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SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics

1.1 WHAT IS STATISTICS?

INTRODUCTION TO Statistics

The word statistics derives from classical Latin roots, status which means state.

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Statistics has become the universal language of the sciences. As potential users of statistics, we need to master both the “science” and the “art” of using statistical methodology correctly.

These method include:
 Carefully defining the situation  Gathering data  Accurately summarizing the data  Deriving and communicating meaningful conclusions

Specific definition: Statistics is a collection of procedures and principles for gathering data and analyzing information to help people make decisions when faced with uncertainty.

Nowadays statistics is used in almost all fields of human effort such as:

Education

Agricultural

Businesses

Health

Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics

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2.2 TWO ASPECTS IN STATISTICS Statistics has Two Aspects: 1. formulas. rules and laws.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics Example 1. Sport • Sports applications of Statistics A statistician may keeps records of the number of hits a baseball player gets in a season. rules and laws to solve real world problems. o Applied Statistics can be divided into two main areas. • Financial Financial advisor uses some statistic information to make reliable predictions in investment. Theoretical / Mathematical Statistics ° Deals with the development. • Public Health An administrator would be concerned with the number of residents who contract a new strain of flu virus during a certain year. 1. • Others Any Idea?…. derivation and proof of statistical theorems.. formulas. Applied Statistics o Involves the applications of those theorems. depending on how data are used. The two main areas are: Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics 2 .

Descriptive Statistics Consist of method for collecting. formulas. and description of sample data. derivation and proof of statistical theorems. formulas. a. Applied Statistics Involves the applications of those theorems. 32% say that “knowing the alphabet” is an essential skill. • • Inferential statistics Refers to the technique of interpreting the values resulting from the descriptive techniques and making decisions and drawing conclusions about the population ASPECTS OF STATISTICS Theoretical/Mathematical Statistics Deals with the development. charts and tables to show data.S kindergarten teachers. Using graphs. organizing. Of all U. rules and laws. Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics 3 . displaying and summarizing data Inferential Statistics Consist of methods that use results obtained from sample to make decisions or conclusions about a population Example 1 Determine which of the following statements is descriptive in nature and which is inferential.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics Descriptive statistics • • • What most people think of when they hear the word statistics Includes the collection. rules and laws to solve real world problems. presentation.

the books in library. • There are two kinds of population:  Finite population When the membership of a population can be (or could be) physically listed. etc. cities. ‘Individuals’ are usually people but could also be schools. Of the 800 U. e.  Infinite population Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics 4 .g.  To become better consumers and citizens.S kindergarten teachers polled. 32% say that “knowing the alphabet” is an essential skill. • Why do we have to study statistics?   To read and understand various statistical studies in related field.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics b. 1.3 BASIC TERMS OF STATISTICS • Population vs. agriculture fields. pet dogs. Sample Population Sample Inference Statistic Parameter Population • A collection of all individuals about which information is desired. To communicate and explain the results of study in related field using our own words. Sample • A subset of the population.

or a symbol.g. Each of the seven terms just describe can be identified in this situation. the population of all people who might use aspirin. a word. Average/Mean .µ Standard deviation .SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics When the membership is unlimited. • Often a Greek letter is used to symbolize the name of parameter. e. : The set of 25 heights collected from 25 students. : A student’s age at entrance into college. found by using the set of 25 heights. Statistic Parameter • A numerical value summarizing all the data of an entire population. • Parameter vs.g. Example 2 A statistics student is interested in finding out something about the average ringgit value of cars owned by the faculty members of our university.g. • Data The set of values collected from the variable from each of the elements that belong to sample. The “average” age at time of admission for all students who have ever attended our college. her hair is “brown”. : Farah entered college at age “23”. This value may be a number. e. • Census : a survey includes every element in the population.g. • Data value The value of variable associated with one element of a population or sample. Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics 5 . e. • English alphabet is used symbolize the name of statistic Average/Mean . the color of student’s hair.σ e. e.g. The “average” height. • Sample survey : a survey includes every element in selected sample only.s Standard deviation e. to • Variable A characteristic of interest about each individual element of a population or sample.g. Statistic • A numerical value summarizing the sample data.

SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics i) Population : the collection of all cars owned by all faculty members at our university. 55. for example. For example.g. : the “ringgit value” of each individual car.1 Types of Variables • Quantitative (numerical) Variables  A variable that quantifies an element of a population. e. : will be found is the “average” value of the cars in the sample. Can be subdivided into two classifications: discrete variables and continuous variables. Arithmetic operations such as addition and averaging are meaningful for data that result from a quantitative variable. 0000 .(RM) iv) Data value : one data value is the ringgit value of a particular car.3. vi) Parameter : vii) Statistic 1. Ali’s car. the cars owned by members the statistics department. ii) Sample iii) Variable : any subset of that population. Discrete Variables Continuous Variables 6   Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics . is value at RM 45 000.000.…).000. the “total cost” of textbooks purchased by each student for this semester’s classes. which we are seeking information is the “average” value of all cars in the population. v) Data : the set of values that correspond to the sample obtained (45. 34.

The patients were to report whether they experienced relief from their allergies as well as any adverse side effects (viral infection. Of the adult U. • Qualitative (attribute. Weight of books and supplies you are carrying as you attend class today. a. Can assume any value along a line interval.” “somewhat dissatisfied. 36% has an allergy. 3.: A sample of four hair-salon customers was surveyed for their “hair color”. e. a drug used for treatment of seasonal allergies. A sample of 1200 randomly selected adults resulted in 33. That is.  A quantitative variable that can assume an uncountable number of values. Describe the population. “hometown” and “level of satisfaction”. Identify the type of variable. 2. b. there is a gap between any two values. A sample of 679 allergy sufferers in the United States was given 60 mg of the drug twice a day. d.” “neither satisfied nor dissatisfied. to measure the adverse side effects of Allegra. What is the population being studied? What is the sample? Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics 7 . Identify the statistics and give its value.” or “very dissatisfied.” “somewhat satisfied. What is sample? Describe the variable. Identify the parameter and give its value. e. etc) a. b.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics  A quantitative variable that can assume a countable number of values. EXERCISE 1 1.2% reporting an allergy.   e. Name the variable interest. e. including every possible value between any two values. c. Number of courses for which you are currently registered. b. nausea. drowsiness. population.” a. Can assume any values corresponding to isolated points along a line interval.g.g. categorical) variables  A variable that describes or categorizes an element of a population. The faculty members at Universiti Utara Malaysia were surveyed on the question “How satisfied were you with this semester schedule?” Their responses were to be categorized as “very satisfied. A study was conducted by Aventis Pharmaceuticals Inc.g.S.

What are the characteristics of interest about each element in the population? Are the data being collected qualitative or quantitative? 4. Face to face interview Data is the set of values collected Two • ways communication where researcher(s) asks question directly respondent(s). Whether or not a faucet is defective. Postal questionnaire A set of questions to obtain related information of conducted study. Demonstration cannot be performing.g. The breaking strength of a given type of string The hair color of children auditioning for the musical Annie. The number of stop signs in town of less than 500 people. through survey conducted by researcher by governmental. Disadvantages: Obsolete information. Lower cost. Various resources. a. • e. Wider respondent coverage. Historical data. d. Increase the number of answered questions. The length of time required to answer a telephone call at a certain real Necessary data obtained Data obtained from published material estate office. Interviewer might influence respondent’s responses. f. Interviewer influences can be avoided. • Data can be collected from a survey or an experiment. Advantages: Precise answer.2 Types of Data 1. Disadvantages: Limited interview duration.3. e. 3. from each of the from the variable Experiment is not required. the set of 25 heights collected fromAdvantages: 25 students. The number of questions answered correctly on a standardized test. Low response rate. Disadvantages: Types of Data Data accuracy is not confirmed. Lower cost. answer 8 . industrial or individual sources Primary Data Collection Techniques Data is collected by researcher and obtained from respondent Primary data Secondary data 1. Respondent have enough time to questions. Respondent refuse to answer sensitive or personal question. Questionnaires are posted to every respondent. c. 2. Advantages: Wider respondent coverage. Published records from governmental. industrial or individual sources. Less costly. b. collection. Appropriate for research that requires huge data Save time and energy. Expensive. Telephone interview Advantages: Quick.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics c. Identify each of the following as an example of (1) attribute (qualitative) or (2) numerical (quantitative) variables. elements that to belong to sample. Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics Disadvantages: One way interaction. Telephone is not answered. d.

. Another technique to collect primary data is observation.Level of satisfaction:. C.Gender:. ordinal. “somewhat satisfied”..Course grades:.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics Any Idea?.1 • • Scale of Measurements Data also can be classified by how they are categorized..A. Differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless. .3. This type of classification uses measurement scales with 4 common types of scales: nominal. D.“very satisfied”. counted or measured. interval and ratio. Ordinal Level of Measurement  A qualitative variable that incorporates and ordered position.2. 1. or ranking. female      Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics 9 .yes.male..Survey responses:. List the advantages and disadvantages of this technique. “satisfied”. . no. or F Nominal Level of Measurement  A qualitative variable that characterizes (or describes/names) an element of a population. Arithmetic operations not meaningful for data. Order cannot be assigned to the categories. etc... Example: . undecided. Example: . B.

 A real zero point. This is because there is a natural zero. fair. length are typically ratio variables. e. weight. but ratios do not (e..  Example: . Salaries of cashiers of C-Mart stores. Temperature of automatic popcorn poppers.   Levels of Measurement • Nominal . Age of students enrolled in a marital arts course.categories only • Ordinal . A scale where distances between data are meaningful.differences and a natural starting point EXERCISE 2 1) Classify each as nominal-level.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics Interval Level of Measurement    Involve a quantitative variable. c. a. 30°-20°=20°-10°. No natural zero Example: .categories with some order • Interval . so that it does not make sense to say that 20oC is twice as hot as 10oC. . good. d. Differences make sense. ordinal-level. but 20°/10° is not twice as hot!).The year 0 is arbitrary and it is not sensible to say that the year 2000 is twice as old as the year 1000. (poor. Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics 10 . Note that 0oC is arbitrary.differences but no natural starting point • Ratio .Physical measurements of height. It is now meaningful to say that 10m is twice as long as 5m.Temperature scales are interval data with 25oC warmer than 20oC and a 5oC difference has some physical meaning.g. Ratings of newscasts in Malaysia. Ratio Level of Measurement  A scale in which both intervals between values and ratios of values are meaningful. Marital status of respondents to a survey on saving accounts.Temperature measured in degrees Kelvin is a ratio scale because we know a meaningful zero point (absolute zero). interval-level or ratio-level. . excellent) b.

b. ratio scale. 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics 11 . ordinal scale. none of the above answers is correct. c. ordinal scale. samples. b. d. A characteristic of interest for the elements is called a(n) a. must rank order the data. c. sample. data set. observations. interval scale. The set of measurements collected for a particular element is (are) called a. must be numeric. very good. c. quantitative variable. b. interval scale. the ratio scale. must be alphabetic. The ratio scale of measurement has the properties of a. d. This is an example of the a. none of the above answers is correct. ratio scale. only the ordinal scale. and poor. variable. Some hotels ask their guests to rate the hotel’s services as excellent.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics 2) Data obtained from a nominal scale a. both the ratio and interval scales. can be either numeric or nonnumeric. the rank scale. qualitative variable. the interval scale. respondents are asked to mark their gender as male or female. b. the interval scale. d. d. b. nominal scale. b. c. Arithmetic operations are inappropriate for a. In a questionnaire. variables. only the nominal scale. d. nominal scale. d. good. The scale of measurement that is simply a label for the purpose of identifying the attribute of an element is the a. c. b. d. Gender is an example of a a. the nominal scale. b. c. c.

a) Ages of people working in a large factory b) Number of cups of coffee served at a restaurant Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics 12 . In each of this statements.2 million students. or numerical. statistical inference. 2. none of the above answers is correct. b) A diet high in fruits and vegetables will lower blood pressure. c. a) The average life expectancy in New Zealand is 78. d. d. report generation. which may be tabular. descriptive statistics. b. c.2 billion. d. c) The total amount of estimated losses from Tsunami flood was RM4. qualitative or quantitative variable. 10) The summaries of data. is the process of drawing inferences about the population based on the information taken from the sample.49 years. depending on how the respondents answered the question. refers to the process of drawing inferences about the sample based on the characteristics of the population. Statistical inference a. the number of high school graduates will be 3. tell whether descriptive or inferential statistics have been used. graphical. are referred to as a. is the same as descriptive statistics. 11) EXERCISE 3 1.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics c. d) Researchers stated that the shape of a person’s ears is related to the person’s aggression e) In 2013. b. inferential statistics. is the same as a census. Classify each variable as discrete or continuous.

2 km is computed. What is the population? d. or ratio level. On the basis of this information. ordinal level. This is an example of: a. a. What is the statistics? c. statistical inference c. please circle the correct answer. SX and LP. d) Temperatures of hair dryers. descriptive statistics b. 1. From this group a mean of 5. interval-level.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics c) The amount of a drug injected into a rat. Classify each as nominal-level. What is the sample? 25 Matrix No: _______________________ TUTORIAL CHAPTER 1 In the following multiple-choice questions. At Sintok Community College 150 students are randomly selected and asked the distance of their house to campus. you stated that the average height of all students in your university or college is 65 inches. parameter d. b) Number of candy bars sold on a fund drive c) Classification of automobile as subcompact. compact. e) Weights of suitcases on a commercial airline. a) Rating of movies as U. 4. d) The time it takes a student to walk to school e) The number of liters of milk sold each day at a grocery store 3. What is the parameter? b. population Group:______ Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics 13 . standard and luxury. You asked five of your classmates about their height.

5. In the language of statistics. sample d. sample A summary measure that is computed from a population is called a a. Estimating characteristics of the population Which of the following statements is not true? a. One form of descriptive statistics uses numerical techniques c. presenting data in a convenient and informative way d. Displaying aspects of the collected data c.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics 2. The 200 sound cards represent the: a. parameter b. 200 sound cards are randomly selected from a large production line and tested and the average lifetime is found to be 5 years. parameter b. but the average lifetime is unknown. In the survey. population refers to a group of people d. Reporting numerical findings d. summarizing data c. population d. A company has developed a new computer sound card. population A summary measure that is computed from a sample to describe a characteristic of the population is called a a. statistic Which of the following is not the goal of descriptive statistics? a. statistic c. sample b. All of the above A politician who is running for the office of governor of a state with 4 million registered voters commissions a survey. 8. 9. 4. parameter c. parameter b. In order to estimate this average. One form of descriptive statistics uses graphical techniques b. Statistical inference is used to draw conclusions or inferences about characteristics of populations based on sample data Descriptive statistics deals with methods of: a. we are using a: a. 7.000 14 3. 54% of the 5. Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics . 6. population d. sample When data are collected in a statistical study for only a portion or subset of all elements of interest. organizing data b. population d. Summarizing data b. statistic c. statistic c.

13. descriptive statistics Which of the following is most likely a population as opposed to a sample? a. In order to estimate this average. all college students in Michigan c.300 voters interviewed who plan not to vote for her 10. inferential statistics b. but the average lifetime is unknown. Registered voters in the State of Michigan Researchers suspect that the average number of credits earned per semester by college students is rising. The 225 hours is the value of a: a. d. Every fifth student to arrive at the book store on your campus d. He found that the average number of semester credits completed was 14.85 credits per student.000 registered voters interviewed c. To do so. a parameter d. 12. 4 million registered voters in the state b. a sample of 500 batteries is tested and the average lifetime of this sample is found to be 225 hours. A researcher at Michigan State University (MSU) wished to estimate the number of credits earned by students during the fall semester of 2003 at MSU.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics registered voters interviewed say they plan to vote for her. all MSU students b. all MSU students enrolled in the fall semester of 2003 d. descriptive statistics c. 2. 5. population The process of using sample statistics to draw conclusions about true population parameters is called a. statistic c. Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics 15 . a statistic 11. The first 10 students completing a final exam c. inferential statistics b. The population of interest to the researcher is a. A company has developed a new battery. 14. sampling method d. The population of interest is the: a. parameter b. all college students in Michigan enrolled in the fall semester of 2003 The collection and summarization of the graduate degrees and research areas of interest of the faculty in the University of Michigan of a particular academic institution is an example of a. the scientific method c. he randomly selects 500 student transcripts and records the number of credits each student earned in the fall term 2003. 2. Respondents to a magazine survey b.700 voters interviewed who plan to vote for her. sample d.

economics. D. 18. B. a statistic A study is under way in a national forest to determine the adult height of pine trees. The number of students in a statistics course Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics 16 . a categorical random variable. and characterization of a set of data in order to properly describe the various features of that set of data are called a. or F) is an example of a ________________. a parameter. marketing. descriptive statistics c. C. The letter grades received by students in a computer science class ________________ b. the 500 randomly selected adult pine trees b. The grade obtained in senior level English course (A. or interval.000 pine trees. a parameter a. a. the scientific method c. b. It is estimated that the forest contains 32. presentation. Those methods involving the collection.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics 15. all pine trees. The classification of student major (accounting. inferential statistics b. descriptive statistics The estimation of the population average student expenditure on education based on the sample average expenditure of 1. inferential statistics b. a continuous random variable d. Specifically. a discrete random variable c. 19. The sample in the study is a. Most colleges admit students based on their achievements in a number of different areas. management. sampling method d. the 32.000 students is an example of a. 20. identify the data type as nominal. other) is an example of a. 17. ordinal. The study involves collecting heights from 500 randomly selected adult pine trees and analyzing the results. the study is attempting to determine what factors aid a tree in reaching heights greater than 50 feet tall. of any age in the forest 16.000 adult pine trees in the forest c. or ________________ variable. all the adult pine trees taller than 50 feet d. For each of the following examples.

Education. The college you are enrolled in (Arts and science.SQQS1013 Elementary Statistics ________________ c.D. graduates from a statistics program ________________ d. The size of fries (small.) _________________ Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics 17 . medium. _____________________ e. etc. large) ordered by a sample of Burger King customers. Business. The starting salaries of newly Ph.