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Anthropology, Vol. 36, No. 1, Special Issue: Ethnographic Authority and Cultural Explanation (Feb., 1995), pp. 1-24 Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2744220 . Accessed: 20/01/2012 06:09
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ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 36, Number i, FebruaryI995 CURRENT All rights Anthropological Research. reserved OOII-3204/95/360i-0003$2.00 Foundation for I995 byThe Wenner-Gren
SIDNEY W. MINTZ LECTURE FOR I993
New Rhetorics New Boundaries, of Exclusion in Europe' by Verena Stolcke
in Cuba research fieldand archival (D.Phil.,I970). She conducted betweenI973 and I979. She in I967-68 and in Sao Paulo,Brazil, Class, and Colourin NineteenthofMarriage, is theauthor University Press,I974, reCuba (Cambridge: Cambridge Century Pressin i989), Planters, ofMichigan bytheUniversity printed and Gender Relationson and Wives:Class Conflict Workers, St. Antony's/Macmil(Oxford: i850-i980 SaioPaulo Plantations, ofSocial Inlan, i988); "Women'sLabours:The Naturalisation and the in OfMarriage and Women'sSubordination," equality and R. McCullagh editedby K. Young,C. Wolkowitz, Market, and KeganPaul, i98i), "New Reproductive (London:Routledge and GeneticEngiReproductive Technologies-Old Fatherhood," in as Race Is to Ethnicity?" I (i), and "Is Sex to Gender neering editedbyTeresadel Valle (London: Gendered Anthropology, in finalform paperwas submitted Routledge, I993). The present
I5 VI 94.
Es gibt zwei Sortenvon Ratten, und die satten; die hungrigen die Satten bleiben vergniigt zuhaus, die Hungrigenwandernaus . . . Oh weh, sie sind schon in der Ndh.
In the contemporary debateconcerning and European integration the "problem" ofThirdWorldimmigration no less thanin develand fromnow on as much in the sociEverywhere, in thepast decade,theboundedness in anthropology of opments as in the host society,[the immigrant] origin ety of and cultural Ancultures difference have gainednew prominence. of the legitimate calls fora completerethinking how globalization needsnot onlyto explore affects thropology thediscipline's classicalsubjects but also to paymoreattention bases of citizenshipand of the relationshipbetween to thenew waysin whichcultural differences and cleavagesare the state and the nation or nationality.An absent thepoliticalright in Euconceptualized at its source.In effect, he obliges us to question not only the reacpresence, a politicalrhetoric ropehas in thepastdecadedeveloped ofexclutions ofrejectionwhich,takingthe state as an exin part sionin whichThirdWorldimmigrants, who proceed from are construed as posinga threat its ex-colonies, to thenapressionof the nation, are vindicated by claiming to tionalunityofthe "host" countries becausetheyare culturally base citizenshipon commonalityoflanguage and This rhetoric ofexclusionhas generally been identified different. culture (ifnot "race") but also the assimilationist as a new form ofracism.I argue, rather thanasinstead, that, that the state, armed "generosity" that,confident different endowments ofhumanraces,it postulates a proserting with education, will know how to reproducethe nain humannature to rejectstrangers. This assumption unpensity derlies a radicalopposition nationalsand immigrants as between tion,would seek to conceal a universalistchauvinand distinct, informed notionofbounded foreigners by a reified ism. and heritage localizednational-cultural identity thatis employed PIERRE BOURDIEU to rationalize thecall for restrictive immigration policies.Followinga systematic comparison ofthe contrasting conceptual strucI concludethatthecontemporary turesofthe two doctrines, culThe uniqueness of European culture,which emerges turalfundamentalism ofthepoliticalright to is, withrespect ofregionaland nafromthe historyof the diversity bothold and new. It is old in thatit drawsfor traditional racism, the basic prerequisite constitutes for tional cultures, its argumentative in the force on theunresolved contradiction European union. an organicist and modern conception ofthenation-state between COMMUNITIES OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION a voluntarist idea ofbelonging. It is new in that, becauseracism it attributes has becomediscredited theallegedincompolitically, betweendifferent to an incapacity ofdifferent As anthropology patibility cultures selfpostmodernist outgrows gradually in humannature. cultures to communicate thatis inherent in theDeVERENA STOLCKE is professor ofsocial anthropology de Historiade SociedadesPrecapitalistas partamento y AntropoAut6noma de Barcelona. Bornin logia Social oftheUniversidad in I938, she was educatedat Oxford Germany University W. MintzLecture as the I993 Sidney i. This paperwas delivered, HopkinsUniveroftheJohns ofAnthropology to theDepartment ir conducted sityon Novemberi5, I993. It is based on research Univer fellow Monnet at theEuropean i99i-92 whileI was a Jean Mi fellows myfellow I thankespecially in Florence. sityInstitute Eric Heilman,and Sol Picciottoforthe many chael Harbsmeier, we had on thetopicsI raiseandRam6nVald6& discussions fruitful or forhis comments Aut6nomade Barcelona of the Universidad version. an earlier
and moves back and culturalself-examination scrutiny into the real world,neitherthe worldnor the discipline have leamed to is any longerthe same. Anthropologists involved difficulties be moresensitiveto the formidable in making sense of cultural diversitywithout losing At the same time,the notions sightofsharedhumanity. classianthropology's of cultureand culturaldifference, have become ubiquitous in the popucal stock-in-trade, lar and political languagein which Westerngeopolitical arebeingphrased.Anthropoland realignments conflicts ogists in recentyears have paid heightenedcriticalattentionto the many ways in which Westerneconomic has invadedthe restofthe world and culturalhegemony and to how "other" cultureshave resistedand reworked
" Allusions to an "immigration lood" and an "emigration bomb" serveto intensify difuse popularfears. Number i. I will conclude by contrasting Therefore. however. The social and political tensionsthat extracommunitarianimmigration has provokedin a contextof succes3ive economic crises have been accompanied by a concernovernationalculturalidentities that heightened eroded the cosmopolitan hopes professed in the afhas termath of the deadly horrors of the Nazi race policies f World War II. SidneyMintz has workedformany yearstowarduncoveringthe logic and power of racism in systems of dominationand exclusionin the New World. Ford I99I). oftenadd to this the conserDpponentsof immigration is control overimmigration 2. immigrants already"in our midst" are the targets of mountinghostility and violence as politiciansofthe right and conservative governments fuel popular fearswith a rhetoric Dfexclusion that extols national identity predicatedon zultural exclusiveness. The demons of race and eugenics apexor?earedto have been politicallyifnot scientifically .It is surely appropriate to focus my lecturein his honor on the resurgenceof essentialistideologiesin the Old World.immigrants. One signof the sense of urgency iative demographicargumentwhich attributes declinof ng socioeconomic opportunities bodies. The buildingof Europe is a twofold process. The extracommunitarian strangers.From what were once assertionsof the differing endowmentof human races therehas risen since the seventiesa rhetoric of inclusion and exclusion that emphasizes the distinctiveness of cultural identity. The formation ofliberalstatesand notions of belonginghas. whereasissues of race were absentfromFrenchanthropology. I want to propose.ontent fromthe truecauses ofthe economic recession.2 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 36.ike-minded politicians have added to the popular anithe nositytowardimmigrants by artificially increasing 5cale of the "problem.As intrabecome progressively morepermeable.)omb" ticking away in the Third World. I985. in particularthose fromthe also fromthe East) who poorSouth (and. I992).On one of his tripsto Paris he himselfprophesiedsome of thesedevelopments morethan 2o yearsago. How these "others"are being politicallyand culturallyrethought by the West.each period interpretshistory according to contemporary needs. Commissionofthe EuropeanCommunitiesI987. setup sincethemidseventies. (Bunyan I99I. The alarmingspread of hostilityand violence in Europe againstimmigrants fromthe ThirdWorldhas provoked much soul-searching in the past decade over the resurgence of the old demon of racism in a new guise. By contrast. Yet culturalidentity md distinctiveness. to the "population which :onsequentdesireorneed to emigrate These organizations. I want to address one major instance of contemporary culture-bounded political rhetoric.herebymask the economic-politicalroots of modern . I intendfirst to examine the nature of this shift in the way in which European antiimmigrant sentimentis phrased.ised partlyby the work done by UNESCO and other )odiesin defenseofhuman equalityin culturaldiversity the Boasian tradition afterI945 (Nye I993:669.where the idea of culturaldistinctnessis being endowed with new divisiveforce.)The advocates of a halt to immigration and . They policyamongmember to harmonize most in secrecy.traditions.Then I will trace the social and political roots and the implicationsof this new rhetoric. ministers.threatening aliens. but it is not the cause of theircontinuity. been quite different from one WesternEuropeancountry to another. simplybe:ause they are there (see TaguieffI99I for a detailed and challengeof these imputationsin the case mnalysis Af France.have all overWestern Europecome to be regarded as undesirable. seek shelterin the wealthyNorth. in the popularmood in There is a growing propensity Europe to blame all the socioeconomic ills resulting :rom the recession and capitalist readjustmentsanemployment. FebruaryI995 theseinsidiousinfluences. social disthereby diverting spreading .Historymay explainthe originsofthese different political traditions. which is have served.2Stringentlegal controlsare put in place to exclude what have come to be known as extracommunitarian immigrants as partiesof the rightappeal forelectoral supportwith the slogan "Foreigners Out!" There is a growingsense thatEuropeansneed to develop a feelingof sharedcultureand identity ofpurposein orderto providethe ideological support for European economic and political union that will enable it to succeed.has.such as theTrevigroup theinformal intergovernmental and povertyand the and the Schengen the Ad Hoc Groupon Immigration.ionalized. the ways in which the national political repertoires of Britainand France have shaped and been employed to legitimate mountinganimosityagainstimmigrants. mounting delinluency. .more recently. LeviLn 5traussI978.housing shortages. Accord.and heritage amonggroupsand assumes the closureofcultureby territory (Soysal I993). to the European are not accountable countries )lamed on immigrants' own improvidence. But the idea of a supranational culturally integratedEurope and how much space is to be accorded to national and regional cultures and identities are mattersof intense dispute because of the challenge to national sovereignties they are variously felt to pose (Gallo I989.in contrastwith the North American variety.thata perceptible in the shift rhetoricof exclusion can now be detected. al.notingthat. ideas which until then seemed to )e a peculiar obsession only of anthropologists. Cassen I993.attracted surprisingly little interestamong anthropologists.however. of course. Parliament. Europeanborders externalboundariesare evermore tightly closed. because of the different positions the discipline's subjects (internally or externally colonial) occupied in relationto the respective nationalcommunities. have iow come to occupy a centralplace in the way in which sentimentsand policies are being rainti-immigration .deficienciesin social services-on immigrants xho lack "our" moral and cultural values. Haraway I988). Francewas beginning to experience racismas ever-growing numbers ofimmigrants arrived from its ex-colonies(Mintz I 97I).
.you know. These are non-rational in (andindeed. The question ifthere why.racism"as follows: dencyto attribute "Immigrants threaten to 'swamp'us withtheir migrantswith alien cultures rather than to racism alien culture:and if theyare allowed in in largenumbers. rhetoric of exclusion rather than examining the logic of popular resentment. anti-immigrant Popularreactionsand sentimentscannotsimplybe extrapolated from the discourse of the political class. . that is.based on personalidentification which underliecivic dutyand patriotism" community. Immigrants is shortageof work. Barker summedup the argument of what he called "the new social tensionsto thepresenceof im. Similarlyoverlookedare the otherwise much bemoaned consequences of the population implosion in the wealthy North."an exclusivist notion of belonging and political and economic rightsconveyedby the modernidea of the nation-state (Elias I99I) centralto which is the assumptionthatforfrom eigners. social services are obviously not the fault of immigrants.This line of argument is so persuasive because it appeals to the "national habitus. strangers without.elaboratedin I978. often do thejobs that natives won't. the "problem" is not "us" but "them. the Britishcharacter fordemocracy. In other words. allydiscredited and the eighties. The mediaand politicians al- communitiesand its call fora curbon immiimmigrant to do with racism (see Asad I990 grationhad anything out of the values constructed on the idea ofBritishness.'At theheartofthis see also will destroy myemphasis. nity. the verylow birthratesin an agingEurope. Kallscheuer i992). among animals) tend to defendtheirterritory against "intruders"when these exceed a certain proportion estimatedvariouslyat 12-25 % because otherwiseseveresocial tensionsare boundto arise (Zungaro lude to the threatof culturalestrangement or alienation (Winkleri992. Until the late seventiessuch nationalistclaims were ideologues vociferous) onlyby a few(though putforward who went out oftheirway to distancethemofthe right the overtracismofthe National Front. see also to live among Dodd I986). its beneficialeffects see also I979). Erdheim i992:i9). (quotedin Barker in large numbers would destroythe "homogeneityof the nation. example of (Barker immigrants I979). wing Institutefor Policy Studies and one of the main of this doctrine." Althoughrisingunemployand deficient ment. gain electoralsupportthe Torypartyhad adopteda discourse of exclusion which was similarlyinfusedby exofthenationalcommupressionsoffearfortheintegrity from and loyaltyunderthreat way oflife. As earlyas in the late sixtiesthe right in Britainwas exalting "Britishculture" and the "naracial categoitselffrom tional community. . morselves from By byits associationwithNazi ideology. in Barker i98i:22)."alluding to what ethologistshave called the territorial imperative-the alleged factthatpopulations (note. People "by nature"preferred society. and . and sensibilitiesof the Englishdominantclass. its way of lifeand its traditions." a "natural. and done so much throughout the world. "Natheoreticians tionalconsciousnessis the sheetanchorfortheunconditionalloyaltiesand acceptanceofdutiesand responsibilwith the national ities." ." A multiracial(sic) societywould inevitably the "values" and "culture" ofthe whitemajorendanger These were nonrational. arenotexhausted" (quoted A Threat to the Cultural Immigrants: of the Nation Integrity in" (quotedin Fitzpatrick thosecoming I987:i2i). i98i:2o. . A community is its culture. thefully builtaround ofloyfledged version. To In the early eighties Dummett identifieda change in Britainin the idiom in which rejectionof immigrants to the tenwas beingexpressedwhen she drewattention 3. that if there is a fear that it might be swamped. and this is so because "they" are foreigners and culturally"different. instinctualfearsbuilt aroundfeelingsof loyaltyand beand Beezer I983: I25). "afterall. "they" are made into the scapegoatsfor"our" socioecoeffectively nomic problems. they Dummett I973)." instinctive culreactionto the presence of people with a different oftherightAs Alfred director Sherman.forthe viabilityofindustrial nations and the welfarestate (Below-replacement i992.tradition. feelings altyand belonging.thehousingshortage. the 'homogeneity ofthe nation. tureand origin. fertility I986. Advocates of a halt to immigration talk of a "threshold of tolerance.with mountingeconomic difficulties in an effort to growinganimosityagainst immigrants.3 As Enoch Powell longing(Barker had arguedin I969. especially when these are apparently becomingscarce. BerquoI993). To breaktheseis to shatter the community.are not entitledto share in "national" resources and wealth. ityand unleash social conflict." distancing toward withinsistencethatits hostility riesand denying andMartin (Dummett i982:ioi. instinctual). One symptomatic this ideological alignmentof the Tory partywith its rightis MargaretThatcher'smuch-quotedstatementof thatthis counafraid I978 that "people are reallyrather culture.forlaw. people are going to react and be hostile to with protect"the nation" fromthe threatimmigrants alien cultures posed for social cohesion. 'new racism'is thenotionofculture and tradition. "an instinctto preservean identity is one ofthe deepestand strongest a territory and defend implantedin mankind .thatimmigrants forgotten. thanin a multicultural their"own kind" rather this attitudebeing.STOLCKE Talking Culture |3 poverty and insteadjustify aggressive populationcontrol programs whose targetsare women in the poor South.It is conveniently forexample.intoleranceand aggressionare not directedagainstone's fellow citizens is neverraised. mightbe swampedbypeople witha different try has done so much And. their entry needed to be curbed." "We" are the measure of the good life which "they" are threatening to undermine. The meaning and nature of these rationalizationsof and the need to curb exanimositytowardimmigrants tracommunitarian have been highlyconimmigration I will here analyze the rightist troversial.
new political discourse and the repertoire of ideas on tity. Analystsin France no less than heritageand theirincommensurability.in the modern. and it is a mistake the assumptionson which it is based forma contradicto suppose that racism developedhistorically only as a torypart of modernity (Dubiel i992.that is. As I will arrespectability by masking the racist undertonesof its gue. repudiationof "cultural miscegenation"forthe sake of A substantiveconceptual shiftthat can be detected the unconditional preservationof one's own original among political rightistsand conservativestoward an bioculturalidentity. memory. "differen.I want to argue harshlycriticizesantiracistorganizations forinvoking.should have resortedto theinvocationofnational-cumceived in termsofethnicity.A key concept of this new celebrationof national-cultural instead of apintegrity rhetoric is the notion of enracinement(rootedness). but to combat the beast we need to know entialracism.lar cultural fundamentalism of the rightof primordial archicallyinto races has become indefensible scientifi.a "racism withoutrace" (Rex tolerance forculturaldiversity in the aftermath of the Rushdie I973:I9I-9.the demand to exclude immigrants by virtueof gence.Construction of Exclusion guieff's the most detailed.(Benthall andKnight I993:2) ofpolitical discourse needs. Solomos chosen to designate the contemporary anti-immigrant I99I. and the nation-state.4 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 36. of course. The overwords. To this end we need to do more than irreduciblecultural difference of non-Europeanimmi."a doctrine which exalts the essentialand what sort it is. purportedly By contrast withearlier anti-immigrant rhetoric predicatedon culturaldiversity "inegalitarian racism" (Taguieff's term). be absentfrom thisrhetoric. cultural identity and incommensurability to do this. Even ifthis different culturalidentities.no merequibble culturaldifference I988). however. I86-87).contemporary culturalfundamentalism (as I have of the right(BarkerI98I.national identitiesand loyalties is not premodern." immigrant rhetoric of the righta new formofracismor what he regards as an equally essentialistconceptionof a racismin disguise. scholarshave tendedto identify Ratherthanasserting different endowments ofhuman a "new style of racism" in the anti-immigrant rhetoric races. TaguieffI987).therefore. this does not preserveboth Frenchidentityand those of immigrants explain why the rightand conservatives.informed by certain the "other"it exalts the absolute. I979. and difference.Not fora momentdo I want to trivializethe (see also Duranton-Crabol Frenchrightbegan orchestrating its anti-immigrant of.Ta. that attempts to reconcile a defense ofBritish cultural valueswith it is racism nonetheless. Lastly.Even though the 4. in terms of a pseudobiological theory.This is.A core element of this doctrineof exclusion is the which it draws." As Taguieff has argued. Besides. See Asad (i990) fora different thematization ofBritish identity term"race" may. . FebruaryI995 A similar shiftin the rhetoricof exclusion has also Cultural Fundamentalism:A New been identifiedwithin the French political right. The term"funin Britainattributethis culturalistdiscourse of exclu.ordering humanshier. even when this new "theoryof racismin the conceptualstructure ofthis new doctrine. culture.it reifies cultureconceivedas a compact.bounded.irreducible assumptionsimplicitin the modernnotions of citizenferiorizing of the "self" and the incommensurability difference of ship. for cally (BarkerI98I.localtial racism" constitutes a strategydesigned by the ized. that it is misleading to see in the contemporary antiin their defense of immigrants'"rightto difference.of their being culturally different"aliens" is ratified a heightened sense ofprimordial culturaldifferidentity. in fact.neotraditionalistreligious phecondemnationof racism forits association with Nazi nomena and movements interpreted as a reaction to race theoriesand the right'sattemptsto gain political socioeconomicand culturalmodernization. returnthere.2. of relations of dominationand inequality There is somethinggenuinelydistinctfromtraditional justification (BarkerI98I). 330-37). Solomos i99i. It is controversialbecause the author at once however.the exaltationin the contemporary secuanti-immigrant program. Collective identityis increasinglycon. that dates back to the contradicideological repertoire the insistentemphasis on cultural toryigth-century Notwithstanding conceptionof the nation-state.difference.sociopoliticalimportof this novel exaltationof cultural fensiveby espousingwhat Taguieff has termeda "differ. in theirefforts in their diversity.economicallyglobalizedworld.and incommensurability is. and historically rootedset of traditions and values Frenchrightto mask what has become a "clandestine transmitted throughthe generationsby drawingon an racism" (PP. enties. Several related reasons have rhetoric of the right)emphasizes differences of cultural been adduced forthis. To peals to racial purityis a political ploy.damentalism"has conventionally been reserved fordesion to a sort of political dialectic between antiracists' scribing antimodern. throughappeals to basic human instincts.to be more carefully explored. TaguieffI987. GilroyI99I: affair received withapproval byliberal opinion outside theConservativeparty.uncoverthe strategicmotives forthe right'sdisavowal grantcommunities whose presence is condemned for of racism and analyze the conceptual structure of this threatening the "host" country's originalnational iden.ratherthan in. Wieviorka I993). Klingeri992).thoughcon(I98I) is probably troversial.nationalidentity. analysis of ideological developmentsamong The emergenceof cultureas "the key semanticterrain" the varioustendenciesof the Frenchright since the sev.4 identity and difference. with onlyoccasional references This culturalistrhetoric is distinctfromracism in that to "blood" and "race. Number i. tradition. xenophobia" (Barker198I) does not employracial cate. heritage. the latterought to stay at home or to protect themselves from accusations of racism.whichhas to do withthe apparently anachronistic resurgories. Balibar I99I.
the xenophobic attitude indicates manifests in a strict onlya limit. In I989 the Parliamentset Delacampagne i983:42-43. There may be occa. and it has capturedthe European strangers. fearof the futurecombinedwith a self-defensive reflex"(p. riormembersor as strangers. vague psychological conceptdescribing but the "difference" which is invoked and the meaning sitionto fear(orabhor)otherpersonsorgroupsperceived with which it is endowed differ.ment parlance.as outsiders" because of its uncertain meaning and sional references to "blood" or "race. and exclusiveness. the European Parliamentconvened a committeeof inquiryto reporton the rise of fascism and racism in Europein a first attemptto assess the extentand meaning of anti-immigrant hostility.an empire. Eitherthe root causes of this attitudeare or it is takenforgranted thatpeople have a by "nature"hostile and mutuallydestructive because it not specified is in humannatureto be ethnocentric.In I985 the committee concludedthat"a new typeofspectrenow hauntsEuropean politics: xenophobophilia. forexample. Newspaper headlines. economic-political. they do this in conceptuallydiffer.The difference tra-European ofmovementwithinEuropeto be introduced in the way in offreedom betweenthese two doctrines resides. 92).Cashmore.STOLCKE Talking Culture Is this time into racence.be it attemptto dispel its ambiguities. 5og). and the ought.Its task was to assess the efficacy on exis the way in which those who allegedlythreatenthe of the declarationand to update the information in the lightof the extension immigration social peace of the nation are perceived. Becausehostility toward immigrants is. also disagrees therefore a l'6tatnaissant).xenophobiawas thus incorporated. my translation). Scholars havenotedincreasingly frequent reference to xenophobia. to fearand rejectoutsidersbecause cultures "natural"propensity different The right's to be kept apartfortheirown good.does not fall within the purviewof the law and legal prevention(Evregenis i985:6o).It was this terminological innoforclass prerogatives made me wonderwhethertherewas by naturalizing the socioeconomic vation which first ofthe underprivileged inferiority (to disarmthempoliti. forexample.has arguedfor the French case that"in sum.were to identify. Racism has usually provideda rationalization imaginationin general. politicians. Othershave also interpreted xenophobic claimsas a second-level racistdiscourse (Langmuir I978:i82 and taskforradicalrelativism and extreme cultural determinism.6 explicitsympathy Homoxenophobicus A further human nature can.In I984.Toutex6nophobie esten ce sensun racisme latent.up yet anothercommitteeofinquiry. The notion of which those who are theirrespective targets are concep. aliens. Anyxenophobia in this a latentracism. tional racismfromthis sortof culturalfundamentalism ism and xenophobia.it never itself sense(as therejectionoftheforeigner as such)butresults a moreorless explicit from hierarchy ofrejected groups. namely. wrongly).underlying mountableessentialculturaldifferences or a kindofbio.in I992-93 withoutany further tualized-whether theyare conceived as naturallyinfe. it was argued.in his I984 Dictionary of Race and Ethnic entways. in practice. B6jin (i986:306. whereas both doctrinesconstituteideological is justified. picked up the idea. "it has fallen thecontemporary race and ethnicrelations logical culturalism(Lawrence I982:83). forexample. and scholars invoke the term "xenophobia" along with racism to describe mounting anti-immigrant animosity. See also Levi-Strauss (I994:42o-26).'an attixenophobiaas "a latentresentment tude thatgoes beforefascismor racism and can prepare the groundforthem but.not something distinct to the rhetoric of exclusion cally)or claims ofnational supremacy (Blanckaert I988). One outcome of the committee's work was a Declaration against Racism and Xenophobia made public in I986 (EuropeanParliamenti986). 3I4). For a critiqueof Levi-Strauss's cultural relativism see Geertz(I986). "Equality" and "difference" tendto be arrayed Relations.Culturalfunda.mais proc6de d'unehierarchie plusou moinsexplicite desgroupes rejet6s. selective." et ne sous-entende une 6chellede valeursautorisant la discriminaun racisme tion.from vocabusumptionthat relations between different culturesare lary" (P. What distinguishesconven. sentimentin WesternEurope wherebyanti-immigrant Second. (European Parliament I990). to this culturalist discourse than the idea of insur. Taguieff (pp. in itself. The componentsof this more or less diffuse feelingand of increasingtensionsbetween the national and immigrant communitiesand theirassociation with a general sense of social malaise.therefore. cited by TaguieffI987:79-80. Taguieff (i987:337.8o-8 i) with Levi-Strauss's celebrated controversial distinction between though ethnocentrism as a universal attitude ofcultural self-preservation and racismas a doctrine and creativity thatjustifies oppression and exploitation. to the polity.elle ne se manifeste jamais au sens strict (rejetde l'6tranger commetel).or a commonwealth. but one element was admittedlydifficult "the time-honoured distrustof strangers. still dismissed the term as a "somewhat a person'sdispoagainst each otherin political discourse in both cases. theyare different. in suppositionregarding be foundin political as well as populardiscourse effect. therefore.first.even obviousanswerto selveswho provide this questionwhen theyinsistthat allegedly'racist'politicians .5 themeswhich "naturalize" and thereby aim to neutral"Xenophobia" literally means "hostility toward ize specificsociopoliticalcleavages whose real rootsare strangers and all that is foreign"(Le Petit RobertI967). "Whyhas this naturaland even healthy in recent in Europe whichhas beengenerated ethnocentrism years It is the antiracists themof exasperation? produced expressions us withan adequate." The reportdescribed or 'feeling. The media and politicianshave equally mentalism legitimates the exclusion of foreigners.he thought(as it has turnedout. my translation).the as." but thereis more hence its limitedanalyticalvalue in thatit presupposes causes which it does not analyze. on extracommunitarian immigrationin the eighties.has asked in a 6. whichgainednew prominence in theFrench debate overimmigration.Todorov (i989:8i-io9) has taken Levi-Strauss to 5. critiqueof antiracists. More recently. into European Parliaa state. a nascentracism"(Enfin sense constitutes l'attitudex6nophobe n'indiquequ'une limite. Il n'est de "l'autre"qui ne s6lectionne pas de reject parmises "autres. Itis nota rejection ofthe'other' which does not chooseamongits 'others'and does notpresuppose a set ofvalueswhichauthorize discrimination.
leads to conflicts. les conjonctures et les r6gions oii s'estproduit un brutal. in a moreirrevers. as opposedto racialism as a pseudoscientific is doctrine.and Croats had lived togetheras neighborsin their acknowledgedreligious and otherculturaldifferences. experience an increasein their and in audiencesunderconditions regions wherethereis a strong. to allow fora modicum recurrent bloodbaths.however. origin. welcheAbsicht les antiracistes la r6ponse eux-memes qui nous donnent ad6quate. dieals Gegenmittel eine "an ancientbehavior ofopinionbornin Western extends Europewhoseheyday Politikder schrankenlos offenen Grenzenempfiehlt. in support of a shift in immigration policyby the Greenstoward a system ofimmigration quotas(see also Cohn-Bendit and Schmid of its argumentwith key postulates of human affinity ethologyand sociobiologyhave been noted repeatedly I988:44. Besides. . then.Ce rejetpourrait les den. arbeitet nichtentgegen.constitutes and accounts forpeople's alcultural fundamentalism to value theirown culturesto the excluleged tendency be incapable of living sion of any other and therefore is culturalfundamentalism side by side.Minimumvon Austauschund Verkehr Ethnienzu ermoglichen. for history.Much indicates thatthereservevis-a'-vis eigner constitutesan anthropologicalconstant of the with its growingmobilityhas species: and modernity made this problem more general than it was before.accordingto which humans no less than animals have a natural tendencyto formbounded social groups and for the sake of their themselvesfromand to be own survivalto differentiate (see. policyof open borders.tribes.wodurch sie ausgelost wird. my that"every miemphasisadded)has similarly argued apathy on thepartofthe'corpssocial. afflux Um sie einzudamGesellschaftsformen. hat etwas current ofthe2oth century" estun the i 8thto themiddle (Le racisme Denn wenndie Geschichte scheinheiliges undGefahrliches. in Homo xenophobicus has so much commonsenseappeal. r6centes Ce sont sacred pardes manifestations d'exasp6ration? ihrzudavon. modifying betweendifferent clans. va du milieu du XVIIIeau milieudu XXe p6riode ihmgegeniuber der dontla grande Reserve zu den anthropologischen Konstanten unddie Moderne hatmitihrer Mobili. fuhrt butmaynotstay"(Jede zu Konflikten. 5. Contemporary based. On the contrary.This rejec. racialism 7. The guestis theyinstitutionalize trisme naturel et meme sain s'est-iltraduit.sui devaient ihn ganz im Gegenteil fest. dafuir." Potentialen. Gould The point here is. Stammen.thenit is this: in Forifhistory been no societyhas a civil intercoursewith foreigners theforinbred. for not restricted and Schmid's (I99I:5. unabMigration en Europe.ethnicities. These measures eliminate thestatus do not intendto settleand reproduce" (Pourquoicet ethnocen. an old and familiar phenomenon in human societies" (Layton-HenryI99I:I69). danndies: KeinerGesellschaft war je derzivile Um.Enzensberger(I992:I3-I4.Werdies derAngst vordemFremden und den aggressiven leugnet.itsaims. constants and xenophobiaconstitute anthropological community whichsensesthatitsidentity is threatened. tensions s'averer dans la mesureoii auf.whichprecede any rationalization. important. I98I: chap. and.g. Cohn-Bendit overxenothat"the indignation lation)recentargument which suggestsas an antidotea phobia (Fremdenhass). a universal is a and probably one."7 as "a dislike for foreignersor outsiders . with biology.que cetteexasp6ration est une reactionde men. au coursdes ann6es of alien. haben altertiumliche desanalogies avecla r6sistance ac6e. a reaction selfishness Theiruniversality suggests whichpresents analogieswiththe resistance thisor thatoccupa. die in ihrschlummern.Sie schreiben internationales.comportement etwaslehrt.because huent culturesare incommensurable mans are inherentlyethnocentric.Diese Vorkehrungen s'exacerber meme.6 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 36. Ancient sociofsociety. Theythusacknowledge. e. Sahhostile to outsidershave been reiterated lins I976. Serbs. Gruppenegoismus und Fremdenpoliticiens suppos6s 'racistes' voientleuraudiences'accroitre dans welchenUmfang die jederBegriindung vorKonstanten. um uAberhaupt tairement je suppose.ausgehen. 7 I-8I). thatthisexasperation is a reaction of defense by a or involuntary. ob sie freiwillig sie annimmt. ainsi. irgend from le ancien.thattheyare olderthananyknownform in order to contain taboosand ritualsofhospitality tionmight even. do not.siecle). dass sie alter et-en cas d'apathiedu corpssocial-irr6versible d'immi. and Kamin I984. Duranton-Crabol (Barker The scientificweaknesses of notions of human nature imbased on biologicalprinciplessuch as the territorial perativeand the tribalinstinct..Muslims. Number i. writer defines enraciner xenophobia themconsistsin arguing (i989:I14. has taughtus one thing.an attitude supposedlyinherentin huthe ideologicalunderpinning of man nature. d'id6esn6 en Europeoccidentale. and Schmidis his assistant. Strikingin that it suggests that this assumption is to the scientificor political rightis. it.on two conflatedassumptions:that differand that. Until Serbian radical nationalism temporary tore them apart. um dauerndeBlutbader zwischenverschiedenen defense d'une communaut6 qui percoit son identit6 commemen. FebruaryI995 This claim is as politicallydangerousas it is scientifically debatable. important hass sindanthropologische Ihreuniverselle Verbreitung spricht dafiir. which of exchangeand communication iblewaya country's thanwouldoccupation identity forces. die Tabus und RitualederGastfreundschaft erfunou telle occupation arm6es a pu susciter Gesellschaften par des forces 6trangeres hebendenStatusdes Fremden abernicht dansle pass6.for example. it is not difficult the fallacyofthe come up with examplesdemonstrating idea that xenophobia is part of the human condition.translation.involon. a cettequestionquand ils soulignent que les grundeliegt. itbe voluntary independent ofitscauses. Cohn-Bendit ofMulticultural Affairs ofthecity is thehead oftheDepartment This article was written ofFrankfurt. Xenophobiais to cultat dieses Problem allgegenwartiger gemacht als zuvor.them. Rose.'irreversible influx ofimmi. Lewontin. tionbyforeign armedforces has provoked in thepast. "Die Entrustung uberdenFremdenhass.whether grants ofextra-European I presume gration. plus profond nichtbleiben.ifinternational tensions becomemore etiesinvented intensify.sind als alle bekannten ein zu vermeiden.Group involuntarily. hangig oder unfreiwillig und geschieht d'ailleurs6vidente. .to show why a belief i98i). Gattung gehort. in the eventof i992 fora more careful argument). Thus Todorov A British et s'y reproduire). my transexample. steigenden my translation) has argued that racism as a form of . gr6sd'origine Ils reconnaissent extra-europeenne.Der Gast ist heilig. behavior.) Another whatcan way ofnaturalizing des immigr6s qui fontsouche modifient plus irr6mediablementaberer darf determined attitudes byuniversalizing d'un paysque des occupants l'identit6 qui ne cherchent pas a s'y be shownto be historically thatracismis universal. and its magnitude. conprobably themosttragic The war in Bosnia provides instance.at of the understanding least as far as our contemporary to human experience goes. Vieles spricht dass die racialismeest un mouvement gangmit den Fremden angeboren. Xenophobia.r6action qui pr6sente que telle Clans.is unable to prove human universals.to prevent profound as immigrants concentrate.relations between culturesare by "nature" hostile. however.et d'extension probablement universelle.by contrast. is somehow false and dangerous.
better. mean the "self. eigner. The markersinvokedto identify a "race" may be or constructed.Modern racism consti. of distinctculacterof racism itself. as it were.the relations beOf course." the immigrant 8. concealing the sociopolitical relationships whichgenerate thehierarchy." Mutual recognition is deniedprecisely assumes a set Cultural fundamentalism.but theydo so differently. This rationalefunctioned both as a powerful incentiveforindividualeffort and to at the disarm social discontent. namely.But equal status and treatment this doctrinedenies the ideological char. Bothdoctrines derivetheirargumentative forcefrom the same ideological subterfuge. the endeavour to reconcile an idea of shared humanity with existing formsof domination.or intelligencethanthe prevailing rather socioeconomicor political orderwas to be blamed forthis. polityby attributing or social defectssupposedlygroundedin their "racial" endowmentwhich. An alleged human universal-people's natural propenfromcontract. targets laboring e. sexual.is not shared ofsymmetric counterconcepts.intellectual. phenotypical Racism thus operateswith a particularistic criterion of classification.g. could therebe humans who were not Christians?Nineteenth-century scientificracism was a new way of justifying domination and inequality inspiredby the search fornatural in natureand socilaws thatwould accountforthe order in the igth-century debate over the place ety. FitzpatrickI987). and criminology providedthe pseudoscientific legitimationfor consolidating class inequality.the presentation of what is the outcome ofspecificpolitico-economic relationships and conflictsof interestas natural and hence incontestable because it. his or hernaturalendowment-be The personor. namely. seemed unable to make throughpersistentinferiority. Chevalier I984). tures which are incommensurable. Humans by theirnatureare bearersof culture.ST O L C KE Talkink Culture | 7 tural fundamentalism what the bio-moral concept of "race" is to racism. between the invocation of a shared tutes an ideological sleight-of-hand ethos of equal op.(Blanckaert I988. ratherthan being an anachronistic survivalof past times of slaveryand/orEuropean colonial expansionand the ascriptiveordering of society. by contrast.humanityis composed of a multiplicity shortcomings. Sociopolitical inequalityand dominationare thereby attributed to the ofdifferentiation criterion itself. The apparentcontradiction. "comes naturally. in modernsociety. this raises the importantquestion of the tween theirrespectivemembersbeing inherently conplace of an idea of social status inscribed in nature. the most ofthe opportunities to offer.Physical anthropology same time lent supportboth to claims of national supremacyamong European nations and to the colonial a hierarchy ofbio-moralraces enterprise by establishing . "race. the citiby the "self. clusive superiority. and as such a notentin1 "enemv" who forall in the marketplaceand socioeconomic portunity inequality-which. if God had created "man" in his image.is partand parcel of liberal capitalism (Stolcke I993. namely. the alien as opposed to the national. As a doctrineof asymmetric classificationracism provokes counterconcepts that demean the "other" as the "other" could not de." which challengesthe claim to equal humanness by dividinghumankindinto inherently distinctgroups ordered one groupmakinga claim to exhierarchically. namely. Racist doctrines are only one variation of the same theme. At different momentsin history systemsofinequality and oppressionhave been rationalizedin distinctways.humanitywhich involves an idea of generality irreconcilable-a liberal meritocratic so that no human being seems to be excluded and culturalparticularismtranslatedinto national terms is overcome as foranalysis ofpolitical ideologically:a cultural "other. in the modernliberal forreconcilingthe democraticethos.are inevitable."their"lack of worth..ism. I drawhereon Koselleck's(i985) important counterconcepts.8They have in common that theyaddressthe contradiction betweenthe modernuniversalistnotion that all humans are naturally equal and freeand multipleformsof sociopolitical discrimination and exclusion. Social Darwinism. ratherthan resulting otherwiseconceived of as composed of self-determining sityto rejectstrangers-accountsforculturalparticularindividualsborn equal and free. Initiallyit was not their "racial" difference which haunted the European imagination but their religious-cum-moral diversity which was feltto challenge Christianhegemony.inherentdefect.stranger. to its victim's own inherent zen. Striking ofhumans in natureis the tensionbetweenman's faith in his in freewill unencumbered by naturalconstraints.which is in "their" race. eugenics. Their were the dangerous classes at home (see.and the tendency to naturalize social man. "Race" is construed as the necessaryand sufficient natural cause of the unfitness of "others" and hence of theirinferiority.namely. innate talent. In this sense racistdoctrines are categorical. alien. thatofthe foreigner. flictive because it is in human natureto be xenophobic." Modern Western racism rationalizes claims of national superiority or sociopolitical disqualificationand economic exploitationof groupsof individualswithina to themcertainmoral. Brubaker i992:98-io2). By attributing un. endeavouras a freeagentto masternature. If the self-determining individual. with "primitives"inEarlymoderncolonial encounters tenselyexercised European minds. Racism versus Cultural Fundamentalism A systematiccomparisonof the conceptual structures of traditionalracism and this culturalfundamentalism may renderclearerthe distinctness of what are alternative doctrines of exclusion.by virtueof being innate.How. it called racial. because the "racial" defect. the beingrelative." And that is the point.the naturalist constantthat endows with truthvalue and legitimatesthe respective ideologies. societypurported it had to be because of some essential.
nomic grounds.the targets of exclusion. citizenship. mightthreatenthe tionality.not all that different cal content.Yet.cal and a politico-ideological liticalmeaning.9.namely.in principle.tion on the right the may object to granting immigrants ing.now to be employed as a markerof immigrant origin oric is polemical and open to challenge. in Europe of this rhetoric by contrastwith racist theo. Presumed inherentxenophobic propensi. quiringimmigrants.which is why rather than "race's" being construedas the justification existingformsof exclusion. a twowaysofdefining nationality as a prerequito the bodypolitic is the assumptionthatfor. immigrants'socioeconomic identity and belonging interpreted as culturalsingularity exclusion is a consequence of theirpolitical exclusion become an insurmountable barrier to doingwhat comes (Le temps des exclusions I993). as somebodyremarked to me recently. The factthatnation-states culturaldiveron account of immigrants' are by no and integrity means culturally uniform is conceivedas foundedon is ignored. Their targetsare uprootedstrangers sense taken-for-granted who fail to groundbecause of the ordinary assimilate culturally.The politico-ideological on repertoire turecontradictorily bothbytheuniversalist inspired En. surability. When the "problem"posed by ex.equality and difference Culturalfundamentalism invokesa conceptionofcul. immigrants tant idea in modernWesternpolitical culture. Brubaker rightly remarks on the surprising absenceofstudies useful social functionof immigrants as scapegoats for ofthemodern in the social sciences. North Americans are culturalfundamentalism. and metaphorscan certainly be mixed. hence culturalsameness is the essentialprerequisite for plications ofthesedistinct modalities.by theirdisloyalty.and oppression foranti-immigrant resentment. in citizenshipon ecosocial and politicalrights inherent Instead of orderingdifferent is concultures hierarchically. "they" ratherthan. FebruaryI995 threatens"our" national-cum-cultural uniqueness and prevailing socioeconomicills withtheway in whichimis constructedout of a traitwhich is shared migrantsas foreigners integrity.tility againstextracommunitarian immigrants mayhave iftheywish to live in our midst. and stateare national community. One should not confusethe io. It will.culturaltraditions.The "problem" of immigration culturalfundamentalism to nationalidentity however.Because the propensity to dislike strangers operatedin so-called primitive societies to definegroup is sharedbyforeigners."crisis of citizenship" (Leca I992:3I4)9 in both a juridiity-nationals as againstforeigners-ischarged sense.But then. the root causes of immigration. Hosries.ment.This formalconceptualpolar.communicat. inequality.the deepening effectsof North-Southinequality.as a political threat segregates themspatially. namely. In the modernworld withpo. At the core of this ideology of collective exclusion predicatedon the idea of the "other" as a foreigner. conceptofcitizenship .a bounded and distinctcommunitywhich mobilizes a mogeneous.conflated ideologically(Beaud and Noiriel I99I:276) and tracommunitarianimmigration is conceptualized in endow immigrants'cultural distinctiveness with symtermsof self-evident culturaldifference and incommen. anti-immigrant rhet. access to citizenshiprights. Number i.nationalityas the precondition forcitizenshipis inhertween national belonging and cultural identity. it also becomes legitimate In the modernworld of nation-states.solute categories.contemporary political self-understanding (WeberI976. each strued. forto possess a nationality are seen as threatening Immigrants to bringabout a is in the natureof things. culturein its place. to fear membership. in a world of nation-states.national being thematizeddirectly.bolic and political meaning. carrytheirforeignness in theirfaces.And because of the otherimpor.shared sense of belongingand loyaltypredicatedon a ties-though they challenge the supposed territorial common language. these categoriesare logically re. are conceptualized. has a certain openness which leaves room forre.Localized political sitybecause the nation-state communitiesare regarded by definition as culturally ho. culturalcommunity. assimilate culturally.In a rooting of culturalcommunities.which the modernnation-state is built providesthe raw lightenment traditionand by the Germanromanticism materialsfromwhich culturalfundamentalism is conthat marked much of the igth-century nationalistde.8 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 36. Leca distinguishes stranger.to racistovertones. since theyare directed context of economic recession and national retrenchagainst strangers"in our midst"-reterritorializecul. are not abously true. are ex.be objectedthat not all immigrants namely. Bybuildingits case fortheexclusionofimmigrants from which extracommunitarian immigrantsproceed on a trait shared by all humans alike ratherthan on and the exploitationtheyhave undergoneexplain why an unfitness allegedlyintrinsic to extracommunitarians.10 In this respect.This is obviplained away. appeals to primordial loyalties fall on fertile tures. and beliefs.Bymanipulating the ambiguouslink be.nationality thetwo categories with a specificand substantive fromthe kinship principlesthat politi.structed.the entlybounded as an instrument and an object of social notion of xenophobia infusesthe relationshipbetween closure (Brubaker is i992). versible-anynational is a foreigner to any othernation cited by Brubakeri992). of national belonging that is the common idiom of Being symmetrical. butregrettably does notpursuethepolitico-ideological imterms. forexample. nathat the latter." In yet anotherideological twist. Opponentsof immigranaturally to humans. withthecountries Specificpowerrelationships bate.Ratherthan by the "self.or foreigners are treatedwith animosity. Phenotypetends thatall humans are equal and free. mal political equalitypresupposesculturalidentity and site forcitizenship. of course. in "biological"and in "contractual" namely. need to be rationalizedideologically.
had a Portuguese Italian. althoughby Noiriel I988:8I-84).This association in timesofwar (Wahnich powerful has been especially I988). The Dutch and the British with Gerin the country. and domicile combined with diverse proce. By distinguishing forFrench in igth-century moments" and "assimilationist racist) law. "It is an almost universal activityof genuine Frenchnationalitycode was enthemodernstateto regulatethemovementofthepeople ship. 5).For i99o:i26-3o) has often sentialist nationalism present also in i gth-century obvious political reasons most of them rejectedFrench childrencontinFrenchthoughtand debate on nationhoodand national nationality. chap.an organicist and a voluntarist conception which.followingthe Frenchdefeatin the Franco-German of the German Empire)between ship. political to designate ous revolution plotting againstthepatriotes nobility cause-the French tionary to reimpose royalrulein of conspiring suspected and the British to thenation oftheetrangerwithdisloyalty Paris. inclusive two countries' anti-immigrant rhetoricand restrictive closerinspectionthis combinationof descentand birthpolicies. see also I992:94-II3. illegitimate in theirmidst. by the reinforced bornon Frenchsoil were automatchildren of foreigners traditional Republicanformulaofassimilationand civic I38-42. Guiomar obscured thees. sharply with the Anglo-Saxon one.namely. been wielded to determine entitlement to nationality in ceptionof the nation-state." There has been almost fromthe starta ten. can be done in diverseways. the assimilationist homogeneity. legal equality thatformal idea rests.(Weil i988).voluntarist.As opinion grewmorehostile model-by contrastwith the Britishtradition-of the fromimmigration toward especially fromNorth Africa. Staatsnation and the German Kulturnation(Meinecke Those Algerianswho were livingin France at indepenI919.I935). The classical opposition between the French mained fully French." the eightiesa confluencecould be detectedbetweenthe jus soli in the code has been interpreted On Brubaker i992). FrenchRepublican Assimilationversus BritishEthnic Integration . identityand hence the part played by the Republican ued to be defined formulaof assimilationin the Frenchconceptionof the born children of the large numbers of immigrantsto the war ofindependence Republic. themodern compromisestruckformilitaryand ideological reasons poses again the question ofwhat constitutes overAlsace-Lorraine nation-state and what are conceivedas the prerequisites (in the contextofthe confrontation War foraccess to nationalityas the precondition forcitizen.dence had to opt forFrenchor Algeriancitizenship. modernnation-state on historicalcirwhich.Dependingon theirpolitical culturesand different histories.Algeriansbecame foreigners.STOLCKE Talking Culture I 9 nalize a more or less exclusive idea of the nation and of A comparisonofFrenchand British postwar citizenship. The term traitors totherevoluenemies. however. while inhabitantsof cumstancesand interests but also on conceptionsofthe ever. deeightiesall Western Europeanstateswere curbing immi. origin.but simultaneouslyit the principleof jus soli. on demographic-economic and/or military cir. and citizenof nationality conception assimilationist peyronnieI993). and Polish. Three criteria-descent (jus sanguinis).birthplace and the establishment (jus soli). at a time when foreigners. thatis. in his in France studyofcitizenship informative comparative otherwise on which assumption thefundamentalist disregards andGermany. national communityand the substantialties of nation.The priority givenhistorically colonial territories afterWorld War II (Werner to all to one or anothercriterion has dependednot only.depending attackfromthe right for came soli under increasing jus has been on drawn to formulate ratioand cumstances. cultural presupposes amongcitizens thegloriduring beenintroduced etrangerhad already I 2. by contrast large presence were the first governments to acknowledgethepresence in theircountriesof so-called ethnicminorities. The first predominantly across its national boundaries" (Evans I983:4). By the midseventies the regulation of cist conceptionofbelonging in the continental European Frenchnationalityand citizenshipbecame inseparable policy.the immigrants. [us sanguinis constitutesthe colonies until Frenchcitizenshipwas extended French most exclusive principle. on paperwithouteninto Frenchmen foreigners turning as between"ethnicmoments"(understood i i. informed policies differently. The relativeprominencegiven to as a "liberal. of the immigration "probexperiencesand treatments Lapeyronnie point (see to make this serve lem" will For the sake of clarityI have so farneglectedmajor difinterpretation). Brubaker ofnationality mulations (i992:esp.though their French-born as were the Frenchas Frenchat birth. By the many. were intrinsic to the Frenchconduresof "naturalization"(note the term)-have usually thoughcontradictory. The nationalitycode of I889 did not apply to the the modernnation-states.howhowever. As soon as Algeriagainedits independence. as the first from the child. and an organi.the French overseas departmentsand territoriesrehood. a different ferencesin dealing with the immigration"problem" I993 for since the seventThe Frenchdebateoverimmigration amongEuropeancountrieswhich have been pointedout the Republican the ambivalence underlying ies reveals repeatedly (Wieviorka LaI993. countriesdesignedtheirimmigration of access to Frenchnationality.Francein the decade following sion between a democratic.12 French father (sic) and. but this acted in I889. solution (Noiriel I988:83. in the case of an from a scent grationand attempting to integrate immigrants already criterion mother. which leftroom forculturaldiversity. RoulandI993:I6-I7. of Belgian. French (Brubaker ically contrasted incorporation. accordingto which The Frenchmodel.with rightof entryinto France.as a clever The entryand settlementof immigrants in Europe place rules can also be interpreted.and drew a sharpline betweennationals and forIt consecrated the jus sanguinis.eigners.
Number i. inherent right..Pasqua explained his opposition by arguing revealingly. Thereare 5 millionforeigners here.the Caribbean. Those who had been hostilizedearlieras "black subjects" are now excluded as "cultural aliens. Guillaumin (1i992:89) points to an importantpolitical distinc.andpeopleof for example. (Dummett theBritish Nationality Nicol 1990:183-87. the right to vote is inseparable from citizenship and this from nationality." whichimpliesan Zealanders. I992. Segal i99i:9)."whichassumesa universal.and thedanfactsofhumannature "Quels discourssur l'immigration?" con.but cannot be created.IO I CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 36. in Francefor the campaign its approval gration during by referendum. was not an easyone. here. if thereis to be such an organizationat all based in the last resorton a common sentimentof cohesion which exists.'7 dal roots(Brubaker i992:90).practical (i988) foran earlier. therebygiving new prominenceto jus sanguinis. which consistsin individualadherenceto certainminimal but precise universal values" (Dossier I99I:47The "republicanmodel ofintegration" 48). In I98I. by contrast withpostulating "the right of differ. respondingthus to the right'sculturalfundamentalism. In I969 EnochPowellwas proposing as "aliens"in theculimmigrants to Commonwealth and a StateSecretariat Affairs and ofIntegration for to andreferring Integration and Nicol i990:i96).Commonwealthimmigrants opponent agreement political 5 '). the GaullistFrench who drafted minister oftheinterior thereform. Nineteenth-century the Britsanguinishad alreadyrejectedas inappropriate ish unconditionaljus soli rule because forthemcitizenship reflectedan enduringand substantialratherthan sequences ofjural normsdependon theirhistoricalcontext. myemphasis). law in theeighties. FebruaryI995 merelyaccidental connection to France as well as the will to belongand because of its expansivenessand feu- Regiliberal Toryhomesecretary I 7.in passinga reform to the same effect.equallysubjects habits.5 million ofthemcommunitarians. It shouldbe notedthat CharlesPasqua. concluding the process of "alienation" of New theminto by transforming oftheMaastricht andEuropean inte. France is an exceptional peopleand not an amalgam oftribes" (El Pais. was also a staunch soli. tionality a Ministry ofRepatriation i6. September I4. butwe arenotwilling to shareournational sovereignty withthem.people thereis a greatdifference who come ofBritish stock. tionbetweenclaiming" a right to difference. who are for appealbyimmigrants authorization bythestateto be different Africa. which establishedan individual verticalbond of allegiance to the crown and its parliament.but who in appearance. In thelate sixtiestheformer arguedthat"while one talkedalways nald Mauldingrevealingly black between abouttheneed to avoiddiscrimination and rightly theBritish and whiteit is a simplefactofhumannaturethatfor and New betweenAustralians I4. "In France. opwas nevertheless defeatedin I986 because of strong position to the traditionalFrench assimilationistconception by proimmigrant organizationsand the left.unaltereduntil i962. the aliens(EvansI983:46.'4 progressive opinionbegan to swing to the old republicantheme around. Dummett and Nicol I990:238- . The Euro-sceptics in the British aresimilarly Conservative party concerned withEuropean integration'schallenging British sovereignty. Ourcommunitarian guests arewelcome. Conservative government passed theBritish Nationality Act. requiringan explicit declaration instead. Accordingto the traditional itylaw of England. Butthemeaning and con- in the I930S as follows: argued it is a matterof fundamental importanceboth for the United Kingdomand forthe Empireas a whole. 4). The problem from and cultureweretotallydifferent I5.the CommonwealthImmigrants Act of i962 introduced the first special immigration controls.15 which conditions citizenship on shared cultural values and demands cultural assimilation became the progressive to the right'sculturalfundamentalpolitical alternative ism.13 Until the mideightiesthe antiracistmovement and proimmigrant organizationsin France had advocated a multiculturalist model of integration based on respect for immigrants'cultural diversity. which restrictsthe jus soli rule.later extendedto Britain.I. It did not explicitly discriminate but it lefta largeamount againstnonwhiteimmigrants. the law when established ence. turalsense (Dummett promote immigrants'assimilation (Perrotiand Th6paut i99i:io2).and the Indian Sub-Continent before to totalequality oftheQueen and entitled from nationals.gersthatarisefrom trasting indeed"(quotedbyEvans i983:2I.16 debate and experiencedeveloped Britishimmigration nationalquite differently.In the new conservative governmentfinally sucI993 ceeded. This dossier provides extensive coverage ofthe French debate religion withthe the moralprinciple of non-discrimination froman assimilationist on immigration See also of balancing perspective. Empireare attracted imDespite postwarconcernsoverfreeand unrestricted migration'sloweringthe quality of the Britishpeople Bill of I948 ruled thatBritishsubjecthoodwas acquired ofthe Commonbyvirtueofbeinga citizenofa country wealth.. which broughtnationalitylaw in line with immigration policy and limitedthe ancientunconditionaljus I 3. P.. The traditional British concept of subjecthood based on birthon British soil."''8 suringthattheywere "Frenchat heart" (Brubaker i992: I43). everyperson born within the domain of its king was a British French advocates of jus subject. In I99I the socialistgovemment set up a Ministry of Social i8. allowed immigrants as British fromthe colonies freeentryinto the country oftheirculturaland/orphenotypical subjectsregardless The Home Office(quoted by Segal i99i:9) difference.callingfor"a return of integration accordingto which membershipin the nation is based not on an identitybut on citizenship. A controversial citizenshiplaw reform submitted in I983 and designedto abolish the automatic acquisition of French nationalityby French-born childrenof immigrants. us. as largenumbersofimmigrants arrived and demandsforcontrolincreased.however. finally. real mistakes ofpolicyin thisfieldwerevery viewwhichfocusescritically on thereform ofFrench na.Yet. The heated debate over immigrants'"right to difference" was typically Thereafter French.that all British subjects should be treatedon the same basis in the United Kingdom. It is to the advantageof the United Kingdomthat personsfromall partsof the to it. of discretionfor immigrationofficers to select immiat a time when it went withoutsayingthatComgrants monwealthimmigrants were not white (Dummett and andNicol I990:I74).
by contrastwith earlierracist arguments.the early cosmopolitanrevolutionary cial discrimination soon erodedby a crucial dilemma. Jenkins . Layton-Henry I99I. Thus as Europe evolved intoa su- The Nation within the State the debateoverimmigrants' As I indicatedearlier. also i99i). undoubtedly since structure and definition of states to territory. The voluminous to immigrants. To outlawracialdiscrimination passed a series of successiveBritishgovernments employment.zenry. ofracismin relation oftheprominence indication and in publicplaces." Renan's "Qu'est-ce often taken for qu'unenation?" (i992 [i882])21 is in fact the expressionofa conceptionofthe nationparticularly individualism. But it said little about what constituted"the people.STOLCKE Talking Culture I i Britain'scommon law traditionand the absence of a code of citizenshiprightshad providedspace forimmigrantsubjects' culturalvalues and needs. policieslaid downin theact (Lustgarten equal opportunities and SolomosI987.however.and uniform legal treatment paradoxipranationalpolity. the controversy over immigrationwas predominantly phrasedin racist terms. Anti-immigrant prejudiceand discrimination were rationalizedin classical racistterms. as sible forboth sides to thinkof "immigration" in any to the revolutionary see also Cranston (I990:I9.linguisticor othergrounds which allowed collective or of othercharacteristics of groupmembership. when the Tory government it began to rationalizeit. Walkerand RedmanI977)." In particular therewas no logical connectionbetween a body of citizens of a territorial state. noting herethatLouisDumontis among thosewho 22.so the supporters of liberalisationattackedrastates.on one hand.housing. The equation nation = state = people.once isolated. of the Franco-German claimedby on thegrounds thatitspopulation was ofGerman culture Germany and spoketheGerman language. democraticpoint of view.As Dummett and Nicol (I990: 2I3)19 have pointedout. "right to difference" unleashed singular passions in France.how to build first and foremost and perceived endowedwith a distinctand boundedcitia nation-state immigration policy as the driving forcebehind this It had become psychologically impos.modern nation-state. them(Parekh I99i). andNicol Actsin I965. The I976 Race Relations I990.The right's tions did not infringe a minority demandforculturalassimilationconstituted with due respect opinion.that Renan simultaneously uses another culturalist argumentto resolve the difficultyof how to circumscribethe "population" or 2i. and I976 (Dummett Race Relations Parekhi99i).in principle.a continentalnation-state cally emergedout of the ashes of the Britishmulticulturalthoughracist empire. But.In a world of emergingnationspiritwas tion.. Tolerance for culturaldiversity formedpart of the historyof Britain. The character and reasonsforthiscontroversy transcend the polarized political climate over the immigration "problem. I968. I980. untilin the late seventiesan English-centric reinvention of that history began to prevail (Kearneyi99I. It also implied a were now essentiallyterritorial.albeit considered riorkind. invokof curbing immigration nationaling. so constituted. acknowledged as a multicultural polity. alien discrimination.would cease to nation.Formallegal equality was not deemed incompatible with immiculturaltraditions as longas thesetradidifferent grants' basic human rights.Liberals defendedintegration and the particularneeds of "ethforcultural diversity A key instrument nic" minorities. This expedoes not mean thatBritain'spostwarimmigration rience was not beset with social conflict. Legal provisions to combat discriminationtypically aimed at ensuringsubjects fromthe ex-colonies equal opportunities independentof their"race. Clark I99Ia. of nation-states and this multiplicity was indeed a necessaryconsequence of popularselfdetermination. of liberalintegration policy was multiculturaleducation. forRacial the Commission laws and created Act repealedearlier the for implementing bodyresponsible an administrative Equality." They express a historicaltension inherent control Justas the advocates of strictimmigration in the FrenchuniversalistRepublicanconceptionofthe were exclusivelyconcernedwith non-white immigra. Antiimmigrantsentimentwas alive and aggressionswere but theywere racist.22 well suitedto moderndemocratic They tend to overlook. I988:IOI) has sense. forreferring identified to the race situationin Britain. It is worth in Renanwhenhe contrasts theorganicist elements haveneglected withthoseofHerderand Fichteand goes thatscholar'swritings an unwarrantedly French on to establish between sharp opposition and the Germanethnicconception voluntarist theory (Dumont I979.namely. b).Ethnicgroupdifferences were. Until the late seventies frequent. or any context. As I have shown took up the banner above. 2o.. cum-cultural unityand callingforthe culturalassimilation of immigrant communities "in our midst" to theBritish "nation" withits sharedvalues and safeguard communitiesneeded to be broken lifestyle.."20As long as fromthe ex-colonies were Britishsubjects immigrants as ofan infetheywerefellowcitizens. EnglishedImmigrant children were to receivestandard was to be accorded ucation. It is important to notethatRenanwrote thisessayat thetime conflict overAlsace-Lorraine. pose a culturaland political threatto the British is another on "racerelations" literature British I 9. recognition The advocates of an idea of the "nation" based on a citizensusually enteredcontract freely amongsovereign invoke Renan's celebratedmetaphor"The existence of a nationis a plebisciteofeveryday. and the identification of a "nation" on ethnic.except as a verbal convention Hobsbawm the problem. Immigrant up so thattheirmembers. and espelinked nation cially sovereignpeople.
"which identifiedthe state.we L'une est politics in this interconnected L'une est dansle pass6. are thus constitutive contrary. however. it make us above.ce principe ing.interest anthropologistsbut the political meanings Because racistdoctrines as with which specificpolitical contextsand relationships ited in the postwarperiod..however.commel'individu. less than "others" are culture-bound. by necessitypresupposesthe sepconstructionist NoirielI9:27I989:I65-26i. on French I989).thisis so because "we" no Thus. It is the configuration boundariesand difference.compact. forit draws forits argumentative Not fora moment do I mean to deny different the business of life and different systems conceptionof of organizing forceon this contradictory igth-century The assumptionthatthe terri. beings. fromthe thropology.." With heightenedenmitybetweennation-states. preting cultural essentialism mes. though unstable. knowledge in poststructuralist criteria." continuer a faire valoir l'h6ritage qu'on a recu indivis.24 Only because thereare "other"ways ofmaking and.forfurthering tural heritage. also.Humans have. relations between cultures by reifying of domination and conflict. Despite pronouncementsto the Two contradictory "culture critique. will to continueto sustain the heritageone has received undivided. formof legitimationin igth. Parallelsbeas I have anatween this and culturalfundamentalism. l'autreest need transcendour sometimes self-serving relativisms la possession de and methodological uncertaintiesand proceed to exla volont6 le consentement actuel.is the realizationof an extendedpast of endeavors. . a vraidiren'en font qu'un. Deux choses 23. . and the law with an ideal vision of society culturalist (see Gupta and became the a world of reifiedcultural differences as culturallyhomogeneous and integrated. Number i.l'autredansle pr6sent. with cultureand culrelationship have had a privileged turnin the The critical.always been on the the modernnation-state. as a form ofracism.ofmeaning. new questions also foranNineteenth-century exclusive.move.self-reflexive tural differences. and integrated Enhanced"postmodern"awarenessofculturalcomplexities and cultural politics and of the situatedness of anthropologyentails. cultural entrenchedand exclusive in contexts where there is stead. mode.The cult of the ancestorsis among all the most legitimate. Keesing I994.The in which bothold and new boundaries. defining of a fundamental dilemma systematicknowledgeof "others" as much as of "ourtermsis just one illustration thathas beset continentalEuropeanstate building. un principe cultural cetteame..c Conclusion to the tasks and tribulaTo conclude. of a new cally roots nationalityand citizenshipin a shared cul.constituent and unequal world.endow cultural difference. novel. should lyzed Contemporarycultural fundamentalismunequivounderstanding between peoples. the present "principle of nationality.new global order.arateness of cultures and their boundedness (Kahn 28. called into queshas rightly past decade in anthropology tion the political and theoreticalimplications of the boundednessand isolation of cultures taken-for-granted realism.. poses formidable important conceptual difference. ofthe"nation" (Todorov function. a paradox. Kahn.The selves" is deemedimpossible.culturalfundamentalism Peoples become culturally the contemporary rhetoricof exclusion thematizes. struggles century beware of the dangers. "Une nationest une ame.the ancestorshave made us what we are. The nation. ." no less than the cultural and one cultural (a shared past). nationalismreceivedenormousreinforcement elaboration of one central concept of social theory. In orderto make sense of contemporary qui. La . d'un longpass6 d'efest l'aboutissant nation.One is the sharedpossession of a richheritageof memories. fora wittytake-off alist interpretation in sense of the world can "we" pretendto relativize"our GattyI 99 3). republican Similarly..and distinct are becomingmore active and from dissolved. commits the error I discussedearlier ofinternous ont faitsce que nous som.le d6sirde vivreensemble. tagethatis bounded. far being I an but is as have of there argued.Two things which in realitymake up no more than one constitute that soul. en commund'un richelegs de souvenirs. ancetres tous les plus 1egitime.the otheris the the presentconsent. est de de sacrifices et de devouements. Renan's difficulty mythology. spirituel. a spiritualprinciple. TurnerI993). FebruaryI995 "people" entitled to partake in this plebiscite (i992 L-QQQ1 A. be something nationalism was often activated and ratifiedthrough thingthat impedes us fromcommunicatingas human of the national community.the circumstancesunderwhich cultureceases to we need for beinghuman to become some"race. see also Gellner i987:6-28 fora different. forstate formation..when a consensual own" cultural self-understandings. tive part this.the same as the individual. and cultureshave provedfluidand flexible. There is no longera in classical ethnographic generallyaccepted view of cultures as relativelyfixed systemsof sharedvalues and meanings.one political (freeconsent) however.24.of sacrificeand of devotion.One is in the past.Fergusoni992. torialstate and its people are foundedon a culturalheri. is a constitu. that spiritualprinciple.Though new with regardto traditional sortof culturalrelativism. It is not cultural diversityper se that should claims to racial superiority have become politicallydiscred.I1 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 36. ways racism.it is also old. then. Le cultedes ancetres forts.let me now return Social and culturalanthropology tions of anthropology. and relationshipsboth within sociopolitical structures and between groups that activates differencesand shapes possibilitiesand impossibilitiesof communicatspirituel. the otherin the present. A nation is a soul.the desireto live together. A crucial issue that should concernus is. ends up bypostulating mood in anthropology the people. the "nation" in purelycontractual.in.
it seems unfairto sentativesofthe fourBig Powerswould arrange charac.I think.attribute refined traditionsof thoughtsuch as those of iscites in the regions"where the ethnographical ter was in doubt"-a pledge that was never in fact Franz Boas and Hans-Georg Gadamer to a rightwing whose statementsare generallyroughand prosaic. accordingto de Waal. ablygoneunderground ceptofgeneticdistance.shareTaguieff's to viewpoint.the European Communityand the political-judicialdewas disseminatedthrough tic hypothesis. and.both the use of unusual sources (such as the reportsof racist doctrine. fromreality.tionship to currenttrends in contemporary ation of the "rights" of chimpanzees and gorillas but While I do not concur with all aspects of her thesis.which sounds utopian. clusion which appearsto imaginepolitywithouta state.blacks) and developdifferences foreigners.I findit more appropriate knowledgeis enshrined thatanthropological of I938 on the Sudetenlandissue? The focus on the workingsof "excess identity. While many science are known to all. But since out of its estrangement growing would have been seclusion in some twi.weakened.which appearsto put thepeople ofAfricaon a genealogicalbranchof theirown.lecture suggest that she wants all state power to be has been neutralized. The growing pologists (following through the intellectual conseIt coversmany quences of Darwinism) to blur ratherthan sharpenthe Stolcke's essay is bold and stimulating."I do not. but is it widely remembered ferential in the Mu. more good than harm.bate in Britainand in Franceis useful. Constantpro. England. entities appear to be frequentlyso disastrous. however.The last seven words of Stolcke's but it has prob. ofNorth-South inequality(tracamongthem. There will BENTHALL surely be a dialectical relationshipbetween political JONATHAN campaignson behalf of the South and revivals of neoInstitute. an intra-African the republish.sequences of breakingup multiethnicstates into small deals with issues of immediateimportance.ethnicity. ing the chain of causation back to an abstraction themselvesand solidarity out jeopardizing which I wonderwhetherthis is possible withinthe confinesof itselfneeds explanation)and in a somewhat limp conofany state. agree agreement ofCzechoslovakia was to be occupied about its alarming political implications.ized a left and a right.through any campaign formorefrugal livingin the North-will have the effect ofaggravating economic recessionin the Northand consequent protectionism and xenophobia. thusabused. hierarchy The con.30 vII 94 tendency. racism" are well known in Italy. appear likely that steps taken to tryto reduce NorthSouth inequalities-for instance.regarding responsibility fessionalvigilance is needed. German"territory with the depictionof so generalimmediately by German troops. the more traditional the Hami. to appearin new forms. I and a admire its ambition.accuratein notingtherecentrevivalof "xecan flourish nophobia" as an explanatoryterm. in the claim that the "root causes" of immigration (whether people to resistdiscrimination are with.particularly Stolcke suggeststhatdoctrinalracism. I appreciatethe essay's civil and also to an erosion of the concept of human rights return-such as the rightis always hankeringfor-to political passion and its anthropologicalapproach to and reli. London WIP 5HS. troublespots and examines theirrelabetween human beings and other primates of anthropology's difference thought. She is also surely Genuine toleranceforculturaldiversity withoutentailingdisadvantagesonlywhere societyand correct basis. I stronglyapprove of loyaltiesof kin. and the Frenchdebate on "difthe consequences of nazi raceThe theses of Taguieff To go back in history. has not yet surfacedin political discourse but could easily be PIETRO CLEMENTE too.many thropology role than theymay commentators have a greater and its practitioners can do conclude that largenation-states in protecting the serealize"(deWaal I994:28).In addition.ST O L C KE Talking Culture I I 3 plore.Via Napoli 7. bears some indirect tion of Frenchand Britishtendenciesin the past decade I970S and its relationship nationalidentity to immiforthegenocidein Rwanda. Comments .a commissionof repre. 53 IOO Siena.I have some difficulty forpleb. 2I vII 94 With regard to the nation-state.the deepening"effects" women. textsin Britainwell into the bates on nationality and citizenship)and thereconstrucing of old anthropological and.5o FitzroySt.and she is original processesofproductionofdifference" son I992:I3-I4). "An. My carriedout (ShirerIg64:s Ion). or."Stolcke's nich Agreement stipulatedthat whereas the "predominantly "cultural fundamentalism. the modernnation-state it would To press Stolcke's argumenta littlefurther.which posits a curityof minorities.so fewactual nation-states are monoethnicand the conthe alternative lighthome.macroscopic analytical objects. gion. Minor in declaring thatit has no scientific polityare democraticand egalitarianenough to enable weaknessesin an otherwisecloselyarguedpaperemerge as immigrants. Royal Anthropological Poujadism. ofmerit.forthatmatter.opposition to the to be "cultural fundamentalism" I am delightedthat Stolcke finds anthropology diagnosed by Stolcke leads forsurely necessarilyto a critiqueof ethno-nationalism. As Alex de Waal has recentlyput it. could lead politicallynot onlyto more seriousconsider.. Again.ofsome anthro.Italy."the deanalysisofthe immigration Stolcke's comparative (Gupta and Fergu.in a creativedialogue with otherdisciplines.To beginwith. gration.
It seems difficult to me to make this claim withoutsayingmore about the history of racism-about its persistence and protean forms.not all strangers are equally ofculturalfundamentalstrange. symbolic form.In this scheme culturesrelate . is going. In this. homeland" as a place of memories.They cannotbe.and the rightist Reaganismneeds no culturalist leagues which seek to create tendenciesofthe territorial a Republic of NorthernItaly bypass cultural issues in favorof financial ones. Kent CT2 7NY. heritage.It maynevertheless to conclude with a model of an identity be interesting and "culturalpatriot" that oscillates between foreigner may in(as De Martinowould put it). as theyassert.forexample. of the notion of huallows fora less abstractrendering mankind and of the individual in society. reproposes studies. its finesse.and that these are not what produces xenophobia. Then there may be possibilities of virtuein incomNot all notions of incommensurability mensurability. nation becomes the locus of culture. not all of them dangerous. Being a foreigner volve cosmopolitanism. And is there not honorhere in anthropology also? Stolcke sees culturalfundamentalism as distinctand perhaps even taking over fromracism." the universethrough and in my opinion.but thereis no tradition. worldofours ofthis ancientand oppressive and heritage societiesa liberais formanypeople ofunderpriviledged to develop new configurations. There are many indications in the paper that cultural in its exclusion and oppressionof the fundamentalism stranger may be a formof racism. As Stolcke recognises. Indeed.Being bounded by a distinct culture. defending theirtutelagein the name of the concept of debateraisestheethical "culturalheritage. England. G. Contact with the values. The dean ofour African thropologist the notion Bernardi (I994).is a matterofmemoryand tradition not necessarilyone ofnation." Foreigners' main limitationis lack of culturalidentity. Number i.exchange. 3 VIII 94 Canterbury.I believe I can say that everyone needs cultural "roots" of dialect. Stolcke's critique is also veryuseful forcertainspecificfieldsof anthropological work. unxenophobiathatfoundsculturalfundamentalism in its opposilike racism.uniformand comprehensive tion to all othercultures. one sees wherethe world and learning by trialand error. University of Kent at Canterbury."This "particular.ErnestoDe Martino." which.who linked ofthe anit withthe necessary"criticalethnocentrism" (De MartinoI977). tion and an opportunity I have always liked FrantzFanon's expression"envision the particular. Sardists. Stolckeis essentiallyconand perhaps I approach cerned with national identity. affection.and thereare intimations that racism exceeds Stolcke's subordination of it to a supportfornationalism.the proponents ism have little or no trouble acceptingthe representatives of some cultures.simply put.who advancedincommensurability counter to colonialism and slavery.as Stolcke indicates. Having a "cultural roots. they do not exist culturally. a different thesubjectfrom position.as in the model of in this world Christian sainthood: they are foreigners because theyare partof anotherone. as in thebeautifulanarchistsong: "Our homelandis the But these are not times entireworld.to StolSome supplements. damentalism can onlybe ofa culture.of all cultures.immiresearchin urbanareas." fordreams.Altoatestins. and oppressionthat are foundedon the mutual hostility culturalfundamentalism. PETER FITZPATRICK oftheir to the rediscovery own researchhas contributed local and historical identityof people who had abanwith doned rituals and customs in the confrontation advancing modernization. account: For a start.on the tural fundamentalism and one hand resistinganomie and the loss of identity historicalmemoryto the urbanized world but on the to the creation of barriersto other hand contributing new culturalencounters. Criticism of the new cultural could applyto regionalor ethnicmovefundamentalism ments (Occitanists.our law is liberty. In this case it is helpful gration is that the immigrant to begin with the understanding an individualwho oscillates betweentwo worldsand is stimulatedto change.following both W.Bernardo of "ethnocentrism. identity. the is.he considersthe basis forunderstandingof the collective workingsof encounter. rules.To be thesenostrums ofculturalfunvalid in theirown terms.the culcke's rich and revelatory ofexclusion ofEuropeanrhetorics turalfundamentalism is inherently untenable. for as a benign example.we cannot know thatwe know or do not know othercultures-and.I myselfhave assessed the cultural patrimony of craftsmenand country folk. what is particularly delicious. on the agendain thepoliticaldebatethatStolckeis dealing with.and others) and the new localisms which sometimes tend to build but these are not mythsof originand unmixed purity.I4 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 36."The current culmy work I have fostered question whetherthrough in myselfand in others. Sumner and De Martino. The theme of a "cultural homeland" was dear to our most notedpostwarscholar. nounced on the local than on the national level. moving in and out of cultures and gainingenoughexperienceto be able to exchanging Darwin College. Diderot and Herder.In a vision of Utopia the "culturalhomeland" and the universalists'"world of men" mightcoincide.or memorythat does not admit By oscillatingbetween these two poles of intermixing. February1995 use the proverb"The whole world is a town. an essential relationbetween being and cultureand an absolute incommensurability between cultures. Italy is a nation crisscrossedthroughoutby interIts strength is more pronal territorial differentiation. we cannot know thatpeople of otherculturesdo not know us. Stolcke would probably object to the use of Italy as a case in point. Here the nationalisticplatformof the rightis not very sophisticated: it has relaunched liberal modernism.It entails.Yet in Stolcke's argument. and cultural mixing. The EuropeanEnlighttypify enment and its Romantic aftermathwhich Stolcke evokes did have representatives.
They "reterritorialize cultures. however. for law. They enteredthe state legislature.They lived in a citythathad quickly the locus of one culture among many. thenormal sity to speak Spanish in public.well-educated. We anthropologists shouldreclaimcultural studies fromnonanthropologists and incorporate the insightsof postmodernawareness of culturalcomplexities and politics to address issues of domination. To accom. 'territory' derives fromboth terra(earth) Contests over power and meaning expose the fragile and terrree(to frighten) whence territorium.They became the majority on the city council. . Throughthe I98os.withBhabha(I994:99-IOO).Many stillspoke Spanish Glick-Schillerand Basch i992. . "black" people]or "Pakistan"-which country had to be specifically added because it had leftthe Commonwealth.state-sponsored imcall to be the same and the exclusion as different. It remains racismbecause its targets are the same. They became top developers and builders.beyondbeingmerely white Americans. murdered. A more distinctdialectic could not be imagined influenced to each otherin ways thatarenon-hierarchical or simply spatial.Miami is one such city.Basch.tion and the subsequent U. Glick-Schiller. but the rapid loss of subscriberswho no backlash that subsequentlyswept through newspaperalso heavily with significantSpanish-speakingminorities (Castro longerwanted an English-only the Herald's position. The excluded serveto sometimes violent politics."' Only some are mony. Thatcher'sevocationto such political effect of the threatof "swamping" by "people witha different culture. the local elite. in short.-sponsoredmigrationof tain nations as exemplaryof the universal and as the nearlyio% of Cuba's population." It is different fromracism. and done so much throughout the world.conflict. the political rightinsists on but thosewhose carswerebeingparked.The ex.integral reformations ostracized.the usual list.STOLCKE Talking Culture |I i5 as theforces creating and promoting a multilingual environmentproduceda reactionfromthose who resented and contestedthe transformation. Fla. as Stolcke aptly notes. not thebusboys the opposite-the need for and alleged naturalnessof and waitressesbut those ordering the food. Cultural concerns dominated its all the states discourse.That eleva."what seems crucialis the exactitude.clave. alongwithpolitical. cultural.not the unThe contradic. theirpropenties-the developedand theunderdeveloped.in that its justificationis not biological but cultural. thosecommonly glossed as "people of color.those with powerand influence.fits and the experience and capital they broughtwith cluded are now also invitedas nations to come within them quickly established a successful immigrantentherealmoftheuniversaland the exemplary. She concludes by beseeching anthropologists not to committhe same logical and politicalerror as the culturalfundamentalists-notto submitto a fundamental cultural relativism that reifies cultural difference ratherthan seeking even if incompletelyto understand and overcomeit. even as they bemoaned the new immigrants' na. soon coherentnations always about to slip into the abyss of speakingonly Englishin public. helpto note.Most immigrants setimpetusof all thatwas becominguniversal. providethe "cultural" unityand uniformity of the nation. During the mid. benetion was and still is effected in racist terms.earlierwhite imtheworldalong a spectrum organiseand classify ranging these immigrants from the most "advanced" liberaldemocraciesto barely migrants in assimilating to American culture." Divisions of this kind. whiteAmericansadmittedthemto the most influential 28 VII 94 clubs and committees.middle-class. Miami spawned the of dominantwhite contemporarybilingual-educationmovement in the shaping a profoundtransformation mid-ig60s.and in I980 it spearheadedthe English-only American attitudes. 33 I99. 'a place and superficialnature of cultural consensus and haroff. and culture. The Miami Herald played a key role in reflecting and tion is not merely coincidental.and 1992). that"etymo. logically . and ultimatealterity.tled in Miami and with the help of generousU.g.degraded.Such people so carefully specifiedare thencounterposed to "the British character" which "has done so much fordemocracy. buyingwhite-American productsand services.Cities undergoing fromwhich people are frightened ofrapid.boundaries. Yet.a nation which in realitycontains a diversity of cultures. and their right-wing.A.In the first slice ofculturalfundamentalism that Stolckeprovides.continuationof theirculturaldifferences.S. Nationalism in become heavilyLatinofollowing Castro's Cuban revoluthe igth century a collectivity servedto markoff of cer. and the backward. Soon the Miami.migrants tions and culturesare stretched betweenvariouspolari.S.In the early I98os.. Stolcke compellinglyargues that the contemporary politicalmovementon the rightthatrationalizesimmigration restrictions on thebasis ofculturalfundamentalism is racism in a new and different garb. in public. Most whiteAmericanswelcomed theseprimarily modate the ambivalent identitythat results fromthe white. InternationalUniversity.S. they expected that would be like other. U. It may . Cubans rapidlyascended to posiALEX STEPICK tionsofpowerand influence.skilled workersbut those who owned the companies.terrorized.with which such people are designatedin Thatcher'sspeech just beforethe part used by Stolcke: these potential swampersare "people ofthe New Commonwealth"[thatis.and these were not the parking lot attendants and Szanton Blanc I994). however. or. ferinsights. The claims of nation also extend beyond the non.were all hierarchical and the simplyspatial." Such divisions are racist ratherthan non-hierarchical or simply spatial.ignoring the politics of theirhomelandin favorofthose oftheirnew locale.Yet.the territorial precision. Florida and Ethnicity Immigration Institute. thenew immigrants had not in anthropology are assimilated as quickly or as thoroughly While thosewho studyimmigration as the white increasinglycalling for a transnationalapproach (e. Americanelite had envisioned.
internally coherentwholes.it is new and old at the same time.cultural fundamentalism is too flexiblea conceptby farforcomfort.S. February1995 a phenomenonin itself.Thus. has become the ways in which culturaldiscrimination DepartmentofAnthropology. It may be veryuseful forright-wing political language. University of Chicago.In one sense thisis what anthropologistshave always wanted-not the particular reifications.Black Haitian immigrantsnever receivedthe welcome accordedwhite Cubans. the U.as she points out.Culturehas become all too utterable. theyhold waterprecisely because oftheirsaliency. Spanish-speakers. appealing to human universals ingly"friendly" in apparently non-exclusionary terms.Cambridge CB2 3RF.but such politics also draws on usages more generallycurrent. an anthropological projectdirectedtowardsa pressingsocial issue. significance The only commentto make is that if the strength of the paper lies in its social contextualization (Stolcke is ascribingthese ideas not to some vague "culture" but to specificpolicies and practices)one would not want to be carried(reassured?) by the idea thatculturalfundamentalism is a right-wing plot.Cultural markersmust be used. Much like the native AfricanAmericans. could never obtain sufficient power to effect theirincorporation into the local community.Stolcke makes it verydifficult gist to dismiss what she so aptlycalls "culturalfundamentalism"as no more than a misguidedmanifestation she points out all of racist thinking.which theyfeel theyhave outgrown (culturesas bounded.The shallow historyof South Florida and of all the United States comparedwith Europe precludes a deeply organicconception of the nation-state.S. England.they remain marginal. as we mightexpectto find in the and left-wing Ig80s/I990s. in this new vision. particular evidence of right-wing political thinking. culture and power determinethe evolution of community-who is included or excluded. Its is not to be underestimated. Cubans were conceived as different and treated differently because they spoke Spanish and much of theirpolitical attentionwas directed to their homeland.S. federalgovernment providedresourcesto amelioratethe costs of addressing them and later because those whose economic base remained in South Florida had no choice but to accept them. race remainsforemost.6 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 36. As she says. University of Cambridge.).Ratherthansuggesting that Cubans would soon assimilate. Instead. Number i. but its objectification.On the contrary.critical role in both discourse and action. grants.both"nature"and "culture"carry tory weight in thewaythenew exclusionsareframed. theysuit both right-wing While immigration policies mayoffer platforms. Whileracism may be discredited politicallyand no longeradmissible in public discourse. Culture plays an independent. Yet.dogmas of culturaldifgovernments ference suit a whole spec(and she makes this apparent) trumofpositions. Chicago. the discourse of the Herald and prominent whiteAmericanleaderschanged.Black immiin contrast. It is thecongruence or conflation ofthese thatgivesculturalfundamentalism such power-a demonstration that in turngives This is a brilliant powerto Stolcke'sargument. exposition and. 60637.of course.This is the benignsense in which anthropologistshave promotedit.so inextricably meldedin the United States and apparently in Europe. those differences were toleratedat firstbecause the U. we "all" have culture. Althoughone should not underplay the differences betweenEuropean that she sketches. Race and power. Thus.as one would expectfrom theauthor. rERENCE TURNER late i980s.23 vIII 94 Stolcke's article makes important points about the natureofthe culturalnationalismcurrently beingchampi:ned by the European right. Far fromappearingas contradicoropposed.as it to itselfboth social constructionist theoriesand gathers ideas aboutnaturalbondsand universalhumantraits and facilitates ideologies of assimilation and integration alike. Not all culturaldiversity was so championed. The importance of Stolcke's historicalworklies in elucidatingits role as an idiom of exclusion-the new possibilitiesit affords forwhat can in public. etc.Indeed. governmentrepeatedly and relentlesslysought to deter Haitians' arrival and persuade those in Miami to return home (Stepick i992). Different political regimesspeak in its common language. makes it disarmto use. powerful base that Cubans enjoy. Ill. were central to Miami's prosperity in that they providedsmooth business links to the region'sprimary trading partners(Portesand Stepick I993). determinewhere the boundariesare drawn-who is welcomed as a member of the culturaland political communityand who is excluded. white American leaders applauded the multicultural mix thatpermitted Miami to become the capital of the Caribbeanand even all of Latin America.By hercareful forthe anthropologesis. and theycan easily be extendedor withdrawn and are always contestedin responseto the emerging power ofnew groups.after all.appealing to the American ideologyof equal treatment regardlessof race and succeeding enough to of a Haitian communitybut not permitthe formation enough to provideit with the firm. 3 vIII 94 historicalexeThis is an important paper. that is.Yet. be uttered It is interesting that along with the emphasis on the socially constructed natureofloyaltiessubsumedunder appeals to culturegoes an emphasis on a primordial or naturalstate of affairs.Those who could not do so eitherfledor resisted by founding the English Only movement. The openness of the concept of culture.Anthropologists have had theirhand in this: Stolcke'sdemonstration is bothedifying and disturbing. MARILYN STRATHERN Departmentof Social Anthropology.A. U.I thinkshe is rightto em- .it continuesto guide the policies of people. culture as an object of thought(theirunderstanding of what gives identity and distinctivenessto human lives).
the contradiction in earlier formsof liberal nationalismbetween universalistic values and the need to limit the nation to its territorial boundaries. even thoughit is the right thathas effectively co-optedthem.should be understoodas mnulticulturalism. population." such as fascism.accessible. In the past. political.The responsesofnational establishments -heprotestsof the "cultural fundamentalists" have of-enironicallyreflected the assertionsof the protesters. ethnic. formulationsin the postmodernist"culture-critique" vein only recastin different termsand do not transcend the reification of culturaldifference typicalof older anthropologicalapproaches to cultures as bounded isolates. in different ways. The question is why "culture" in the contempoary sense of a common "identity"or universeof dis.As Stolcke points and reactionary out.Rightist exclusionist cultural nationalism and left-orientedinclusionist I suggest. treatment I would suggestthata fuller analysiswould addressissues such as the following: First.ST O L C KE Talking Culture I I 7 phasize the differencesbetween the new "cultural fundamentalism"and racism while recognizingthat both reflect. and economic terms directed at dominant political and technobureaucratic groups by relatively dominated elements of the national disenfranchised. of the same conjunctureof complementary refractions social and political-economicforces.boththe liberalrepublican(French) culturalist(German) formsof nationalism rested on a conceptionof national identityas the expressionof a distinctive historical and cultural heritage shared zquallyby all individualmembersof the national community.It is a claim forinclusion and integration on more favorablesocial.have seized upon race or )therissues as the specificvehicles oftheircauses. Taking her stimulating as a point of departure.In this wider perspectivethe implicit ultimate end of these movementsis not the "culturalcleansing"ofthe nation the expulsion offoreigners but theirown fuller through into and more equitable participation integration in the social and economic life of the nation.These groupsand movements overtlyassert their cultural. Stol.In this connection.I also agree with her that it is essential for to take account of the ways in which the anthropology new political movementsand conditionsto which she refers are changingthe meaningof "culture" and to reflecton the implications of these changes forits own theoretical conceptof culture. she is in myview.in extremecases.urrentwave of "culturalist" movements in this re.she does not claim to presentan exhaustiveaccount ofthe phenomenon or an analysisofits political and social causes.ke is correctto stress the relative uniqueness of the .What must also be accounted foris theirpopulist character as the social and political protestsof subordinatesocial strata against the dominantpolitical-economic and culturalorder thatexcludes themfromfullparticipation in the national life. to stressthatrecentanthropological correct. Calling for protesters the exclusionofforeign elementson nationalistgrounds is a convenientway of stressingthe common ground the protesters share with the dominantelementsof the nationalsociety-the bureaucracy and thepoliticalleadership-and thus gainingmoral leverage over them to and compel themto take more account ofthe protesters theirdemands.pect.The first is that it is virtuallythe only aspect of their relation to the national society that they still own and control-the onlyone. the new formsof cultural Any attemptto understand and ethnic nationalism must account forthe fact that while xenophobicculturalfundamentalism is becoming a right-wing populistidiom ofprotest bylower-classand marginal elementsofEuropeannational societies. marily and theforeign exclusionary imand Gastarbeitertowardswhom it is ostensimigrants bly directedare not its primarytargets.an often equally fundamentalist is becommulticulturalism ing the preferred idiom in which minorityethnic and theirrightto a full and equal racialgroupsare asserting rolein the same societies. What is now happeningis that subordinateand mar3-inal elements of the national societies of Europe are not for the first time) picking up this ideological weaponand usingit againstthehegemonicliberalestabLishments and state governmentsthat have presided the erosion of theireconomic and social condition wver n therecentperiodofthe consolidationoftransnational to :apitalism. This is why the new cultural nationalist movementscannot simplybe understood as expressions ofthe political right. The second is the politicalpotencyof the conceptionof national identity intrinsic to modernEuropean nationalismfromits origins in the i8th and igth centuries. claims to separateexistenceas independent nations) ratherthan as calls forthe exclusion of culturally different groups. similarmovementsofnationalist"fundanentalism. Opposition to and immigrants is an apt means to this end foreigners because foreign and guest-workers arethemost migrants visible. by the same token. While Stolcke's discussion contains importantinsightsinto the new culturalnationalism. and/or national "identities"as the legitimizing basis of claims to inclusion on an equal footing in multiethnic national societies (or.culturalnationalism is not merelyor even priand xenophobic.The result has been to legitimize a cultural 3ense of national identitynot only as an inalienable of everyindividual.and hence beyondthe conproperty trolof elites.ourse and social standardsratherthan "race" or even in the older German sense of a historic SYemeinschaft .and vulnerableextensionofthehegemonic political and technoeconomic system that the feel oppressesand excludes them. There are two fundamental reasonsthatculturalidentityhas emergedas the idiom of choice forexpessions ofsocial discontent by marginalized or downwardly mobile elements of national populations. is when multiculturalist claims are resistedby cultural iuthorities in the name of the need forculturalunifornity as the basis of national political integration. but also as the justification forpolitical Alaims made in the name of the nation and the uniformityof its legal normsor social mores.beyondthe controlof national political and cultural elites.
WALTER P.Herskovitsin his lecturesreferred to this as "culturalism. ZENNER folk community has now become the focus of the new movements. rope and in America. We should rememberthat have not internalized FranzBoas's genermanytheorists alization that there is no one-to-onerelationshipbetweenrace. The late Melville J.The answeris to be foundin the dominant socioeconomic conditions of the historical period in which the new movementshave emerged. As the governments of nation-states are increasingly redefined as local committeesof an ever more powerfullyorganizedtransnational capitalistsystemof financial institutions. Albany. Consumption of commodities has thus supplantedthe exerciseof the traditional political functions of citizenshipas the main mode of the construction-and thus control-of personalidentity. language. plicitlyopposed the idealized concept of the new order to the obsolete social orderof monarchicalfeudalism. Her decision not to discuss popular anti-immigration sentimentis unfortunate.thismust be done carefully. Number i. even as it externatively. Unlike anthropologists. labor movements. including nationalism and anthropological The frightconceptsof cultureamong its variantforms.Stolckelimitsherself responseof respectableconservative political leaders to the new "extracommunitarianimmigration" rather than dealing with "popular reactionsand sentiments. of New York at Albany.Racists like Sombart gaveculturalas well as biologicalexplanationsfordifferences between ethnicgroupsand nations.The so-calledright splitalong severallines. The individualisticformof this identity construction. I2222. the abilityof national regimesto guaranteetheircitizens access to commodity consumption on a scale commensuratewith theirsocial aspirations has become theirprimary basis of political legitimation. Of greater weightare two omissions by Stolcke. Slogans of class conflictare an example of this.and culture. It is not hard to imaginethatmodernculturists do not excludebiological explanationsbut simply do not bringthem to the fore. of exclusion" can While the notion of "new rhetorics to some extentbe appliedto theUnited States. .it thus constitutes a culturalform ofparticipationin the national identity." She also links these ideological changes to the ways in which Britain and France in particularhave absorbed in the past four decades and to the view immigrants of the "nation" in the two countries.the attemptto do so.circulatingcapital. of right-wing both in Eueningresurgence movements. tinuationof the fundamental ideological mystification centralto the originsof the cultureconceptin German Romanticnationalism. N.S. of most Secondly. What are the implicationsof these developmentsfor the anthropological concept of culture?Firstand most obvious. socially shared aspect thus become the most politicallyfraught idiom of solidarity and protest alike in contemporary capitalistsocieties. and commodityflows."culture" cannotbe theorizedin isolationfrom the social conditionsin which it arises and vice versa."but Stolcke's "culturalfundamentalism"is a more stylishrubric. of ideal principlesas culturalrepresenThe abstraction tations of uniformly shared social qualities frommaterial social relationsand conditionsand an almost Manichaean opposition of the formerto the latter thus became a foundationalprincipleof modernsocial consciousness."Culture" as nationalisticideology servedto sever consciousness of the unequal social roots of the new orderof bourgeoispolitical-economic domination it as an expression ofuniversal byprojecting ideal principlesof liberty. includingthe "Christianright" and ex-liberal "neoconservatives. I I VII 94 In her interesting analysis of the new "rhetoricsof exclusion" in Western to the Europe. Cultural identityand national cultural identityas its most fundamental.or is acquisitionpractically biological? The former limited mightbe accomplishedthrough and assimilationisteducation. characteristic anthropological theorizingabout culture fromthe Boasians to the contemporary of anthropology proponents as ethnographic should be recognizedas a conwriting. the formthat now provides the most immediate and satisfying sense of power over the termsof personal and social existence. politicians and ideologues have no all-embracing theoryof culture. equality." The latter include "environmentaloptimists" like JulianSimon and Ben who tendto favoropen immigration. since one can assume thatpolitical a veryfruitful leadersfindimmigration issue to exploit.Stolcke's political reference to the rightand to conservativeliberals is limited to a Euroin the United Statesis pean context.A.8 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 36. and Anglophobiaand anti-Americanism are xenophobic views which have been used by both the left and the right. WhileI tendto agreewith Stolckethatwe shouldtake of these "culturists"seriously. is limited and orientedby the social values of the national society.The authoritative rather thanto race recalls appeal to "culturaldifference" a similar response by post-World War II imperialists.How do people acquire the "national consciousness" that theyenvision?Is it by earlysocialization.theirpolitical and economic institutions become increasingly inaccessibleto influence by the mass of their populations. however.as theBoasians believe. the "nonracist"rhetoric we must do so with care.Y.based on formsof culturalfundathe real social causes of the mentalism that mystify on which theyfeedshouldprompt discontent anthropolof the need to develop a ogiststo recognizethe urgency State University DepartmentofAnthropology. FebruaryI995 genuinelycritical perspectiveon "culture" capable of of forms revealingthe continuityand interdependence ofsocial consciousnessand the materialsocial relations thatgive rise to them. As the traditional meaning of political citizenship withers away under these circumstances. Those Wattenberg on the leftmay employa "rhetoric ofexclusion" oftheir own. U.and fraternity or.alof volkische Gemeinschaft.but the latimmigration ter would simply be racist.
I have advisedlychosen to focuson onlyone manirefer to sophisticatedsocial scientificstudies of xeno.Herskovits. an Arab oil magnatewho are Reply .Yet. whose targets are extracommunitarian The immigrants. I agreewith Stolcke thatwe should tryto understand thoughperhapsno less so than some ofthe postmodern thefluidity and flexibility ofhumanways oflifeand that radical-relativist endeavours.in this i59-2i2). Edward Spicer (i980:287-362). challengedtraditional applied to its classical period have proved insufficient mentativecoherence. In theory.radical culturalrelativism spells exclusion. was determinisms. The integrationist however. In practice. Stolcke tends to dismiss the social scientific studyof (I993:4) has persuasivelyput it. In addition. inequality. who was known as a principal hierarchy of culturalrelativism. As Taguieff has shown.the targetis any extracommunibut in practiceit is the Third World to account forthese new essentialistdoctrines of exclu. She does not itlyuniversalmodernity's commitments. to be politically effective.it is no noveltythat a notion.culturalfundamentalism of course oppressesimmigrants economicallyand socially. strandin thatmanyofour professional forebears understood this.in whichhypoth.are usefulforexpandinganthropology's broadto summarizehere and too incompleteto support researchagenda regarding the political and theoretical finalconclusions.come potential sociopolitical conflicts between the proponent ples of different background borrow and transform "races'' could also be considereduntenable in a strict elements of each other's culture (Herskovits I964: sense.-Mexican borderlands. Spain. and serially seems to prove that ethnocentrism is not however. as a result case incommensurability between cultures.festation.In the contemporary inverselycorrelatedwith changes in culture. without considerationof the long and compliofthe phenomcated historyof the Yugoslav lands.may be put of his lifelong work on the Yaqui and the western to different uses and have different meaningsand conseU.forexample. While the study was too of my analysis. Brewerand Campbell tion that cultural fundamentalists' postulated incommensurability of culturesis. sion. In view ofthe noveltyand complexity lations. Culin spite ofgreatchangesin cul.identity. LeVine. As Goldberg importanceof certainframesof economic problems. Cuban and Brazilianpolitical racismwhich sustaineda ofraces but advocatedmiscegenationto overForinstance.comments on my paper are not only most helpfulin eses derivedfromthe Spencer-Sumner but also raise a numberofperformulation of a clarifying my definitions universal syndromeof ethnocentrism were developed tinentquestions that. also showed how peo.STOLCKE Talking Culture I The interactionbetween the political class and other forma paradoxicalpart of modernity ratherthan being classes on immigration feeds the resentment of immi. ideologethnographic the political meaningsof culturaldifferences should be ical postulatesdo not have to have cognitivecoherence a majorfocus of our work. right-wingrhetorics of exclusion phobia such as that conductedby Donald T.by goingbeyondthe limitedaims and tested cross-culturally. 26 IX94 coninequalityare now a consequence of immigration The resurgence of "racism" in contemporary Europehas trols defendedand implementedby conservativesand a wealth ofresearchthathas enriched generated but also the rightratherthan being thematizedin theirrhetoric and again forthe sake of argunotions ofracism. She refersto the because ofa certaindifficulty in overcoming established fact that up to the present wars the various ethnic notionsofmodernsociety. The factthathuman be.is applied and producesand reproduces VERENA onlyto subaltern STOLCKE strangers. RobertA.The persistenceof ethnicidentity. crisis-ridden postcolonialworld. in the colonial context. Campbell.In this regard.socioeconomic exclusion and Barcelona.Yet.namely. It is also a test ofa theoretical explanationofthe slave past-a point I have stressedsince my early research on Igth-centuryCuba (II974).tural relativism.an anachronismin modernsocietyor a residue of their grants.tarianimmigrant.it is worthnotingthatethnocentrism challenges posed by the new global disorderand espein thisview beginswithhighself-regard.showed how some ethnic quences depending on socio-historicalcontexts." I fully agree with Fitzpatrick'ssubstantiveobservaintricate ways is tied to fearand hatredof some outsiders (LeVine and Campbell I972. Central to this revisionof earliertheorizations of poor whose exclusion is legitimatedbecause it is they "racism" is the gradual awareness that such doctrines ratherthan.and theirassociates.It is easy to forget. She also does not enon.culture.moreover. in the end.is often againstracistand otherethnocentric ture. the ironyperhaps. and racism groupsof thatunfortunate land had good neighborly re.S.partly perhaps Bosnian case is particularly shallow.itself.it is to and the more determinedit is by the likes of ings may love and hate "other peoples" differentially racial specificityand racial exclusivity. her dismissal of the and rhetoric of exclusion and theirroots. the moreopen differentiate between the two. nonsensicalI976).when it was firstdefendedby Boas boundariesare preserved in fact. the new rightin France adoptedthe idea of incommeninstead of ordering cultureshierarchically surability to avoid the negativeinegalitarianconnotationof the latter.of modernity: The more explica componentof a conservativeideology. as I argue.The categories of exclusion.is the specificcharacter ofthese new attitudes a human universal. I thank progressive Stolckeforchallenging us to reconsider these questions. "This is a centralparaethnocentrism (xenophobia)by viewing it primarily as dox. which in fairly cially its ideological "overpinnings." Less clear.
It is also well known that the production culturalist iom.entitlement are oftenbut not century typically hierarchical racist nationalism.and/orof clearlyculturalistthan I have wanted to make out.thatis. however. forreasons of po. indeed. recession.duce new contradictions and tensions.that he was not an tionisms in contemporary but a forastero (roughly. in trasting experienceofCuban and Haitian immigrants Turner and Zenner regretthat I have not discussed Florida.that neitherare the politicians preachingin the desert merely a perversefigwhich is in. which are now being eroded by economic By contrast with igth. in on the resurgence ofracismin Europe inclusion.tendedto be inward-looking. has mean.Perhapsit needs immigrant sentiments. FebruaryI995 seen as threatening social orderin the contextof eco. Contemporary structures culturetalk has.In the case of Spain. The ensuing frustrations however.adoptedan exclusionaryrhetoric and policies-and the and recurrent sons ratherthan a single "cause"-a dialectic between hostility aggression againstimmigrants on sociopoliticaltensionsgenerated by the economicreces. ask ourselveswhat is in a face nowadays.Nationalityrules.nor is cultural fundamentalism goatingof extracommunitarian immigrants formedby new and old ideas of national entitlement. an explanationof the North-South inequalitythatI cite The political success of the anti-immigrant platforms as the "root cause" of cultural fundamentalism. any theoryof exclusion has tialistdifferentiation. inclusion.political. Recent researchon citizenshipin relation different.Explicit emphases on work every time those who are discriminated against exclusion or inclusion depend. The powerofpatriotism. "stranger.vations qualifying and extendingmy analysis are espeplex intersectionbetween economic power and essen. citedby SilvermanI992: I36)? rope.the part of "ordinarypeople" provide ample evidence sion in advancedcapitalistEuropeand ideologicalscape. forexample. the experience of emigrationto France and explicitly invoking underdevelopment backwardnessto deny that "we" have anythingto do Germanyin the sixties of almost 3 million labouring with the ever-growing inequality between "us" and men and women often serves as an antidote to antifromAndalucia "them" so as not to be takenforracists.be it ethnic. sharethe conflation tainly reinforcedthe populations' ideas of national damentalism.identity.ship rights.ously seeking to distance himself from the stigma ries continueto shape people's attitudeseven iftheyare attached to extracommunitarian immigrants. The alarmover forillegal immigrants in contemporary searching because theyhave "the extracommunitarian Euimmigration has enhancedthe visibilityof the forwrongface" (Dubet I989.in a statebut implicitly ofcourse fromit. is a relationshipand logically always implies a the fact that the "people of the New Commonwealth" contrasting other.althoughit is often not recognized thatidenThatcher's famous statement is admittedly less tity.however.on the "probare phenotypically we now need seriouslyto lem" posed.thatforeigners ofNorthAfrican ori. in Latin America.and called themselvessimply"immigrants.ism is inherently incapable of makingeveryonehappy. are phenotypically sight are about the prerequisitesforacquiringcitizennonwhiteis not sufficient reason to extrapolate racism ship. of a radicallyrelativist id. Nineteenth. Number i.and exclusion in the guise. nonetheless.at first and of Pakistan.standingsof national belonging.earlyreports litical expediency.recentlyinsisted to me. Of course." though analyses of anti-immigrant immigrant is in no way to minimize the horrors obvirhetoric that this the termpreciselylacks the national connotation). of people-nation-territory. tracommunitarian immigrants. although were called not publiclyadmitted(Stepick)is a matterforresearch until veryrecentlyAndalucian immigrants which above all must pay carefulattention to argumen.servativebut also social-democratic actionsbetweenideologicalconstructs and materialrea.a growing awarenessamongscholars eign "other" and the debate over politics of exclusion that contemporary Europeanpolitics and policies of ex.while.who are its targets. mentofthe imaginationofsmall extremist groupsas. its obverse. the planet into separateuniversesrather fragments than tories complicate the picture.maintained. Stepick's observations on the con. the way in tativestructures contextsand political trawhich rhetoricsof political elites interactwith underditions.by contrast.One immigrant stressing once more that to challenge racist reduc. but gender. These timesofeconomic crisisare evidently enemyand threat averse ofan external generates internal socioto progressive of change.201 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 36. the conceptualneglecting gin are systematicallystopped by the French police ization ofnationality as its precondition. Liberal capitalnomic recession. especially programs evident that any piecemeal reformwithin prevailing duringWorld War I. Turner's obserUnited States. implies for"them.thoughreferring to the specificcontextof the popular attitudesvis-a-visimmigrants. however.I suggesta more complicatedset ofdialecticinter.The postwar welfare state in Europe ceras I have analyzedit.national.but it seems equally economic cohesion." in particular Much more complicated is. contemporarycultural fundamentalism. revitalizingcommonsense underclusion are informed by claims of nation.one example. But of the political right-to the extentthat not only congovernments have then. There is. by necessarilyalways and by everyonedirectedagainstexParticularnational hisemphasizing cultural-national incommensurability.for example." The extentto which racist catego. as Strath- .What does it to human rights.fact.and citizennationalismand late-2oth-century century culturalfun. Benthallrightly points to the absence in my paper of standingsof the dominatedmajorityof the population.forexample. Instead of supposingthat classical racism is at also definewho are noncitizens.cultural.cially valuable.. in bridging class divisions is only of power and inequalitywill inevitablypro.providea suggestive example ofthe com. for on account of example.
Anthropologists peoples. Yet. theyargue. and oppressionare producedhistorically. and its prospects:Benthall Finally.forreasons I have spelled out. by reinforcing individualism. and its political consequences are than dissolvingbordeepeningnational divisionsrather ders. as I argue. the movementofpeople across bornamely.the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. how to bound ernnation-state the citizenry.I would.the naturalisticand hence universalistideoEuropean logical assumption on which contemporary culturalfundamentalism is built.the problemposed by the formation in the earlyigth century.does not appear to me to excel in its tolerance with regard to its multiple"minorities.The United States.Of course. as I have attempted to show. but again one should beware of easy reductionisms. does not (as Clemente seems to think)precludeanthropological researchinto particular cultural processes and reinventionsas long as this is not done (again.I dismiss the studyby and xenophobiathe social sciences of ethnocentrism nota bene. Central in this respect is a properhistoricalperspectivethat pays due attention preciselyto the "dialogue" betweenideologuesand subalternsectorsand to theeconomic contextwithinwhich culturalfundamentalism flourishes.thefactthatneoliberalcapitalist consumer society.by deit ofits traditional functions.STOLCKE 2 Talking Culture 2i ernrecently observed.antistatistnationalistsof the extremeleftmay be heardvehementlydefendingnational cultural identityas the onlyeffective sourceofsocial cohesionin the contemporaryaggressively individualistworld."There are those who argue that transnationalcapitalism.has been revitalizedby the restructuring trial production.on thenation-state mentionsthe widespreadidea amongscholarsthatlarge but nation-states may be less oppressiveforminorities.fartoo generala statementand prejudgesthe crucial issues regarding the prerequisites of identity and of the productionof difference which anthropologists urgentlyneed to investigate.in Catalunya. as are certain strands of defensive ethnonationalismon the left.as Zenner seems to think. I have limitedmyself Franceand Britain to comparing because I am aware ofhow important specifichistorical and contextualconditionsand relationsare in endowing sociopoliticalprocesseswithmeaning.controlling of indusders. again this depends on the context. Analyses oftentend to pay attention country to the flowof capital and goods to the neglectof thatof people. Nowadays. The idea that humans are inherently ethnocentric is. the movementof people is quite anothermatter. interestStepickand Zenner offer ing comments from the vantage point of the United States. forexample. and returnto one's country. This does not mean that. Despite radically changed economic circumofthe modstances. however. Stolcke I993). however.Forexample. priving economic-political The EuropeanCommuspells doom forthe nation-state. be ill-equipped culturesas isolates.Multiculturalismis an importantcase in point. while capital and commoditiesnowadaysknow no national frontiers. andlately by"culture" (Barkan i992.seeking to reduce productioncosts and increase profits." movement betweenstates is limitedto the right to leave any country. Turnerand Strathern drawattention to thewide political spectrumthat nowadays endorsesor is receptiveto cultural fundamentalist ideas in Europe of the kind I discuss. The opposition to nazism duringWorld War II ofracismas shaped in a dramaticfashionthe refutation a legitimateintellectualand political stance. as and thefactthatculturalidentity pointedout byTurner.only one of words but.hence. however. remainswith us. My hope is thatmy paper may stimulate investigationsof this kind. and Clemente rightlyinsists on the need to in more detail the tendencieswithin the right identify and the left. Boasian was a momentous reaction to cultural anthropology this.In thissense Italy strikesme as especially interesting consideringits recent political history.or have traditionally investigated communities. extracommunitarian must assimilate. The civil of the sixties contributed further to the rightsstruggles disreplacementof the idea of "race" in differential course by the obviously ambivalent term "ethnicity" issue is not. as historical phenomena. consecrates people's rightto free choice of their residence.but we need urgently earliersocial science approach. one of the assumptionsand conceptual structures of new culturalistrhetorics. nity is celebratedas one outstandingexample of this.not least to interrogate formulationsof a "universal syndromeof ethnocenas trism"which. That "everyoneneeds cultural 'roots"' is. European citizens as workerscannot move withinthe EuropeanCommunity. fragmentssociety and the consequences of this.includingone's own. I regard highlysuspect.But structuralunemployment. as Turner observes)in isolation from historicalsociopolitical conditions.contributed to obscuringsociety. The on the socioeconomiccircumstances vast literature that gave rise to fascismmay providevaluable insightshere. Not even the foundationaldocument of the new democratic postwar world order. To understandthe politics of culturalfundamentalism we requiremuch moredetailedresearchon popularselfunderstandings and cultural regarding political-national identityand identifications. Industries may organize production across borders. An argued critique of contemporary cultural fundamentalism. cultural does not producexenophobiabut rather identity the reverse.I believe. They may therefore between culto offerinsights into interrelationships a relational to incorporate tures. however. Yet completely freely even those rightsenjoyedby Europeansare denied altoto long-settled residentswho happen to be thirdgether nationals.not least because ofits historical past in slavery and postemancipationracism.They immigrants entirely disregard. The .One crucial functionof the nation-state.especially in the North.be veryhesitantto extendthe without qualificanotion of cultural fundamentalism tionto NorthAmerica. While "everyonehas the rightof freedomof movementand residencewithin the bordersof each state.
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I99Ia. acrossEurope. I983. Subjects. Visagesde la nouRoutledge. I991I. naci6n. AND JOHN KNIGHT.Editedby Colin Lucas. I994. I993. ERNESTO. MARIO. "The sovereignty and thenaASAD.HeimatBabylon:Das Wagnis Demokratie. I-28.Les Temps . A fresh in theEuropean boostforculture Community. DOC-DE-RR-93o62. MARTIN. CASSEN. vol. Mexico: Red de Salud de las MujeresLatinamericanas y del Ca. CHEVALIER. Paris:Pressesde la Fonvelle droite: BLANCKAERT. i99i. Sovereignty: The British experience. pp. ribe. [PC] and Nicolson. I992. i982. Madison:University ofWisFrankfurt a. JONATHAN as a composite state: Le Monde Diplomatique36 (420). Thereis a rising ORD. as Goya showed so powerfully in his caprichos. "Penser1' 'inteF. i986. I973." in .London:Routledge. vol. AND ANN BEEZER. pp. DANIEL. I5-I6. citiI990. Editedby HANS MAGNUS. Harvard Cambridge: Press. I987. derung: 33 Markierungen. 303-26. Linventiondu racisme: Wallerstein. de poblaci6n.Anthropology Today9 (5):I-2.[AS] Basil Blackwell. ragedangereux. I976. antiracismes. London:ActionGroup suppl. I986. politicalculture. November 25.bod. Peupleet nationchez Herder et Fichte. CHRISTIAN. EditedbyRobBARKER."Phantasy abandoned by reason produces impossible monsters: united with reason it is the motherof the arts and the originof marvels. D. I8-55.L'Express. Britain CLARK. CLAUDE. Number i. . I990. "iExiste un neoracismo?" Raza. I99I. ANDRt. Radical ogy Today Io(4):28-29. ALEX. Analyses. 1I992. I09-32. tions. London:CroomHelm. Paris:Hachette. Culture Le MondeDiplointo theRise ofFascismand Racofthe Committee ofInquiry matique40(474):32. I993. UnvertraglichBREWER. i29 (September-October). Editedby Pierre-Andr6 Taguieff. DE WAAL. Ethnic Liberties. I994. I9-32. I984. I992. "VREGENIS. cet artifice. ANN. November 8. 4887. MAX. "Englishness and thenationalculture. [JB] 2 I: 2-I 7. I992. FebruaryI995 I99 Ib. Kulturelle RD H EI M. sans nations. Thepoliticalculture oftheFrench RevBALIBAR.ATTY. Immigration E. LOUIS. ANN. Classes laborieuses et classes tideofracismsweeping i99i. I992. [PF] Le GRECE et son histoire. Report BERNARD. and History 9Renan. derModerne."in The French Revolution and thecreation ofmodern thewake ofthe Rushdieaffair.2| CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 36. Notes et EtudesDocumentaires connaissances. Fremdeln. I979. Communication. ITZPATRICK. CASHMORE. The new racism. in Miami. and Nationality/National on Immigration CouncilforCivil BENTHALL.[PC] the WorldWars. London: ANNE-MARIE. ELAZAR. BRUBAKER. AND THOMAS SCHMID. Paris:Fayard.New prospects Communication. Gainesand law. dangereuses a Paris. 2. Oxford: Alan Hunt.y clase. alleysand avenues. i985. BERQU6.EditedbyPeterFitzpatrick ville: University ofFloridaPress. " in Mujeresy polftica Sur-Norte. W. i989. no. London:Weidenfeld ELZA. Population and Development ReviewI2. but then.: Suhrkamp."in DOC A 2-I60/85. in olution. I993. et pouvoir.Die Zeit. Kursbuch. I988.Edited ethnicity. Wenn derWestenunwiderstehlich wird. Bericht Franceand Germany. pp. i99i (i988). behavior: Essayson biologicalanthropology. Paris:La hypotheses. ETIENNE. i986. 6. TimesLiterarySupplement. Englishness: Politicsand culturei88o to 1920."in Bones. MAURICE. Brussels. i984 (I958). NORBERT. i987. Declarationagainstracism EUROPEAN dence. BHABHA. no. zens. La societedes individus. i983.International Socialism2 (I8):Io8-25. CRANSTON. Libre.DecemberI4. Politicsand SocietyI8:455-80. Dictionary ofrace and ethnic relawell. und Campe. I07. Genocidein Rwanda[letter].Dossier-Immigr6s: Les 5 tabous. ce miMAX. Der Fundamentalismus BtJIN.. AND ANDREW BERNARDI. L'ideologieallemande:France-Allemagne et retour. AND DONALD MARYLINNE. Oxford: Pergamon Press. mes. April29. p. AnthropolBARKER. ANN. The language of ertColls and PhilipDodd.Race and Class 32 (3). "Racismand theinnocence Grenier and Alex Stepick. AND IAN MARTIN. Multiculturalism and British identity in tion. London:Sweetand Max"VANS." in Critical legal studies. Stocking George Jr. "The politicsoflanguage CASTRO. DURANTON-CRABOL.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. July23. pp. DODD. consinPress. and European Sovereignty Culture integration.London:Junction Books. I977.and others: Nationality nocentrismo.I98I. ies. forcommunity cultural action.ELIAS. Miami Now! Immigration. BARKAN. Torino:Einaudi. I992. C. perspectives. NICOL. L'Europe . J. Paris:Editions La D6couverte/Essais. "La cuesti6n demografica: Confrontaci6n DUMONT. Madrid:IEPALA. Immigration: Un bilan des DUBET. ROGERS. LOUIS. Philosophy PHILIP." References Cited I0:55-84- Modernes 48 (558):I-II. state. DIMITRIOS. tonriots.M. and nationhood Citizenship in im Namen des Untersuchungsausschusses . pp. EditedbyAndr6 B6jinand Julien Freund. JEAN. worth: Penguin. 47-48. BUNYAN. MARTIN. and xenophobia. aliens.HarmondsDUMMETT. STEPHANE. M. Documentation Francaise. British consequences. 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New York:McGraw-Hill. BLANC.bodies. Towards GLICK-SCHILLER. AND FRANCE THEPAUT. ofracial disig80. Editor. ture":Space. GLICK-SCHILLER. ROBERT empire: Recentperspectives on theimpactofbiomedical in COLETTE. LUSTGARTEN. 206-59. 46 (9-IO):782-98. son: Universityof Arizona Press. AKHIL. I973. Cambridge: MIT ofhistorical (540-541:65-82. Michigan I986. ticsin Western policies. RICHARD. surla meilI993. Racism JENKINS. K EAR N EY. 1991. ALEJANDRO. Madison:University ofWisconsin Press. la contradiction press:Immigration. pp. PIERRE-ANDRE.Migrations-Societe3 (i6-I7):93-Ii6. New York:McGraw-Hill. Urwin and W." in The empire strikes back: Race and racism in '70s plain commonsense:The 'roots'of "Just "La citoyennet6 in Face au en question. Press. pp." I993. and humannature. postcolonial predicaments. I994. itedby StevenRose. 2-37. Winter." HOBSBAWM. "Is sex to gender deredanthropology. I974. La Grande-Bretagne et la logiquesociale l'histoire GUIOMAR. NYE. I993. Culture SEGAL. I992 (i882). i99i." in Not in ourgenes:Biology. Qu'est-cequ'une nation? HERSKOVITS. California Press. and thetwoforms GELLNER. Quarterly Review. I98I. Faschismus: mentalismus? Merkur Routledge. PAUL. E. Marriage. couverte/Essais. E. Paris:Editions du Seuil. ethnicattitudes. Les TempsModernes La D6couverte."Cambridge. Cityon the Editedby GeorgeW. I99I." identity. "Race as a social category. The Yaqui: A cultural TucSPICER. NINA. and colourin nineteenth-century Cuba: A studyofracial attitudesand sexual valuesin a slave society.R. Les Temps I99I. I99. I993. and thecity.Vol. LtVI-STRAUSS. BHIKU. [wpz] STEPICK. FRIEDRICH. I950-I980. Nations unbound:Transnational and deterritorialized projects. Gordonand Breach. London: Pan. Structural anthropology 2. LINDA AND CRISTINA BASCH. I993. "Qu'est-ceque 'les Juifs' signifiin Ni Juif ni Grec:Entretiens aientpourla societ6m6di6vale?" surle racisme. Face au racisme. in Europe.HarderToleranz. Legal control crimination. change. 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pp. ." Languesde la Revolution Frangaise. Joan Simon Schaffer.00 $19. BeckVerlag. WIEVIORKA. Teffy Castle. Number i. I. evidencein research constitutes and thirteen majoressaysby leadingscholars together gap by bringing fillthat Each essay fieldsacrossthesciencesandhumanities.24 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 36. Editor. Lawrence Rothfield.29. I989.) ISBN: 0-226-10082-0 Cloth ISBN: 0-226-10083-9 Paper $42. 11030S. (est. Paris: tionde la nationalite dans le droitcolonialfrangais. I20-30. Editor.95 Ave. Joel Snyder." Wihtolde Wenden. Mots I6. Sunstein. III-30. Davidson. ThemodernWEBER. A simpleguideto theprovisions oftheRace Relacrimination: tionsAct of I976. Edited treI974 et I986) et la citoyennet6. C. ZUNGARO. BEATE. Poovey. Kosofsky Wimsatt. Davidson.. Paris:Edilig/ by Catherine I935. 1994 512 p. pp. Paris:Editions La D6couverte. Smith. AND MICHAEL J. Herrnstein Barbara Sedgwick. Scott. Die Barbaren kommen: Ein editors andHarry Harootunian. Essai surla r6glementaAUGUSTE-RAYNALD. Holt. Librairie du RecueilSirey. Richards. Zukunftsangst Einwanderung. Eve W. Nous et les autres: La r6flexion francaise d'immigration WEIL. EMILIO GALLI. Langley The University orfrom Availableatbookstores 6/94 Chicago. "L'6tranger SOPHIE. J. Berlant. FebruaryI995 TODOROV. R. C. James of what concern thecentral toward has beendirected attention little Surprisingly ofEvidenceseeksto Questions and scholarship.. EUGEN. pp. Anthropology TERENCE. andWilliam Vidal-Naquet. WALKER. Arnold Daston. TZVETAN. of theoriginal and a rejoinder bytheauthor critical response published Lorraine Jean James Comaroff. Racismeet modernite. humaine. Munich:C. Harry Harootunian. no. Fran9oise Mark Kelman. I988. WINKLER. REDMAN. in Languages: Usage d'un motdansune crisepolitique. i992. ofChicago Press. I. i992. in multiple researchers by a never-beforeis accompanied Inquiry) in Critical published (originally essay. Gesprach Kursbuch. Racial dis- mitPieroBassettiiiberEinwanderung und Invasion. CarloGinzburg. Robert DonaldPreziosi. Fondation Diderot. PeasantsintoFrenchmen: UniverStanford izationofruralFrance.Paris:Editions surla diversite franQaise and multiculturalism: 1993. Stanford: sityPress. du Seuil. I993. H. Pierre CassR. I976. Thomas Helsinger. MICHEL. D. WERNER. WAHNICH. Lewontin. "La politique (enin La citoyennet6. I07.IL 60628. Anthropology ofit? Cultural dans la luttedes factions: I988.I870-1914. Mary Meltzer. I977. Chandler. Or call: (312) 568-1550. PATRICK. London:Show. TURNER. Lauren include Contributors Elizabeth IanHacking. thatmulticulturalists shouldbe mindful Whatis anthropology 8:4 II . i90-200. Arnold Chandler.
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