4G

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4G
In telecommunications, 4G is the fourth generation of mobile phone mobile communication technology standards. It is a successor to the third generation (3G) standards. A 4G system provides mobile ultra-broadband Internet access, for example to laptops with USB wireless modems, to smartphones, and to other mobile devices. Conceivable applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D television, and cloud computing. Two 4G candidate systems are commercially deployed: the Mobile WiMAX standard (first used in South Korea in 2006), and the first-release Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard (in Oslo, Norway and Stockholm, Sweden since 2009). It has however been debated if these first-release versions should be considered to be 4G or not, as discussed in the technical definition section below. In the United States, Sprint (previously Clearwire) has deployed Mobile WiMAX networks since 2008, and MetroPCS was the first operator to offer LTE service in 2010. USB wireless modems have been available since the start, while WiMAX smartphones have been available since 2010, and LTE smartphones since 2011. Equipment made for different continents is not always compatible, because of different frequency bands. Mobile WiMAX is currently (April 2012) not available for the European market.

Technical definition
In March 2008, the International Telecommunications Union-Radio communications sector (ITU-R) specified a set of requirements for 4G standards, named the International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced (IMT-Advanced) specification, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 megabits per second (Mbit/s) for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 gigabit per second (Gbit/s) for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users).[1] Since the first-release versions of Mobile WiMAX and LTE support much less than 1 Gbit/s peak bit rate, they are not fully IMT-Advanced compliant, but are often branded 4G by service providers. On December 6, 2010, ITU-R recognized that these two technologies, as well as other beyond-3G technologies that do not fulfill the IMT-Advanced requirements, could nevertheless be considered "4G", provided they represent forerunners to IMT-Advanced compliant versions and "a substantial level of improvement in performance and capabilities with respect to the initial third generation systems now deployed". Mobile WiMAX Release 2 (also known as WirelessMAN-Advanced or IEEE 802.16m') and LTE Advanced (LTE-A) are IMT-Advanced compliant backwards compatible versions of the above two systems, standardized during the spring 2011,[citation needed] and promising speeds in the order of 1 Gbit/s. Services are expected in 2013. As opposed to earlier generations, a 4G system does not support traditional circuit-switched telephony service, but all-Internet Protocol (IP) based communication such as IP telephony. As seen below, the spread spectrum radio technology used in 3G systems, is abandoned in all 4G candidate systems and replaced by OFDMA multi-carrier transmission and other frequency-domain equalization (FDE) schemes, making it possible to transfer very high bit rates despite extensive multi-path radio propagation (echoes). The peak bit rate is further improved by smart antenna arrays for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications. The term "generation" used to name successive evolutions of radio networks in general is arbitrary. There are several interpretations, and no official definition has been made despite the consensus behind ITU-R's labels. From ITU-R's point of view, 4G is equivalent to IMT-Advanced which has specific performance requirements as explained below. According to operators, a generation of network refers to the deployment of a new non-backward-compatible technology. The end user expects the next generation of network to provide better performance and connectivity than the previous generation. Meanwhile, GSM, UMTS and LTE networks coexist; and end-users will only receive the benefit of the new generation architecture when they simultaneously: use an access device compatible with the new

4G infrastructure, are within range of the new infrastructure, and pay the provider for access to that new infrastructure.

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Background
The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards-compatible transmission technology, higher peak bit rates, new frequency bands, wider channel frequency bandwidth in Hertz, and higher capacity for many simultaneous data transfers (higher system spectral efficiency in bit/second/Hertz/site). New mobile generations have appeared about every ten years since the first move from 1981 analog (1G) to digital (2G) transmission in 1992. This was followed, in 2001, by 3G multi-media support, spread spectrum transmission and at least 200 kbit/s peak bit rate, in 2011/2012 expected to be followed by "real" 4G, which refers to all-Internet Protocol (IP) packet-switched networks giving mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access. While the ITU has adopted recommendations for technologies that would be used for future global communications, they do not actually perform the standardization or development work themselves, instead relying on the work of other standards bodies such as IEEE, The WiMAX Forum and 3GPP. In mid-1990s, the ITU-R standardization organization released the IMT-2000 requirements as a framework for what standards should be considered 3G systems, requiring 200 kbit/s peak bit rate. In 2008, ITU-R specified the IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G systems. The fastest 3G-based standard in the UMTS family is the HSPA+ standard, which is commercially available since 2009 and offers 28 Mbit/s downstream (22 Mbit/s upstream) without MIMO, i.e. only with one antenna, and in 2011 accelerated up to 42 Mbit/s peak bit rate downstream using either DC-HSPA+ (simultaneous use of two 5 MHz UMTS carrier)[2] or 2x2 MIMO. In theory speeds up to 672 Mbit/s is possible, but has not been deployed yet. The fastest 3G-based standard in the CDMA2000 family is the EV-DO Rev. B, which is available since 2010 and offers 15.67 Mbit/s downstream.[citation needed]

IMT-Advanced requirements
This article uses 4G to refer to IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced), as defined by ITU-R. An IMT-Advanced cellular system must fulfill the following requirements:[3] • Be based on an all-IP packet switched network. • Have peak data rates of up to approximately 100 Mbit/s for high mobility such as mobile access and up to approximately 1 Gbit/s for low mobility such as nomadic/local wireless access. • Be able to dynamically share and use the network resources to support more simultaneous users per cell. • Using scalable channel bandwidths of 5–20 MHz, optionally up to 40 MHz.[4][5] • Have peak link spectral efficiency of 15 bit/s/Hz in the downlink, and 6.75 bit/s/Hz in the uplink (meaning that 1 Gbit/s in the downlink should be possible over less than 67 MHz bandwidth). • System spectral efficiency of up to 3 bit/s/Hz/cell in the downlink and 2.25 bit/s/Hz/cell for indoor usage. • Smooth handovers across heterogeneous networks. • The ability to offer high quality of service for next generation multimedia support. In September 2009, the technology proposals were submitted to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as 4G candidates.[6] Basically all proposals are based on two technologies: • LTE Advanced standardized by the 3GPP • 802.16m standardized by the IEEE (i.e. WiMAX) Implementations of Mobile WiMAX and first-release LTE are largely considered a stopgap solution that will offer a considerable boost until WiMAX 2 (based on the 802.16m spec) and LTE Advanced are deployed. The latter's standard versions were ratified in spring 2011, but are still far from being implemented.

A summary of the technologies that have been studied as the basis for LTE Advanced is included in a technical report. as they do not fully comply with the planned requirements of 1 Gbit/s for stationary reception and 100 Mbit/s for mobile. whilst some of the standards are forwards compatible with IMT-2000 compliant versions of the same standards.9G systems as new-generation is that they use different frequency bands from 3G technologies [citation needed]. This upgrade path makes it more cost effective for vendors to offer LTE and then upgrade to LTE Advanced which is similar to the upgrade from WCDMA to HSPA. which is focused on global communication systems that would be available several years from now. LTE Advanced See also: 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) below LTE Advanced (Long Term Evolution Advanced) is a candidate for IMT-Advanced standard. Coordinated Multi-point Transmission will also allow more system capacity to help handle the enhanced data speeds. and that the standards are not backwards compatible with 3G [citation needed]. LTE and LTE Advanced will also make use of additional spectrums and multiplexing to allow it to achieve higher data speeds. commonly referred to as '3. but rather an improvement on the existing LTE network. and expected to be released in 2013. Release 10 of LTE is expected to achieve the IMT Advanced speeds.9G' [citation needed]. ITU-R Working Party 5D approved two industry-developed technologies (LTE Advanced and WirelessMAN-Advanced) for inclusion in the ITU’s International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced program (IMT-Advanced program). The target of 3GPP LTE Advanced is to reach and surpass the ITU requirements. A common argument for branding 3. LTE Advanced was to be standardized in 2010 as part of Release 10 of the 3GPP specification. LTE Advanced will be based on the existing LTE specification Release 10 and will not be defined as a new specification series. LTE Advanced is essentially an enhancement to LTE. which do not follow the ITU-R defined principles for 4G standards [citation needed].[citation needed] 3 Confusion has been caused by some mobile carriers who have launched products advertised as 4G but which according to some sources are pre-4G versions [citation needed]. . that they are based on a new radio-interface paradigm [citation needed] .[citation needed] System standards IMT-2000 compliant 4G standards Recently.4G The first set of 3GPP requirements on LTE Advanced was approved in June 2008. but today can be called 4G according to ITU-R [citation needed]. It is not a new technology. Release 8 currently supports up to 300 Mbit/s of download speeds which is still short of the IMT-Advanced standards. formally submitted by the 3GPP organization to ITU-T in the fall 2009. Some sources consider first-release LTE and Mobile WiMAX implementations as pre-4G or near-4G.

S. The physical radio interface was at an early stage named High Speed OFDM Packet Access (HSOPA).16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced evolution of 802.[7] Forerunner versions 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) See also: LTE Advanced above The pre-4G 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology is often branded "4G-LTE". As of Nov 2012. LTE services were launched by EE in October 2012. KT Telecom closed its 2G service by March 2012. and has offered commercial 4G LTE services since 1 January 2012. The first LTE USB dongles do not support any other radio interface.16e is under development. In the United Kingdom. but the first LTE release does not fully comply with the IMT-Advanced requirements. .8 GHz by June 2012. LTE has a theoretical net bit rate capacity of up to 100 Mbit/s in the downlink and 50 Mbit/s in the uplink if a 20 MHz channel is used — and more if multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO). The user terminals were manufactured by Samsung. i. U. Sprint.16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced The IEEE 802. Verizon Wireless. and T-Mobile US. The world's first publicly available LTE service was opened in the two Scandinavian capitals. AT&T. with the objective to fulfill the IMT-Advanced criteria of 1 Gbit/s for stationary reception and 100 Mbit/s for mobile reception. and branded 4G. slated to go nationwide by 2012. the five publicly available LTE services in the United States are provided by MetroPCS. T-Mobile Hungary launched a public beta test (called friendly user test) on 7 October 2011.4G 4 Data speeds of LTE Advanced LTE Advanced Peak download 1 Gbit/s Peak upload 500 Mbit/s IEEE 802. now named Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). SK Telecom and LG U+ have enabled access to LTE service since 1 July 2011 for data devices. and by O2 and Vodafone in August 2013. and complete the nationwide LTE service in the same frequency around 1. Stockholm (Ericsson and Nokia Siemens Networks systems) and Oslo (a Huawei system) on 14 December 2009. antenna arrays. Cellular. are used.e.[citation needed] Telia-branded Samsung LTE modem In South Korea.

and is also branded 4G. one of the two variants of the LTE air interface technologies. because this is the main source of their future market. is not yet mature. whether this standard advocated by China Mobile will be widely recognized by the international market is still debatable.16e-2005) mobile wireless broadband access (MWBA) standard (also known as WiBro in South Korea) is sometimes branded 4G. but it is China's 4G standard that was amended and published by China's largest telecom operator . and quickly occupied the Chinese market. the world's first commercial mobile WiMAX service was opened by KT in Seoul. While only 8% of the operators are considering the use of WiMAX. South Korea. The above news also confirmed this statement of IBM. Data speeds of WiMAX WiMAX Peak download 128 Mbit/s Peak upload 56 Mbit/s TD-LTE for China market Just when Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and WiMax are vigorously promoting in the global telecommunications industry. Sprint has begun using Mobile WiMAX. is expected to be released into the commercial phase in the next two years . TD-LTE . branding it as a "4G" network even though the current version does not fulfil the IMT Advanced requirements on 4G systems. Belarus and Nicaragua WiMax broadband internet access is offered by a Russian company Scartel. and offers peak data rates of 128 Mbit/s downlink and 56 Mbit/s uplink over 20 MHz wide channels [citation needed]. as of 29 September 2008.China Mobile.4G 5 Data speeds of LTE LTE Peak download 100 Mbit/s Peak upload 50 Mbit/s Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802. After a series of field trials. In Russia. Ericsson will help the hand. the former (LTE) is also the most powerful 4G mobile communications leading technology. but many domestic and international wireless carriers one after another turn to TD-LTE. . by then. In June 2006. IBM's data show that 67% of the operators are considering LTE. WiMax can provide the fastest network transmission to its customers on the market.16e) The Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802. but still could challenge LTE. Ericsson's vice president said: "the Chinese Ministry of Industry and China Mobile in the fourth quarter of this year will hold a large-scale field test. Ulf Ewaldsson." But viewing from the current development trend. Yota. TD-LTE is not the first 4G wireless mobile broadband network data standard.

also known as IEEE 802.8 11.16 WirelessMAN 17 (10 MHz TDD) 46 (20 MHz TDD) 138 (2x20 MHz FDD) WiMax rel 1. High Capacity Spatial Division Multiple Access) was at an early stage considered to be a 4G predecessor.16-2009 . UMB's lead sponsor.20. In November 2008. iBurst and MBWA (IEEE 802. It was later further developed into the Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) system. C) UMB (Ultra Mobile Broadband) was the brand name for a discontinued 4G project within the 3GPP2 standardization group to improve the CDMA2000 mobile phone standard for next generation applications and requirements. Flash-OFDM At an early stage the Flash-OFDM system was expected to be further developed into a 4G standard.5 802. announced it was ending development of the technology. With 2x2 MIMO.4G 6 Discontinued candidate systems UMB (formerly EV-DO Rev. LTE-Advanced update expected to offer peak rates up to 1 Gbit/s fixed speeds and 100 Mb/s to mobile users. Qualcomm.5 22 168 Notes 3GPP Used in 4G CDMA/FDD MIMO HSPA+ is widely deployed.20) systems The iBurst system (or HC-SDMA.Enhanced with 20 MHz channels in 802. LTE 3GPP General 4G OFDMA/MIMO/SC-FDMA 100 Cat3 150 Cat4 300 Cat5 (in 20 MHz FDD) MIMO-SOFDMA 37 (10 MHz TDD) 83 (20 MHz TDD) 141 (2x20 MHz FDD) 50 Cat3/4 75 Cat5 (in 20 MHz FDD) WiMax rel 1 802. Comparison of mobile Internet access methods Common Name HSPA+ Family Primary Use Radio Tech Downstream (Mbit/s) 21 42 84 672 Upstream (Mbit/s) 5. Revision 11 of the 3GPP states that HSPA+ is expected to have a throughput capacity of 672 Mbit/s. favouring LTE instead.16-2009 WirelessMAN MIMO-SOFDMA With 2x2 MIMO. Data rate comparison The following table shows a comparison of the 4G candidate systems as well as other competing technologies.[8] The objective was to achieve data speeds over 275 Mbit/s downstream and over 75 Mbit/s upstream.

B CDMA2000 Mobile Internet CDMA/FDD 2.1 4.11 (11n) OFDM OFDM/MIMO 56.15 1.4 0.8xN Rev B note: N is the number of 1.9xN Notes: All speeds are theoretical maximums and will vary by a number of factors.A EV-DO Rev. Usually the bandwidth is shared between several terminals. 0 EV-DO Rev.45 3. EV-DO is not designed for voice.5 0.6 5. communications on a train may be poorer than when standing still). including the spectral efficiency of the technology.3 10. including the use of external antennae.25 MHz chunks of spectrum used. iBurst 802. throughput and/or spectra [9] efficiency (310 km & [10] 382 km ) Cell Radius: 3–12 km Speed: 250 km/h Spectral Efficiency: 13 bits/s/Hz/cell Spectrum Reuse Factor: "1" 3GPP Release 7 HSDPA is widely deployed. low mobility users can aggregate multiple channels to get a download throughput of up to 1 Gbit/s Flash-OFDM Flash-OFDM Mobile Internet mobility up to 200 mph (350 km/h) Mobile Internet Mobile Internet Flash-OFDM Mobile range 30 km (18 miles) extended range 55 km (34 miles) HIPERMAN Wi-Fi HIPERMAN 802. and .76 UMTS UMTS/3GSM General 3G W-CDMA HSDPA+HSUPA UMTS-TDD UMTS/3GSM Mobile Internet CDMA/TDD 16 EV-DO Rel. Typical downlink rates today 2 Mbit/s.9 288.384 14. RF front end enhancements and minor protocol timer tweaks have helped deploy long range P2P networks compromising on radial coverage.8 1.8 3.6 0. and requires a fallback to 1xRTT when a voice call is placed or received.6 15.4 Also.20 Mobile Internet HC-SDMA/TDD/MIMO 95 36 EDGE Evolution GSM Mobile Internet TDMA/FDD CDMA/FDD CDMA/FDD/MIMO 1. The performance of each technology is determined by a number of constraints.g. ~200 kbit/s uplink. distance from the tower and the ground speed (e.16m WirelessMAN MIMO-SOFDMA 2x2 MIMO 110 (20 MHz TDD) 183 (2x20 MHz FDD) 4x4 MIMO 219 (20 MHz TDD) 365 (2x20 MHz FDD) 5. HSPA+ downlink up to 56 Mbit/s.8 (using 4x4 configuration in 20 MHz bandwidth) or 600 (using 4x4 configuration in 40 MHz bandwidth) Antenna.4G 7 WiMAX rel 2 802. the cell sizes used.384 5.9 2x2 MIMO 70 (20 MHz TDD) 188 (2x20 MHz FDD) 4x4 MIMO 140 (20 MHz TDD) 376 (2x20 MHz FDD) 1. Reported speeds according [11] to IPWireless using 16QAM modulation similar to HSDPA+HSUPA 0.

Single-carrier FDMA is used for the uplink since OFDMA contributes more to the PAPR related issues and results in nonlinear operation of amplifiers. For the LTE (telecommunication). Apart from this. They also make it possible to control the bandwidth and form the spectrum in a flexible way. For more comparison tables. new access schemes like Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA). For more information. also known as cooperative relaying. OFDMA is used for the downlink. These access schemes offer the same efficiencies as older technologies like CDMA. IEEE 802. see Comparison of wireless data standards. a.k. However. IFDMA provides less power fluctuation and thus requires energy-inefficient linear amplifiers. 4G systems do not support circuit switched telephony. Interleaved FDMA. resulting in a lower number of multiplications per second.20. Recently. they require advanced dynamic channel allocation and adaptive traffic scheduling. see bit rate progress trends. for example (OFDMA) or (single-carrier FDMA) (SC-FDMA. While Spectrum is considered finite.a. spectral efficiency comparison table and OFDM system comparison table. . linearly precoded OFDMA. The other important advantage of the above-mentioned access techniques is that they require less complexity for equalization at the receiver.20 standard. Cooper's Law has shown that we have developed more efficient ways of using spectrum just as the Moore's law has show our ability to increase processing. Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA). Similarly. LP-OFDMA) in the uplink: Variable bit rate by assigning different sub-channels to different users based on the channel conditions • Turbo principle error-correcting codes: To minimize the required SNR at the reception side Channel-dependent scheduling: To use the time-varying channel Link adaptation: Adaptive modulation and error-correcting codes Mobile-IP utilized for mobility IP-based femtocells (home nodes connected to fixed Internet broadband infrastructure) • • • • As opposed to earlier generations. comparison of mobile phone standards.4G the amount of spectrum available. MC-CDMA is in the proposal for the IEEE 802. UMB and OFDM standards lack soft-handover support. frequency or time as the basis of multiplexing the spectrum more efficiently. 8 Principal technologies in all candidate systems Key features The following key features can be observed in all suggested 4G technologies: • Physical layer transmission techniques are as follows: • MIMO: To attain ultra high spectral efficiency by means of spatial processing including multi-antenna and multi-user MIMO • Frequency-domain-equalization. and Multi-carrier CDMA (MC-CDMA) are gaining more importance for the next generation systems. Multiplexing and access schemes The Migration to 4G standards incorporates elements of many early technologies and many solutions use code (a cypher). WiMax is using OFDMA in the downlink and in the uplink. This is an added advantage especially in the MIMO environments since the spatial multiplexing transmission of MIMO systems inherently require high complexity equalization at the receiver. for example multi-carrier modulation (OFDM) in the downlink or single-carrier frequency-domain-equalization (SC-FDE) in the uplink: To exploit the frequency selective channel property without complex equalization • Frequency-domain statistical multiplexing. scalability and higher data rates can be achieved. These are based on efficient FFT algorithms and frequency domain equalization. by contrast.

This technology. spatial multiplexing. in the context of 4G. Verizon has posted specifications IPv6. As of June 2009[12]. termed smart or intelligent antenna. In 4G systems. although NAT will still be required to communicate with devices that are on existing IPv4 networks. the circuit-switched infrastructure is abandoned and only a packet-switched network is provided. many transmission schemes were proposed. By increasing the number of IP addresses available.5G and 3G . Recently. This can be efficiently realized using SDR technology. Both transmit/receive diversity and transmit spatial multiplexing are categorized into the space-time coding techniques. the process of IPv4 address exhaustion was expected to be in its final stages. One technology. In the early 1990s. This will require low-latency data transmission. which is based on two parallel infrastructures consisting of circuit switched and packet switched network nodes. and long range communications. gained importance for its bandwidth conservation and power efficiency. Therefore. to cater for the growing data rate needs of data communication. and circuit switched nodes for voice calls. The other category is closed-loop multiple antenna technologies. supporting multiple wireless air interfaces in an open architecture platform. eliminating the spoke-and-hub weakness of 2G and 3G cellular systems. Apart from this. Spatial multiplexing involves deploying multiple antennas at the transmitter and at the receiver. and believed at an early stage in peer-to-peer networking in which every mobile device would be both a transceiver and a router for other devices in the network. IPv6 removes the need for network address translation (NAT).Wikipedia:Citing sources Since the 2. Since 4G is a collection of wireless standards. the reliability in transmitting high speed data in the fading channel can be improved by using more antennas at the transmitter or at the receiver.[citation needed] The DARPA selected the distributed architecture and end-to-end Internet protocol (IP). which require channel knowledge at the transmitter. 9 IPv6 support Unlike 3G. which is categorized to the area of the radio convergence. more efficient systems such as 64QAM are being proposed for use with the 3GPP Long Term Evolution standards.4G In addition to improvements in these multiplexing systems. cellular systems have provided dual infrastructures: packet switched nodes for data services. while 2. high reliability. 4G will be based on packet switching only.5G GPRS system. Whereas earlier standards largely used Phase-shift keying. This is called transmit or receive diversity. the final form of a 4G device will constitute various standards. SDR is one form of open wireless architecture (OWA). multiplies the base data rate by (the smaller of) the number of transmit antennas or the number of receive antennas. improved modulation techniques are being used. Independent streams can then be transmitted simultaneously from all the antennas. By the time that 4G was deployed. IPv6 is essential to support a large number of wireless-enabled devices. [13] that require any 4G devices on its network to support Advanced antenna systems The performance of radio communications depends on an antenna system. Open-wireless Architecture and Software-defined radio (SDR) One of the key technologies for 4G and beyond is called Open Wireless Architecture (OWA). History of 4G and pre-4G technologies The 4G system was originally envisioned by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). multiple antenna technologies are emerging to achieve the goal of 4G systems such as high rate. called MIMO (as a branch of intelligent antenna). a method of sharing a limited number of addresses among a larger group of devices. which does not necessarily require the channel knowledge at the transmitter.

[16] • On 12 November 2008. South Korea. Both of these companies have stated their intention of supporting LTE.S. • In January 2008. Introductory tests showed a TCP throughput of 42. EU commissioner Viviane Reding suggested re-allocation of 500–800 MHz spectrum for wireless communication. Imagine. Google. South Korea. ITU-R established the detailed performance requirements of IMT-Advanced. Lithuania's LRTC announcing the first operational "4G" mobile WiMAX network in Baltic states. Sprint merged its Xohm WiMAX division with Clearwire to form a company which will take the name "Clear". HTC announced the first WiMAX-enabled mobile phone. TeliaSonera branded the network "4G". just after receiving the circular letter. which offers 4G in the country. Comcast. the first commercial LTE deployment was in the Scandinavian capitals Stockholm and Oslo by the Swedish-Finnish network operator TeliaSonera and its Norwegian brandname NetCom (Norway). OFDMA transmission technology is chosen as candidate for the HSOPA downlink.69 billion in real terms[14]). Skyworks Solutions released a front-end module for e-UTRAN. the biggest share of the spectrum went to Verizon Wireless and the next biggest to AT&T. and 1 Gbit/s while stationary. • On 14 December 2009. San Miguel Corporation. • On 3 March 2009. KT demonstrated mobile WiMAX service in Busan. the Japanese company NTT DoCoMo tested a 4G communication system prototype with 4×4 MIMO called VSF-OFCDM at 100 Mbit/s while moving. NTT DoCoMo completed a trial in which they reached a maximum packet transmission rate of approximately 5 Gbit/s in the downlink with 12×12 MIMO using a 100 MHz frequency bandwidth while moving at 10 km/h. an evolution of current LTE standard. Norway and Finland. • In mid-2006. • In September 2007. • In April 2006. by issuing a Circular Letter calling for candidate Radio Access Technologies (RATs) for IMT-Advanced.4G systems require both packet-switched and circuit-switched network nodes.[17] Around the same time Globe Telecom rolled out the first WiMAX service in the Philippines. LG and Nortel demonstrated e-UTRA data rates of 50 Mbit/s while travelling at 110 km/h. i. the largest food and beverage conglomeratein southeast Asia. and Time Warner announced a pooling of an average of 120 MHz of spectrum. The modem devices on offer were manufactured by Samsung (dongle GT-B3710).[15] • In April 2008. The joint-venture formed wi-tribe Philippines. and single-in-single-out. Sprint announced that it would invest about US$5 billion in a WiMAX technology buildout over the next few years ($5. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) spectrum auction for the 700 MHz former analog TV frequencies began. and the network infrastructure created by Huawei (in Oslo) and Ericsson (in Stockholm). • In 2002. will meet or even exceed IMT-Advanced requirements following the ITU-R agenda. • On 15 February 2008. NTT Docomo demonstrated e-UTRA data rates of 200 Mbit/s with power consumption below 100 mW during the test. has signed a memorandum of understanding with Qatar Telecom QSC (Qtel) to build wireless broadband and mobile communications projects in the Philippines. the 3GPP organized a workshop on IMT-Advanced where it was decided that LTE Advanced. • In April 2008. • In November 2008. KT started the world's first commercial mobile WiMAX service in Seoul. despite average download speeds of only 3–6 Mbit/s with peak speeds of 10 Mbit/s (not available in all markets). • In 2005. As a result. the strategic vision for 4G—which ITU designated as IMT-Advanced—was laid out. and is planning on releasing the first commercial network in 2010. which should provide physical layer net bitrates of up to 50 Mbit/s downlink and 25 Mbit/s in the uplink. • In December 2009.[18] TeliaSonera used spectral bandwidth of 10 MHz. a U. Since that time Sprint has faced many setbacks that have resulted in steep quarterly losses. including WiMAX. • In November 2005. traditional voice calls are replaced by IP telephony. Intel.e. • In January 2008. two infrastructures in parallel. later renamed 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) air interface E-UTRA. Sprint began advertising "4G" service in selected cities in the United States. TeliaSonera plans to roll out nationwide LTE across Sweden. On 7 May 2008.8 Mbit/s 10 . Bright House. the Max 4G • In 15 December 2008. • In February 2007. This means that in 4G. Sprint.

all three Saudi telecom companies STC.S. Sprint released the first WiMAX smartphone in the US. 2011.1780 MHz for the urban population and in 794-799/835-840 MHz for those sparsely populated Deployment plans Afghanistan Telecom giant Etisalat Afghanistan. . Uzbekistan's MTS deployed LTE in Tashkent.[22] On 28 April 2011. Vodacom (Vodafone South Africa) became the first operator in South Africa to launch a commercial LTE service. Bharti Airtel launched 4G LTE in Kolkata. Ericsson demonstrated mobile-TV over LTE. VivaCell-MTS launches in Armenia a 4G/LTE commercial test network with a live demo conducted in Yerevan. 4G LTE was launched on December 26. 2010. WiMax and similar "evolved 3G technologies" could be considered "4G". first in India. the HTC Thunderbolt offered by Verizon in the U. Mobily and Zain announced that they will offer 4G LTE for USB modem dongles. 2012 in the entire territory in the frequency bands 1865-1885/1760 . • On 10 April 2012. at the ITU World Radiocommunication Seminar 2010. In 2011.[20] On 25 August 2010. Africa Safaricom. Argentina's Claro launched a 4G HSPA+ network in the country. Michael Joseph. the Samsung Galaxy Craft offered by MetroPCS is the first commercially available LTE smartphone[21] On 6 December 2010. regarded their 3G network as a white elephant. Estonia's EMT opened LTE "4G" network working in test regime. utilizing the new eMBMS service (enhanced Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service). Telcel launches in Mexico the 4G LTE network in 9 major cities • In Kazakhstan. On 4 June 2010. Azerbaijan's biggest mobile operator Azercell launched 4G LTE. Latvia's LMT opened LTE "4G" network working in test regime 50% of territory.3 Mbit/s uplink in Stockholm. In September 2011. On November 4.75G services in Afghanistan on 19th Feb. • In February 2012. began its setup of a 4G network in October 2010 after the now retired Kenya Tourist Board Chairman. with further development for phones by 2013. the ITU stated that LTE. • On 31 January 2012. 2013 announced the commencement of test of its Long-term Evolution (LTE) 4G mobile network. Thailand's AIS and its subsidiaries DPC under cooperation with CAT Telecom for 1800 MHz frequency band and TOT for 2300 MHz frequency band launched the first field trial LTE in Thailand with authorization from NBTC. was the second LTE smartphone to be sold commercially. • On 20 May 2012. 11 • • • • • • • • • • • • On March 17. a telecommunication company in East& Central Africa. Huawei was given the contract and the network is set to go fully commercial by the end of Q1 of 2011 but was yet to establish the network by the end of 2012.[19] On 25 February 2010. Lithuania's Omnitel opened a LTE "4G" network working in the 5 largest cities. Thailand's Truemove-H launched a 4G HSPA+ network with nation-wide availability. In 2011. the first telecom company to launch 3. On 12 December 2010. In July 2010. the HTC Evo 4G. • On 10 October 2012.4G downlink and 5. • In December 2012.

Telstra and Optus are expected to participate in both. while Vodafone has stated it will only participate in the 2600 MHz auction. extending to Montpellier. Samsung Galaxy S III.[23] Telstra launched the country's first 4G network (FD-LTE) in September 2011 claiming "2–100 Mbps" speeds and announced an "aggressive" expansion of that network in 2012. in Kolkata on April 10. It must be noted that Airtel's 4G network does not support mainstream 4G phones such as Apple iPhone 5. France On 22 November 2012. that it intends to upgrade its current Next G network to 4G with Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology in the central business districts of all Australian capital cities and selected regional centers by the end of 2011. including 100 high-priority markets. Mumbai and Kolkata and expand to cover 700 cities. on 29 November 2012. India Bharti Airtel launched India's first 4G service. have announced that they will be cooperating towards building a fourth generation (4G) LTE wireless broadband network in Canada. Belgium's largest telecom operator Belgacom announced the roll out of the country's first 4G network. they are implementing 3G UMTS network that went live in November 2009.[26] Canada Telus and Bell Canada. Spain and they signed the commitment towards TD-LTE standards for the Asian region. Bharti Airtel and SoftBank Mobile came together. Mohali and Panchkula. Pune and Chandigarh region (The Tricity or Chandigarh region consists of a major city Chandigarh. a group consisting of China Mobile. • RIL is launching 4G services through its subsidiary. Lyon. As a transitional measure. called Global TD-LTE Initiative (GTI) in Barcelona. Bangalore. where it is testing the new TD-LTE technology.3 GHz band for 4G TD-LTE after acquiring Vivid Wireless in 2012 Vodafone Australia have indicated their roll out of 4G FD-LTE will use 20 MHz bandwidth and initially support Cat 3 devices at launch. Optus have established a 4G (FD-LTE) network using 10 MHz (out of 15 MHz available) bandwidth in the 1800 MHz band and added the 2. using TD-LTE technology. then quickly move to support Cat 4 devices. RIL 4G services are currently available only in Jamnagar. Brazil’s telecoms regulator Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (Anatel) announced that the 6 host cities for the 2013 Confederations Cup to be held there will be the first to have their networks upgraded to 4G. It was the first 4G commercial launch in France.4G Australia Telstra announced on 15 February 2011. the major Canadian cdmaOne and EV-DO carriers. Lille and Nantes.[25] Brazil On 27 April 2012. SFR launched 4G in Lyon. Fourteen months prior to the official launch in Kolkata. Nokia Lumia 920 and others. Orange launched the first 4G business plan in Marseille. Then. Jio Infocomm. Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) will auction 700 MHz "Digital Dividend" and 2600 MHz spectrum for the provision of 4G FD-LTE services in April 2013. Telstra will use a mixture of 10 MHz and 15 MHz bandwidth in the 1800 MHz band.[24] On 3 July 2012 it confirmed the outroll in 5 major cities and announced the commercial launch to take place before the end of 2012. 12 . RIL 4G rollout is planned to start in Delhi. • Airtel 4G services are available in Kolkata. 2012. Belgium On 28 June 2011.

Courmayeur. Baldissero Torinese. • Wind: 4G services will be available in the second half of 2013. Milano. Bergamo. Ancona. Qtel. Milan. announced their 4G LTE networks to be ready after months of testing and evaluations. Milazzo. 2012 only few areas have been covered.On November 15. an Irish wired and wireless broadband company. This service will be issued the mobile code 088 in Ireland and will be used for the provision of 4G mobile communications. Golfo Aranci. Casavatore. Carano. Porto Cervo . Venice. Apple iPhone 5s supports the TD LTE 40 band but its yet to be launched in India. Ivrea. • 3 Italia: Rome. Padova.4G India uses the TD LTE frequency #40 (2. announced that they had received a mobile communications license from the Irish telecoms regulator ComReg. Eircom launched their 4G network through Meteor and eMobile on 26th September 2013 Italy Since the first half of December 2012 all of Italy's ISP have been offering or have plans to offer 4G services in some cities: • TIM: Rome. [29] Mobily of Saudi Arabia. Naples. Serrara Fontana. Alfa and Touch in Lebanon. Trento. O2 Ireland. Alghero. 900 MHz and 1800 MHz bands in Ireland from 2013 to 2030. Bologna. 2012 the Commission for Communications Regulation (ComReg) announced the results of its multi-band spectrum auction. Bormio. Canazei.3 GHz). Scalea. Porto Pollo. Vicenza. All of the winning bidders in the auction have indicated that they intend to move rapidly to deploy advanced services. Pietra Ligure. Taranto.[citation needed] In 2012. Predazzo.[citation needed] In February 2013. The winners of spectrum were 3. Riccione. Frattaminore. Villasimius. Genoa. eMobile and 3 Ireland to launch services. Cortina d'Ampezzo. Udine. Pisa. Genoa. In December 2011. San Teodoro. Montoggio.Arzachena. And 4G LTE was officially launched in April 2013. Ischia. In May 2005. Noventa Padovana. Brindisi. Bari. Sesto San Giovanni.[27][28] Digiweb launched a mobile broadband network using FLASH-OFDM technology at 872 MHz. Kazakhstan By the end of 2012 the national telecommunication operator JSC Kazakhtelecom launched 4G services in both Astana and Almaty. Crispano. Gallipoli. Forte dei Marmi. In April 2013. Pisa. Pietrasanta. Taranto. Como. O2 Ireland and Vodafone. Sorrento. Treviso. Padova. Madonna Di Campiglio. Villabate. Meteor. Catania. Oman's Nawras launched 4G LTE commercially. It is expected that by the end of 2013 the service will be available across the whole country. Torino. Barano d'Ischia. Milan. 13 . Santa Margherita Ligure. Prato. San Mauro Torinese. Capri. Cortina D'Ampezzo. Cervia.[citation needed] As of May. Naples. Pozzuoli. Forlì. Reggio Calabria. Torino. Digiweb. La Maddalena. Alassio. (now called Ooredoo) is set to launch its 4G LTE commercially in Qatar. announced their 4G LTE networks to be ready after months of testing and evaluations. Vieste. Livorno. Modena. Acuto. Verona. This auction awarded spectrum rights of use in the 800 MHz. Frattamaggiore. Cagliari. Novate Milanese. Tesero. Giardini di Naxos. Trento. Palermo. Milan. UAE's Etisalat announced the commercial launch of 4G LTE services covering over 70% of country's urban areas. • Vodafone: Rome. Palau. Meteor. Orbassano.[citation needed] Middle East In mid September 2011. Ireland 4G is expected to launch in Ireland by the end of 2013 with Vodafone Ireland. Palermo. Perugia. Cavalese. Catanzaro. Selva Di Val Gardena.

Wanaka. Tele2 will stay a MVNO (i. will probably never reach a nationwide coverage. the first 4G network was introduced in parts of Auckland by Vodafone NZ on 28 February 2013. with plans to launch the service in Wellington and Christchurch by Christmas 2013. Vodafone has launched the 4G network in August 2013. KPN will be the first network provider that has deployed a nationwide 4G network in the Netherlands.6 GHz LTE network would be required to meet regulatory requirements.[32] A small village by Lake Brunner on the West Coast with only 250 people. Christchurch. and New Plymouth. Expectations are that both KPN and Vodafone will reach nationwide coverage in 2014. Telecom NZ announced plans to launch a commercial 4G service on its network starting in parts of Auckland in October 2013. Tele2 will buy network capacity) on the T-Mobile network for 2G/3G Services and a MVNO on the KPN network for 2G/3G Business Services (previously Versatel). because they are using site/antenna-sharing.[34] .e.8 MHz 2x19.[31] Tele2 will launch there network probably in the same time as T-Mobile. Taupo. [citation needed] After the multiband spectrum auction the frequency allocation in the Netherlands is as follows: Frequency E-UTRA Band Type of LTE 800 MHz 900 MHz 1800 MHz 1900 MHz 2100 MHz 2600 MHz XX (20) VIII (8) III (3) XXXIII (33) I (1) VII (7) XXXVIII (38) FDD FDD FDD TDD FDD FDD TDD KPN 2x10 MHz 2x10 MHz 2x20 MHz 1x5 MHz Vodafone 2x10 MHz 2x10 MHz 2x20 MHz 1x5.[33] 2degrees has also announced it's plans to launch a 4G service in 2014 after securing an overdraft of NZD165million from the Bank of New Zealand in June 2013. T-Mobile and Tele2..6 MHz 2×10 MHz 1×30 MHz 2x10 MHz - New Zealand In New Zealand. as is the case with their existing 2G and 3G networks.4G The Netherlands After the multiband spectrum auction in Q4-2012 KPN announced that the deployment of 4G services would start in February 2013 and that nationwide coverage will be available in Q1 2014. Moana. Coverage has since expanded to parts of Palmerston North.4 MHz 2x15 MHz 2x30 MHz 1x24. As of Q1 2014. Wellington. Network operator ZUM's plans remain unknown. This is part of a test of rural broadband services in the 700 MHz range.6 MHz 2x20 MHz 2x5 MHz 1x25 MHz 2x20 MHz 1x5 MHz 2x20 MHz T-Mobile Tele2 2x10 MHz ZUM 14 2x19. only a small 2.[30] while T-Mobile announced only a roll-out in Q4 of 2013. being lower-budget providers. got 4G broadband in May 2013. Queenstown.

Davao. services will use 1800Mhz and 2600 MHz spectrum and will offer download speeds of up to 150Mbit/s and upload speeds of 50Mbit/s. Palma de Mallorca in the Balearic Islands and Las Palmas in the Canary Islands — will be live by the end of 2013. 15 . Pakistan's Telenor (telecom operator) start upgrading its network for 4G operations. On 25 October 2012. Valencia. announced the auction of 4G operators in Pakistan. Swedish television companies used 4G to broadcast live television from the Swedish Crown Princess' Royal Wedding. Alicante. SMART Communications was the first to roll out the fastest 4G LTE in the country (Philippines). Plus (Polkomtel) launched 4G commercially in Poland.700 4G LTE network sites. La Coruña. download speed was increased to 150 Mbit/s. The download speed was up to 100 Mbit/s. Zaragoza. Arad and Timisoara. Iasi. Brasov. Seville. Malaga and Murcia. In June 2010. In September. and in several Swedish. Globe has completed over 2. 4G is available in Spain thanks to Vodafone 4G.[citation needed] Romania On 31 October 2012. Scandinavia TeliaSonera started deploying LTE (branded "4G") in Stockholm and Oslo November 2009 (as seen above).[35] and in 2013. Vodafone has launched 4G tests. Bacau. Globe [37] has launched its 4th Generation Long-Term Evolution (4G LTE) network for mobile and broadband. Barcelona.4G Pakistan On 27 March 2011. and other select regions. To date. with the number expected to rise to over 4000 by the end of 2012. It uses 1800 MHz spectrum. the government of Pakistan. simultaneously in six of the country's largest cities: Madrid. Valladolid and Vigo on the mainland. As more key activations are completed in the coming months. Now 4G connectivity is available in several cities: Otopeni. Yoigo announced its service. A further nine cities — Bilbao. Constanta. Galati.[38] Russian Federation Several national cell operators have launched LTE networks in 2012. Spain Since 30 May 2013. Cordoba. Craiova. which will use the 1800 MHz band and offer speeds up to 100Mbit/s. Cebu. On 7 July 2013. 2013.[36] Phillippines As part of its massive network upgrade. Cluj-Napoca. Globe launched its 4G LTE network covering key commercial as well as residential areas in Makati. Norwegian. Poland On 31 August 2011. while upload speed was up to 50 Mbit/s. Telenor announced that it is ready to launch country's first 4G network. and will first be launched in Madrid on July 19. On May 13th. According to the company. Globe subscribers will soon enjoy best-in-class mobile and broadband services across the Philippines. Orange announced it will launch its 4G network on 8 July. with more sites following shortly in Manila. On May 9. and Finnish cities during 2010. Over 900 sites served nationwide with partner establishments.

The following frequency range is in service for LTE. 2013. 800 MHz. .02. . In December 2011 after the LTE field experiment in Grenchen has become a success the company used the 1. with the goal of having the highest mobile phone market share by 2012. Sri Lanka On December 30. After the multiband spectrum auction (06. Leukerbad. Since the beginning of July 2013 Swisscom prepaid customers are able to enter the LTE network. 2012. Dialog Axiata launched South Asia's first FD-LTE service in Sri Lanka. (E-UTRA Bands 20. Saas-Fee and St.[41] Switzerland In September 2010 Swisscom tested LTE in Grenchen by using the 2. Gstaad. 3 und 7) Orange LTE offers up to 100 Mbp/s. (E-UTRA Bands 20. South Korea announced plans to spend 60 billion won.22.8 GHz frequency (E-UTRA Band 3) for further testing in Grindelwald. As of the upgrade the maximum speed has become 150 Mbit/s.4G South Korea On July 7. According to Swisscom Canada and Hong Hong are the next countries where customers of the former state-owned company will be able to use LTE roaming.02. Montana.2012 ) the frequency allocation in Switzerland is as follows: Frequency E-UTRA Band Bandwidth Type of LTE Swisscom 800 MHz 900 MHz XX (20) VIII (8) 2×30 MHz 2×35 MHz 2×75 MHz 2×60 MHz 2×70 MHz 1×50 MHz FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD TDD Sunrise Orange 16 2x10 MHz 2x10 MHz 2x10 MHz 2x15 MHz 2x15 MHz 2x5 MHz 2x30 MHz 2x20 MHz 2x25 MHz 2x30 MHz 2x10 MHz 2x20 MHz 2x20 MHz 2x25 MHz 2x20 MHz 1x45 MHz - 1800 MHz III (3) 2100 MHz I (1) 2600 MHz VII (7) XXXVIII (38) Swisscom announced on 29 November 2012 commercial service of its category 3 LTE network with maximum speed of 100 Mbit/s. Dialog Broadband Networks Launched Sri Lanka's first fixed TD-LTE service. 1800 MHz and 1800 MHz. 2008. Since the 21 of June 2013 customers of Swisscom are able to use LTE network of the South Korean operators SK Telecom and KT. Moritz/Celerina. 3 und 7) Prepaid customers of Sunrise are able to use LTE with maximum network speed .even MVNO customer. Orange started LTE on 28 May 2013.6 GHz frequency (E-UTRA Band 7). (E-UTRA Bands 20. Maximum speed depends on the subscribed plan. The second largest operator was the first who introduced prepaid LTE in Switerland. 800 MHz.000. Mobitel launched FD-LTE service in Sri Lanka. 1800 MHz and 1800 MHz. 800 MHz. The company will upgrade the maximum speed up to 150 Mbp/s at the end of 2013. Sunrise was the last operator in Switerland who introduced LTE. and the hope of becoming an international standard. The following frequency range is in service for LTE.[39] On April 2. The smallest operator in Switzerland offers speed up to 100 Mbit/s.[40] On June 2. on developing 4G and even 5G technologies. or US$58. 1800 MHz and 1800 MHz. 2013. The following frequency range is in service for LTE. Commercial service is available as of 19 June 2013. 3 und 7) In May 2013 Swisscom upgraded its LTE network from category 3 to category 4. International LTE Roaming: Swisscom is the first European operator which offers international LTE Roaming.000.

800 MHz band to launch fourth-generation (4G) mobile services. Verizon Wireless announced plans for a joint effort with the Vodafone Group to transition its networks to the 4G standard LTE. the owner of the Orange and T-Mobile networks. Negotiation on refarming part of the band is ongoing. 3 will launch their 4G network in December 2013. UK Broadband launched the first commercial 4G LTE service in the UK in the London Borough of Southwark.[43] As part of Ofcom's approval of the company's roll-out of 4G it was announced on August 22 that 3 had acquired part of EE's 1. On 20 February 2013. Sprint offers a 3G/4G connection plan. the winners of the 4G spectrum auction were announced by Ofcom. In October 2012.800 MHz spectrum for part of their own 4G network.3 GHz spectrum is currently held by TOT Corp. initially in 11 cities. and cover[citation needed] the existing 3G network by the end of 2013. On July 9. 2013. providing information on the upcoming auction and the consumer benefits that new services will deliver. EE. On December 9. United States On September 20. to use its existing bandwidth in the 1. Ofcom announced that mobile network operators would be allowed to repurpose their existing 2G and 3G spectrum. and is supposed to complete a rollout of 175 cities by the end of 2011. Abica Limited. It also launched a new 4G consumer page. has chosen to migrate toward LTE 17 . The 1. Since then. 2007.8 GHz will be available for auction around the 4th quarter of 2014 when the license for GSM service on the spectrum will expire. Verizon Wireless has said that they will start their roll out by the end of 2010. a state enterprise. 1.8 GHz and 2. Both O2 and Vodafone launched their 4G networks on August 29. 2013. along with Verizon Wireless. It delivers rates up to 10 Mbit/s.[citation needed] Real Future has launched Thailand's First commercial 4G LTE service on 8 May 2013 using 2100 MHz Band I. O2. The 4G service from EE was announced on September 11. the United Kingdom's regulator Ofcom allowed EE. 2012 and launched on October 30.[citation needed] Turkmenistan In 18 September 2013 the national telecommunication operator TM Cell launched 4G services in Turkmenistan. 2012. currentlyWikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers#Chronological items available in select cities in the United States. 2008. two thirds of the US population by mid-2012. specifically in the 900. On November 12. were awarded spectrum along with Niche Spectrum Ventures Ltd (a subsidiary of BT Group plc). Vodafone and 3. AT&T. 2012. for 4G services. The four major networks.600 MHz band. announced they were to trial 4G LTE services for high speed M2M applications. On February 29.3 GHz spectrum for 4G services. Sprint has also launched an LTE network in early 2012. On August 21. Ofcom auctioned off the UK-wide 4G spectrum previously used by the country's analogue television signals in the 800 MHz band as well as in the 2. Verizon Wireless has announcedWikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers#Chronological items that it plans to augment its CDMA2000-based EV-DO 3G network in the United States with LTE. with Huawei installing LTE technology in six masts across the town to allow testing of HD video conferencing and mobile PlayStation games. MVNO. Verizon Wireless announced their intentions to build and roll out an LTE network by the end of 2009.100 MHz bands. The network aims to cover 70% of the UK by 2013 and 98% by 2014.4G Thailand Thailand National Broadcasting & Telecommunications Commission (NBTC) has earmarked 1.800 and 2. 2012 Ofcom published final regulations and a timetable for the 4G mobile spectrum auction.[42] United Kingdom In the United Kingdom O2 (a subsidiary of Telefónica Europe) used Slough for testing the 4G network. The 2.

It was the first US carrier to offer a WiMAX phone.[44] 18 Beyond 4G research A major issue in 4G systems is to make the high bit rates available in a larger portion of the cell. These access technologies can be Wi-Fi. com/ home/ technology/ 3gpp-newsletter/ 2009-12-the-way-of-lte-towards-4g) [7] (http:/ / www. December 15. minneapolisfed. IEEE 802.S. September 2008 (http:/ / cp. regardless of devices. Retrieved March 31. aspx?ID=1& a_id=748) San Miguel Corporation.4G from 2G/GSM and 3G/HSPA by 2011. verizon. reuters. pdf) [6] Nomor Research Newsletter: The way of LTE towards 4G (http:/ / www.[45] Pervasive networks are an amorphous and at present entirely hypothetical concept where the user can be simultaneously connected to several wireless access technologies and can seamlessly move between them (See vertical handoff. literature. (2010.” November 2008. cfm). In June 2010 the FCC released a comprehensive white paper which indicates that the 10 MHz of dedicated spectrum currently allocated from the 1700 MHz spectrum for public safety will provide adequate capacity and performance necessary for normal communications as well as serious emergency situations. especially to users in an exposed position in between several base stations. archive. pdf). 2013. 2008-04-20 [8] Qualcomm halts UMB project (http:/ / www. Circular letter. archive. "IMT-Advanced: 4G Wireless Takes Shape in an Olympic Year". com/ index. com. php/ en/ news-a-events/ global-press-releases/ 948-worlds-longest-wi-fi-connection-made-by-the-swedish-space-corporation [10] http:/ / www. eslared. ipwireless. 2008 .21). [4] ITU-R. J. agilent. Agilent Measurement Journal. org/ blog/ 62-commercial-networks-support-dc-hspa-drives-hspa-investments) LteWorld Feb 07. References [1] ITU global standard for international mobile telecommunications ´IMT-Advanced´ (http:/ / wirelessman. The U.2134. [16] Nortel and LG Electronics Demo LTE at CTIA and with High Vehicle Speeds :: Wireless-Watch Community (http:/ / web. pdf) The Draft IEEE 802.16m System Description Document. Included in this concept is also smart-radio (also known as cognitive radio) technology to efficiently manage spectrum use and transmission power as well as the use of mesh routing protocols to create a pervasive network. Approved in Nov 2008 [5] Moray Rumney. php?title=4G& action=edit [13] https:/ / www22. and also by Beam-Division Multiple Access (BDMA). Everything you need to know about 4G Wireless Technology. org/ web/ 20090218064947/ http:/ / sanmiguel. org. [2] 62 commercial networks support DC-HSPA+. ITU-R March 2008.archive. ieee802. TechSpot. this issue is addressed by macro-diversity techniques. Sprint had deployed WiMAX technology which it has labeled 4G as of October 2008. pdf [11] http:/ / www. ve/ articulos/ Long%20Distance%20WiFi%20Trial. org/ w/ index. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. 2134-2008/ en). com/ 2008/ 04/ 06/ nortel-and-lg-electronics-demo-lte-at-ctia-and-with-high-vehicle-speeds/ ) (Access through web. “Requirements related to technical performance for IMT-Advanced radio interface(s). nomor-research. com/ litweb/ pdf/ 5989-9793EN. ph/ Articles. org/ 16/ tgm/ docs/ 80216m-08_003r1. UMTS. itu. April 29). org/ liaison/ docs/ L80216-08_008. 2012 [3] Vilches.2134. int/ pub/ R-REP-M. org/ community_education/ teacher/ calc/ hist1800. November 13th. 2008 [9] http:/ / www. drives HSPA investments (http:/ / lteworld. In current research. also known as group cooperative relay. Reuters. or any other future access technology. com/ opendev/ Forum/ LTE_Document_Archives. Requirements related to technical performance for IMT-Advanced radio interface(s) (http:/ / www. com/ article/ marketsNews/ idUSN1335969420081113?rpc=401& ). alvarion. com/ technology/ [12] http:/ / en. wikipedia.org) [17] San Miguel and Qatar Telecom Sign MOU (http:/ / web. EDGE. Report M. aspx [14] Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2013 (http:/ / www. [15] ITU-R Report M. FCC is exploringWikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers#Chronological items the possibility of deployment and operation of a nationwide 4G public safety network which would allow first responders to seamlessly communicate between agencies and across geographies. org/ web/ 20080606063700/ http:/ / wireless-watch.

com. se/ 2009/ 12/ 15/ teliasonera´s-4g-speed-test-looking-good/ ) [20] МТS kompaniyasi O’zbekistonda 4G tarmog’i ishga tushirilishini e’lon qiladi (http:/ / company. ie/ news/ 2007/ 0405/ digiweb.NetCom 4G (in English) [19] Daily Mobile Blog (http:/ / dailymobile. mts. no/ mobiltbredband/ 4g/ 4Gengelsk. tm/ en-US/ news-lte-start) [43] 4G Given Go Ahead for UK (http:/ / forum. com/ be-en/ newsdetail/ ND_20120703_4G. html) [29] http:/ / www. sa/ [30] V (http:/ / over. nz/ technology/ gadgets/ 8526939/ Telecom-fleshes-out-4G-plans [34] http:/ / www. com. vodafone. asp) [40] Dialog Launches First Mobile 4G-LTE Service (http:/ / www. ro/ personal/ servicii-si-tarife/ alege-vodafone/ harta-de-acoperire/ index. gov/ edocs_public/ attachmatch/ DOC-298799A1. asp) [42] TMCELL starts to connect the subscribers to the LTE network (http:/ / tmcell. June 2010. 2001). nz/ business/ industries/ 8810152/ 2degrees-to-roll-out-4G [35] Telenor Pakistan Infrastructure Upgrade Project (http:/ / 4g-portal. com. com. nl/ nieuwsberichten/ t-mobile/ 83-t-mobile-komt-in-september-met-meer-4g-info) [32] http:/ / 4g. page) [26] Anatel will begin reviewing 4G tender proposals and reveal auction date on 5 June (http:/ / www. co. [45] IT R&D program of MKE/IITA: 2008-F-004-01 “5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation”.no (https:/ / netcom.uk/4g/) Preceded by Mobile Telephony Generations Succeeded by 3rd Generation (3G) 5th Generation (5G) . globe. com/ topic/ 974-4g-given-go-ahead-for-uk/ ) [44] FCC White Paper. vivacell.de/home/ technology/white-papers/progress-on-lte-advanced---the-future-4g-standard) • Brian Woerner (June 20–22. com/ be-en/ newsdetail/ ND_20110628_fon.4G [18] NetCom. com/ tag/ telenor-pakistan/ ) [36] 4G Licence in Pakistan (http:/ / tribune. computer. 4gmast. ph/ fourG/ index [38] Vodafone Romania covering map (https:/ / www. fcc. pk/ story/ 573722/ broadband-demand-to-grow-with-auction-of-3g-and-4g-licences/ ) [37] url=http:/ / network. stuff.com/site/lteencyclopedia/) • Nomor Research: White Paper on LTE Advance the new 4G standard (http://www. co. lk/ 2013/ 06/ 02/ new05. [22] VivaCell-MTS launches in Armenia 4G/LTE (http:/ / www. vodafone.org. com/ products/ commsupdate/ articles/ 2012/ 04/ 25/ anatel-will-begin-reviewing-4g-tender-proposals-and-reveal-auction-date-on-5-june/ ) [27] Press Release: Digiweb Mobile Takes 088 (http:/ / media. lk/ 2013/ 04/ 02/ bus20. USA. dailynews. html) . nz/ [33] http:/ / www. belgacom. hostsurfuk. rte. co. zhtml?c=177745& p=irol-newsArticle& ID=1491638& highlight=). belgacom. mobily. A New Model For Capacity.pdf) (PDF). Cambridge. MA. 19 External links • 3GPP LTE Encyclopedia (http://sites. am/ index. 2011 [24] Roll-out of the first 4G network in Belgium and strategic partnership with Fon (http:/ / www. uz/ uz/ news/ 5817) (in Uzbek) [21] MetroPCS (http:/ / investor. ie/ pr/ 2007/ 05/ 04/ digiweb-mobile-takes-088/ ) [28] RTÉ News article: Ireland gets new mobile phone provider (http:/ / www. stuff. pdf). metropcs.Ofcom (http://consumers. Performance and Cost" (http:/ / hraunfoss. xml) Telstra. com/ phoenix. lk/ 2012/ 12/ 30/ new04.nomor. (118kb) • Information on 4G mobile services in the UK .ofcom.org/comp/proceedings/wetice/2001/1269/00/12690060. au/ abouttelstra/ media-centre/ announcements/ telstra-to-launch-4g-mobile-broadband-network-by-end-2011. February 15. telegeography. "The Public Safety Nationwide Interoperable Broadband Network. htm) [39] Dialog launches first fixed 4G-LTE service in Sri Lanka (http:/ / www. sundayobserver. page) [25] Belgacom extends 4G network in five more cities (http:/ / www. vodafone. telstra. asp) [41] Mobitel Launches Mobile 4G-LTE Service (http:/ / www. digiweb. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WET ICE ’01). nl/ nieuwscentrum/ nieuws/ vodafone-verhoogt-snelheid-mobiel-internet-voor-álle-klanten?from_search) o [31] T-Mobile komt in september met meer 4G info (http:/ / www. "Research Directions for Fourth Generation Wireless" (http://csdl2.google. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. php?lng=2& menu=1& page=news& newsID=18542) [23] Telstra to launch 4G mobile broadband network by end 2011 (http:/ / www. sundayobserver.

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