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Part D Materials and welding Chapter 5 Welding Section 4 Approval of Welding Procedures 2 Welding procedures for C and C-Mn steels

2.1 Butt weld on plates


2.1.1 Assembly Test pieces are to be of sufficient size to ensure a reasonable heat distribution during welding and to provide for the required test specimens, after sufficient discard at the ends. The edge preparation and fit up are to be in accordance with the pWPS. If tack welds are to be fused into the production joint, they are to be included in the test pieces. The test assembly is to have the following dimensions, in mm (see Fig 1): a. manual or semiautomatic welding: length L = 350 min.; width W = 300 min. b. automatic welding: length L = 1000 min.; width W = 400 min. Figure 1 : Plate butt weld test assembly

2.1.2 Welding Welding is to be carried out in accordance with the pWPS and under the general conditions of production welding which they represent. The weld direction is to be perpendicular to the rolling direction of the plate and is to be marked on the test piece. However, where impact tests are prescribed for the base metal in the transverse direction, the weld direction is to be parallel to the rolling direction of the plate. 2.1.3 Examinations and tests Non-destructive examinations and destructive tests are to be in accordance with the requirements of Tab 1, while the location of the test specimens is to be in accordance with Fig 2. 2.1.4 Non-destructive examinations Non-destructive examinations are to be carried out after any required post-weld heat treatment and prior to the cutting of test specimens. For non-post-weld treated material susceptible to hydrogen cold cracking, the non-destructive examinations are to be delayed, as appropriate. Imperfections are to be within the specified limits of level B in ISO 5817, except for the following imperfection types for which level C applies:

excess weld metal or convexity, excess throat thickness, and excess of penetration.

More stringent requirements may be stipulated in the applicable parts of the Rules or in individual cases as necessary. Figure 2 : Location of test specimens

Table 1 : Examinations and tests Type of examination or test Extent of examination or test Visual examination Radiographic or ultrasonic examination Surface crack detection (1) Transverse tensile test Transverse bend tests (2) Impact tests (3) Macro examination Hardness test (4) Longitudinal tensile test (5) 100% 100% 100% 2 specimens 2 root and 2 face specimens 3 sets 2 sections on 1 section 1 specimen

(1) Dye penetrant according to ISO 3452 (or equivalent accepted standard) or magnetic particle testing; for non-magnetic materials, dye

Type of examination or test

Extent of examination or test

penetrant only. (2) For t >= 12mm, the face and root bends are preferably to be replaced by 4 side bends. (3) 3 sets each of 3 specimens as per [2.1.8]. (4) Only required for high strength steels. (5) Required only when the use of non-approved filler metal has been accepted (see [1.2.3]). 2.1.5 Transverse tensile tests Specimens for transverse tensile tests are to be in accordance with Ch 5, Sec 2, Fig 1. The tensile strength is to be not lower than the specified minimum tensile strength of the base metal; the location of the fracture is to be reported. For joints of steels having different mechanical strength, the tensile strength is to comply with the requirement of the lower strength. 2.1.6 Tensile tests on cylindrical specimens When required (see Tab 1), a round tensile specimen is to be cut along the weld axis to the dimension given in Ch 1, Sec 2, Fig 3, in the all weld metal. Where the size of the deposited metal is too small, a 6 mm diameter specimen may be taken or a deposited weld metal test is to be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Ch 5, Sec 2. The results of the test (yield stress ReH, tensile strength Rm and elongation A5) are to be determined and to comply with the requirements given for the approval of consumables. 2.1.7 Bend tests Transverse root bend, face bend and side bend specimens are to be machined to the dimensions given in Ch 5, Sec 2, [1.5.3]. For dissimilar or heterogeneous butt-joints, one longitudinal bend test may be used instead of transverse bend tests. The test specimens are to be bent on a mandrel having a diameter 4 times the thickness of the specimen; the bending angle is to be 180. During the testing, the test specimens are not to reveal any open defect, in any direction, greater than 3 mm. Defects appearing at the corner of the test specimen may be disregarded. 2.1.8 Impact tests Charpy V-notch impact test specimens are to be taken 2 mm below the surface of the sample (on the side containing the last run in the case of the two-run technique) and machined to the dimensions indicated in Ch 1, Sec 2. Three sets of Charpy V-notch specimens (each set including 3 specimens) are to be taken as indicated in Fig 3:

one set with the notch along the weld metal centre line one set with the notch on the fusion line (see Note 1) one set with the notch in the HAZ 2 mm from the fusion line (see Note 1).

Note 1 : for ordinary hull steels, the impact tests on the fusion line and the HAZ are generally required only for high heat input processes such as two-run submerged arc welding process, electroslag, electrogas or similar. For plates

having thickness greater than 50 mm and for one side welding assemblies with thickness greater than 25 mm, one additional set of specimens is to be taken in the weld metal root area. For hull structural steels, the tests are to be carried out at the following temperatures: + 20C for grade A 0C for grades B, D, AH32, AH36, DH32, DH36, DH40

- 20C for grades E, EH32, EH36, EH40 - 40C for grades FH32, FH36, FH40.

The average value for the impact test for each of the three sets is to be not less than: 47J for manual or semiautomatic welding in all positions except the vertical position 34J (41J for EH, FH40) for manual or semiautomatic welding in vertical position

34J (41J for EH, FH40) for automatic welding.

Only one individual value may be lower than the average required, provided it is not lower than 70% of it. For joints of steels differing in impact properties, the test temperature and the impact energy are to comply with the requirements of the lower steel grade. Unless otherwise required, the test temperature and absorbed energy of steels not covered by these requirements are to be in accordance with the specification of the parent metal. Requirements for reduced Charpy V specimens are given in Ch 1, Sec 2, [4.2.2]. Figure 3 : Notch impact specimen location

2.1.9 Macro examinations The test specimens are to be prepared and etched on one side to clearly reveal the fusion line, the HAZ, the build up of the runs and the unaffected parent metal. The acceptance levels are given in [2.1.4]. 2.1.10 Hardness tests The hardness measurements are to be carried out on the macro section; normally the Vickers method (HV10 or HV5) is to be used. The indentations are to be made in the weld, heat affected zones, and the parent metal with the object of measuring and recording the range of values in the weld joint. This will include rows of indentations, one of which is to be 2mm maximum below the surface. For each row of indentations, a minimum of 3 individual indentations is required in the weld, both sides of the HAZ and the parent metal. For the HAZ, the first indentation is to be placed as close as possible to the fusion line. The distance between the indentations may vary from 0,5 to 2 mm depending on the zone tested. Typical example of hardness indentations are given in Fig 4. The results of hardness tests are, as a rule, not to exceed:

350 HV for hull steels of strength level 32 and 36 380 HV for hull steels of strength level 40.

For a single run fillet or butt weld, higher values may be accepted on a case-by-case basis. Figure 4 : Examples of hardness indentations

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2.2 T butt-joint on plates