR

UNDER

TEN

i

.

i

-

By closely

analyzing

the transition

between

the tub interior might

and exterior,

a special had .

.

wlnerabilithey not &en

and class of accidents injured while

to chi ldren under ten emerged. have had similar the tub. to leave and sti II within barrier on the-inside injuries “’

It is probable

that many more of these children attempting

.The sides of the tub formed a formidable the floor of the bathroom in this scenario of the tub wall,

(see Scenkrio

6) while side

was found to be a hazard

on the opposite

. ir

.

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8
* ‘FRECWNCY 3

.

I

PLATFORM

POSITION OF CHILDREN WITH FALLS

(OTHER UNDER AGAINST

THAN TUB

TUB EDGE

EDGE)

I

FOURTEEN

Activity revlew sh&ed t tub edge. Review While vulnerable

related

to accidents

in the bathroom

area took a distinct and falls

turn when data of

that not all

losses of balance

or slips

were from the floor <,s?.

of these cases showed that while there are few cases representing of the user in relation 5 8

the user was old enough to climb, this scenario, it appears a unique special

he was and

not old enough to perceive condition

the danger of his position.

to the tub requiring .

intervention

considerations.

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USER OESCRlPTlON

FREQUENCY 12

.

.

.

TUB EDGE POSITiON WITH FALLS

--

-

Whid$articu!ar with

factor

options

often

separated

the child

and the ad&

Fn accident of af I

sequences .

that otherwise

may have been similar, were both related a

the area of the tub edge ssition to cases of faffs into the tub.

users correlated Standing

a significant

number of balance pr&blems.

or seated positions

.

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