Air and Water : 21

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18

Air and Water
You have already studied that air is a mixture of gases, which we cannot see. It is the main abiotic component of the environment. Air is an extremely important natural resource. Air is also necessary for all the living organisms, because they breathe in air. A human being breathes about 22,000 times in a day and takes about 16 kg of air into the body during this process. Further, the air envelope, which surrounds the surface of the earth, presses the earth’s surface and creates a pressure on it. This air pressure, also called atmospheric pressure, is found to be useful. It would be interesting to know about air in this context also. Like air, water is another abiotic component of the environment, which is also essential for all living beings. Water is the most abundant and renewable natural resource. It covers about three quarters of earth crust. Water occurs in nature in the free state as well as in the combined state. The different properties of water make it useful, important and essential in our daily life. We will also learn about water and its properties in this lesson. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • tabulate various component of air according to their amount; • explain the importance and utility of various components (O2, N2, CO2) of air; • measure atmospheric pressure and its variation with height; • discuss the various atmospheric phenomena; • list different sources of water; • list simple methods for making water potable; • describe various properties of water; • recognise the utility of water for various purposes; • argue in favour of rainwater harvesting. 18.1 COMPOSITION OF AIR Ancient philosophers considered air as one of the most vital element. Mayow in 1674 proved that air is not an element but the mixture of two substances, one of which is active and the other is non-active. Lavoiser in 1789 named the active element as oxygen and said that it is 1/5 of the total volume of air. The non-active

: 22 : Air and Water

element is nitrogen and it is about 4/5th of the total volume of air. The ratio of oxygen and nitrogen in the air is about 1:4 by volume. The major components of air are nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2), while the minor components are argon (Ar), carbon dioxide (CO2) and some are trace gases like neon (Ne), helium (He), krypton (Kr) and xenon (Xe). The composition of dry air at sea level is given in table 18.1. Table 18.1 : Composition of air Gas N2 O2 Ar CO2 Composition (% by volume) 78.03 20.09 0.94 0.033 Gas Ne He Kr Xe Composition (% by volume) 0.0015 0.000524 0.000014 0.000006

Water is excluded from this table because its concentration in air varies drastically from location to location. Let us perform a simple activity to study the presence of oxygen and nitrogen in the air. ACTIVITY 18.1 Aim : To show the presence of oxygen and nitrogen in air What is required? About 5cm long test tube, a beaker, water, graph paper, cotton wool and a small piece of yellow phosphorus. What to do? • Take the small piece of phosphorus on cotton wool. • Insert the cotton wool inside a test tube. • Now place the tube in inverted position in the beaker. • Pour the water in beaker in such a way that 5 cm length of tube should be above the water. • With the help of stand, hold the test tube in this position for one hour (Fig 18.1).
5 Phosphorus 4 3 2 1 0 Water Cotton wool plug 5 4 3 2 1 0 Water Phosphorus

Fig. 18.1 Experimental set-up to show that air contains oxygen and nitrogen

Air and Water : 23 :

What to observe? After one hour you will see that water level in the test tube rises up by 1 cm. Why is it so? The oxygen present in air within the test tube slowly reacts with phosphorus and forms the oxide of phosphorus. The oxide dissolves in water to form phosphoric acid, which can be shown as follows: P4 (s)
phosphorus

+ +

5O2 (g)
oxygen

P4O10 (s)
oxide of phosphorus

P4O10 (s)
oxide of phosphorus

6H2O (l)
water

4H3PO4 (l)
phosphoric acid

The pressure of air within the tube falls, because the oxygen completely reacts with phosphorus. To make up this loss in pressure, the air from outside exerts pressure and hence, forces the water to rise upward within the tube. From this activity it is clear that air consist 1 part oxygen and 4 parts nitrogen because the level of water rises by 1 cm out of the initial volume of 5 cm. Let us perform another activity that shows the presence of carbon dioxide in air. ACTIVITY 18.2 Aim : To show the presence of carbon dioxide in air What is required? A test tube, freshly prepared lime water, a cork with two holes, two glass tubes bent at right angles.
Suction by mouth

Lime water turns milky

Fig. 18.2 To show that air contains carbon dioxide

What to do? • Take about 4 mL freshly prepared lime water in a test tube. • Fix a cork (having two holes) in the mouth of the test tube. • Fix the two glass tubes in two holes in such a way that only one tube should be dipped in lime water but the other one should be above the lime water as shown in Fig. 18.2.

Suck the air from the tube, which is not dipping in limewater. Due to suction the pressure of the air within the test tube falls.

What to observe? To make for this loss in pressure, the air from outside enters into the tube through the tube dipping in limewater and air bubbles are liberated in limewater. You will see that after a minute the limewater turns milky. We know that only carbon dioxide can turn limewater milky. So this activity clearly shows the presence of carbon dioxide in the air.

: 24 : Air and Water

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 18.1 1. Is air an element or a mixture? 2. What are the major constituents of air? 3. What is the ratio of major constituents of air? 4. Does the percentage of CO2 remain constant in air or it vary from place to place? 5. Does the percentage of water remain constant in air or it vary from place to place? 18.2 IMPORTANCE OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF AIR Oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide are useful for human beings and plants. Without oxygen and nitrogen it is impossible to survive. 18.2.1 Importance and utility of oxygen Since we live on the surface of the earth, we are surrounded by air, which contains oxygen. Oxygen is the main part of the air i.e. about 21%. We know that the life is not possible without oxygen. Therefore, oxygen is very much essential for life. The importance and utility of oxygen are as follows: (a) General uses • Oxygen is absolutely necessary for respiration. • It is the supporter of combustion. • Liquid O2 is used as oxidant in rocket fuel called as LOX (Liquid oxidant). • In nature it dissolves in water. The dissolved oxygen keeps the water fresh and is a source of respiration for aquatic life. • In some situations it is used for artificial respiration such as: – in the submarines and by deep sea divers. – climbers, during high altitude climbing and also aviaters during high altitude flying. – firemen during fire fighting. • Corrosion is the term usually applied to the deterioration of metals by an electrochemical process. The most common example of corrosion is the formation of rust on iron. Oxygen gas and water must be present for iron to rust. It clearly indicates that oxygen is necessary for corrosion. • Oxygen combines with almost all elements to form oxides. (b) Medical uses • Carbogen: It is a mixture of 95% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide. It stimulates natural breathing. It is given to the patients suffering from asthma or for reviving patients from drowning or gas poisoning. • Anaesthesia: It is a mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide, which is used in surgical operations. (c) Industrial uses • In steel industry: Since oxygen produces more heat as compared to air (because air contains some non reactive substances); it is used in place of air for the purification of iron.

Air and Water : 25 :

For cutting and welding purposes: Oxygen is mixed with hydrogen (hydrogen torch) or acetylene known as oxyacetylene torch. These are used for cutting and welding purposes. It is also used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid from sulphur and nitric acid from ammonia (NH3).

18.2.2 Importance and utility of nitrogen Nitrogen is the main constituent of proteins. A number of amino acids containing nitrogen join together to form protein. It is essential for the life of living beings. Its main uses are: • It dilutes the activity of oxygen: If the amount of oxygen is increased in the air then the process like metabolism, combustion and corrosion will became very fast and becomes harmful. The presence of nitrogen dilutes the concentration of oxygen and thus, the combustion of fuel during burning and combustion of food during respiration takes place at moderate rate. • The compounds of nitrogen are of vital importance to plants as they help them to manufacture proteins. Living beings obtain protein from plants. 18.2.3 Importance and utility of carbon dioxide The percentage of carbon dioxide in air varies from place to place. The areas where more fuel containing carbon is burnt have more carbon dioxide. It is necessary for the production of food i.e. photosynthesis in plants. Its main uses are: • During photosynthesis plants absorb carbon dioxide and water vapour from air. In the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight, they are converted to carbohydrates. • It also provides Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in the soil, which are necessary for the growth of plants. It dissolves in water and can also dissolve rocks containing calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). The salts formed are Ca (HCO3)2 and Mg(HCO3)2. These salts give taste of natural water and also supply these ions to the plants. • It is also used in food preservation. In the presence of CO2 the grains are prevented from being destroyed by insects. • CO2 is a green house gas. It traps infrared radiations . • Solid CO2 is also known as dry ice which is used as refrigerant. • As it can be dissolve in water, it is used for the preparation of soft drinks. • CO2 is used in fire extinguishers to put off fire. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 18.2 1. Oxygen is essential for life, why? Give one example. 2. Carbon dioxide acts as food for plants. Name the process in which it happens. 3. What is dry ice? 4. Name the element which is the main constituent of proteins.

The air presses down on the earth’s surface and creates a pressure on it. • Put the piece of cardboard on the top of the glass tumbler. If you turn the glass side ways and in any other position. Think and try to explain how atmospheric pressure helps in the working of these above mentioned things? .: 26 : Air and Water 18. which act downwards on the surface of the earth. • Hold the glass tumbler firmly with the palm of your hand. So there is a force exerted by gas particles of air. working of a lift pump etc. a piece of cardboard and water. The force of air column acting per unit area of a surface results in a pressure exerted by atmosphere. Anything that has weight pushes and presses against things. Turn the glass tumbler quickly upside downs as shown in figure 18. 18. This pressure is called atmospheric pressure.3 Aim : To show that air exerts pressure What is required? A glass tumbler. What to do? • Fill the glass tumbler with water. working of a syringe or ink dropper. (b) (a) Fig. atmospheric pressure plays an important role in the working of many things. The atmospheric pressure is about 1kg wt cm-2 or 10 ton wt m-2 Let us perform an activity to show that air exerts pressure ACTIVITY 18. What do you observe? You will find that the cardboard and the water remain in their place.3. • Remove the palm of your hand carefully below the cardboard. Can you think of the reason behind this? The water in the glass tumbler stays because air is exerting a pressure on the cardboard. the water still remains in the glass showing that air exerts pressure in all directions.3 Air exerts pressure In our everyday life.3 THE AIR AND ITS PRESSURE We know that the air is a mixture of gases and particles of these gases have weight due to gravity. The pressure of air against the cardboard is greater than pressure of water against the card board. • Grip the base of glass tumbler with your other hand. for example. It shows that the air has weight. working of a straw.

Simple barometer.4.014 x 105N m-2 The unit of pressure used in meteorology is known as 1 bar where by definition 1 bar = 105N m-2 Thus. Simple barometer consists of long glass tube.3. Aneroid barometer etc.014 bar Another unit used for atmospheric pressure is known as torr Where. then some mercury will flow out of the tube into the dish. Normal pressure = hDg Where h = height of mercury column= 76 cm of Hg D = density of mercury = 13.76 x (13. The relationship between atmosphere and Pascal is.3.6 x 103) x 9.8 m s-2 Therefore. There are different types of barometers such as.1 Normal or standard pressure and its units By international agreements.6 x 103 kg m-3 g = acceleration due to gravity = 9. closed at one end and filled with mercury.Air and Water : 27 : 18.2 Measurement of atmospheric pressure The instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure is called barometer.01325 x102 kPa 18. If the tube is carefully inverted in a dish of mercury in such a way that no air enters the tube. . 1 atmosphere = 760 torr 1 torr =1mm Hg 1 atmosphere = 760 mm Hg =760 torr The SI unit of pressure is the Pascal (Pa). defined as one Newton per square metre. It is shown that.01325 x 105 Pa Since 1000 Pa = 1kPa 1 atmosphere = 1.3 N m-2 Thus. Fortin barometer. The weight of the mercury remaining in the tube is supported by atmospheric pressure acting on the surface of the mercury in the dish. 1Pa = 1N/m2. 1 atmosphere = 101. 1 atmosphere = 1. 1 torr = 1mm of mercury = 133.014 x 105N m-2 Thus. creating a vacuum at the top as shown in fig 18. the normal or standard pressure is the pressure exerted by 76cm of mercury column.325 kPa or 1.8 N m-2 = 1. the pressure exerted by a column of mercury at a height of 76 cm = 0. 1 atmosphere = 1.

atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude. 18. This moves the pointer over a scale S.e. Thus. An Aneroid barometer is more portable and cheaper than mercury type. P : It is pulled by lever. In fact. S V S2 Change in Ra Fa S ir p 76cm Brass tube yd Ver Stor my ry PIVOT C L Ivory pointer B S1 PARTIAL VACUUM Fig.6 Aneroid barometer B : Sealed metal box of corrugated sheet which is partially evacuated and sealed. the density of air decreases very rapidly with increasing distance from earth. Increase in atmospheric pressure causes the top to cave in while decrease allows it to expand. It is completely filled with mercury and inverted over a cistern containing mercury.3. Why? . the atmosphere is much denser near the surface of earth than at higher altitudes. L : A lever which magnifies the movement of the metal box.5). Often at higher altitudes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 18.: 28 : Air and Water Fortin’s barometer consists of a long vertical glass tube about 80 cm long. At high altitude the people find their nose bleeding. are subject to earth’s gravitational pull.3 1. No liquid is used here. 18.6. atmospheric pressure). As a consequence. A small ivory peg is fitted into the lid of the cistern. 18.4 Simple barometer Fig. people find their nose bleeding because blood pressure is much more than the pressure outside (i. C : A chain wrapped round the spindle of the pointer. The main features are as shown in the figure 18. the tip of ivory peg should touch the level of mercury on which the atmospheric pressure acts (Fig 18. What is the unit of pressure? 2. While reading the atmospheric pressure. 18.3 Variation of air pressure with height The atoms and molecules of the gases in the atmosphere like those of all other matter.5 Fortin’s barometer Fig.

18. . frost and dew that we experience. result from water vapour in the atmosphere. N.4 ATMOSPHERE The region of air around earth is called atmosphere. mesosphere (50-85 km) and thermosphere (85-500 km). The main layers of the atmosphere (Fig. O Altitude 85 km Mesosphere Mesosphere 50 km Stratosphere 15 km Troposphere 150 Stratosphere Temperature + + 100 nm and more N2 . stratosphere (10-50km).Air and Water : 29 : 18. O2 .1 Evaporation We know that air contains water vapour. it plays an important role in heating and cooling of the atmosphere and in the day to day change in weather. It is the thinnest layer of atmosphere and here all the dramatic events of the weather (such as rain) occur. CO2 300 200 250 Temperature/Kelvin –2 1× 10 1× 10 0 1× 10 2 1× 10 4 1× 10 6 Fig. The most active region is the troposphere. Though water vapour comprises a very small part of the atmosphere. pressure variation and composition.7 Layers of the atmosphere 18. O2. which contains about 18% of the total mass of air and practically all the atmosphere’s water vapours. O2. NO + 220 nm and more N2. In fact clouds. snow. It is also more in summer than in winter. rain. Their amount in the air is not the same everywhere. the layer of the atmosphere. The atmosphere over polar regions and land has less amount of water vapour. H2O Ar. 18.7) from the surface of earth upward are troposphere (0-10km).4. O2. We can divide the atmosphere into different layers according to temperature. fog. NO . It is the maximum in the low latitudes and over oceans. 500 km Principal chemical species Thermosphere N2. O3 330 nm and more Troposphere N2. The atmosphere protects us and all living things from harmful radiations like ultraviolet rays etc. O + + + + N2 . O2 .

If you watch the sky carefully you will be able to see that clouds are of different types. The instrument used to measure relative humidity is called hygrometer. As they fall. When the dew point i. The lowest rainfall occurs in Tundra Pradesh. during summer. These drops are so big that they can no longer float in the air. They cling to the dust particles in the air. The medium rainfall (between 25cm to 200cm) occurs in west European countries. the small droplets of water in them become still cooler and they come closer to each other. is reached.4. you must have experienced days when both the temperature and humidity are high. Clouds are of different types according to their shapes and height. they pickup more and more small drops of water on their way down. Clouds are formed when moist air rises upwards and is cooled as it rises.8 Hygrometer . Rainfall is measured in centimeters. annual rainfall is 200 cm or more.4 Relative humidity The existence of water vapour in the atmosphere. In fact evaporation is a process in which water from any source change into vapour state due to heat. A number of droplets combine to form big drop of water. 18.4. The maximum rainfall occurs in the countries near equatorial regions and South-East Asia. 18.: 30 : Air and Water But how does water vapours come in the atmosphere? It comes in the atmosphere through a process called evaporation due to solar heat. is known as humidity. The falling of these big drops of water from the clouds is known as rain.2 Cloud formation Condensation of water vapour in the atmosphere leads to the formation of clouds. The instrument used to measure rainfall is called rain gauge. F 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 o F 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 o Fig. Humidity of the air is related to its temperature. Relative humidity is the ratio of the mass of water vapour actually present in a certain volume of air at room temperature to the mass of water vapour required to saturate the same volume of air at that temperature. where it is less than 25cm. condensation of water vapour and the formation of very tiny droplets of water or ice crystal occurs.3 Rain When clouds are cooled owing to rising up or when they are blown into cooler region of the atmosphere. central Asia and hot deserts.e. they fall downwards on the earth. This process is called as precipitation. 18. For example. 18. In these regions. Tega regions and China.4. These millions of minute water droplets or tiny ice crystals almost hang in the air rather than fall. They are blown as clouds by the wind. the temperature at which the water begins to change into water drops.

Spring supply water to wells and lakes. Fig. This is known as well water. On digging the well this underground water is available to us.3×10 kg sometimes from the rain water.23×10 Uptake and kg y photosynthesis dissolved in river water are carried into Pore and ground water the sea. During this process of evaporation. sea water can not be 4.Air and Water : 31 : CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 18.5 WATER . There is a 1.9 Water cycle in nature 16 21 –1 14 17 –1 18 18 21 17 19 . However.9 shows the diagram of water cycle in biosphere. All the impurities 4. The natural sources of water are rain.9×10 Kg water cycle. Living beings cannot live long without water. (d) River water: Rivers form by melting of snow on the mountains and also 1. which cover more than three-fourth of the earth surface. When the water vapours go high up in the air they condense to form clouds. It is Evaporation also not pure and not fit for drinking. It is also find inside the crust of the earth. (b) Spring water: Springs are formed by percolation of rain water into soil. As such. rivers and lakes. Fig 18.2×10 kg Shallow plus soil moisture 5. river and sea. 3. Most of the water that we get from the wells comes from this source. impurities are left behind.3×10 kg deep used for drinking purpose. 18. The water drops come down as rain. (c) Well water: The rain water seeps through the soil and goes down. 18. spring. ii) relative humidity. Name the instrument used to measure: i) atmospheric pressure. This water is not pure and contains impurities such as suspended particles. Name the process through which water vapours come in air.37×10 kg constant cyclic movement of water Lakes and rivers throughout the globe. well.86×10 kg y 6×10 kg (e) Sea water: Out of these sources. water is the most important substance needed by living beings.1 Sources of water Other than air.4 1. It fills the seas. iii) rainfall.27×10 Kg 2. The water is available in plenty on earth.5. bacteria and other microorganisms. which is called Ice 1. 2. sea water is the largest natural source of water. (a) Rain water: The rain water is considered to be the purest form of natural water (distilled water) free from impurities. Why do we say so? We know that water from sea and rivers get evaporated into water vapour by the heat of sun. it is the source of common salt and is the most impure Evaporation form of water.ITS SOURCES AND PROPERTIES 18.

protozoa and other aquatic plants.: 32 : Air and Water 18.2 Purification of water for drinking Water from different sources contains different substances in different amounts. which contains calcium and magnesium ions. which seems to us to be a common ordinary material. carbon dioxide etc. The dissolved salts are usually bicarbonates.5. These salts prevent lathering but how? The soap is a sodium salt called sodium stearate. • By chlorine treatment in which small living organisms and bacteria are killed. This appears as a greasy scum. But sometimes water from some sources like rivers or hand pumps does not produce any lather with soap.3a Water acts as universal solvent Water is certainly one of the best and most useful solvents that we have. sugar. 18.3b Lather formation Water forms lather with soap which is used for cleaning purpose.5.3 Properties of water Water. It helps us to absorb food that we eat. 5.5. 18. Indeed. There are different ways of purifying water for drinking. aqueous solution. algae. so many substances dissolve in water that is why it is called as a universal solvent. The formation of scum wastes soap (does not forms lather) and makes it more difficult to clean things. These are: • By boiling during which bacteria and other germs die. contains lesser amounts of dissolved salts in it than water that we get from hand pumps. water from other natural sources may contain foreign materials like suspended solids. certain compounds viruses. sulphates and chlorides of calcium and magnesium. to gases like oxygen. minerals. which we get from taps. bacteria. 18. the filtered water is safe for drinking. is really a highly unusual substance with many unique properties which makes its use important and essential in our daily life. Now if we filter the water. It has a unique property to dissolve many substances starting from solids such as common salts.e. In addition to salts found in sea water. When boiled water is allowed to cool. This property is useful for plants to take in their food materials and minerals from the soil. Such water is not safe for drinking and causes many harmful effects in the body. a precipitate of Ca or Mg stearate is formed. Many chemical reactions also take place only in solution form in water i. heavy impurities collect at the bottom and dissolved salts form a thin layer on the surface called scum. Sodium stearate + Calcium sulphate Calcium stearate + Sodium sulphate (Soap) (Scum) Hence we can say that. • By decantation and filtration. • Water which forms lather with soap is called soft water. Water. Why? This is because of the presence of dissolved salts in water. However the calcium and magnesium stearates are insoluble and so when soap is added to hard water. in the form of water solution. . eggs of insects and other animals. This is soluble in water.

18. the calcium or magnesium bicarbonate present is decomposed and give magnesium or calcium carbonate. It can be removed by boiling and by soda lime process. Hardness of water is of two types namely. then the soluble bicarbonates are converted to insoluble carbonates as follows: Ca(HCO3)2 + Mg(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 lime 2CaCO3 + 2H2O 2MgCO3 + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 b) Permanent hardness Permanent hardness of water is due the presence of soluble chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. (i) By boiling: On boiling hard water.5. It can be removed by addition of washing soda and by the ion exchange method. hard water can be converted into soft water. These carbonate salts are insoluble in water. A brief description of removal of permanent hardness of water is given below: (i) By addition of washing soda: The hard water is treated with the calculated quantity of washing soda (Sodium carbonate). The hardness of water is due to the presence of salts of magnesium and calcium in water. Decantation is the process of separation of solid from the liquid by allowing the former to settle down and pouring off the latter.Air and Water : 33 : • • Water which does not form lather is called hard water. Washing soda reacts with chloride . It is also known as non-carbonate hardness. It is also called carbonate hardness. They settle down easily and water can be decanted. Heat Ca (HCO3)2 calcium bicarbonate (Soluble) CaCO3 calcium carbonate (Insoluble) + H2O + CO2 Heat Mg (HCO3)2 magnesium bicarbonate (Soluble) MgCO3 magnesium carbonate (Insoluble) + H2O + CO2 (ii) By soda lime (Clark’s method):When a calculated amount of lime is added to hard water.3c Conversion of hard water into soft water Hard water does not form lather with soap –can this hard water be converted into soft water? Yes. • Temporary hardness • Permanent hardness a) Temporary hardness Temporary hardness of water is due to the presence of soluble bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium. Let us see how ? The removal of Ca and Mg ions which are responsible for hardness is called the softening of water.

Although water is an electrically neutral molecule. which proves the polar nature of water ACTIVITY 18.3d Polar nature of water Water is very effective solvent for ionic compounds. this process is carried out in tanks as shown in figure 18.10 Inlet for hard water Tap to take out soft water Zeolite or permutt Coarse sand By using organic ion exchanger the water obtained is free from cations and anions and is known as deionized water or demineralized water. 18. Oδ Hδ+ Hδ+ Fig. complex compounds known as Zeolite are used to soften the hard water.5.: 34 : Air and Water and sulphate of calcium and magnesium to form precipitate of calcium and magnesium carbonate.On the large scale. Therefore. inorganic ion exchanger and organic ion exchanger. The reactions are as follows: CaCl2 calcium chloride + + Na2CO3 sodium carbonate CaCO3 calcium carbonate + + NaCl sodium chloride MgSO4 magnesium sulphate Na2CO3 sodium carbonate MgCO3 magnesium carbonate Na2SO4 sodium sulphate The precipitate settles down and the water can be removed by decantation. The salts causing the hardness of water are precipitated as insoluble zeolite of calcium and magnesium. glass rod (positively charge) and burette stand. • Fix the burette vertically in a burette stand. it is a polar solvent. (ii) By ion exchange method: Two types of ion exchangers can be used. water. 18. . namely. In inorganic ion exchange process.10 Obtaining soft water on a large scale using tanks Let us perform an activity. What to do? • Take a burette and fill it with water.4 Aim: To study the polar nature of water What is required? Burette. it has a small positive charge (on the H atoms) and a negative charge (on the O atoms). ebonite rod (negatively charged).

. What to observe? You will find that it remains there although it is heavier than water.Air and Water : 35 : • Open the stopcock of the burette and allow the water to flow.5.11 To show that water is polar in nature 18. Why is the sheet tight? Due to intermolecular forces i. You will see the rod again attracts the stream of water. This proves the polar nature of water.11b). Put a safety razor blade (having a coating of very thin layer of wax) gently on the surface of water. the water droplets always tend to take the shape of a sphere. Similarly. To understand this let us perform an activity. What to do? Take a glass full of water. Why is it so? The upper layer of water is acting like a tight sheet.5 Aim: To study surface tension What is required? Glass and razor blade. 18. which is positively charged. Due to this tension water drops try to occupy a minimum surface area. Hence. • Take a ebonite rod (negatively charged by rubbing one end with fur) near the water What to observe? You will see that the stream of water is attracted towards negatively charged rod (Fig. You will find a thin film of water on the lower surface of the blade. 18. forces between the molecules of the liquid surface and the blade. 18.3f Capillarity – Rise of water When a capillary tube with a fine bore is dipped in water. 18. The smaller the diameter of the capillary the higher will be the rise of water in the capillary tube. The tension exerted by molecules of water present on the surface layer is called as surface tension. Have a close look at the surface of water.5. This indicates that water molecule also has negative charge (Fig. Why? Because the water molecules have positive charge.e. ACTIVITY 18. water rises in the capillary. there is a tension or force acting on the surface of the thin film of the liquid.3e Surface tension Surface tension is the property of all the liquids.11a). Burette Water Negatively charged Thermocol or Ebonite rod Positively charged glass rod – – – – – – – Stream of water + + + + + + + (a) (b) Fig. now we take a glass rod near water. The extent to which the water rises depends on the diameter of the capillary.

at 4 oC upwards it expands like any other liquid. When a piece of cloth or bloating paper is placed on water.5 Specific gravity or relative density The relative density of a substance is the ratio between density of a substance and density of water at 4 oC. However. This means that water takes up least space at 4 oC. 18. For a particular substance its numerical value is always constant irrespective of whatever system of units are used. 1 m3 of water has a mass of 1000 kg. Thus. It is known as specific gravity. it has no unit. the density of water at 4 oC is found to be.: 36 : Air and Water This property of rise of water inside a capillary is called capillarity. This is the property. 18. we can explain why it takes months for a lake to freeze while a small bucket of water can freeze over night on a bitterly cold day. Density of a substance is defined as its mass per unit volume. Measurements on different volume of water at 4 oC show that. by which water from the soil enters the leaves and branches of the plants through its stems.4 Density of water Water behaves in an unusual way when it is heated from 0 oC.e. Another formula for calculating relative density or specific gravity is. And so on. Relative density (RD) = Density of a substance ————————————— Density of water at 4 oC As Relative Density is a ratio. Density = = Mass of water ————— = Volume of water 1000 kg m-3 or 1g cm-3 1000 kg of water —————— 1m3 Because of this property of water. RD = Mass of substance ————————————— Mass of the same volume of water at 4 oC .5.5. It tells us that how many times more dense is the substance than water i. As the temperature rises from 0 oC to 4 oC it actually contracts. it soaks the water by this process of capillary action. The thread strands in the cloth and cellulose of the bloating paper serves like very fine bore tubes for the water to rise. 2 m3 of water has a mass of 2000 kg. It has the greatest density at this temperature and will sink through warmer or colder water around it.

cleaning drinking and recreation.6. industrial use and for the generation of electricity. Water is required for the preparation of food by plants (photosynthesis). Therefore. How much earth surface is covered by water? 2. it is used for cooking food. and hence provides a good medium for extracting the body waste. to wash utensils. metallurgical operations to obtain metals such as copper.5 1. Without water. We can say that water is essential for life of living organisms. It is required for respiration by aquatic plants. Which type of hardness is removed by the following (i) boiling (ii) ion exchange method 9.1 Domestic uses of water Water plays an important role in domestic purposes. which type of water is it? Name the type of hardness due to presence of bicarbonate of Ca2+ or Mg2+.Air and Water : 37 : CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 18. Is water a polar or nonpolar solvent? 10. It also acts as medium for the transport of nutrients and minerals from one part of the plant to other parts. urine etc. for example. 5. The nutrients provided by fertilizers to the soil are soluble in water. Let us discuss the role of water for domestic use. The salts and the nutrients of the food dissolve in water. What is the unit of density? 18. agricultural use. What is the role of chlorination during purification of water? If water does not form lather. Name any two sources of water. Is rainwater pure or impure? 4. These dissolved nutrients are easily absorbed by the plants. it helps in the germination of seeds and growth of plants. clothes and clean the floor of houses. It helps in maintaining firmness and structure of plant parts by providing appropriate pressure to the plant tissue. . It is used to take bath.6. including growing crops. watering lawns. 3.2 Agricultural uses of water Water plays a similar important role in the plants life as in the human body. 18. 8. plants and animal cells cannot function and they ultimately die. generating electricity. 6. 18. In agriculture sector water is used for the irrigation of crops. It is also used for whitewashing. Water dissolves the waste material of body such as stool. Name the type of hardness due to presence of chloride or sulphate of Ca2+ or Mg2+. these nutrients are easily absorbed by our body.6 UTILITY OF WATER Water is used for many purposes. 7.

18. Efforts have been made to collect water by building dams and reservoirs and creating ground water structures such as wells. • • • • • Thus. flowers. but it must be filtered and treated prior to use. By reducing runoff and rain water that falls on your house or field. Rain water is perfectly suited for landscape irrigation. hardness deposits do no accumulate and there is no problem with soap scum. It is used as solvent in many industrial processes.4 Uses of water to generate electricity There are many different ways to harness the energy from water. but those few centimeters of annual rainfall are a valuable resource. It can be used for domestic purposes such as for vegetables. trees and shrubs and seedling in a green house etc. Reduces local flooding and drainage problems. Water is used in thermal power stations or nuclear power station to produce steam for the generation of the electricity. you can put a valuable water resource to work around your house. This is being done through rain water harvesting. When rain water is used in room coolers and for washing needs. Rainwater harvesting essentially means collecting rain water on the roofs of building and storing it underground for latter use. but it also decreases the community’s dependence for ground water for demestic uses.5 Rain water harvesting Over the years rising population. use in room coolers. for example the production of NH3 in Haber’s process. Conserves valuable ground water. Some countries have also tried to recycle and desalinate water. Harvesting rainwater not only helps reduce the possibility of flooding. It is used for the production of steam in industrial boilers and in steam engines. Wise conversion of water has become the need of the day. .3 Industrial uses of water Water is used as a coolant in industries. The idea of ground water recharging is gaining its importance in many of the cities. Not only does this recharging arrest underground depletion of water but also raises the declining water level and can help augment water supply. the benefits of harvesting rain water can be summarized as follows.6. for example H2SO4 is prepared by dissolving SO3 in water and HNO3 by dissolving NO2 in water. While many people may not realize it. washing and many other home applications. growth in industrialization and expending agriculture have pushed up the demand for water. Decreases landscaping and property maintenance needs.: 38 : Air and Water 18. 18. Water is also used to prepare fuels like hydrogen gas and water gas. Provides excellent quality water for many household uses. The most common way of capturing this energy is hydroelectric power.6. It is also used in production of ice and as coolant in vehicles. Harvested water may also be used for personal consumption. Electricity is generated by falling water. Water is used to prepare many chemical compounds.6.

to lift pumps. Major components of air are a) CO2 + H2O b) N2 + O2 c) CO2 + He d) H2O + Xe • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . wells. TERMINAL EXERCISES A. canals. water is the most abundant substance available to us. The state of atmosphere in relation to the amount of water vapour is known as humidity. to behave as a universal solvent. Water resources in a country is managed for proper and judicial use by constructing dams. the force of air column acting per unit area results in a pressure exerted by atmosphere called the atmospheric pressure. The air also contains argon. 1. helium. capillarity. surface tension. to straw. The following properties of water make it suitable for use in our everyday life: ability to dissolve many things i. carbon dioxide and some trace gases like neon. Mass per unit volume of a substance is known as its density. wells and tube wells.e.Air and Water : 39 : CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 18. Next to air. What are the uses of harvesting rain water? LET US REVISE The major components of air are nitrogen and oxygen. density of water at 4oC being 1 g cm-3. Water collected in dams is not only used for irrigation but also to generate electricity. Atmospheric pressure plays an important role in our every day life in the working of common things like ink dropper. Relative density is the ratio between the density of a substance to the density of water at 4oC. The weight i.6 1. reservoir.e. It also contains water vapour. Air is a) compound b) element c) mixture d) non of these 2. rivers and sea. lather formation. This is known as rainwater harvesting. spring. krypton and xenon. The natural source of water is rain. Multiple choice type questions. Rain water can be conserved by recharging it to ground or using it for various other purposes.

Water has maximum density at b) 10 oC a) 0 oC B. 3. Sugar and NH3? 13. Name the various components of air. How are the temporary and permanent hardness removed from water? 18. 9. 6. Give an activity. Carbogen is the mixture of a) O2 + CO2 b) O2 + N2 c) O2 + CO d) CO2 + CO 4. What is relative humidity? How is it measured? 10. List the utility of oxygen and nitrogen in our lives. 17. Why is water called as universal solvent? On what basis the following components dissolve in water: NaCl. What do you mean by conservation of water? How is it useful? c) 5 oC d) 4 oC . 4. 1. Give an activity to prove it. 21. Explain water cycle with the help of a suitable diagram. 16. Air is considered a mixture. What is rainwater harvesting? How is it beneficial for everyday life? 20. 7. agriculture. 12. What are the different ways to purify drinking water? What is the role of chlorination? 15. The instrument used to measure humidity is a) barometer b) hygrometer c) lactometer d) none of these 5. why? Prove by an activity that air is a mixture of different gases. 14. Explain the working of Aneroid barometer with diagram. Name the different types of barometers. Explain the following properties of water (i) Surface tension (ii) Density 19.: 40 : Air and Water 3. which proves that air exerts pressure. 2. What is atmospheric pressure? How is it measured using simple barometer? How does the atmospheric pressure depend on altitude? Write down the units of atmospheric pressure. Water is a polar solvent. List the utility of water for. industry and generation of electricity. What do you mean by hard and soft water? Explain the types of hardness in water. 5. Descriptive type questions. 8. domestic purpose. What are the different source of water? Explain any two. What is evaporation? How does it help in the formation of clouds? 11.

Three fourth Rain and sea Pure To kill microorganism Hard water Temporary Permanent (i) Temporary. 9. Evaporation. 18. 18. 4. 7. 10.5 1. (ii) permanent Polar g cm-3 It conserves valuable ground water. Low pressure. 2. 4. 5. 3. 3. Pascal 2. 2. 6. 3.3 1.1 1. 18. Needed for respiration by plants and animals Photosynthesis Solid CO2 Nitrogen 18. 2.Air and Water : 41 : ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 18. It varies from place to place. 18.2 1. Mixture Nitrogen and oxygen 4:1 It varies from place to place. 5. 3. 4. 8.6 1. 5.4 1. (i) (ii) (iii) Barometer Hygrometer Rain gauge 2. 2. 4. It reduces local flooding and drainage problems It decreases landscaping and property maintenance needs It provides quality water for many household needs It can be used for domestic purposes .

Evaporation: Vaporization of water due to solar heat. Soft water: water that form lather with soap. Humidity: The state of atmosphere in relation to the amount of water vapour it contains is known as humidity. Hard water: Water that do not form lather with soap. . Hygrometer: Instrument used to measure relative humidity. Cloud: Condensation of water vapour in the atmosphere. Rain: The falling of big drops of water from the clouds is known as rain. One atmosphere is equal to 1. Surface tension: Tension exerted by the molecules of water present in the upper layer is called surface tension.: 42 : Air and Water GLOSSARY Atmospheric pressure: The force of air column acting per unit area results in a pressure exerted by atmosphere. Barometer: Instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. One Pascal in one Newton per square meter.01325 x 105Pa. Dew point: The temperature at which the water begins to change into water drops. increased concentration of CO2. Pascal (Pa): The SI unit of pressure. Relative humidity: It is ratio of the mass of water vapour actually present in a certain volume of air at room temperature to the mass of water vapour required to saturate the same volume of air at the same temperature. Greenhouse effect: Trapping of infrared radiations. Density: Mass per unit volume of any substance.

The remaining ones can be produced in the laboratory only by nuclear reactions about which you learned in lesson 14. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson.1. Out of all the naturally occurring elements oxygen (O). • list various uses of metals and their alloys.2). Al and Cu. • explain the corrosion of metals. silicon (Si). 19. Si and P. you will be able to: • differentiate between metals and non-metals on the basis of their properties. The remaining elements are found only in chemically combined state. • distinguish between minerals and ores. in the uncombined state. Ag.1 Minerals and ores There are 83 naturally occurring elements. that is. A mineral is a . In this lesson you will learn about some abiotic resources and how they are used to obtain useful substances and materials. Most of these are obtained by transforming a relatively small number of naturally occurring raw materials chemically into more useful substances. aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) are four most abundant elements ( arranged in the decreasing order) and account for more than 87% of earth’s crust (lesson 2. • describe the allotropes of P and S and state the use of sulphuric acid. Au and Platinum are some of them. properties and uses of various non-metals–H. fig. • recognize various metallurgical processes in the extraction of common metals– Fe. Only few elements are found in the free or native state i.e. Cu.1 MINERAL RESOURCES 19.Mineral Resources–Metals and Non-metals : 43 : 19 Mineral Resources– Metals and Non-metals We use large number of materials but very few of them occur naturally. in combination with one or more other elements as minerals. 2. • explain the preparation. You have learnt in earlier lessons that environment provides all the necessary support for the existence of mankind through its various components and resources both biotic and abiotic.

They are either gases or volatile liquids at low temperatures (exception: diamond and boron which are hard solids). it is not always possible to recover metals from them economically.2 Metals and non-metals There are 83 naturally occurring elements.: 44 : Mineral Resources-Metals and Non-Metals naturally occurring homogeneous inorganic substance having a definite chemical composition and characterstic crystalline structure. Thermal and electrical conductivity . Thus. A mineral from which it can be done is called an ore. Density Their density is generally high. solid. They can be beaten into thin sheets and drawn into wires (exception: Bi) They form alloys with other metals and some non-metals. silicon and phosphorus). The two differ widely in their physical and chemical properties. The properties which distinguish metals from non-metals are given in the tabular form below. They are neither malleable nor ductile. Their density is generally low.1(A): Differences in physical properties of metals and non-metals Property State Metals They are solids at ordinary temperature and usually non-volatile (exception: mercury which is a liquid). If so. They are malleable and ductile.e. 19. They are poor conductors of heat and electricity (exception: graphite and gas carbon). i. They are good conductors of heat and electricity (exception: lead which is a poor conductor of electricity). copper pyrite (CuFeS2) is a mineral of copper. colour and hardness. ore is a mineral from which a metal can be extracted profitably. metals and non-metals. it is called the ore of copper otherwise a mineral. For example. They possess metallic lustre and take a high polish. They can be broadly divided into two categories namely.1. Table 19. Non-metals They exist in all the three states. Copper can be profitably extracted from it only if its copper content is 4% or more. Metallic lustre Malleability and ductility Alloy formation They do not form alloys (except carbon. liquid and gas. Generally they do not possess metallic lustre (exception: graphite and iodine). Although all minerals are sources of metals.

Electrochemical nature They are electronegative elements and form anions. They generally dissolve in mineral acids forming a salt with the evolution of a gas. * Acids which contain oxygen are called oxoacids or oxyacids. they act as reducing agents and themselves get oxidized. Electropositive character varies in different metals. They are liberated at the anode during electrolysis (exception: hydrogen).3 Activity series of metals In the last section you learned that metals are electropositive in nature. They are electropositive elements and form cations. For example: Zn + H2SO4→ZnSO4 + H2 zinc sulphuric zinc hydrogen acid sulphate They generally dissolve by a chemical reaction.1. Such a metal when dipped in a solution of salt of a less . This process may be written as: M Mn+ + neMetals can give off their electron to the atoms of non-metals. bromine or iodine dissolves in water. For example: Solubility Many non-metals dissolve without any chemical changetaking place. For example: chlorine. hydrogen ions and even to ions of other metals. Some metals like chromium and manganese form some anions also with other elements like oxygen.Mineral Resources–Metals and Non-metals : 45 : Table 19. They are liberated at cathode during electrolysis. Hydrides They form stable hydrides with hydrogen. Action of acids P4+20HNO3 → 4H3PO4+ 20NO2+4H2O They either do not dissolve in mineral acids or form the corresponding oxacids*. 19. They form acidic oxides only.1(B): Differences in chemical properties of metals and non-metals Property Metals Non-metals Nature of oxides They generally form basic oxides which form alkalis with water For example: 4Na + O2 → 2Na2O sodium sodium oxide Na2O + H2O → 2NaOH sodium hydroxide (alkali) They either form no compound with hydrogen or form unstable hydrides.e. A metal that can lose electrons more easily is more electropositive and would be more active in nature. In all their chemical reactions metals give off their electrons i.

The arrangement of metals in the decreasing order of their activities is known as activity series or electrochemical series. Ag. a mineral of thorium and has vast reserves of many important minerals. It is the chief producer of mica and has monopoly for monazite. machine tools. Cu. Any metal can displace all the metals that are on its right-side and which follow it. metals which follow it and are placed on its right-hand side. Yet others substitute in many cases for human brain like computers. Zn can displace any of Cr. An element A forms basic oxide whereas another element B forms an acidic oxide.industry. Thus. Indirectly. Mg.e. It is also known as reactivity series. diggers.1 1. Which of the following metals can displace hydrogen from solutions of acids? Ag. Zn. and agricultural equipments. Cu. Thus if a zinc rod is dipped in a solution of copper sulphate it would displace copper which is precipitated. In other words. Hg and Ag. Zn. 2. the rate of development of a nation can be measured by the rate at which it produces and . is controlled by the number of machines that are produced and are usefully employed. But zinc can be displaced only by those metals which precede it and are on its left-hand side i. You will learn more about our mineral wealth in the discussion of various metals later in this lesson. Hg. Mg and Al. 19. H.: 46 : Mineral Resources-Metals and Non-Metals active metal would displace it (less active metal). Fe 3. Fe. Ag Hydrogen is the only non-metal that stands in this series. transport or agriculture. Al. Which of them is expected to be malleable and ductile? 4.2 METALS We see a large variety of machines around us. Pb. Cu. Pb. It is because hydrogen also shows electropositive character like metals. But all machines are made of metals. The pace of progress in any field. Zn. Cr. Name two most abundant elements in earth’s crust. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 19. Some of them perform simple mechanical operations and substitute for the weak muscles of man like bulldozers. Ca. Na. a metal can be displaced by only those metals which precede it and are on its left-hand side. (H). Which element could it be? 5. Others do very precise jobs that man can never do himself like high precision machine tools. Which two of the following metals occur in native state? Na.4 Mineral resources in India India is very fortunate to have been gifted by nature with rich mineral resources.1. Cu 19. Fe. Na. A non-metallic element forms a cation and is liberated at cathode during electrolysis. A portion of this series is given below: Ca. Zn(s) + Cu2+ (aq) Cu(s) + Zn2+(aq) zinc cupric ion copper zinc ion This happens because zinc is more electropositive in nature than copper. Today man cannot live without machines.

19.2. They are collectively called the gangue. aluminium and copper. This produces froth which floats on the surface. purification and properties of three important metals namely iron. (b) Hydraulic washing This method is used due to a large difference in densities of ore which is heavy and of the gangue which is light. In this section we will learn about various metallurgical operations which are used for extraction of metals from their ores and also about extraction.1 Schematic diagram of magnetic separation Gangue Fig.1 Basic metallurgical processes Metallurgy is the branch of science dealing with extraction of metals from their ores.1 For example. The method used for concentration of ore depends on the nature of gangue associated with it as well as its own nature.2 Froth floatation process . A schematic diagram of the process is shown in Figure 19. The powdered ore is mixed with water and oil and air is bubbled through it as shown in Figure 19.The three main steps in extraction of a metal from its ores are (i) concentration of ore. separation of magnetite (Fe3O4) and pyrolusite (MnO2) from gangue can be done using strong electromagnets. 19.Mineral Resources–Metals and Non-metals : 47 : consumes various metals. Air Agitator ELECTRO-MAGNETS Magnetic partciles Non-magnetic particles Fig. The lighter gangue particles are washed away in a stream of water while heavier minerals stay back. The oil preferentially wets the sulphide mineral particles which are carried by air bubbles to the surface of the mixture and are skimmed off. (ii) production of the metal and (iii) purification of metals. 19.2. (c) Froth floatation This method is used for the concentration of sulphide ores. 19. The waste materials usually associated with the ore are clay and silicates. Various methods used are: (a) Magnetic separation This method is used when a mineral is magnetic in nature and is attracted towards a magnetic field whereas the gangue is not.1a Concentration of ore The preliminary treatment of an ore to separate the waste materials from it is called its concentration. The froth is allowed to collapse and dried to recover the mineral.2. Now we will learn about these steps.

sodium.16 Production of metal After enriching the ore. (e) Roasting It is used to remove volatile impurities and to convert a sulphide or carbonate ore into oxide by heating it in a stream of air. They are usually infusible in nature and are removed with the help of a flux. production of a free metal is always a reduction process. An acidic flux (like sand) is added to remove basic impurities like FeO: FeSiO3 FeO + SiO2 → basic gangue acidic flux fusible slag A basic flux (e. The less reactive metals are produced by reduction of the metal oxide with a more reactive metal. Highly reactive metals are reduced by carrying out electrolysis of their molten salts like chlorides or oxide. or reduction with coke (carbon) and carbon monoxide Roasting of their sulphide ores Removal of impurities associated with ores Some impurities are also associated with most of the ores which are called gangue. it is converted into free metal. zinc Copper.2: Reduction processes employed to obtain some metals from their ores Reduction process Metals Lithium. iron.g. Flux is a material that is added during its reduction in a furnace to convert infusible impurities (gangue) into a fusible substance that is called slag which is separated from the molten metal and removed. Table 19.2 lists the reduction processes which are employed for extraction of some metals. The method of reduction depends upon the activity of the metal. Table19.2. or reduction with coke (carbon) and carbon monoxide. manganese. Therefore. Metals in their combined state are always present as cation in their minerals.: 48 : Mineral Resources-Metals and Non-Metals (d) Calcination It is used to remove volatile matter like moisture or water of crystallization from the ore by simple heating. gold. sand): SiO2 + CaO CaSiO3 → acidic gangue acidic flux fusible slag . Different methods employed are shown in the following table in which metals have been arranged in the decreasing order of their activity. For example Cu2S(s) + O2(g) 2Cu2O(l) + 2SO2(g) 2ZnS(s) + 3O2(g) 2ZnO(s) + 2SO2(g) 19. silver Electrolytic reduction of their chlorides Electrolytic reduction of its oxide Al2O3 Reduction of the metal oxide with a more reactive metal. The nature of flux depends upon the nature of impurity to be removed.g. calcium Aluminium Chromium. CaO) is added to remove acidic impurities (e. magnesium.

The refining process removes undesirable impurities from the metal.3 Zone refining extremely pure. (c) Electrolytic refining It is the most commonly used method of refining of metals and produces highly pure metals. The metal (or silicon) rod which has already been purified extensively is placed in a quartz tube filled with a noble gas. Pure metal Metal rod Heating coil crystallizes from the melt. Iron is purified by this method. effectively pure metal from anode passes to cathode gradually. Impurities collect at the end of the metal rod (Figure 19. This end of the metal rod is cut off and discarded. The following are the most commonly used methods of refining. . (b) Liquation Readily fusible metals like lead. are purified in this way. When electric current is passed. Thus. It is moved slowly through a heating coil that melts only a small portion of the metal rod.Mineral Resources–Metals and Non-metals : 49 : 19. (d) Oxidation Impurities like carbon. impure metal from the anode gradually passes into the solution and pure metal from the solution gets deposited on the cathode. Impure metal is melted on the sloping surface (called hearth). are removed as oxides by passing air through molten impure metal. Impurities either collect below the anode as anode mud or dissolve in the solution. Copper. tin and bismuth are refined by this method. Pure metal melts and flows down and is collected separately while impurities are left behind. The impurities are more soluble in the molten metal and are carried to the end of the rod. 19. (a) Distillation or sublimation This removes nonvolatile impurities from volatile metals like zinc and mercury which are obtained in the pure state.3).1c Refining of metals The metals obtained by the metallurgical processes described in the preceding sections usually need further treatment to remove the impurities. Impure metal is made the anode (positive electrode) and a piece of pure metal the cathode (negative electrode). These electrodes are dipped in a solution of a soluble salt of the metal. The metal rod is moved repeatedly through the heating coil. phosphorus. (e) Zone refining This method is used for obtaining extremely pure metals and silicon. aluminium etc. The remaining metal is Fig.2. silicon etc.

Bhilai and other places.3H2O). haematite and magnetite are more suitable for the extraction of iron. Some other ores of iron are magnetite (Fe2O4). In case of oxide ore (haematite or magnetite) these treatments are not required. Huge deposits of haematite are available in India in Mayurbhanj. Durgapur. In case the carbonate (siderite) or sulphide (pyrites) ores are used. b. and coke. It was renowned for its suppleness (bending easily). Aristotle in 340 B.: 50 : Mineral Resources-Metals and Non-Metals After learning about steps involved in extraction of metals from their ores we will now learn how three important metals.2 Iron Iron is the chief metal used for making machinery and therefore plays very important role in growth of industry. Iron and steel are manufactured at Asansol. CaCO3. Usually the ore is rich enough and does not need any concentration. called charge is fed into the furnace. provided a description of the manufacture of a type of steel called wootz steel which was first produced in India but later on became famous as Damascus steel. It has been in use since long time. 19.2a Ores of iron Haematite (Fe2O3) is the most abundant ore of iron which is a reddish brown ore.2. its ability to maintain a cutting edge and its use in making swords. limestone. 2C (s) Fe2O3(s) FeO(s) + + + O2(g) CO(g) CO(g) 2CO(g) 2FeO(s) + CO2(g) Fe(l) + CO2(g) . iron. they are roasted to convert to oxide and in case hydrated oxide (limonite) is used it is calcinated to remove the water of crystallization. aluminium and copper are extracted from their ores. Out of these. In India the art of making iron had reached an advanced state. siderite (FeCO3) and pyrite (FeS3). Concentration of ore Ore is first broken into small pieces and if necessary it is washed with water. a.C. The main reactions that occur are given below.2b Extraction of iron The following are the main steps in the extraction of iron from its ores:.9. 19. Jamshedpur. This is testified by Ashok’s Iron Pillar in Delhi and iron joints used in the temple of Puri which remained rustfree even centuries after they were made. Reduction to iron The oxide ore is reduced chemically by carbon monoxide which is formed in a blast furnace by reaction of coke with air (shown in the box). A mixture of iron ore. Singhbhum and Mysore. lemonite (2Fe2O3. 19.2.

limestone. CaCO 3 . It has a relatively low melting point and can be cast into desired shapes. and coke. phosphorus. The Molten iron hot gases rise in the Fig. The oxygen in C + CO → 2CO the air reacts with FeO + CO → Fe +CO coke to form mainly 1200°C Iron melts Molten slag forms carbon monoxide and 1500°C 2C + O → CO some carbon dioxide. limestone. remains in molten state and being lighter than molten iron floats on it and is removed from time to time from a separate outlet. At the bottom of the furnace the temperature is high enough to keep it in the molten state. 19. (ii) It is strongly attracted by magnets. It is also called pig iron. The iron obtained from blast furnace is called cast iron. It contains about 95% iron and about 5% carbon along with many other impurities in small amounts like silicon. Lime stone decomposes into calcium oxide which then reacts with impurities (SiO2 and Al2O3) 2 2 3 3 4 2 3 2 Solid charge descends 3 4 2 Hot gases rise 2 2 2 CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + SiO2 (s) CaO(s) + Al2O3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g) CaSiO3(l) Ca(AlO2)2(l) The mixture of calcium silicate and calcium aluminate. 2000°C These reactions are Hot air blast highly exothermic in nature and a lot of Slag heat is generated. fed Fe O + CO → 3FeO +CO from near the bottom 700°C into it. CO. manganese and sulphur.4 Manufacture of iron in a blast furnace furnace and react with iron oxide ore. It is taken out from the outlet near the bottom of the furnace.2. . A mixture of iron Charge (ore.coke) ore. CO called charge is 200°C introduced into the 3Fe O + CO → 2Fe O +CO furnace from the top.Mineral Resources–Metals and Non-metals : 51 : Blast Furnace Blast furnace is a chimney-like structure made of steel plates and lined inside with firebricks. CaCO → CaO + CO A blast of hot air. Before the iron ore falls to the bottom of the furnace most of it is reduced to iron. known as slag.2c Properties of iron (A) Physical properties (i) Pure iron is a silver white metal. 19.

A reddish brown coloured solid is formed on and around the nail.: 52 : Mineral Resources-Metals and Non-Metals Commercially it is obtained in three forms: cast iron. (B) Chemical properties (i) When exposed to atmosphere. Presence of NaCl and other salts also increases the rusting rate. iron gets rusted. small piece of zinc from used cells and a small piece of copper wire. SO2 and retarded by alkalis. Amount of rust formed is much more. Solution of common salt + iron nail with a small piece of copper wire around it. White coloured precipitate is formed. iron nails. A large amount of rust is formed. A reddish brown coloured solid is formed on and around the nail. 1 2 Liquid solution Boiled water + iron nail and cork the test tube Tap water + iron nail What to observe? Practically no rust is formed A small amount of rust is formed.xH2O. . ACTIVITY 19. Test tube no. sodium hydroxide or washing soda. corks. wrought iron and steel. A reddish brown coloured solid is formed on and around the nail. Practically no rusting occurs. Prepare the test tubes as given below. common salt.1 Aim: To study the rusting process What is required? A few test tubes. How to do? Take 7 test tubes. A little more amount of rust is formed than in test tube 2. For the rusting process oxygen (air) and water are required. Paste labels on each of them and mark them as 1. It is therefore represented as Fe2O3. (Fill about half the test tube with the liquid/solution mentioned. A reddish brown coloured solid is formed on and around the nail. Completely homogeneous iron does not rust.2 and so on. 3 Solution of common salt in tap water + iron nail 4 Solution of common salt and vinegar in tap water + iron nail 5 6 7 Solution of common salt and sodium hydroxide or washing soda in tap water + iron nail Solution of common selt + iron nail with a small piece of zinc attached to it. It is accelerated by acidic substances like CO2. Rust is hydrated ferric oxide in which the amount of water associated varies.

phosphorus. The nail was not in contact with oxygen of air. Therefore it is good for casting. It is used for making engine blocks. It is malleable and can be forged. While production of iron is basically a reduction process .05–1.5% carbon together with traces of sulphur. namely cast iron. • In test tube 2 the nail was in contact with air and water and it rusted. hydrogen is liberated 3Fe(s) + 2H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g) (iii) It reacts with dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric acids and displaces hydrogen from them. • In test tube 3 the addition of sodium chloride increases the rusting process. • In test tube 6 corrosion occurs but not of iron but that of zinc which is indicated by the white coloured solid that is formed rather than the reddish brown rust. brake drums etc. • Wrought iron is the purest form of iron. It is used to make iron nails. Fe(s) + 2H+(aq) Fe2+(aq) + H2(g) (iv) Iron does not react with alkalis. Its melting point is higher than that of cast iron. in automobiles . It is manufactured from pig iron. Boiling of water had expelled the air from test tube and cork prevented the contact later.2. • In test tube 7 the corrosion of iron increases when it is in contact with a less active metal.5-4. sheets and machine parts. It is hard and brittle and cannot be welded. machined and welded. • Cast iron contains from 2. wrought iron and steel. It has a low melting point and expands on solidification.2d Commercial forms of iron There are three commercial varieties of iron. Fe(s)+ Cu2+(aq) Fe2+(aq) + Cu(s) 19. When hot. • Steel is an iron-carbon alloy and contains 0. It is obtained from cast iron by heating it with ferric oxide in a furnace. These varieties differ from each other mainly in their carbon content. manganese and silicon. It does not easily rust and is used for making parts exposed to weather such as lamp posts. hammered. • In test tube 4 the addition of an acid (vinegar) further increases the rusting process • In test tube 5 the addition of an alkali (sodium hydroxide or washing soda) retards the rusting process.Mineral Resources–Metals and Non-metals : 53 : What do we conclude? • In test tube 1 practically no rusting occurs although iron nail was in contact with water. The more active metal zinc gets corroded instead. (ii) When steam is passed over red hot iron.5% carbon. it combines with halogens and sulphur to give halides and sulphide respectively. 2Fe(s) + 3Cl2(g) 2FeCl3(s) Fe(s) + S(s) FeS(s) (v) Iron displaces less active metals from solutions of their salts. Contact of iron with a more active metal protects it against rusting.

In India it is found in Bihar. wheels and building material. armour plates.5% chromium to steel.5% nickel to steel. AlO2-(aq) + H3O+(aq) 2Al(OH)3(s) Al(OH)3(s) Al2O3(s) + 3H2O(l) . 19. It is extremely hard and strong. Bauxite is the chief ore of aluminium. It is very strong material. oxides of iron and titanium remain unaffected and are filtered off. Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) 2NaAlO2 (aq) + H2O(l) Other impurities. It is used for making armour piercing projectiles. 19. The solution is then treated with an acid which precipitates insoluble aluminium hydroxide Al(OH)3 which is then heated to obtain pure aluminium oxide. If the carbon content in steel is between cast iron and wrought iron it is called mild steel. Alwaye (Kerala). It does not occur free in nature. Therefore it remained unknown until the nineteenth century. The ore contains oxides of silicon. It is used for making utensils. It is called stainless steel because it is resistant to rust formation. cryolite. It is used for manufacture of rails. automobile and aeroplane parts.2. etc. 19. Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Madhya Pradesh.3a Ores of aluminium Main ores of aluminium are bauxite.2H2O). corundum. (Al2O3.2. Kashmir.0% chromium to steel. Then.2.1) that aluminium is the third most abundant element. (ii) Nickel steel: It is prepared by mixing 3. The ore is first treated with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) which converts aluminium oxide (Al2O3) into soluble sodium meta aluminate (Na AlO2). (Al2O3).3 Aluminium You have learnt in the beginning of this lesson (section 19.2. 19.5 to 2. crushing machinery and cutlery etc. (iii) Chrome steel: It is prepared by mixing 1. cycles and automobile parts. (i) Stainless steel: It is prepared by mixing 11. the required amount of carbon is added to it. Kalna (Maharashtra). Belur and Jaykay Nagar (West Bengal).2e Alloy steels Some very useful properties may be imparted to steel by alloying it with other metals. the conversion of iron to steel is an oxidation process in which excess of carbon is oxidized to carbon monoxide. It is manufactured in Muri (Bihar).3b Extraction of aluminium Aluminium is extracted from bauxite by electrolysis. Composition and properties of some alloy steels are given below. Its hardness depends upon the amount of carbon in it. (Na3AlF6) and silicates like feldspar (KAlSi3O8). It is used for making cables. iron and titanium as main impurities.: 54 : Mineral Resources-Metals and Non-Metals converting iron oxide into iron. propeller shafts.

2. molten cryolite is a much better electrical conductor than Al2O3. A Fig. It is used for making thin foils used for packing of food articles because it is not involved in living systems and is considered to be non-toxic. Its conductivity is about 65 % of that of copper and only silver. 660. It is thus a self protective metal. 4Al + 3O2 2Al2O3 (iv) Although it is considered as an active metal.5 The schematic diagram of number of carbon rods are used as anode. copper and gold surpass it in this regard.p. Na3AlF6 which acts as Carbon solvent for it. Instead a few per cent Al2O3 is dissolved in fused cryolite. it does not react with water as do metals like sodium and magnesium. (iii) It is an excellent electrical conductor.5. (iii) If heated to redness. it burns with a brilliant white light with evolution of much heat. it is increasingly taking the place of copper for making electrical wires for domestic use as well as for making high voltage transmission lines. This oxide film protects aluminium from corrosion and also accounts for the unexpected inertness of aluminium.2 oC) collects at the bottom of the cell and is drained out from time to time. The metal obtained has the purity of 99. 19. cathode Further. (ii) In air its surface gets coated with a protective layer of aluminium oxide.e. This cell consists of an iron tank which is lined Al O in molten cryolite inside with gas carbon which acts as cathode. It is drawn into wires. Aluminium oxide obtained by heating Al(OH)3 has an extremely high melting point (2045 oC) and its direct electrolysis Carbon anodes is not practicable.6 – 99. Electrolysis electrolytic cell used in Hall’s process of this molten mixture produces aluminium and oxygen gas according to the following net processes: 2 3 Anodic process (oxidation): Cathodic process (reduction): Net process: [2O2[Al3+ + 3e2Al2O3(l) O2(g) + 4e-]×3 Al(l)] ×4 4Al(l) + 3O2(g) The liquid aluminium metal (m. .7 g cm-3) and high tensile strength i. it can be stretched.3a Properties of aluminium (A) Physical properties (i) Aluminium is a bluish white metal and can take high polish. Being cheaper and lighter than copper. The cell is operated at about 950 oC. It is malleable and ductile.8 %. (B) Chemical properties (i) It is a trivalent electropositive element. (ii) It has extremely low density (2. The schematic diagram of the Molten aluminium electrolytic cell used in Hall process is shown in Figure 19.Mineral Resources–Metals and Non-metals : 55 : Fused anhydrous aluminium oxide or alumina is then reduced by Hall process electrolytically. 19.

plastics.1 COMMON HOUSEHOLD ITEMS We use many things in our house like candles in case of emergency lighting. thus. are natural materials. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. in construction of houses and other buildings. silk. cotton. making them even better than natural materials. • list various medicines used in some common diseases. detergents. We need different types of materials to meet our daily needs. coal. you will learn about the ways in which various materials are used in making common household items.Materials in Our Daily Life : 95 : 21 Materials in Our Daily Life The basic aim of science is not only to study and understand natural phenomena but also to use this knowledge to make our lives more comfortable. matchbox to light gas stove or candles and many more. However. ink to write. • explain harmful effects of man-made materials on the environment. • name the materials used for making some common household items and for housing purposes. • state the principles involved in preparation and properties of some man-made materials in our daily life. glass. The materials that we get from nature are called natural materials. Science and technology have enabled us to develop more economical and convenient methods to recover useful materials from nature and to put them to various uses. Chemistry has enabled us to synthesize new materials which have desired properties. you will be able to: • differentiate between natural and man-made materials. Synthetic textiles like terylene and nylon. dyes. You will learn about different polymers and their uses in our daily life. Some of them are obtained from nature while others are prepared by man. Let us now learn about these items of daily use. soap. leather. In this lesson. rubber. insecticides and pesticides are some man-made materials which are commonly used. some materials that we use are manmade. . 21. etc. Wood. you will learn about the various medicines that help to cure different diseases and keep us healthy. fertilizers. cement. soaps and detergents to wash our clothes. In addition.

Have you ever thought what ink is? Ink is a coloured fluid or a paste that is used for writing or printing.: 96 : Materials in Our Daily Life 21. Perfume is added and the particles are compressed into soap cake. which has a better sticking property. also called India ink. Earlier. Usually they are made from a mixture of paraffin wax or some other slow-burning substance like tallow (stearic acid). Now a days. Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain organic acids (called fatty acids) like stearic acid and palmitic acid. shapes and sizes. How do soap and detergents remove the dirt and grease? What are the chemicals present in them? What is the difference in soaps and detergents? 21. Inks used in printing are similar in nature but are in the form of thick paste. They are commonly made in cylindrical form but are also made in fanciful designs. So.1 Candles We use candles as emergency light source and for decorative and ceremonial purposes. Soap and detergents help in removing dirt. solid soap separates out from the mixture.1. soft tip pens. Some candles are scented and their aroma spreads in the air when lighted while some others can float on water. candles are made in a variety of colours. . When lighted with a matchstick heat from its flame liquefies the wax of the candle.3a Soap Soap has been in use for at least last three thousand years. They contain a wick at their centre. 21. gel pens.2 Inks We all use inks in various writing instruments like fountain pens. the reaction is completed in a few minutes. ball pens. Nainital (in Uttaranchal) is famous for the variety of beautiful and decorative candles manufactured here. Glycerol dissolves readily in salt solution but soap does not.1.3 Soap and detergents We use soap and detergents to wash our clothes. The oil and sodium hydroxide solution are fed into an enclosed reaction vessel under high pressure and heated at high temperature. The mixture of soap and glycerol is cooled and a concentrated solution of sodium chloride is added. How is soap manufactured? Soap is made by heating oil with sodium hydroxide. oil and grease.1. roller pens. It was made by mixing lamp black or carbon black in water or oil to which some gum was added which stabilized the mixture and also gave it better sticking property. It is then removed by centrifugation. This is an essential quality as it causes the ink to stick to the typefaces and to paper when it is pressed against it. This ink is used even these days but more commonly used inks are solutions of water or alcohol soluble dyes. was most widely used. etc. This liquefied wax rises up along the wick where it is converted into vapour form. At this temperature. 21. black ink.1. which then catches fire. While still hot it is sprayed into a hot vacuum chamber to dry it. We wash our hands and take bath with soap.

1. What is required? Four test tubes. What do you observe? • Lather is formed in both the test tubes.4 Matchboxes In every house you will find a matchbox. which contains calcium and magnesium salts in it. When the fat or oil is heated with sodium hydroxide solution. This is because their calcium and magnesium salts are water soluble.Materials in Our Daily Life : 97 : The basic materials used to manufacture soap are animal fats (lard) or vegetable oils (olive oil.3c Cleansing action of soap and detergent Soaps and detergents form lather or foam with water. Instead they themselves are precipitated as insoluble salts of calcium and magnesium.1. Water by itself cannot do it as it does not wet oily or greasy dirt. Addition of soap or detergents improves the wetting property of water and thus helps in removing oily or greasy dirt. In their place.1. 21. What to do? Take four test tubes. Unlike soaps detergents can be used with soft as well as hard water. long chain sulphonic acids (usually C8 to C22) are used. ACTIVITY 21. With hard water. In one of them add a small piece of soap while in the other add a small amount of some detergent (a small piece or a small amount of powder).3b Detergents Animal fats and vegetable oils are important foodstuffs and ideally should not be used for making something even as important as soap.1 Aim : To compare the lather forming ability of soap and detergent in soft and hard water. • You will find that soap does not form lather but detergent does form lather even with hard water. two small pieces of soap and detergent cakes. Soaps produce lather (foam) with soft water. Lather removes grease and dirt particles from clothes. 21. In two of them take some amount of ordinary tap water which is soft water. usually sodium hydroxide. Sodium or potassium salts of these sulphonic acids are known as detergents. Detergents can be manufactured in solid form (for washing powders) or in liquid form (for shampoos and liquid soaps). Can you imagine life without it? How would you light up a candle or gas stove without it? . etc. they do not produce lather. neem oil.) and an alkali. 21. Fats and oils are compounds of organic acids (containing 12–14 carbon atoms) and glycerol (commonly called glycerine). Shake both the test tubes. • Now repeat the above procedure with hard water from a hand pump or a well. the acids are broken away from glycerol and are neutralized by the alkali to form soap.

When a matchstick is struck against the coated surface of the matchbox. Be careful Matches must be used carefully.2H2O b) Manufacture: Limestone and clay are mixed in definite proportion and ground to a fine powdery state. while throwing away a matchstick you should always check that it is completely extinguished and there is no after glow. This can result in an accident. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 21. This dry powder is used as such or mixed with water to form a paste and heated in a rotary kiln (a type of furnace). CaSiO3 and calcium aluminate. we learned about some common household items. we should not throw it anywhere carelessly.1 1. Matchsticks thus treated are completely extinguished when blown away and are safer to use.2. This mixture is in the form of small greenish black or grey-coloured . Which type of matches do we use today? 21. While lighting. Al2O3 and silica.2 HOUSING MATERIALS In the last section. some heat is produced that makes the chemicals in the match head react. The heat of this reaction ignites the wood. The striking surface on the matchbox is a mixture of red phosphorus and powdered glass held by glue. 3. CaAl2O3.: 98 : Materials in Our Daily Life Do you know how a matchstick catches fire? The head of matchstick consists of a mixture of potassium chlorate and antimony trisulphide bound together by glue. This is known as after glow. Therefore. Sometimes matchsticks are dipped in a solution of borax or sodium carbonate (karborized matches) and dried as a first step in the manufacture of matches. Name the substances used for making candles. Many accidental fires may occur by this after glow. the tip of the stick continues to burn slowly as can be seen by the dull red glow at the tip. we will learn about two important housing materials – cement and glass. What are soaps? 4. it should not be struck so hard on the side of the matchbox that it’s burning head breaks and flies away. It is slowly made to pass through the kiln wherein limestone and clay combine chemically and form a mixture of calcium silicate.1 Cement Do you know what cement is made of and how is it manufactured? a) Raw materials required: Three main raw materials required for manufacture of cement are as follows: • Limestone which is calcium carbonate. Even when its flame is blown off. After using a matchstick. SiO2 • Gypsum which is CaSO4. 21. CaCO3 • Clay which is mainly a mixture of aluminium silicates containing alumina. Give two examples each of natural and man-made materials? 2. Can soap be used with hard water to wash clothes? 5. In this section.

Materials in Our Daily Life : 99 : hard balls known as clinkers. ordinary laboratory glass apparatus like soda glass test tubes etc.C. The fused mixture is then allowed to cool. b) Manufacture: The raw materials are mixed in a definite proportion. non-crystalline and brittle. looking mirrors. • Hard glass: If instead of sodium carbonate. To this powder. It is used for making hard glass laboratory apparatus like hard glass test tubes. It can withstand very high temperatures. It sets to an extremely hard structure.2 Glass Glass is used for various purposes. Concrete may be further strengthened by filling it around or over a network of steel rods and allowing it to set. These clinkers are allowed to cool down and then ground to very fine powder. etc. windscreens of vehicles. Gypsum is added to decrease the setting time of cement.C. It is then packed in airtight bags to exclude the moisture. roads. 21. As a result of chemical reactions between water and cement this mixture sets into a hard mass. sand. It is known as reinforced concrete cement or R. • Soda-lime glass: The glass produced as given above is called sodalime glass or soft glass. Concrete is a mixture of cement. this powder is mixed with sand and water and the resulting thick paste is used for construction purposes. Have you ever wondered how is glass prepared? What are the raw materials required for manufacturing of different types of glasses? a) Raw materials required: The basic raw materials needed for making glass are: • Washing soda which is sodium carbonate. c) Uses: Cement is one of the most important building materials. beakers. By doing so glass can be recycled and it also helps in melting of the mixture. bridges. Sometimes scrap glass is also mixed with other raw materials. c) Types of glass and their uses: There are various types of glasses depending upon their composition and the purpose of their use. It is used for manufacture of bottles ordinary crockery. roads. Na2 CO3. It is used for making floors and roads. For general uses like plastering or laying of bricks. reading glasses. Such structures are very strong and are used in construction of pillars. potassium carbonate is used for making glass another variety of glass known as hard glass is produced. dams.2. The glass so produced is transparent. CaCO3. You must have seen glasses fitted in windows and doors. It is employed in the construction of buildings. . gravel or small pieces of stone and water. 2-3% gypsum is added and the mixture is again ground to obtain a grayish coloured powder. • Limestone which is calcium carbonate. SiO2. sunglasses. These are then ground and the mixture is heated in a furnace. etc. conical flasks etc. bridges and dams. • Sand which is silica. roofs of buildings. which is cement.

It can withstand rapid heating and cooling without breaking.2 1. In this section we would learn about some such useful chemicals. a) Raw materials required: The raw materials required to manufacture washing soda are • Lime stone is calcium carbonate (CaCO3) • Sodium chloride (NaCl) in the form of brine • Ammonia (NH3) b) Manufacture: Washing soda is manufactured by Solvay process. spectacles. It cuts harmful ultra violet rays that are harmful to eyes. Flint or optical glass: It is used for making lenses. firstly. It is because of this chemical used that the clothes washed by a washerman appear so white. green glass contains chromium ferrous oxide. It is composed of alkalis. because of its excellent optical properties. Now let us learn about the raw materials used in its manufacture and how is it manufactured. etc. What is the role of small pieces of stone that are added to cement when it is used to make floor or roads? 4. It is an important chemical required as basic raw material in hundreds of industries.10H2O). 21. What is mixed with cement before using it for construction purposes? 2. It is used for making kitchenware and laboratory apparatus. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 lime stone quick lime carbon dioxide . It is also used for reinforcing plastics and rubber to make bodies of cars and scooters and safety helmets. electricity and sound in different equipment like electric ovens. Coloured glass: It is made by adding small quantities of oxides of different metals to basic ingredients.: 100 : Materials in Our Daily Life • • • • Borosilicate glass: It is sodium aluminium borosilicate. It is known as Crooke’s glass. Blue glass contains traces of cobalt or copper oxide. lead oxide and silica. carbon dioxide is obtained by heating limestone strongly. refrigerators. red glass contains selenium oxide. It is also known as flint glass. It is sold under the trade names Borosil and Pyrex. prisms. Chemically. Which type of glass can withstand rapid heating and cooling without breaking? 3.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 21.3 SOME IMPORTANT CHEMICALS A large number of chemicals are used in industry and in our homes for various purposes. etc. geysers. How is coloured glass made? 21. A superior variety of optical glasses is made by adding cerium oxide. Fibre glass: It is produced by passing molten glass through rotating spinners when it gets converted into fine threads. washing soda is sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO3. In this process.1 Washing soda Washing soda is used for washing of clothes. It is used as an insulating material for heat.

It is calcinated (heated strongly in a furnace) to get sodium carbonate. Its solution in water is alkaline in nature. Baking soda is also used in medicines to neutralize the excessive acidity in the stomach.2 Baking soda You must have seen your mother using baking soda while cooking some dals. Mixed with a solid acid such as citric or tartaric acid. baking soda is sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate and its formula is NaHCO3. usually baking powder is used. crystallizes out. she would tell that it helps in cooking some items faster which otherwise would take much longer time. its most common use in laundry is for washing of fabrics and clothes from which it gets its name. NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + NH3(g) + H2O(l) NaHCO3(s) + NH4Cl(aq) Sodium chloride ammonia sodium hydrogen carbonate ammonium chloride NaHCO3 being sparingly soluble in water. The sodium carbonate produced during the heating of sodium hydrogen carbonate gives bitter taste. to avoid its bitter taste. Another important use of baking soda is in certain types of fire extinguishers about which you have already learned in lesson 14. 21. water glass. It gives small white crystals sparingly soluble in water. Therefore.3. The latter is added to neutralize the sodium carbonate formed in the reaction given above. which is a mixture of baking soda.Materials in Our Daily Life : 101 : It is then passed through cold brine (a solution of concentrated NaCl in water). They are made so soft and fluffy by using baking powder. You must have eaten cakes. b) Uses: Baking soda is mainly used in the baking industry. NaHCO3 and an acid like tartaric acid. it gives off carbon dioxide. it finds use in effervescent drinks used to cure indigestion. which has previously been saturated with ammonia. Of course. It is also used for the softening of water. caustic soda. It is this carbon dioxide which raises the dough during baking. When sodium hydrogen carbonate or its solution is heated. CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 quick lime slaked lime Ca(OH)2 + 2NH4Cl ammonium chloride CaCl2 + 2NH3 + 2H2O calcium chloride c) Uses: Washing soda is used in the manufacture of glass. borax and soap powders. 2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O Ammonia used in this process is regenerated by first converting the quicklime obtained earlier with water and then reacting it with ammonium chloride obtained from carbonating tower. If you ask her why she uses it. as laboratory reagent and as a starting material for the preparation of a number of other sodium compounds. Chemically. . a) Manufacture: You have already learned in the previous section that it is the primary product of the Solvay process used to manufacture washing soda.

When gypsum is heated at about 325 K. a) Manufacture: It is manufactured from gypsum which is hydrated calcium sulphate (CaSO4. Which chemical can be used for removing stains of ink from clothes? 4. calcium hydroxide. is fed into the chlorinating tower from the top. Bleaching is a process of removing colour from a cloth to make it whiter. Name the process used for manufacture of washing soda? 3. What is the chemical formula of Plaster of Paris? . it is used as a disinfectant and germicide for the sterilization of water. ½H2O or 2CaSO4. pillars and ceilings and to make ornamental patterns on them. The dry slaked lime.3 1. As a result of the reaction between them it is converted into bleaching powder which collects at the bottom. which expand with hardening. Ca(OH)2 • Chlorine gas. linen and wood pulp in textile and paper factories.3. in rendering wool unshrinkable and for the manufacture of chloroform. Now we shall learn about the raw materials required for its manufacture and how it is manufactured from them. Apart from this. Cl2 b) Manufacture: It is prepared in a vertical tower made of cast iron with inlets for chlorine and hot air near the base. it is calcium oxychloride and its formula is CaOCl2. When made into a paste with a little water. 21. It moves downward slowly and meets the upcoming current of chlorine. b) Uses: Plaster of Paris finds use in making casts and patterns. Plaster of Paris sets to a hard mass. They are made with Plaster of Paris. What is the common name of NaHCO3? 2.H2O which is plaster of Paris. It is also used for making chalks for writing on blackboard. Bleaching powder has been used for this purpose since long. Chemically. a) Raw materials required: The raw materials required for manufacture of bleaching powder are • Slaked lime. also called POP.3.4 Plaster of Paris You must have seen beautiful designs made on the ceiling and walls of rooms in many houses. It also finds use as an oxidizing agent in many chemical industries.3 Bleaching powder Have you ever wondered at the whiteness of a new white cloth? How is it made so white? It is done by bleaching the cloth at the time of its manufacture.: 102 : Materials in Our Daily Life 21. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 21. Now a days it is increasingly being used for plastering the walls. it loses part of its water of crystallization to form CaSO4. CaOCl2 + H2O Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 c) Uses: It is used mainly for bleaching cotton.2H2O) found in nature. It is used for making plaster casts to hold fractured bones in position while they set.

They are called natural fibres. which is woven or knitted into a cloth. it is suitable for making garments because they can be set into permanent creases and pleats. it can be easily bent. For example. wool. The small molecules which make a polymer are called monomers. terylene. These particles can be separated when acid is added to it and solid rubber is obtained. We use plastic buckets. polyester. This process is known as vulcanization. Polymers are big molecules which are formed when a large number of small molecules join one another. Raw rubber is soft and pliable i. nylon.4. ethene (C2H4) molecules join together and form the polymer known as polythene. etc. etc.e. Trees are tapped by making a spiral cut through the bark. b) Polysters: Polyesters are another category of polymers. silk. durable and is not damaged by insects like moths and by mildew (fungi that form a white growth on plants and materials like cloth and paper). They are called synthetic fibres. Carbon black is added to make it stronger.e. Hevea brasiliensis. etc. wool and silk are obtained from nature. liakra.Materials in Our Daily Life : 103 : 21. containers. 21. elasticity i.4. Terylene is crease resistant. 2 parts of rubber are mixed . it is a polyamide. etc. a) Nylon: Nylon is a polymer of small monomeric units called amide (-CO-NH-) i.4 FIBRES: NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC Fibre is a fine thread like material. We need different types of clothes. terylene. Cotton consists of cellulose.1 Polymers Many things that we see around us and use are polymers.2 Rubber a) Natural rubber: Natural rubber is chemically poly-cis-isoprene which is formed from the monomer isoprene. For making car tyres. the ability to return to its original shape after stretching. It does not possess the main property that we associate with rubber. It is prepared by reaction of adipic acid and hexamethylenediamine. It is prepared by reaction between terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. It is a white milky liquid. In the form of thin sheets it is used for manufacture of adhesive tapes and recording tapes. One important member of this family is dacron which is also known as terylene. The clothes that we wear are made of polymers like cotton. It is a suspension of tiny particles of rubber in water. It is crease resistant. The sap is called latex. Therefore. such as cotton. Some of these like cotton. like cotton. It has also been used to repair or replace segments of blood vessels. Fibres are made of polymers.e. durable and is not damaged by insects like moths and mildew. Many of them are man-made like nylon. to suit different weather conditions. flexible and more resistant to wear and tear. Apart from sulphur other substances are also added to natural rubber to modify its properties. 21. electrical switches. The word polymer means many parts. It comes from the sap of the Para rubber tree. Rubber is made elastic by heating it with a small amount (1 to 3%) of sulphur. polyester.

What is the name of monomeric unit of natural rubber? 3. Let us study about some common types of medicines. as covering for electrical wires and cables and as film for making bags. such as clay or chalk. 21. are added to make rubber hard and stiff. and pipes. It is used for making rain coats. All these items of daily use are made of plastic. which makes it especially useful for making tyres. What is a monomer? 2. It can be vulcanized just like natural rubber.5. It is used for making bottles. handbags. It is hard and quite a strong material.4 1. Other types of synthetic rubbers are made by mixing other monomers like styrene and chloroprene (commonly known as neoprene) with butadiene. a) Polythene is a polymer made from ethene (CH2=CH2).CH. What is the full form of PVC? 21.: 104 : Materials in Our Daily Life with 1 part carbon black. and plugs and for making handles of many kitchen utensils and electrical appliances like pans. It is a soft plastic. 21. electric irons. kettles. electrical switches.3 Plastics You must be using comb. which softens on heating. Rubber for floor tiles and mats contains fillers of this type. Plastics are synthetic or man-made polymers.5 MEDICINES Whenever we feel sick. electrical goods and as a covering of electrical wires. Let us learn about some of these. Its properties are similar and sometimes better than those of natural rubber. c) Bakelite (Phenol-formaldehyde resin) is made by reacting phenol and formaldehyde.1 Anaesthetics Anaesthetics are drugs which produce a loss of sensation and consciousness.4. It is used for making combs. toothbrush. Why is sulphur added to rubber? 4. we go to the doctor for medicines (also called drugs). b) Synthetic rubber: Synthetic rubber supplements the natural rubber and helps save precious trees. If flexibility is not important fillers. and toasters. The most common variety of synthetic rubber is made from the monomer butadiene CH2CH. pressure cookers. b) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is made from the monomer vinyl chloride (CH2=CHCl). It has particularly good resistance to wear and tear. General anaesthetics result in loss of sensation and consciousness in the entire . buckets. Medicine is a substance used for treating diseases or illness. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 21. toys including dolls. jars and buckets in your house. It is one of the most commonly used materials.CH2.

ranitidine and omeprazole are some examples of antacids. 21. Many of them are toxic in nature and pollute air and water.Materials in Our Daily Life : 105 : body. Some of them are so stable that they are not degraded easily and they get accumulated in the environment. In this section you learned about some important types of medicines. They are used during major surgical operations. Many of them are obtained from natural resources while a large number of them are man-made. 4. What is the use of ranitidine? 3.5 Antipyretics Antipyretics are the medicines which are used to bring down body temperature in high fever. 21. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 21. tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Ampicillin is a slight modification of penicillin. These days the latter are being used extensively. They must be used only under medical supervision.5. Name an antibiotic.5. Common examples are aspirin.5 1. However. paracetamol. etc. Which types of medicines are used for relieving pain? 21.5. 21. after use their disposal becomes a problem. morphine are some examples of analgesics. bronchitis. Examples are divinyl ethers. Digene. Other commonly used antibiotics are streptomycin. paracetamol. analgin and phenacetin. Some anaesthetics like Novocain and Xylocaine which show their effect in a limited area are called local anaesthetics. It has wider applications. What is the use of the drug paracetamol? 2. fungi and moulds. However. Aspirin. sore throat. In the next lesson you will learn about the harmful effects of man-made materials and the related environmental problems in detail. Their administration leads to perspiration which brings down the temperature.3 Analgesics Analgesics are used for relieving pain.2 Antibiotics Antibiotics are medicines which are used to kill bacteria. it must be remembered that medicines should always be taken on the advice of a doctor. The first antibiotic discovered was penicillin which is very effective for pneumonia. etc.4 Antacids Antacids are used to treat acidity in stomach. Such materials should be recycled in order to avoid such problems.6 HARMFUL EFFECTS OF MAN-MADE MATERIALS In this lesson you have learnt about various materials that are useful to us. .5. 21. cyclopropane. They are used during small surgical operations and tooth extraction.

Borosilicate glass is sodium aluminium borosilicate and can withstand rapid heating and cooling. It sets to an extremely hard structure. It is used for bleaching cotton. It is used for making casts and patterns and for plastering the walls. prisms. sand gravel and water. linen and wood pulp and for sterilization of water. Inks are coloured fluids or pastes that are used for writing or printing. Baking powder is a mixture of baking soda and tartaric acid. Candles are made from a mixture of paraffin wax and stearic acid. spectacles. . ½H2O) is prepared by heating gypsum (CaSO4. laboratory apparatus. Baking soda (NaHCO3) is the primary product of Solvay process. etc. as a laboratory reagent and as a starting material for many sodium compounds. limestone and sand in a furnace. Glass is prepared by heating a mixture of washing soda.2H2O). It can withstand very high temperatures and is used for making laboratory apparatus. Bleaching powder (CaOCl2) is prepared by mixing chlorine and slaked lime. Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids while detergents are sodium or potassium salts of long chain sulphonic acids. electricity and sound and reinforcing plastics and rubber. Detergents can give lather even with hard water whereas soaps cannot. borax and soap powders. It is used for making kitchen and laboratory ware.: 106 : Materials in Our Daily Life • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • LET US REVISE Of all the materials that we see around us some are obtained from nature while others are prepared by man. It is used for softening of water. ordinary crockery. Flint glass is used for making lenses. Soda glass is used for manufacture of bottles. Coloured glass is made by adding small quantities of oxides of different metals. It is used in the manufacture of glass. Fibre glass is a mass of fine threads of glass used as an insulating material for heat. caustic soda. It is mainly used in baking industry and in fire extinguishers. Safety matches have a mixture of potassium chlorate and antimony trisulphide and glue at the head of match sticks and a mixture of red phosphorus and powdered glass on the striking surface. Hard glass is made by using potassium carbonate in place of sodium carbonate. pillars and ceilings and to make ornamental patterns on them. Concrete is a mixture of cement.10H2O) is prepared by Solvay process. The heat generated when the match stick is struck starts the ignition. Plaster of Paris (CaSO4. Cement is one of the most important building material manufactured from limestone. etc. clay and gypsum. Washing soda (Na2CO3.

What are the basic materials used for the manufacture of soaps? 3. 1. List the raw materials required for manufacture of bleaching powder and describe its process of manufacture. What are candles made of ? 2. 16. 14. 15. antacids and antipyretics are some important types of drugs that are used. antibiotics. wool. Descriptive type questions. Nylon. 10. Novocain is an (a) antipyretic (b) analgesic (c) anaesthetic (d) antibiotic 3. Chloramphenicol is an (a) antibiotic (b) antipyretic (c) antacid (d) analgesic 4. Medicine is a substance used for treating diseases or illness. Multiple choice type questions. The glass that can withstand rapid heating and cooling without breaking is (a) hard (b) soda-lime glass (c) borosilicate (d) flint 2. How striking the matchstick on the side of the matchbox helps in lighting it? 8. rubber and plastics are some important polymers. TERMINAL EXERCISES A. 12. For printing purpose why is ink used in the form of thick paste? 7. What is concrete? 4. 11. Which of the following is a man-made material? (a) Glass (b) Wood (c) Leather (d) Silk B. Cotton. What is vulcanization process? Why is natural rubber vulcanized? 13. etc. What is an antipyretic? Give two examples.Materials in Our Daily Life : 107 : • • Polymers are big molecules formed when a large number of small molecules join together. polyesters. Choose the correct answer of the following: 1. are some polymers. Anaesthetics. How is Plaster of Paris manufactured? Give its two uses. Mention four uses of washing soda. Name the two substances used for making nylon. Why is gypsum added to the powdered clinkers during manufacture of cement? 9. 5. Mention two uses of bleaching powder. What is a candle made of? Explain the process of lighting it. 6. Give two examples each of antibiotics and analgesics. Name three plastics and give one use of each one of them. Which of the following is not a raw material required for manufacture of washing soda? (a) Lime stone (b) Ammonia (c) Slaked lime (d) Sodium chloride 5. analgesics. . terylene.

leather and rubber Man-made materials: Any two of the following – synthetic textiles like terylene and nylon. Differentiate between soaps and detergents. because soap is precipitated out as salts of calcium and potassium in hard water. detergents. 3. Describe the process of manufacture of washing soda giving appropriate chemical equations. glass. 4. How is soda-lime glass manufactured? Describe briefly. Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids. No. 2. Safety matches Sand and water Borosilicate glass To increase the strength of cement By adding small quantities of different metals Baking soda Solvay process Bleaching powder CaSO4. H2O or CaSO4. Isoprene To make rubber elastic Polyvinyl chloride 2. Candles are made from mixtures of paraffin wax and stearic acid. 21. 4. 3. soap. insecticides and pesticides.2 1. 3. Mention two of its uses. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 21.3 1. Natural materials: Any two of the following – wood. 5. 21. silk. cotton. 21. 2.: 108 : Materials in Our Daily Life 17.1 1. 19. List the raw materials required for the manufacture of cement. plastics. dyes. 21. 3. 4. Describe the process of manufacture of cement briefly.4 1. What are the monomeric units of polythene and polyvinyl chloride? Give three uses of each of these. fertilizers. . Why soaps do not form lather with hard water while detergents can? 18. 2.1/2H2O Monomer is a substance whose small molecules combine with one another and make a polymer. 4. cement. What changes are made in the raw materials in the manufacture of optical glass and Borosil glass? How is colour imparted to glass? 20.

Antipyretics: Medicines which are used to bring down body temperature in high fever. it is a polyamide Plaster of Paris: Common name of CaSO4 ½H2O. etc. Bakelite : Phenol-formaldehyde resin made by reacting phenol and formaldehyde. 4. Detergents: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain sulphonic acids. Man-made materials: Materials which are prepared by man. Dacron: Polyester prepared by reaction between terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. Nylon: Polymer of small monomeric units called amide (-CO-NH-) i. As an antipyretic or to get relief from fever It is an antacid used to reduce acidity Ampicillin or penicillin Analgin or analgesic GLOSSARY Analgesics: Medicines which are used for relieving pain. Bleaching powder: Common name of CaOCl2.Materials in Our Daily Life : 109 : 21. Borosilicate glass (Borosil glass): Sodium aluminium borosilicate and can withstand rapid heating and cooling. Antacids: Medicines which are used to treat acidity in stomach. fungi and moulds. Medicine: Substance used for treating diseases or illness. which is used for writing or printing. Concrete: Mixture of cement.5 1.e. Baking powder: Mixture of baking soda and tartaric acid. electricity and sound and reinforcing plastics and rubber. 3. sand. Natural materials: Materials which we get from nature. . Baking soda: Common name of NaHCO3. Monomers: Small molecules which make a polymer by joining one another. General anaesthetics: Those drugs which result in loss of sensation and consciousness in the entire body. Local anaesthetics: Drugs which show their effect in a limited area. Hard glass: Variety of glass that can withstand very high temperatures. Ink: Coloured fluid or a paste. Flint or optical glass: Lead-potash lime glass which is used for making lenses. gravel and water. spectacles. Fibre glass: Mass of fine threads of glass used as an insulating material for heat. 2. Antibiotics: Medicines which are used to kill bacteria. prisms.

Washing soda: Common name of Na2CO310H2O .: 110 : Materials in Our Daily Life Polymers: Big molecules formed when a large number of small molecules join together. Rubber: Chemically poly-cis-isoprene which is formed from the monomer isoprene. Synthetic rubber: Made from the monomer butadiene (CH2CH. Reinforced Concrete Cement (RCC): Concrete that is strengthened by filling it around or over a network of steel rods and allowing it to set.CH. Polythene: Polymer made from ethene (CH2=CH2). Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): Polymer is made from the monomer vinyl chloride (CH2=CHCl). Soaps: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids.CH2). Vulcanization: The rocess of heating of rubber with a small amount (1-3%) of sulphur to make it elastic.

The number of plants. • explain the cause and effect of global warming and ozone layer depletion. and a falling number of tigers in India.Environmental Problems : 111 : 22 Environmental Problems You have already learnt about the environment and its components in the previous lesson. effects and control. • explain the impact of increasing human population on the environment.1 Ecological balance The rich diversity of life that inhabits the earth helps in maintaining a balanced environment. • define pollution and list its types. The perfect balance between the physical environment and the living organisms in nature is called ecological balance. In this lesson.1. consequences and means of control of air. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. Ecological imbalances may lead to: • Destruction of natural habitat of wild life. However. water. • list the sources. For example. The environment has undergone many changes over the period of time. Population explosion in the recent times has resulted in a number of environmental problems. their causes. various human activities cause interference and imbalance in nature. . Herbivores eat plants. herbivores and carnivores is maintained in such a way that there are enough organisms of different species to survive. cutting of forests have resulted in the disappearance of Cheetah. • explain the causes. soil and noise pollution. and must have realized the importance of maintaining a life-supporting environment. • classify and define waste into biodegradable and non-biodegradable type. effects and control of forest fire.1 MAINTENANCE OF ECOLOGICAL BALANCE IN NATURE 22. you will be able to: • explain how ecological balance is maintained in nature. you will learn about some natural and man-made environmental problems. and are themselves eaten by carnivores. • list some environmental problems (natural and man-made). 22.

1.3 Some environmental problems While there are many things to appreciate about the nature’s bounty. soil conservation and rainfall. Alterations made by man always affect life forms adversely including man himself. and depletion of ozone layer and global warming. They may uproot grass. which means more water for irrigation. Plants take up carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. To meet the demand of food. more fertilizers and pesticides. concentration of pesticides in alarming proportions in organisms.1. 22. in the long run.1. .2) are man-made. roads.2 Impact of human population on the environment The population of India has crossed the figure of 1 billion and the world population is estimated to have touched the 6 billion mark. etc. industries. Capturing or killing of lions has led to an increased number of herbivores that compete for grass. while others may become endangered. Some of them are natural processes whereas others are man-made. there also exist a number of environmental problems. making the soil barren that may lead to soil erosion and desertification. All the problems listed above in (section 22. diminishing fossil fuels (oil. a favorite fish of the people living in this area.1. They provide wood for multiple use.: 112 : Environmental Problems • • • Addition of various chemicals from industries in the Kalu River near Bombay has resulted in extinction of the Bombay duck. coal and natural gas). which has resulted in an enormous increase in the population of a particular types of organisms. Cutting down of forests may lead to the following: • destruction of habitat or living place for wild plants and animals leading to disappearance and extinction of many species. 22. environmental resources are being exploited at a fast pace. Less forests mean more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. • reduced rainfall in that area. destruction of wild life. Forests are cleared to create space for housing. However. educational institutes. such as: • • • • • • deforestation. Growth in human population leads to putting in more land under cultivation for food production. Environment has the potential to replenish most of its resources in a certain period of time. You are aware of the importance of forests as a major natural resource. air.3a Deforestation Cutting of the natural forest cover is called deforestation. over-exploitation of resources and human activities have altered it leading to many environmental problems. • lowering of water table or depth of ground water. water and land pollution. shelter to wild life. Disturbance in the food chain. housing and energy. 22.

human or industrial. The addition of unwanted substances in wrong concentration . discharges some unwanted substances in the environment.Environmental Problems : 113 : • • soil erosion. such as_______________ and_____________ is falling due to cutting of forests. Each activity. loss of fertility of soil and lack of vegetation leading to desertification. the cultivation of forest trees. plants and their products play an important role in festivals and important occasions like marriages in our country.1 What is pollution? Human life includes a number of daily activities. relies on plants and their products for their excellent medicinal properties. Need for _______________ leads to felling of trees.3b What can be done? You would remember that replenishment of forests in nature takes a long time. such as _______________ and ______________ are a result of increase in human population. 2. and the great Indian medicinal system-Ayurveda. women in the sub-himalayan region have started a movement to prevent cutting and felling of trees by surrounding the tree with arms around them. 1. This can be done by planting trees in place of cut down forests. Practice of ____________ and ______________ can help in reforestation. Environmental problems. 3. Bathing and washing of clothes with soaps and detergents add some chemical residue to water and change its quality. 22. 4. 5. celebrating Van-mahotsava enthusiastically. growing of at least three new plants for every single tree that has been cut. shelter. practising silviculture.1. and increased CO2 levels in the atmosphere and global warming. agricultural implements.2. The practice of cultivating forests is called ____________________ 22. The number of animals.2 POLLUTION 22. known as reforestation. • • • CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 22. fire wood for cooking. A reforestation programme may include the following: • • • • • enforcement of strict environmental laws against felling of trees. Cooking of food by using firewood may give out smoke in the air. mainly. Agricultural activities may dump fertilizers and pesticides in the environment. this is.1 Fill in the blanks. and many more. which involves mass plantation. due to their use in providing food and fodder for animals. plants are given great respect and worshiped in Indian culture. medicinal properties. as it provides wood for industries and also increases area under the forest cover.

1 Activities leading to various types of pollution 22.3. and even smell the air and say whether it is fresh or stale. industrial processes. An undesirable change in the physical. water and land that may adversely affect human population and the wild life.: 114 : Environmental Problems that has an adverse effect on organisms and environment. The agents that pollute the resources or cause pollution are called pollutants. is called pollution.3 TYPES OF POLLUTION Depending upon the area or the part of environment affected. The pollution in air may not be noticed until we see smoke coming out . we can feel. chemical and biological characteristics of the environment especially air. Technological growth has given new devices for human comfort but has also added substances that may have an adverse effect on life and environment. pollution may be of the following types: • Air pollution • Water pollution • Land pollution • Noise pollution 22.1 Air pollution We all breathe in air. is called pollution. cultural assets (buildings and monuments). Look at the picture given below. Is this the state of environment we live in? What major sources of pollution can you identify? Fig 22.

breathing problems Lead interferes with the development of red blood cells. lead) Fibres (Cotton. All human activities from cooking at home to the working of highly mechanized industries contribute to air pollution.1: Some major air pollutants. • use of unleaded petrol and CNG. • regular tuning and servicing of the engines. scrubbers etc. and automobiles Textile and carpet weaving industries • • Harmful effect Respiratory problems Green house effect Sulphur compounds (SO2 and H2S) Nitrogen compounds (NO and N2O) • • • • • • • • • • • Respiratory problems in humans Loss of chlorophyll in plants Acid rain on dissolving with water Irritation in eyes and lungs Low productivity in plants Acid rain damages material (metals and stones) Respiratory problems Cancer-causing properties Poor visibility.. electrostatic precipitators. Volcanic eruptions Motor vehicle exhaust. their sources and effects. such as filters. installation of devices that do not allow pollutants to be released in the environment. Automobile pollution can be reduced by: • pooling of transport or use of public transport. Table 22. ethylene) SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter). (Any solid or liquid particles suspended in the air. atmospheric reaction Automobiles and petroleum industries Thermal power plants. their sources and effects Pollutant Carbon compounds (CO and CO2) Source Automobile exhausts. burning of wood and dung cakes can be replaced by cleaner fuel and use of biogas (formed by the decomposition of animal waste in a biogas plant). dust.1a Prevention and control of air pollution At domestic level. metallurgical processes. (fly ash.Environmental Problems : 115 : from some source. Table 22.3. .1 gives an idea of some major air pollutants. construction activities. burning of wood and coal Power plants and refineries. 22. and • switching off the engine at red lights or when not in use. wool) • Following measures can reduce industrial pollution: • • installation of tall chimneys. causes lung diseases and cancer Smog (smoke+fog) formation leads to poor visibility and aggravates asthma in patients Lung disorders Hydrocarbons (benzene.

UV radiation (a) Ozone layer blocks UV radiation Ozone Oxygen Chlorine from CFC Chlorine monoxide (b) Chlorine from CFC reacts with ozone to form oxygen and chlorine monoxide (c) The area in the ozone layer where the ozone is depleted. Industrial use of chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigeration. Fig 22. gets reduced and cannot prevent the entry of UV radiations.: 116 : Environmental Problems • • closing down or shifting of industries polluting the atmosphere.1b Global environmental problems i) The ozone hole: depletion of the ozone layer The ozone layer present in the earth’s atmosphere prevents the entry of sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiations reaching the Earth’s surface. cancer of skin.2 Depletion of the ozone layer Depletion of ozone layer may lead to the following hazards: • Sunburn. cataract (opaqueness of eye lens leading to loss of vision). There has been a reduction by 30-40% in the thickness of the ozone umbrella or shield over the Arctic and Antarctic regions. medicines. and development and maintenance of green belt with adequate width. etc.3. Amount of ozone. thus. cleaning solvents. insecticides. fast ageing of skin. air conditioning. cancer of the retina (sensitive layer of the eye on which image is formed) .) damage the ozone layer. Chlorine contained in the CFCs on reaching the ozone (O3) layer splits the ozone molecule to form oxygen (O2). fire extinguishers and aerosols (spray cans of perfumes. allows UV radiation to pass. 22.

Heat contained in the solar radiations is allowed to come in. This is normally practiced in cold regions on the hills.... but the heat contained in it is not returned back due to increasing concentration of CO2. Sun Radiant energy from the sun phere e atmos etrate th n e p s th aveleng Short w A propo rtio is absorb n of the long wa ed by th e atmos ves phere Warm s urface ra diates e nergy back Earth’s surface absorbs energy.. 22.. The solar radiations bringing heat (in the form of infra-red rays from the sun) are trapped inside the chamber. .3 Greenhouse effect Industrialization and urbanization has lead to deforestation and release of gases.. and warms up Fig. As a result.Environmental Problems : 117 : • • Genetic disorders Reduced productivity at sea and forests Damage to the ozone layer can be prevented by: • Reduced consumption of CFCs by adopting alternative technologies (substituting air conditioning gases by non-CFCs) • Discouraging the use of aerosol containing spray cans ii) Global warming – The greenhouse effect Greenhouse is referred to as a glass chamber where plants are grown in a closed warm environment as compared to the outside temperature. CH4 and N2O intoatmosphere These gases have converted the earth’s atmosphere into a greenhouse. the earth’s average temperature is increasing each year leading to global warming.. such as CO2.

On the basis of origin. drain pipes. leaking of minerals from rocks. biological or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired use is called water pollution. Natural sources are soil erosion. such as: • melting of snow caps/ glaciers and rising of sea level. Water pollution is one of the main causes of human diseases in India. Air pollution can be prevented by installing ___________ and ___________ in industries. construction sites. Any physical. it has resulted in serious consequences. • • Point sources discharge pollutants from specific source. Addition of unwanted substances in the environment is called ___________ 2. factories. and • interference with the hatching of eggs in certain fish.: 118 : Environmental Problems Effects of global warming Although the increase in global temperature in the last hundred years has been estimated to rise by only 1 degree. etc. and sewage treatment plants. reduced burning of wood and reduced vehicular pollution. • unpredictable weather patterns. such as _________ and ________ 3. 1.2 Fill in the blanks. Water pollution could be due to natural or man-made activities. while man-made sources include domestic. and decaying of organic matter. for example. such as surface runoff from fields. • early maturation of crops leading to reduced grain size and low yields. power plants. ________________ and _________________ are examples of Suspended Particulate Matter. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 22.3. water pollution may be caused by point or non-point sources.2 Water pollution Addition of undesirable substances in water is called water pollution. Increased carbon dioxide level in earth’s atmosphere leads to the phenomenon of ___________________ 4. • submerging of coastal areas of the Maldives islands in the Indian Ocean. agricultural and industrial activities. 5. . Many water sources have become a dumping ground of wastes. Non-point sources of pollution have no specific location but arise from a larger area. Automobile exhaust gives out pollutants. Control measures against further global warming include reforestation. 22. etc.

surface runoff Mining and processing of ores.2b Eutrophication With the use of high–yielding varieties of crops. and other parasites Pesticides. Their excessive use to increase agricultural yield has led to the phenomenon of eutrophication and biomagnification.2.Environmental Problems : 119 : 22. sewage.2: Some major water pollutants. viruses. alkalis. fertilizers Examples Bacteria. industrial and domestic waste Industrial waste. oil Acids. metals. The enrichment of water with nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates that triggers the growth of green algae is called . materials iodine Table 22. ammonium salts Animal manure and plant residues Heat Oil slick Sources Agricultural fertilizers. their sources and effects Type of pollutant Infectious agents Organic chemicals Inorganic chemicals. thorium. household cleaning agents.3.2a Types and effects of water pollutants Let us study about the sources and effects of certain water pollutants in the following table 22. the use of fertilizers and pesticides has increased a lot. natural sources Effects Water-borne diseases Biomagnification Water unfit for drinking Genetic disorders Radioactive Uranium. phosphates. Excess fertilizers may mix with surface water and may get drained into water bodies (surface runoff). detergents. 22. Table 22. salts Sources Human and animal excreta Agricultural.3. power plants. paper mills. manure Sewage. food processing wastes Power plants and industrial cooling Leakage from oil ships Cause Plant nutrients Effect Eutrophication Oxygen deficiency Thermal discharge Petroleum Death of aquatic animals Death of fish Death of marine life due to non-availability of dissolved oxygen Fertilizers and pesticides are widely used in agriculture.3: Some major disturbances in the ecosystem due to water pollution Pollutant Nitrates. You will learn more about them in lesson 32 on Agricultural practices.

their concentration keeps on increasing with each trophic level (steps of a food chain).4 Sequence of events that may occur as a result of eutrophication 22.2 ppm Algae 77 ppm Fish 500-600 ppm Pelican bird (top consumer) 1700 ppm (ppm = parts per million) DDT used in small quantities to kill mosquitoes can enter the food chain and may get concentrated in large concentration due to its non-biodegradable nature in the body of birds (top consumer). aquatic animals die of oxygen shortage. As a result. This causes adverse effects. Sewage and /or fertilizer run off from fields Enriched nutrient content in lakes (Eutrophication) Algae multiply giving ‘algal bloom’ Algae use up oxygen and begin to die Decomposers (bacteria) multiply and use more oxygen Organisms (such as. Consider the following food chain.: 120 : Environmental Problems eutrophication. accumulation of these compounds takes place in the body of top consumers over a period of time. As a result. Is there any difference in the concentration of DDT in water and that of the body of the Pelican bird? Water 0. This fast growth of algae followed by decomposition depletes the water body of the dissolved oxygen. fish) die due to lack of oxygen Fig.3.2c Biomagnification Non-biodegradable pesticides. Entry of harmful. 22. Once they enter the food chain. resulting in decreased population. such as weak egg shells. . such as DDT are widely used for crop protection. non-biodegradable chemicals in small concentration and their accumulation in greater concentration in the various levels of a food chain is called biomagnification. Death of vultures in large numbers has been reported due to eutrophication near Bharatpur area (Rajasthan).

3. _________and ________ are examples of natural sources of water pollution. and paper Industrial sources: chemical residue. Enrichment of water bodies with nutrients coming from fields is called _____ 5.3. twigs. etc. hay. glass bottles. Non-biodegradable wastes. fly ash. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 22. Thermal discharge into rivers may lead to the death of ________________ 3. If a waste material is processed by some means and converted to a product. 1. are examples of non-biodegradable wastes. are biodegradable wastes. 22. For example. maximum recycling of water after treatment (purification of waste water for reuse). Soil erosion leads to soil degradation due to uprooting of plants (over-grazing). It leads to the loss of the top fertile soil. Recycling helps in efficient management of wastes and also reduces the load on natural resources.Environmental Problems : 121 : High concentration of DDT has been reported in milk from cattle and mother’s milk leading to various disorders in the newborn baby.2d Control of water pollution In order to control water pollution. 2.3 Fill in the blanks. such as _______ may lead to biomagnification upon entering the food chain.3a Recycling of waste materials for ecological balance The waste generated from various sources can be categorized into two types: i) Biodegradable waste includes substances that can be degraded by microbes into harmless and non-toxic substances. Aluminium cans. Presence of________and_______ in water may lead to infectious diseases. Application of DDT. metallic waste. kitchen waste. DDT. 4. 22. we call the process recycling. plastics.3. 23. Soil pollution is caused due to: • • • Domestic sources: plastic bags.3 Soil pollution and land pollution Addition of substances that change the quality of soil by making it less fertile and unable to support life is called soil pollution. following measures can be adopted: • • • minimize the requirement of water by altering the techniques involved. recycling of plastics . glass. Radioactive wastes produced during nuclear reactions take a long time to decay and are harmful to human beings. its entry in the food chain and accumulation in top consumers is also a part of soil pollution. etc. and Agricultural residues: fertilizers and pesticides. ii) Non-biodegradable waste cannot be easily degraded. dung. Agricultural and animal wastes like leaves. and limiting the quantity of waste water discharge.

Use of cow dung for the production of biogas is a good example of recycling of waste for the production of energy.5 Sources of noise pollution 22. etc. • Use of loud speakers.4b Effects of noise pollution • Temporary loss of hearing. 22. Getting all machinery and engines of automobiles properly tuned and serviced .e.4a Sources of noise pollution The major sources of noise pollution are: • Means of transport i. But if the volume is too high you may not enjoy it any longer. earache. slow recovery from sickness. sometimes even leading to permanent deafness • Inability to concentrate. aircrafts. loud music system and television at public places • Industrial activities • Noisy fireworks Jet plane taking off Noisy group At a party Heavy traffic Fig 22. Use automobile horn only in case of emergency.: 122 : Environmental Problems and paper. 22. Noise can be simply defined as “unwanted sound”. It is generally higher in urban and industrial areas than in rural areas.3.3. Intensity of sound is measured in a unit called decibel or dB. It may become irritating. and rice husk into wood particle board.3. converting municipal waste into manure.4 Noise pollution You may enjoy listening to music. Workers using heavy machinery are exposed to high noise levels for long period of work hours every day.3. automobiles. they are noisy and also cause air pollution. The lowest intensity of sound that human ear can hear is 10 dB. Do not burn fire crackers. railways. headache • Increased blood pressure. • Irritability and interference in communication 22.4c Prevention and control of noise pollution Following steps can be taken to control or minimize noise pollution: • • • • Control the noise emanating from your radio and television. irregular heart beat • Ringing of ears (a feeling of sound coming from within the ear in a very quiet environment) • Inability to sleep.

Let us discuss about some such disasters and their impacts. etc. On an average. telephone exchange. hurricanes. 22. The following steps may be taken to prevent damage due to floods: • Timely cleaning and desilting of water channels and reservoirs by civic agencies • Safe disposal of surplus run-off water from river to river and drain to drain to ensure easy flow of water • To locate buildings like public institutes.4. and nuclear weapons cause serious pollution and require careful disposal. about eight million hectares of land area is affected by floods annually in our country. and gamma particles produced during disintegration of radioactive substances in the environment cause ionization in the living cells. volcanic eruptions.4 NATURAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS Some environmental problems are not man-made but are caused by natural forces. forest fires. Radioactive waste produced by nuclear power plants. most of the rivers are full of water during this period. Floods. and about three lakh hectares area of land was affected due to floods is Gorakhpur and adjoining districts in Uttar Pradesh alone in 1998. cyclones. are a few examples. earthquakes. as per the report of the High Powered Committee on Disaster Management in India about 1400 lives were lost. sufficiently above levels corresponding to floods of last few years frequency . For example. schools. thorium232.Environmental Problems : 123 : • • • at regular intervals and by the use of silencers. Radioactive pollution Disintegration of atomic nuclei in some elements such as radium-224. We regularly learn about the damage caused due to floods. As a result. This is because 75% of the total annual rainfall occurs in about four months of monsoon from June to September. roads and residential areas etc. Not playing loudspeakers during odd hours. Pregnant females are advised not to get X-ray done for any diagnosis. railway tracks and stations. 22. and uranium-235 and uranium-238 is called radioactivity. Use of soundproof cabins and sound-absorbing materials in the walls. The alpha. power supply stations. cancer of body parts including leukemia (blood cancer). Overexposure to X-rays may lead to cancer. A green belt of vegetation is an efficient absorber of noise. This may lead to genetic/ birth defects. offices.1 Flood India is one of the most flood-prone countries in the world. beta. These are termed as natural disasters. The government of India has set up a High Powered Committee on Disaster Management to look into various disasters and suggest the ways to cope up with these disasters. It is legally banned and should be reported to the police immediately.

taking cyclone safety measures. before cyclone season. • Store extra food. Steps to be taken before.2 Cyclone India has a long coastline. Remove decaying trees or any other loosely fixed objects. • Have clean drinking water. 22. • Store enough drinking water. industries and environment were badly devastated during this cyclone. the pre-monsoon season (AprilMay) and the post-monsoon season (October-December). The states of Orissa. 1. livestock. 1971. etc. .8 billion due to 1996 floods. 39. • Do not go into the areas where water level is high due to rains. which is vulnerable to the tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. etc. In the year 1996 alone.42 million-hectare land was submerged. such as rice. during and after a cyclone • Build houses. coastal areas and where streams or rivers flow. Cyclones are intense low-pressure systems in the form of depressions. Government of India. infrastructure. etc. walls and roof tops. The sea surged up to 7m high and seas waves travelled up to 15-20 km in land. This resulted in heavy losses.4. buildings. wherever necessary. 1999 at a wind speed of 270-300 km per hour accompanied by heavy rains continuously for three days. of Agriculture & Co-operation. • Keep yourelf alert and updated to the latest weather warnings. Construction of rings around villages and residential areas Identify an evacuation center in the flood-prone area so that people can move there in emergency Stocking adequate stock of material / equipments to handle floods Ensure supply of drinking water by installing hand pumps above the highest flood level and storing adequate food and water Consuming boiled water and properly cooked food at the time of floods Preventing outbreak of epidemics during floods Keep away from high-held structures like walls and electricity poles in the event of flooding Did you know? Years 1955. pulses. Balasore district in Orissa is the most vulnerable district for cyclone landfall. Repair doors. cyclone storms. about 7. windows. Ministry of Agriculture. severe cyclones associated with hurricane winds. Dept. sattu. The estimated economic loss amounted to Rs. Source: Source book of District Disaster Management. The agriculture. Tamil Nadu and West Bengal are the most affected states due to cyclones. 1978. Andhra Pradesh. You would have heard about Orissa super cyclone that occurred in the state of Orissa on October 29. There are two cyclone seasons in India. Demolish unsafe buildings.: 124 : Environmental Problems • • • • • • • • Making buildings flood proof by raising their levels with the use of earth fill etc. 1988 and 1996 were the major flood years in India.4 million people were affected and over 2000 people died in the floods.

Do not spread rumours or listen to them. Do not keep free objects like cans. Latur in Maharashtra also experienced a similar natural disaster on 30th September 1993. Richter). Falling of walls may injure people and property. Following values indicate the degree of damage. keep calm and remain there until informed that you may return back to your place. Do not touch any loose electric wire to avoid electrocution. The intensity of an earthquake is measured on the Richter scale (invented by the scientist C. Earthquakes of greater intensity shake buildings.. In case of a cyclone. The possible areas of impact of a severe earthquake are given below: • Damage to property . We are aware of the serious damages caused by earthquakes to life and property. matchbox. The intensity of earthquake is related to the amount of energy released when rocks give way to the forces within the earth.3 Earthquake An earthquake is the shaking. ready.F. Board up glass windows and provide strong suitable support to outside doors. 22. move your valuable articles to upper floors so that they are not destroyed. candles etc. and loosen the bricks. head for the proper shelter or evacuation point. and flashlights. Intensity on Richter scale Up to 3 5 7 Above 8 Extent of Damage No damages Cracks in old buildings Cracks in roads Falling of buildings 22. Make provisions for children and adults who require special diets. damage rail and road routes. When you are moving to a shelter. It is measured with the help of an instrument known as seismograph.Environmental Problems : 125 : • • • • • • • • • • • Keep hurricane lantern filled with kerosene.4. cut electric lines. Report any loss to the revenue authorities. Clear the house and dwellings of debris.3a Impact of a severe earthquake Most problems from an earthquake result due to falling objects and debris because of collapse of the building. rolling or sudden shock of the earth’s surface. Earthquakes are a common phenomenon. collapse of the ceiling plaster etc. at Bhuj and Anjar near Ahmedabad and some other places in Gujarat on 26th January 2002. tyres and other implements as they can cause injury during strong winds. and not due to the ground movement. Most earthquakes pass unnoticed. Earthquakes also cause breakage of water pipes.4. After the cyclone has passed get yourself inoculated against diseases and seek medical care for the injured and sick.

Do not rush to doors or exits. 1950. pillows or blankets to protect yourself from falling objects. In the event of an earthquake Keep away from buildings. 1934. flashlight or torch. walls. that may leads to loss of human and animal lives and injuries Fires due to short-circuits or other means Damage to fields and settlements (landslides) Spreading of diseases sometimes may lead to epidemics 22. locate beds away from the windows and heavy objects that could fall in event of an earthquake. roads. mirrors and furniture. 1905.25) 26th June 1941. etc. Help others who require your help. Stand under strong beams that may not fall or creep under the dining table or a strong bed. bridges. clothes.0 on Richter scale). Collect all emergency supplies like food.25) January. If in a multi-storyed building stay on the same floor. electricity poles.6) In addition. electricity poles and wires. Kangra (8. stop the vehicle away from buildings. candles.3b Preventive measures • Construct earthquake-resistant buildings. wires and walls that are liable to collapse. If your home is badly damaged. cover your head and body with your arms. Move heavy unstable objects away from the exit doors.: 126 : Environmental Problems • • • • Damage to roads.4. Check for fire and structural damage and clear blocked exits. Move out in the open. Assam (8. Do not use elevators or run towards the staircase. If you are under a building and unable to move. Make sure that overhead plaster and lighting fixtures are well secured to the ceiling. Bihar (8. matchbox. • India has experienced four earthquakes of destructive magnitude (more than 8. If travelling. dams. come out of it immediately. Andaman (8.1) 15th August. slopes. trees. etc. there have been many seismic contingencies of moderate magnitude . Apply first aid. Check for injuries. specially old and tall ones. • At home. never use lift and keep well away from windows. etc. Pusa. water. keep calm. dams. • • • • 4th April. first aid kit. medicines. bridges. They may sustain damage. These are.

and call a fire brigade. Forest fire may be caused due to: • Human negligence. Chamoli (6. Uttarkashi (6. 3.4 Fill in the blanks.Environmental Problems : 127 : (6. • Inform all members of your family and others about the ways in which a fire can be caused and the methods to prevent fire. 2001. • Move farm animals and movable goods to a safe place. • Try to put out the fire by digging a circle around it or by water.2) • 22nd May. Bihar (6. Ecological imbalances may lead to destruction of natural habitat of wild life and loss of vegetation leading to desertification. Domestic sources. 1997. LET US REVISE The perfect balance between the physical environment and the living organism in nature is called ecological balance. Gujrat (6.0 to 7.8) • 26th January. Fire is a great threat to forests because it can cause tremendous damage in a short time.4a Fire fighting Damage caused due to a forest fire can be controlled by the following means: • Remove dry litter like dying twigs. 2. such as _________ and _________lead to land pollution. leaves etc. Jabalpur (6. • 20th August. 1988. 1. • Do not enter a forest if it is on fire. Full benefits of forest resources can be obtained only if timber (wood) is protected from fire. Noise pollution may be caused by___________ and __________ 4. by carelessly dropping lighted matchsticks • Lightening striking the dry trees • Extreme heating of rocks. during summer season.5) • 30th September. especially during the dry season 22. 1999. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 22.0 on the Richter scale) during the last decade or so. 1991.9) 22.4 Forest fires and their control You are already aware of the benefits we derive from forests.4. cigarette or leave burning wood sticks around. Latur (6. 1993.4. Unwanted sound may lead to_____________pollution. • Do not throw smouldering bidi.5) • 21st October. diseases and insect pests.0) • 29th May. Intensity of earthquakes can be measured on ____________________ 5. Increased population leads to over-exploitation of resources and many • • • . Vegetable peels and paper are examples of__________ waste.

Silviculture is the practice of reforestation. wood etc. it includes planting of more trees to develop forest cover. lead to thinning of the ozone layer. Non-biodegradable chemicals. Forest fires may be caused due to human negligence. paper. • • • • Trees provide wood for multiple use.: 128 : Environmental Problems environmental problems. DDT etc. Cutting down of trees may lead to environmental problems.g. uranium-238. and volcanic eruptions are examples of some natural environmental problems. such as DDT. Soil pollution includes addition of substances that reduce the fertility of the soil. etc. soil degradation. Multiple choice type questions. destruction of wild life. Excessive use of chemicals. Addition of unwanted substances in the environment is called pollution. water. depletion of oxygen and death of aquatic animals. Addition of nitrates and phosphates in water leads to eutrophication. glass bottles. enter the food chain in small quantities but get accumulated in higher concentrations in top consumers. and radium-224 cause radioactive pollution that may lead to genetic or birth defects and cancer. soil and noise quality.) and non-biodegradable (e. Uranium-235. plastics. vegetable peels. and is caused by the addition of gaseous and particulate pollutants from domestic. Recycling of wastes.g. sewage and rice husk. shelter to wild life. followed by algal growth.). into useful products help in conservation of resources. lightening and extreme rise in temperature in rocky areas. such as pollution. vehicular and industrial sources. paper. such as cow dung. agricultural and industrial sources and makes it unfit for drinking and industrial use. Waste can be classified into biodegradable (e. This phenomenon is called biomagnification. Ozone provides a protective layer against harmful ultra-violet rays coming from the sun. gas used in refrigerators and air conditioners. such as CFCs used in spray cans. Loss of air quality is called air pollution. and can be controlled by removing inflammable material from fire line. TERMINAL EXERCISES A. Earthquakes. soil conservation and rainfall. Water may be polluted from domestic. plant and animal life are adversely affected by air pollution. cow dung. Pollution could affect air. and has resulted in increased earth’s temperature. aluminium cans. floods. Human. • • • • • • • • • • • . Accumulation of high concentration of carbon dioxide has led to the phenomenon of global warming (greenhouse effect).

List two ways to replenish forests. Which of the following may NOT lead to air pollution? a) Carbon dioxide b) Cooking oil c) Lead particles d) Carbon monoxide 2. Which of the following can be found in the body of top consumers in high concentration? a) Nitrates b) Phosphates c) DDT d) Vitamins 5. grass 2. Why? 5. Give the term given to replenishment of the forests from where wood can occasionally be taken for commercial use? 7.Environmental Problems : 129 : 1. Which of the following chemicals lead to depletion of the ozone layer? a) Carbon dioxide b) Chloro-fluorocarbons c) Nitrogen d) Water vapour 4. Which gaseous pollutant has the ability to absorb infra-red radiations? 3. Soil erosion can be prevented by a) use of pesticides b) deforestation c) afforestation d) excessive use of fertilizers B. Which of the following are biodegradable? Aluminum foil. Is this just news or has some serious consequences? Give your opinion in one sentence. 10. List four ways in which the environment in that area may be affected. ballpoint pen refill. To set up a new industry. 6. How does production of more paper in the world contribute to ecological imbalance? Use only four key phrases to support your answer. a large forest area had to be cut. 9. List any three ways in which noise from various sources can affect the well-being of a person. Growing of forests is called a) monoculture b) horticulture c) silviculture d) agriculture 3. A ship carrying oil from the gulf region collides with huge rocks and gets damaged. . What could be a major disadvantage for man being placed at the top of the food chain? Name the phenomenon that may cause this harmful effect. in a pond. Leakage of gases used in refrigerators and air conditioners for cooling are not considered eco-friendly. 8. paper. Suggest few methods to control noise pollution. A chemical factory in a village discharges its waste that is rich in nitrogen. Descriptive type questions. What phenomenon do you expect to take place? 4. 11. 1.

: 130 : Environmental Problems

12. What does ‘Global warming’ mean? Name the gas responsible for this phenomenon and why should it be considered an environmental problem. 13. It was observed that a large number of vultures were dying around a crop field. Considering the fact that vultures are top consumers, explain the phenomenon that may have caused their death in large numbers. 14. How would you classify the waste generated at home? What is the difference between the different groups? How would you manage this waste so that it causes least pollution? 15. Name the instrument used to measure the magnitude of an earthquake. Suggest some ways to cope with them in earthquake prone areas. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 22.1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 22.2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cheetah, Tiger Housing, construction of roads, industrialization Silviculture, mass plantation Air pollution, water pollution, global warming Silviculture Pollution CO, NO, CO , NO (any two) 2 2 Global warming/ greenhouse effect Fly ash, lead particles, dust (any two) Tall chimneys, electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers (any two)

22.3 1. Soil erosion, leaking of minerals from rocks, decay of organic matter (any two) 2. Fishes 3. Virus, bacteria, protozoa (any two) 4. Eutrophication 5. DDT 22.4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Kitchen waste/ glass /plastic bags/ bottles Noise Fireworks, loudspeakers, moving automobiles Richter Scale Biodegradable waste GLOSSARY

Environmental Problems : 131 :

Deforestation: Cutting of natural forest cover. Reforestation: Plantation of trees to replenish forests. Silviculture: The cultivation of forest trees to increase forest area. Silviculture provides wood for industries. Pollution: Addition of unwanted substances in wrong concentration having an adverse effect on organisms and environment. Greenhouse effect / Global warming: Increase in average global temperature due to high concentration of carbon dioxide, methane etc. that trap heat (from solar radiations). Eutrophication: Enrichment of water bodies with nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates, leading to algal growth and death of aquatic life. Algal bloom: Tremendous algal growth covering the pond surface. Biomagnification: Entry of harmful, non-biodegradable chemical in small concentration and its accumulation in higher concentration at various levels of a food chain. Decibel: Measurable unit of sound intensity. Biodegradable: Organic compounds that can be decomposed / degraded by microbes, such as bacteria and fungus. You Would Enjoy Doing the Following Activities ACTIVITY 22.1 Aim: To compare the amount of particulate pollutants emitted from different vehicles. Material required: pieces of white cotton cloth 8”x 8”, rubber bands or thread to tie. Method: Tie a piece of cloth on the exhaust of a diesel bus and another on the exhaust of a CNG bus. Remove the cloth after 2-3 days and compare the two pieces. Do you notice any difference in the colour of the cloth? Is the patch on one piece very dark? Was it tied to the diesel bus? Record your observations. A comparison can be made between the amount of particulate pollutants emitted from different vehicles. ACTIVITY 22.2 Aim: To compare the level of particulate pollutants in different areas in a city. Material required: Some samples of leaves, hand lens, old white cloth/ tissue paper Method: Pluck few leaves from a plant or tree growing near a road on which heavy vehicular traffic runs. Pluck few leaves from an area with little traffic. Compare the two samples. Observe them for particulate matter. Which of the two show more particulate pollutants on their surface? Which of the two has a shiny surface?

: 132 : Environmental Problems

Gently wipe them with cloth or tissue paper. Which leaf makes it darker? ACTIVITY 22.3 Aim : To study effects of noise pollution in different places. Method : Conduct a survey among people living in very noisy areas, such as near railway crossings, place with heavy vehicular traffic, or a construction site. Do the people living in such places show signs of adverse effect of noise pollution, such as of stress, headache, and inability to concentrate, increased blood pressure, reduced or loss of hearing? Compare these with those living in an isolated place away from the city.

23

Diversity in the Living World
When you look around you see a large variety of living things. There are all kinds of birds, trees, insects, dogs, spiders, lizards and so on. In the countryside, you would see a still larger variety of organisms. There are all kinds of crop plants like wheat, maize and sugarcane. Then, there are wild plants growing of their own like keekar. In a forest you would see strange wild animals and plants. In a pond, one can see a variety of fishes, snails, waterweeds and even some water birds. If you dig out the soil you may find earthworms, beetles, ants, etc. In the sea, there are whales, sharks, corals, sea anemones and so on. Then, there is any number of parasites (like the tapeworms or bacteria) inside our own body and inside, practically, all other animals. All these living forms show similarities indicating mutual relationships. At the same time every kind of organism is very different from the other. Such a study amounts to classifying living organisms on the basis of their wide similarities and subtle differences, in other words, the study of their diversity. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • recognize the vast diversity in the living world both in size and complexity; • explain the need for classifying living organisms; • argue in favour of binomial nomenclature over common names with examples; • outline the 5-kingdom classification mentioning its different basis; • classify the kingdom Plantae up to divisions, giving their characteristics and examples; • classify the kingdom Animalia up to phyla giving their characteristics and examples; • classify the phylum Chordata up to classes giving their characteristic features and examples. 23.1 DIVERSITY OF LIVING THINGS IN SIZE AND COMPLEXITY 23.1.1 Variety in size Think of the following: • • There are huge trees like banyan, peepal, pine, tamarind and so on. They have profuse branches and lots of leaves. There are tall trees like palms and coconuts with almost no branches.

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• •

There are medium to small-sized plants like guava, banana, rose, sugarcane, wheat and the almost shortest lawn grass. There are animals ranging from huge elephants or still larger whales in the sea through the medium-sized cow to the small insects like butterflies or ants. A full-grown whale may weigh as much as 30 adult elephants. There are such tiny organisms like the Amoeba and bacteria, which you can see only under microscope. Hundreds and thousands of bacteria will occupy a space hardly larger than the head of an ordinary pin.

23.1.2 Variety in complexity • Human body is extremely complex with so many different organs, each composed of a variety of cells performing different tasks. The human brain coordinates the thousands of activities going on inside the body. • A bird’s body is complex in some other ways. Birds have wings supported by bones and covered by feathers. • A frog’s body is less complex than ours. Frogs have a 3-chambered heart whereas we have a four-chambered one. • Fishes have no legs; instead they have fins to swim in water. The fish heart is only two-chambered. • Amongst plants, there are trees with tough wood and those producing flowers, fruits and seeds, there are trees like the pine tree which produce seeds but no fruits. • There are plants like ferns that produce neither seeds nor fruits but they do have leaves and roots. • There are single-celled organisms as opposed to the ones having trillions of cells. • There are organisms, which have neither leaves nor any stem nor roots. They only have a network of filaments. These are the fungi. • On one hand, there are green plants that have chlorophyll and can produce their own food. On the other hand, there are non-green plants like fungi and mushrooms, which decompose organic food and straightaway absorb it. Similarly, there are animals having no mouth or food canal like the tapeworm, which absorb the predigested food from the intestines of their host. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 23.1 1. Mention if the following statements are true (T) or false (F). (i) Mouse is the smallest animal and the banana tree is the smallest plant. T/F (ii) Some animals have no food canal. T/F (iii) Mushrooms and bread mould are non-living things. T/F (iv) Some organisms are made of just one cell. T/F

Diversity in the Living World : 135 : 23. some are distantly similar and some are very different. Can you further divide the animals into two groups. Still all of them are similar in being living organisms as distinct from the non-living objects.1 Some familiar living organisms • • • • Can you recognize all the organisms shown in the figure? Think of features common to all of them? Yes.2 THE NEED TO CLASSIFY LIVING ORGANISMS There are different kinds of living organisms found on the earth. they give birth to young ones. Can you group them into any two clear categories in some way? Yes. dog and horse) similar to each other? These are hairy. one way is that some of them have bones while the others do not have them. Some are closely similar to each other. one way could be that some are animals and others are plants. 23. How are the three animals (rabbit. Grouping or classifying the organisms on the basis of their similarities and differences helps us to know about them even if we have not seen them directly Classification is the arrangement of organisms into groups or sets on the basis of their similarities and differences To illustrate the concept of classification look at the organisms shown in the figure (Fig. can you mention some features you would expect to find • . and they suckle their babies on the milk they secrete from their milk glands. Fig 23.1) given below. Yes. If we say that the whales and bats too belong to the same group as that of rabbits and dogs. they grow and reproduce.

Judge for yourself the relevance of using the international scientific names instead of the local ones. • What is common between grass.2. Now let us take the case of plants.1 Two part scientific names The scientific names of all kinds of organisms are composed of two parts: • the genus (group) name.: 136 : Diversity in the Living World both in the whale and bat? These features could be giving birth to young ones and having milk glands. Carl Linnaeus started the practice of using binomial nomenclature. Thus. Can you think of any animal or plant. To mention a few of such names in Hindi belt alone are ‘sitaphal’. ‘kaddu’. 23. ‘kumhra’. • It helps us in understanding the relationships among the organisms. here the pumpkin. • Again. and • the species (particular organism) name. • It serves as a basis for several allied branches of biology 23. and so on. The scientific name of pumpkin is Cucurbita pepo. arose the need of evolving scientific names for uniformity. . what we did in the above-mentioned exercise was a kind of classification.1 Advantages of classification • Classification makes the study of such a large number of living organisms easy. • It helps to give an idea of evolution. the genus name is Cucurbita. how is grass different from a rose plant or a jamun.1 Ask your friends and relatives about the names of any other common animal and a common plant in a few Indian languages. 23. Species is a group of individuals having common characteristics and which can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. That was about animals in the diagram. which is the group of cucumbers and gourds.3. which in India is known by several names? Ask your friends what they call the common vegetable pumpkin in different Indian languages. Can you think of any more names in other Indian languages or in the languages of the different countries? Communicating any scientific information throughout the world by such local names as for the pumpkin would be impossible. ‘petha’. guava or any other tree? Guess your own answer. Hence. ‘kashiphal’. rose and the tree? They all have green leaves.3 NAMING AN ORGANISM – BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE The common names of organisms are variable and very often confusing. • It presents before us the vast variety of life at a glance. ACTIVITY 23. and the species (individual type) name is pepo the particular type of the cucurbit. For pumpkin.

1 Scientific names of some common animals and plants Animals Common Name Scientific Name Plants Common Name Scientific Name Man Cat Tiger Honey bee Housefly House crow Homo sapiens Felis domesticus Felis tigris Apis indica Musca domestica Corvus splendens Peepal Banyan Rubber plant Mango Lady’s finger Lentil (masoor) Ficus religiosa Ficus bengalensis Ficus elastica Mangifera indica Hibiscus esculenta Lens esculenta Usually. cats.3. . Both are crows but they cannot interbreed.2 Two common Indian crows Table 23. Thus. tiger (Panthera tigris) and the domestic cat (Felis domesticus) make the family Felidae. It is sterile and cannot reproduce. For example. they are different species. bats and humans belong to the class Mammalia. The two crows differ in the intensity of black colour on the neck. several orders like those of the tigers. macro: large. 23. and in the size and shape of the beak (Fig. Do you know? Mule is the offspring (hybrid) of a cross between a male donkey and a female horse. corvus: crow. the mule is not a species. One is the common house crow found in plains around our houses. We have two types of crows. etc. Thus. splendens: shining) Corvus macrorhynchos (jungle crow) (Gk. rhynchos: beak/snout) 23. House crow (Corvus splendens) Jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) Fig.2 Categories higher than the genus and the species Family: A group of two more genera (plural of genus) with common characteristics make a family. domesticus refers to home. Thus. Order: A group of related families. For example. 23. etc. the two categories of the Indian crow are: Corvus splendens (house crow) (Gk. esculenta to eating. the family of cats (Felidae) and the family of dogs. sapiens to wise/intelligent. religiosa to sacred. The other is the hill or the jungle crow. foxes. In the above examples.Diversity in the Living World : 137 : Take the example of crow. (Canidae) is grouped under the order Carnivora. dogs. scientific names are given with some appropriate meaning. For example. Class: Related orders make a class. monkeys.2). lion (Panthera leo).

: 138 : Diversity in the Living World Phylum: A phylum is the largest category with related classes grouped together. 23. Cell mouth Flagellum Eye spot Contractile vacuole • Chloroplasts Nucleus Fig. For example. the corresponding category is named division. ficus religiosa 3. plant and animal kingdoms. phylum. order 23. In plants. birds.3 Euglena – a single-celled microscopic organism (highly magnified) . Many organisms like the singlecelled bacteria and Euglena (Fig. The bacteria have cell walls (as found in all plant cells) but they have no chlorophyll. class. But this had some serious problems. such as: • Mushrooms and the bread moulds were grouped under plants. T/F (iii) The scientific names are written in capital letters. Thus. it is incorrect to consider them as plants. T/F (iv) Horse. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 23. family. donkey and mule are three different species.2 1. T/F (ii) Scientific names of all species consist of three components. T/F (v) Classification of the organisms gives an idea of their relationships.4 THE FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION Until some time ago we had been classifying the organisms into two primary categories—the Plant kingdom and the Animal kingdom. Rearrange the following in their correct sequence starting from the smallest category upwards to the highest: genus.3) could neither fit properly with animals nor with plants. species. (i) Classification means grouping the items according to some criteria. kingdom. But we know that they have no leaves and no chlorophyll. Mention if the following statements are true (T) or false (T). 23. Euglena-like organisms have only cell membrane and no cell wall (like the animal cells) but they have chlorophyll (a plant characteristic). Felis Domesticus. reptiles. amphibians and fishes together constitute the phylum Chordata. T/F 2. the classes of mammals. For example. Kingdom: Kingdom is the largest group of organisms differentiated on very general similarities. Rewrite the following scientific names in their correct form: Sapiens homo.

Some are used in making antibiotics. As opposed to these. rod-like (Sphericals) (bacilli). This scheme of classification comprises five kingdoms instead of two.4) • Nutrition: Absorb food from the surroundings after digesting it by pouring out enzymes • Reproduction: Mostly by division into two Bacillus • Occurrence: Almost everywhere in soil. many are beneficial in nature as in the carbon and the nitrogen cycles.A. 23.Diversity in the Living World : 139 : To overcome such problems a new scheme of classification was recommended by R. Let us now study the five kingdoms one by one. spiral and . rarely more than 0.4 Common types of bacteria – spherical. And. The main criteria in this classification are as follows: • • • Whether the organisms are single-celled or multi-celled. It means that they have no compact nucleus. are described as eukaryotes (eu: true) meaning that they have true nucleus. Characteristic features of bacteria • Size: Microscopic.1 Kingdom Monera (bacteria) It includes bacteria and blue green ‘algae’ (not really algae). (Rod-like) in water. • 23. 23. outside or inside the body of plants and animals Some of the bacteria are useful such as those making curd and the vinegar.4. Mode of nutrition – whether produces food (autotrophic) by photosynthesis or dependant on others. Whittaker (1969). Monera are single-celled. Their chromosome material is not enclosed within a nuclear membrane.01mm in length • Cell wall: Not made of cellulose • Chromosome material: Not enclosed in a nuclear membrane Coccus • Shapes: Spherical (cocci). karyon: nucleus). Whether the genetic material (chromosome) of the cell is enclosed within a nuclear membrane or lies freely in the cytoplasm. or sucking or absorbing the food from them (saprotrophic). The Monera are described as prokaryotes meaning that their nuclear material is in a primitive form (pro: primitive. or spiral (spirilli) (Fig. Spirillum (Spirals) • • Fig. either by eating them up (heterotrophic). The five kingdoms according to the new system of classification are Monera. all other organisms from Protista onwards. Plantae and Animalia. Protista. Fungi.

23. • Reproduction: Mostly asexual reproduction by fission and some reproduce sexually. • Multicellular in nature.3 Kingdom Fungi Common bread moulds (Rhizopus and Mucor). • Hyphae possess rigid cell walls not made of cellulose (the cell walls of the true plant cells are made of cellulose). Some bacteria spoil foodstuff. 23. .4. They cause diseases. • Most fungi are made of thread-like structures called hyphae (as in bread mould). • Absorb nutrients from dead or living organisms. such as ringworm.5 Two examples of freshwater protists: Amoeba and Paramecium Bracket Fungus Mushroom Yeast Fig. etc. 23. 23. zoon: animal). penicillin.2 Kingdom Protista These are single-celled (unicellular) organisms. Their modes of nutrition may be quite varied. such as Entamoeba histolytica that causes dysentery and Plasmodium vivax that causes malaria.4. Very often these are also referred to as Protozoa (protos: primitive. Yeasts (Saccharomyces) are widely used in baking bread and in winemaking. Most of these are mildly or severely poisonous. • Occurrence: Many protists live freely in water or in soil and many are harmful parasites which cause diseases. Penicillium was the source of the first discovered antibiotic. Some of the protists are pathogenic.5) ingest food like most animals. such as tuberculosis and typhoid. such as Penicillium notatum and Aspergilllus. Paramecium Amoeba Fig. The hyphae grow in the form of a mat-like structure called mycelium. mushrooms and toadstools are some common types of fungi. 23.3) have chlorophyll and manufacture their own food like the plants. • Photosynthesizers: Some protists like Euglena (Fig. • Active feeders: Some protists like Amoeba and Paramecium (Fig. One variety of mushrooms is edible. • Produce spores in special rounded bodies called spore heads (sporangia) as in the common bread mould. Many moulds grow on fruits and vegetables.: 140 : Diversity in the Living World Diversity in the Living World Many bacteria are harmful. and it is grown in mushroom culture.6 Some examples of fungi 23. Some fungi produce diseases. and have a well-defined membrane-bound nucleus.

Division Algae • Found in all kinds of water • No proper roots. forked or ribbon-like structures lying flat on moist ground. • Some algal seaweeds that are popularly called kelp are used as sources of food for humans and cattle. • The leaves bear spores for reproduction. The liverworts grow as spreading patches of green. • Their green leaves are often quite large.23.g.4 Kingdom Plantae • These are multicellular forms.Diversity in the Living World : 141 : 23. Laminaria (Fig 23 . Moss • Mosses are generally small.7) can reach a length of two meters or even more. 23. Division Pteridophyta Ferns are very commonly grown in gardens (Fig. 23.9 Fern – a pteridophyte . • Ferns have a single underground stem with true roots.7 Laminaria – an alga Division Bryophyta You must have often seen green velvety layers growing on damp soil. These are bryophytes. Bryophyta. Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta. After getting discharged from the capsule and settling at suitable damp places the spores germinate to produce new plants. • Some of the algal seaweeds may be very tall.23. Fig. or on walls or inside the flowerpots. Each such stalk ends in a capsule full of spores. mosses and Liverwort liverworts (Fig.8 Types of bryophytes – mosses • They possess some root-like structures but not and liverworts the true roots. Kingdom Plantae is very large. It is divided into four divisions – Algae. stem or leaves • Derive nutrition by simply absorbing mineral nutrients from the surrounding water. Fig. The liverworts are common on the shady moist slopes of hills. • Many of the body cells contain the green pigment chlorophyll for photosynthesis. • Some of the mosses may show long slender stalks growing out from them. • Cells have a cell wall made of cellulose.8). e. Fig. • They have small green leaves.9). 23.4.

These are of two types: • plants that produce seeds openly (not contained inside the fruit) (Gymnosperms). which are not enclosed in a fruit. • • Flower is a special organ in which the male and female reproductive organs are grouped together. 23.11). mango. which support the seeds borne on their upper surface. The angiosperms with two cotyledons are called dicots. 23. lotus. b) Angiosperms (Gk. • They provide wood for construction. namely Algae. sperm: seed) These are flowering plants in which seeds are always contained inside the fruit (fig. mango. maize. 23. a) Gymnosperms (Gk. gymno : naked. plywood. from the plants of the genus Ephedra. • Some are the sources of drugs. Many species grow on mountains and hills including the Himalayas. such as pines. • Provide oils.: 142 : Diversity in the Living World Diversity in the Living World The first three divisions of Plantae.10 The pine tree (a gymnosperm) and its cone • The pinecone consists of hardmodified scale-like leaves.11 An angiosperm (flowering plant) . They produce naked seeds. such as the turpentine oil. The seed contains an embryo together with the nourishment-containing cotyledons (one in some and two in others).10). Bryophyta and Pteridophyta are often collectively called non-flowering plants. angio: a case or vessel. peas. rose. 23. packing. and • plants that produce seeds contained inside the fruit (Angiosperms). etc. Such forests are useful in many ways. sperm: seed) Gymnosperms include conifers (cone bearing plants) like the pines (Fig. The angiosperms with one cotyledon are called monocots. Fig. They do not produce any flowers or seeds. such as ephedrine. etc. They constitute the conifer forests. such as grass. Division Spermatophyta It includes a great variety of the seed-producing plants. • • • Fig. etc. • The edible chilgoza is the seed of a particular species of pine (Pinus gerardiana). such as gram. maize and rice.

[Root-like structures. stem or leaves] no true roots.3 1. 3. frogs. green leaflets in some] GYMNOSPERMS [No true flowers. What are the three basic criteria that have been taken into consideration for the five-kingdom classification of the living organism? 2. so on. snakes. __________. Some of the characteristics of all animals in general: • All animals are multicellular. heterotrophic (obtaining food by methods other than photosynthesis) • Almost all animals move about (locomotion) in the search of food or for other needs. seeds enclosed in fruit] CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 23.Diversity in the Living World : 143 : SUMMARY OF THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE KINGDOM PLANTAE PLANTAE [Multicellular with chlorophyll. respectively. Protista. insects. seeds naked.5 KINGDOM ANIMALIA Animals include a vast variety of organisms. true roots. Name the kingdoms to which the following belong: i) Mushrooms __________ ii) Algae__________ iii) Ferns__________ iv) Bacteria__________ v) Flowering plants__________ 4. Name the groups of angiosperms with one cotyledon and two cotyledons. . not enclosed in fruit] ANGIOSPERMS [Flowering plants. feathery birds. __________ and__________ (Fill in the blanks). 23. The five kingdoms of living organisms are __________. eukaryotic (true nucleus). cell wall made of cellulose] ALGAE BRYOPHYTA PTERIDOPHYTA [Underground stem. such as sponges. leaves bear spores] SPERMATOPHYTA [Seed bearing plants] [No proper roots. • Most animals possess a nervous system with sense organs. and hairy mammals including humans and. fishes. true flowers.

etc. crabs. 23. The same mouth throws the undigested left out food out of the body again. vi.5. in soil. • A vast number of pores are present in the body wall for the entry of water carying food and oxygen and a single large opening for the exit of water. vii. • Body is supported by a skeleton of minute spicules or special kind of fibres.: 144 : Diversity in the Living World Diversity in the Living World Animals are found in all types of places – in water. They to no longer belong the animal kingdom. etc. But according to the new five-kingdom classification. Porifera (sponges) Cnidaria (jellyfishes. Sycon Bath sponge Fig.) Platyhelminthes (flat worms) Aschelminthes ( round worms) Annelida (earthworms) Arthropoda (insects.) Mollusca (snails. • Tentacles that surround the mouth capture the prey paralyzed by their stinging cells and push it into the mouth. iii. ii. • Body consists of a hollow tube. many are found as parasites living either inside the body of other animals and plants or on their body.13 Examples of Cnidaria . sea urchins.12 Examples of Porifera Sea anemone Hydra Jelly fish Sea coral Fig. 23.] The kingdom Animalia is very vast and highly varied.1 Phylum Porifera (sponges) • Most organisms are found in the sea but a few are found in fresh water.) Echinodermata (starfishes. v. jellyfishes) • Body somewhat tubular or umbrella-like with a single (digestive) cavity that has a single opening the mouth at one of the ends. and in air. oysters.5. iv. on land. etc.) Chordata (animals with backbone) 23. fixed to the substratum. etc. It is subdivided into nine phyla (singular: phylum). bath sponge 23. viii. spiders. • Reproduction is by budding as well as by sexual method. Examples: Sycon. corals.2 Phylum Cnidaria (hydra. Some members like the corals develop hard skeleton of calcium carbonate. i. ix. [A point to remember – The heterotrophic unicellular Protistans like Amoeba used to be described as Protozoans under the animals.

Liver fluke Tapeworm • Fig.14 Examples of Platyhelminthes Mouth Exeretory pore Examples: Liver fluke (in the liver of sheep).) which is a parasite of the human intestine in case of non vegetarians who eat pork or beef).Diversity in the Living World : 145 : Hydra is a fresh water form found usually attached to the submerged rocks and plants in lakes.5. Eelworm is a parasite of potato plant. but a few are free-living forms found in the sea or in fresh water (Fig. ponds and streams. 23. and the common leech Hirudinaria medicinalis found in ponds but readily sticks to the body of cattle and even human beings. Mostly parasites. Tapeworms appear to be segmented. tapeworm (Taenia sp. 23. 23.5. Planaria (freeliving aquatic form) (ctiofig. flattened unsegmented worms • Alimentary canal with only a single opening.16) found in the burrows in damp soil. 23.4 Phylum Aschelminthes (round worms) • Long cylindrical and unsegmented body • Alimentary canal open at both ends (mouth and anus) • Mostly parasitic but some live freely in the soil Examples: Ascaris (Fig.14). In them. It reaches a length of about 1cm when fully extended.23.16 Examples of Annelida . either external or internal.5. but in reality they are not.15) is found in human intestine.3 Phylum Platyhelminthes (flat worms) • Small. Leech Fig. 24. soft. new segments continue to add on the front in the neck region while the old ones at the back continue to shed one after another. 23.15 Ascaris – an Aschelminth Earthworm Examples: Common earthworm Pheretima posthuma (Fig. the mouth or no mouth at all. alimentary canal open at both ends (mouth and anus) Cloaca Curved tail Anus Fig.14). 23. 23. 23.5 Phylum Annelida (segmented worms) • Long cylindrical body divided into ring-like segments • Well-developed digestive system.

Centipedes and millipedes have paired legs on each body segment. Prawns and crabs have many pairs of legs. oysters. such as cockroaches and butterflies.23.7 Phylum Mollusca (snails. Butterfly iii. have three pairs of legs and usually two pairs of wings. brittle star.5. etc. sea urchin. oysters) • Soft unsegmented body enclosed in a hard calcareous shell • Muscular foot for creeping or for other kinds of locomotion Fig. iv. 23. Spiders and scorpions have four pairs of legs.24. and octopuses and cuttlefish (foot divided into arms for swimming). slugs.17 Examples of Arthropoda Examples: Snails. sea cucumber.: 146 : Diversity in the Living World 23.6 Phylum Arthropoda (joint-legged animals) • Jointed appendages. Insects. i. Scorpion 23. . ii.8 Phylum Echinodermata (starfishes) • Usually thorn-like spines on the body • Water snail Octopus Fig.5.18 Examples of Mollusca Body radially symmetrical having similar parts (usually five) arranged regularly around a central region Examples: Starfish. one pair each on some or all body segments • Crab Body covered by a hard chitinous skeleton During the growth period the exoskeleton is shed off (moulting) and a new one is produced • Millipede This is the biggest phylum with four major kinds of organisms.5.

The notochord is later replaced by a backbone (vertebral column).Diversity in the Living World : 147 : 23. have their skeleton made of cartilage and their gills are exposed (not covered by any gill-cover).19 Examples of Echinodermata Notochord is confined to the tail region only and. It is divided into five very distinct classes.24. a) Subphylum Urochordata (uro: tail) Starfish Sea urchin Brittle star Sea cucumber Fig. Cartilaginous fishes. as in humans. Single example: marine Amphioxus c) Subphylum Vertebrata Organisms possess a vertebral column (notochord replaced) and the head is well differentiated. Class Pisces (fishes) • Body covered with scales • Have fins and no limbs • Breathe by gills. The phylum Chordata is divided into three subphyla. . (In some cases. • Possess a hollow dorsal nerve cord. • All possess a tail extending behind the anal opening. No head is formed. Example: Herdmania b) Subphylum Cephalochordata (cephalo: head) Notochord extends up to the front end of the body. such as the sharks. that too.5. in the larval stages only. Vertebrata is the largest group in Chordata.9 Phylum Chordata (animals with backbone and some others) • Possess a flexible rod-like notochord along the mid-dorsal axis of the body in the embryos of all chordates including humans. All forms are marine. no lungs • 2-chambered heart Fishes are mainly of two types – cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes. the tail in the embryo gets ‘lost’ before birth). • Paired gill slits (in the pharynx) present either throughout life or at least in the embryonic stages of all chordates. a) Pisces (fishes) b) Amphibia (frogs) c) Reptilia (lizards) d) Aves (birds) e) Mammalia (animals with milk glands) i.

no eggshell. Class Amphibia (frogs. toads) • Live both in water and on land • Smooth moist skin without scales • Aquatic respiration by skin (when under water) as well as by lungs (when on land) • All larval stages as well as some adults breathe by gills. such as rohu. (Gharial is found in India and in some adjoining countries of the east. ii. Class Reptilia (lizards. catla. crocodiles) • Completely adapted to living on land.) iv.: 148 : Diversity in the Living World Diversity in the Living World Amphibian Mammal Bird Reptile Fish Fig. 23. • Scaly legs • 4-chambered heart . have their skeleton made of bones and their gills are covered by a gill-cover (operculum). • Heart 3-chambered • Cold blooded (body temperature changes with that of the surroundings) • Ear drum (tympanum) on the surface of the skin • Eggs laid in water. gharial. herring and trout. some secondarily aquatic (like the turtles) • Cold blooded (therefore live in warmer regions only) • Eggs with a leathery (non-calcareous) shell • Breathe by lungs right from birth • Rough horny scales on the skin • 3-chambered heart.20 Examples of the five classes of Chordata Bony fishes. but the ventricle is partially divided in crocodiles • Ear drum sunken into a tubular depression Examples: Lizards. Class Aves (birds) • Body covered with feathers • Only the two hindlegs present. etc. snakes. forelegs are modified into wings. tortoises. larvae undergo metamorphosis iii. crocodiles.

Name the phylum showing the following characteristics: i) Body flattened and the food canal with only one opening__________ ii) Body divided into ring-like segments and the food canal is open at both ends_____________ iii) Soft body enclosed in a hard calcareous shell_____________ iv) Body supported by a flexible rod like notochord_____________ 3. made of either just one cell performing all the activities or of numerous highly complex tissues with different functions. • All feed their babies on the milk produced in their milk (mammary) glands • Possess hairy skin • Have projecting external ears (pinna) • Testes are external contained in the scrotal sacs • 4-chambered heart • Warm-blooded • Mature red blood cells without nucleus (except only in camels. dog. i) Frog – Chordata ii) Whale – Pisces iii) Crocodile – Amphibia iv) Bat – Mammalia v) Pigeon – Reptilia • • LET US REVISE The living world varies in size from the tiny microscopic organisms to the very huge ones like the elephant and the whale. Examples: Cat. sheep.410C) Lay eggs with calcareous shell Examples: Pigeon. Name the phylum of each of the following animals: i) Sponge_____________ ii) Earthworm_____________ iii) Tapeworm_____________ iv) Cockroach_____________ v) Starfish_____________ 2. cow. apes and man CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 23. ostrich. Tick-mark the correct matching pairs of an example and its Phylum / Class. seal. penguin. bat.4 1. crow. Very few mammals lay eggs. v. Class Mammalia (mammae: breasts) • Most mammals give birth to young ones.Diversity in the Living World : 149 : • • • Bones with air cavities to lighten the body weight for flight Warm blooded (maintain constant body temperature. rat. . emu. Organisms are varied in structure. usually 380. monkey. owl. sparrow. etc. a surprising situation difficult to explain).

Annelida (earthworms). man). Scientific names of living organisms are universal and they remove any confusion arising from the local names in the different languages. Reptilia (lizards). Protista (single-celled. sucking. no nuclear membrane) containing bacteria. Every organism is given a scientific name (binomial nomenclature) consisting of two components (genus and species). class and phylum in-between. Aves (birds) and Mammalia (cow. spiders. Multiple choice type questions. Mollusca (snails). Which one of the following names is written in the correct form? a) PANTHERA TIGRIS b) Mangifera Indica c) Homo sapiens d) ficus religiosa 2. and no fruit) and Angiosperms (seeds contained in the fruit). Bryophyta (mosses). order. or absorbing) type. whether the genetic (chromosomal material) is enclosed by a nuclear membrane or not. The five kingdoms are: Monera (single-celled. Fungi (no chlorophyll) with forms like bread mould and yeasts. The kingdom Animalia includes nine phyla: Porifera (sponges). Arthropoda (prawns. and Animalia that includes all animals from sponges up to humans.: 150 : Diversity in the Living World Diversity in the Living World • • • • • • • • • • • Classification is the arrangement of organisms into groups or sets on the basis of similarities and differences. Cnidaria (hydra. nuclear membrane) with forms. Plantae (photosynthetic) that consist of the divisions Algae. Amphibia (frogs). Echinodermata (star fishes). insects). and Chordata (animals with backbone) The phylum Chordata is composed of five classes: Pisces (fishes). Species is a group of individuals that can successfully breed among themselves to produce fertile young ones. such as Amoeba and Paramecium. Aschelminthes (round worms). Mushrooms belong to the kingdom a) Protista b) Spermatophyta . whether the nutrition is of autotrophic (photosynthetic) type or of heterotrophic or saprotrophic (eating. Pteridophyta (ferns) and Spermatophyta (seedbearers). The five-kingdom classification is based on three main criteria : whether the organisms are single-celled or multicellular. Species is the lowest category in the classification and the kingdom is the highest with family. jellyfishes). Platyhelminthes (flat worms). Classification helps us in understanding the inter-relationships among the organisms leading to the idea about of evolution. 1. The Spermatophyta are subdivided into Gymnosperms (naked seeds. TERMINAL EXERCISES A. monkey. dog.

c) Angiosperms have naked seeds but gymnosperms have seeds enclosed inside the fruit. Write two identification characteristics of each of the following: i) Chordata ii) Arthropoda iii) Pteridophyta iv) Monera 5. 5. With the help of any two examples describe how the five-kingdom classification is better than the old system of just two kingdoms (plants and animals). Presence of hyphae and mycelium is a characteristic feature of one of the following kingdoms: a) Fungi b) Protista c) Monera d) Plantae 4. d) Gymnosperms have naked seeds but angiosperms have seeds enclosed inside the fruit. The seeds of angiosperms and gymnosperms differ in the aspect that: a) Angiosperms do not produce seeds but gymnosperms produce seeds. 2. 1. Underline the items that do not match. Why are scientific names of the living beings preferred over the local names? 4. Column I (Organisms) Fern Dog Yeast Fish Pine Mushroom Bacteria Sponge Spider Column II (Group) Arthropoda Monera Bryophyta Amphibia Pteridophyta Porifera Reptilia Mammalia Fungi 3.Diversity in the Living World : 151 : c) Pteridophyta d) Fungi 3. Match the items in column I (organisms) with their group in column II (draw connecting lines). b) Gymnosperms do not produce seeds but angiosperms produce seeds. Given below is a list of some organisms each followed by three-characteristics/ . Descriptive type questions. The alimentary canal has a single opening in one of the following: a) Aschelminthes b) Annelida c) Arthropoda d) Platyhelminthes B.

Echinodermata Platyhelminthes. Differentiate between the following: i) Gymnosperms and Angiosperms ii) Amphibia and Reptilia iii) Protista and Fungi iv) Mollusca and Annelida 8. 4. Animalia (i) Fungi. Classify it further into classes.2 1. List any three characteristics of the phylum Chordata. Monera 6. Monera. phylum. 7. Family: A group of two or more genera with common characteristics. Identify the correct one in each case and underline. (ii) Plantae. . (v) Plantae Monocots. spores. 2. family. (iv) Monera. Bryophyta v) Whale – Pisces. Species: A group of individuals having common characteristics that can interbreed to produce fertile offsprings. (i) F. Phylum: A group of related classes. 23. Annelida iii) Pine – cone. Classify it into its various subdivisions. autotrophs or heterotrophs or saprotrophs. Fungi. (iv) F. 3. dicots Porifera. 23. Kingdom: A group of organisms differentiated on very widespread similarities. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 23. Arthropoda. Plantae. Monera.: 152 : Diversity in the Living World classification etc. order. Class: A group of related orders.4 1. genus. Annelida. (iii) F. Annelida. parasite iv) Bread mould – chlorophyll.3 1. Chordata (i) and (iv) GLOSSARY Classification: Arrangement of organisms into groups or sets on the basis of their similarities and differences. List the characteristics of Kingdom Plantae. Order: A group of related families. 3. class. (ii) T . segmented ii) Earthworm – Arthropoda. (iii) F. kingdom Whether single-celled or many celled. Mollusca. (ii) F. (iv) T (i) T . 2. (v) T Homo sapiens.1 1. flower. 23. 3. Ficus religiosa Species. milk glands. Felis domesticus. Chordata. Platyhelminthes. 2. (iii) Plantae. nucleus or no well defined nucleus. Pteridophyta. i) Amoeba – nuclear membrane. gills vi) Bacteria – Protista.

Tissues and Organs . . • draw and describe the structural details of a cell that are common to both plant and animal cells and state their functions. muscular and nervous tissues. every organism including human beings starts life only as a single microscopic cell. Every function of the body is basically the outcome of the activity of the cells comprising the body. • give a brief account of animal tissues – epithelial. This single cell undergoes repeated divisions to produce more and more cells. you will be able to: • recognize that cell is the unit of structure and function of all forms of life. In fact. • trace the increasing complexity of organization of life from cell to organ. • recognize that basic functions of life occur both at the level of a cell as well as an organism. • differentiate between a plant cell and an animal cell. are made of small units – the cells. which acquire different shapes to suit a variety of functions. • differentiate between protective (covering) and conducting tissues in plants (excluding finer details).Cells. • explain the need for cell division as related to growth. whether tiny or large. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. development and reproduction. to organ system and to the organism. connective.The Building Blocks of the Body : 155 : 24 Cells. 24.1 CELL: THE UNIT OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIFE All plants and all animals. Tissues and Organs The Building Blocks of the Body If we pull out or pinch off any tiniest bit from any part of a plant or an animal and examine it under microscope we will find hundreds and thousands of unit structures of well-defined shapes – the cells. • describe and draw sketches of the different stages of mitosis in an animal cell. • explain briefly the role of meiosis (no description is required).

is through the activity of the green cells of the leaf.1. you will find that there is always a cell carrying it out. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 24. chlorophyll. 24. .2 STRUCTURE OF A CELL All kinds of cells. cytoplasm and nucleus (Fig. The green cells contain a green pigment. When you grow a new plant from a cutting. an animal or a human being. The male sperm is a cell and so is the female egg. • • • Tasting food while eating: Taste of any food that you have.1 1. T/F 24. Each such structure also has the same basic function. Any substance added to increase the bulk of the body of the organism is also due to the activity of the cells.1. contain the same basic structures. A generalized cell consists of three main parts: plasma membrane. you think of any activity inside a plant. • Reproduction: No matter how an organism reproduces. Transport of oxygen in the body: The oxygen. whether in plants or in animals. such as rose or sugarcane. T/F iv) Petals have no cells.The Building Blocks of the Body 24. is the result of the taste cells (sensory) of your tongue. supplied to the body parts. Mention whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). • Produce colourful flowers: The colour of flowers is due to the pigments developed inside the cells.2 Functions of cells in plants • Absorption of water and minerals from soil: Even the tiniest parts of the root are made of cells and these cells absorb water and minerals from the soil. which traps sunlight for food synthesis. whether sexually or asexually. is absorbed by the red blood cells from inside the lungs and then transported to all parts of the body. i) Skin is made up of cells. it is again the cells in the cutting that re-divide and result in growth of a new plant. 24. and the intestinal cells absorb it. T/F ii) Tears are secretions of the tear gland cells. which the plant produces. T/F v) Sperm is a cell but the egg is not.1 Function of cells in living beings • Growth: Growth is the result of new cells being produced by cell division. 24.Tissues and Organs . Digestion of food and its absorption: The enzymes produced by cells of the digestive glands digest food. T/F iii) Bones are made up of hard material without any cells.3 Function of cells in human beings • Movement: The movement of the limbs or the body as a whole (locomotion) is the result of contraction of muscle cells. Similarly. it is again the cells that carry out the process.: 156 : Cells.1). • Production of food (starch): The food (starch).1.

2). which determine the inheritance of characteristics from the parents to the offspring.2. each performing a particular task. • Nucleus contains one or more rounded nucleoli (sing.Tissues and Organs . • The nucleoplasm contains a network of darker fibres (chromosomes) called chromatin network. • It helps in the transport of various products from one part of the cell to the other or from within the cell to the outside. • It is bounded by a nuclear membrane. iii) It contains genes. nucleolus). An organelle is any structure in a cell in which certain functions and processes are localized.1 Organelles in the cytoplasm The main organelles found in the cytoplasm are: endoplasmic reticulum. ribosomes. • It contains several structures that behave like ‘mini-organs in the cell’. • It provides a supportive framework to the cell. • This is the largest organelle. Chloroplast Vacuole Mitochondrion Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleolus Nucleus Golgi bodies Lysosome Endoplasmic reticulum Cell wall Fig. ii) It plays an important part in cell division. • It is very thin and flexible. Such structures are called organelles meaning ‘little organs’. • It is a living membrane full of activity.1 A generalized animal cell b) Cytoplasm: Cytoplasm is the living part of the cell enclosed by the plasma membrane excluding the nucleus. centrosome (in animal cells only) and plastids (in plant cells only) (Fig. 24. 24. .The Building Blocks of the Body : 157 : a) Plasma membrane: It is the outermost membrane enclosing the cell. c) Nucleus: The nucleus is a small ovoid or spherical mass located somewhat in the centre of the cytoplasm. Functions of the nucleus i) The nucleus coordinates the activities of the entire cell. golgi bodies. 24.Cells. the nucleoplasm. lysosomes. mitochondria. • It holds within and protects all the cell contents. • The nuclear membrane surrounds a semi-solid substance. Thus. • It allows some substances to pass inward or outward while preventing the others. it is selectively permeable. a) Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): An irregular network of double membrane distributed in the entire cytoplasm.

• They breakdown glucose by using oxygen and release energy in the form of a compound. for the activities of the cell.Tissues and Organs . a) Vacuoles: These are clear spaces with water or other substances in solution. 24. d) Golgi bodies (also called Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex): Very small vesicles of various shapes generally located near the nucleus (similar structures in a plant cell are called dictyosomes). • They carry out cellular respiration. • These produce secretions of the cell such as enzymes. etc. adenosine triphosphate (ATP). • They contain digestive enzymes. • Too many damaged cells are rapidly destroyed by the cell’s own lysosomes – a kind of self-destruction and hence these are also known as suicide bags. 24.2 Parts other than the organelles The vacuoles and granules are the non-living parts of a cell. The most common ones are chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll. spherical or disc-like.The Building Blocks of the Body Cell membrane Vacuole Ground substance Mitochondrion Centrioles Nucleolus Nuclear membrane Lysosome Golgi complex Secretory granules b) Ribosomes: These are granules either scattered freely in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. c) Mitochondria: These are minute bodies scattered in the cytoplasm. • It initiates and regulates cell division. g) Plastids (in plant cells only): These are of various shapes – oval. hormones. e) Lysosomes: These are small vesicles of different shapes. • Vacuoles help in storage of water and other substances.: 158 : Cells. • They help to digest stored food during the starvation of the cell. f) Centrosome (in animal cells only): It is located near the nucleus and contains 1 or 2 centrioles. which destroy and digest the worn out cell organelles or any foreign substances like bacteria that may enter the cell. . • Plant cells often have several and more number of large-sized vacuoles while the animal cells have smaller and fewer ones.2. Ribosomes Fig. • Ribosomes are the sites for the synthesis of proteins.2 A generalized animal cell showing finer details (organelles) as observed under an electron microscope.

b) Replacement: To replace the cells that are normally dying. Fill in the blanks. which participates in cell division CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 24. T/F T/F T/F T/F 2. crystals or droplets. fat. iv) Inside nucleoplasm is the _____________network of _____________ 24. Similarly. i) Cell division is necessary for the movement of the body.2 1. dead skin cells on the body surface are being replaced regularly by new cells. etc.Tissues and Organs . a) Growth: To increase the number of cells for the growth in size of the organs as well as that of the body as a whole. . Table 24. serve as food for the cell. Mention whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). i) The cell wall is mainly formed of____________ ii) The _________ is selectively permeable.Cells. 20 million red blood cells in our body are destroyed every minute. For example. iii) Centrioles are found only in ______________ cells.The Building Blocks of the Body : 159 : b) Granules: These are small particles.3 CELL DIVISION – THE NEED TO PRODUCE NEW CELLS New cells need to be produced for many reasons. These are replaced by new cells formed by the division of their parent cells in the bone marrow. ii) Cell membrane permits inflow and outflow of all molecules.1 : Basic differences between plant and animal cells Plant cell (special features not found in animal cells) Cell Wall: Rigid protective layer present outside the plasma membrane. iv) Ribosomes are often called suicide bags. iii) Chloroplast and not chlorophyll is an organelle. • Granules containing starch. • Chiefly made of cellulose • Supports and protects the cell • Freely permeable allowing substances to pass through in and out without any hindrance Chloroplasts: Oval-shaped green structures containing chlorophyll • Trap sunlight for preparing food (starch) Vacuoles: Very big and numerous and act as storage areas Animal cell (special features not found in plant cells) Centrioles: 1 or 2 centrioles enclosed in a centrosome located just near the nucleus.

the normal number of the chromosomes is restored. The nuclear membrane disappears.: 160 : Cells. Instead. The nuclear membrane reappears around each of the two new clusters of the chromatin material. the spindle is formed. move to the opposite poles of the spindlechromosomes then turn into a network of chromatin threads at the two poles. there is no centrosome and no centrioles inside it.The Building Blocks of the Body c) Repair: There may be cuts or injuries in the body.Tissues and Organs . each of which migrates to the opposite poles of the cell. d) Reproduction: To produce sex cells in which the number of chromosomes is reduced to half of that of the normal body cells. New cells produced by cell division of the bordering cells fill up the gap to repair these cuts or wounds.g. Its major events are largely similar in both animal and plant cells but for the sake of simplicity. A spindle of ray-like fibres is formed between the centriole. It divides the original cell into two daughter cells. The sequence of events in mitosis is as follows: • The chromosomal material (chromatin network) inside the nucleus condenses to form the chromosomes (the number specific for the species. while meiosis takes place in sex cells only. a cell plate or a new cell wall is laid down in the cytoplasm at the middle of the cell. • Upon the completion of mitosis. • • Mitosis: Cell division leading to growth and repair Meiosis: Cell division leading to the production of sex cells a) Mitosis: Mitosis is the kind of cell division that occurs in all body cells. A furrow appears in the cell membrane at the two sides in the middle of the cell. However. The chromosomes duplicate themselves to form chromatids. The chromatids (daughter chromosomes) of each chromosome separate from each other. • • • • • • • Two main differences in mitosis in a plant cell and an animal cell • In plant cells. e. When the sex cells (egg and sperm) fuse. the cytoplasm in plant cell does not constrict (furrow is not formed). 46 in humans) The centrosome (in animal cell) divides into two equal parts called centrioles. which deepen to divide the parent cell completely into two new daughter cells. . we will describe mitosis in an animal cell.1 Types of cell division There are two types of cell division.3. Each chromosome consists of two chromatids held by a centromere. 24.

24.Tissues and Organs . Meiosis takes place in reproductive organs. and in the anthers and the ovary.3 Comparison of mitotic division in a plant cell and an animal cell b) Meiosis: This type of cell division occurs in cells involved in sexual reproduction. . During meiosis the number of the chromosomes is halved in the resulting sex cells so that when the male cell and the female cell combine during fertilization. in flowering plants to produce pollen grains and the ovule. respectively. such as the testis and the ovary.Cells. the normal number of chromosomes in the species is restored.The Building Blocks of the Body : 161 : ANIMAL CELL Cytoplasm Nucleus Chromatin threads A Centrosome Nucleus Nucleolus Interphase (Resting stage) Interphase (Resting stage) Centromere B Centrosomes moving apart Early prophase Chromosomes lie along the equatorial plane of the cell C Chromatin threads Nucleolus PLANT CELL Chromatids Early prophase Metaphase Chromatids separate and move to opposite poles D Metaphase Anaphase Cell plate forming Anaphase E Daughter chromosomes Telophase Furrow in cytoplasm Telophase F Cytokinesis Daughter cells Daughter cells Fig. in animals that produce eggs and sperms.

24. Each pair breaks. Stage II: The immediately following second division is mitotic and produces four cells at the end. Stage I: A reduction division that involves production of two cells with half the number of chromosomes in each.Tissues and Organs . E Characteristic features of the first meiotic division • Chromatin fibres condense into Splitting of C chromosomes. but each separated chromosome is already split into two chromatids that are still held together. Each of the two resulting cells undergoes the second (mitotic) type of division in which the two chromatids of each of the 23 chromosomes separate apart (just as in mitosis) and the two cells divide to form four cells (these are the sex cells). 24. Thus. A matching pair 2n means one chromosome having been First division received from the mother and the (chromosome D pairs separated) corresponding one received from the father. four cells are formed. • The cytoplasm divides into two cells. The cell divides into two daughter cells (this is the first meiotic division which actually is a reduction division) and now each of the two resulting cells has only 23 single chromosomes. chromosomes (still in pairs) • The chromosomes arrange in matching (or homologous) pairs . the leads to formation of the sex cells homologous chromosomes separate and move apart. each of which now has half the number of original chromosomes. meiosis is completed in two phases or stages (Fig. .4 Meiosis: The cell division that • The nuclear membrane disappears. each pair of (mitotic type) chromosomes is now a group of four n n n n chromatids. 2n • • • • Meiosis in a human cell The 46 chromosomes organise in homologous pairs (23 pairs). Thus.The Building Blocks of the Body A Chromosomes 2n B Chromosomes in homologous pairs Stages in meiosis Broadly. Fig.: 162 : Cells.4). • The two chromatids of each chromosome in the two cells separate and move apart to become surrounded by nuclear membranes and thus. the pairs are broken. n n • Each chromosome in such a pair is made Second division of two chromatids. each chromosome is already split into two chromatids still held together by a centromere. At the same time.

4 SPECIALIZATION OF CELLS – FORMATION OF TISSUES Most organisms are made of more than one cell.Cells. Here. These cells are variously specialized in their shape. At some places these cells have cilia at their free ends (ciliated columnar epithelium) Some parts in kidney tubules and in glandular ducts Inner lining of the stomach and the intestine Inner lining of trachea (wind pipe) Secretion.2 Different types of epithelial tissues Type Nature of cells Example/location Cells of the outermost layer of skin Function Protection of underlying parts in the body from injury.1 Animal tissues Animal tissues are grouped under four main categories: epithelial. All animals and plants have a large variety of tissues. we shall describe the more common types of these tissues. Such specialized cells are called tissues. on the surface of the internal organs and the lining of the body cavities There are three distinct types of epithelial tissues (Table 24.2. connective. Name the type of cell division that occurs during the following events: i) repair of skin and injury ii) formation of eggs and sperms in animals iii) increase in the length of the stem in plants 24.3 1. Groups of similar cells with similar functions are called tissues. muscular and nervous tissues. actually in millions and millions.The Building Blocks of the Body : 163 : CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 24.Tissues and Organs . a) Epithelial tissue • Thin protective layer (or layers) of cells • Generally located on the outer surface of the body. Fig. harmful substances and from drying up Secretion Squamous Thin plates of somewhat epithelium hexagonal or irregular cells Cuboidal epithelium Thick and cuboidal cells Columnar Tall-elongated cells epithelium arranged in a straight or folded row. 2.5). size and function. 24. List the four basic needs of organisms for which cell division is necessary.4. 24. Table 24. absorption Lashing movement of cilia pushes the material forward .

24.3 Subcategories of connective tissue Subcategory Nature of tissue Example/Location Tendon Ligament Adipose (fat) tissue Function Fibrous tissue Cells usually separated from one another by intercellular spaces. Table 24. The various types of connective tissues are given below (Table 24. store fat In nose. ears. protection from disease. strength. 24. Cartilage thickened intercellular substance Semi-transparent and elastic Hard and porous. etc.Tissues and Organs . consists Bone of both living cells and rigid mass of non-living salts Contains both cellular and Fluid liquid parts connective tissue Connect muscle to bone Connect two bones Packing and binding of most organs. walls of Provide support and windpipe and at ends strength of long bones Ribs.6). This space is filled with solid or liquid material Non-porous tissue.3. Provide support and backbone.causing germs Cell Matrix Matrix Fibres Nucleus Cell Cartilage [ (b) Empty Lacuna (a) Fig.6 Types of connective tissue (a) fibrous tissue (b) cartilage .: 164 : Cells. thigh bone.5 Different types of epithelial tissue b) Connective tissue • Connect various tissues and organs or support them to keep them in position. help in movement Blood and lymph Transport of gases and chemical substances. Fig. 24.The Building Blocks of the Body Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Ciliated columnar Fig.

Iris muscles regulate the size of pupil of the eye Only heart muscles Movement of the parts or contents of the part not under the control of will Contract without will and without any outward stimulation.4 Subcategories of muscular tissue Subcategory Striped or striated (Voluntary) Nature of muscle Occur in groups of fibres. face. cells are multinucleated. legs. urinary bladder. control of will Unstriped or unstriated (Involuntary) Cardiac (heart Specialized striped muscles. etc. etc.Cells. Table 24. 24.7). 24. show bundles of light and dark bands Slender tapering cells Example/Location Function Muscles of arms. do not get tired Nucleus Sarcolemma Dark band Light band Nucleus (c) (a) (b) Fig. 24. (c) Cardiac muscle .6 Types of connective tissue (c) Bone c) Muscular tissue • Brings about all kinds of movements in the body. short muscles) and branched (Involuntary) Wall of blood vessels. uterus.The Building Blocks of the Body : 165 : Haversian Canal Concentric rings Bone Bone cell Bone cell Fig.Tissues and Organs .4 (Fig. Cause movements that are under the neck. The various subcategories of muscular tissue are listed in Table 24.7 Different types of muscular tissue (a) Striped muscle. (b) Unstriped muscle.

4. • The new cells produced are transformed into mature permanent tissues. . stem. • The cells divide actively and add new cells to the plant. One of these extensions.Tissues and Organs . stems and branches.: 166 : Cells. roots. i. For example. sense receptors etc.8 The nervous tissue–A nerve cell (neuron) and a nerve A bundle of axon fibres forms a nerve. These are highly specialized.The Building Blocks of the Body d) Nervous tissue Nervous tissue constitutes the nervous system (brain. C Y T O N Nucleus Cytoplasm Dendrons Neurilemma Myelin sheath Nucleus A X O N Branch Node of Ranvier Terminal branches Fig. b) Permanent tissue: It is made up of cells. which is not continuous. The function of nervous tissue is perception of the stimuli from the environment and responding to them. Each nerve cell consists of a cell body called cyton (or perikaryon) containing a nucleus in the centre and one or more elongated hair-like extensions called dendrons (or dendrites). The cells have thick walls. a) Meristematic tissue: It is found at the growing points of a plant such as at the tips of the roots. The dendrites carry the impulse (message) towards the cell while the axon carries the message away from the cell. Protective tissue: This tissue is found on the surface of plant organs like the leaves.2 Plant tissues Plant tissues are basically of two types – meristematic and permanent. The chief characteristics of meristematic tissue are as follows: • The cells are small and have large nuclei. 24. the axon. may be very long. spinal cord. the gaps in it are called the Nodes of Ranvier. the permanent tissues are of three types. 24. According to their function.) The nerve cells are called neurons. etc. which have lost their ability to multiply. It is usually covered by a medullary sheath.

pits • have long. and those that fill up a) Longitudinal section the interior of the leaf (the chlorophyll-containing cells). narrow and thick Companion cell cells. It allows water and minerals absorbed from the soil to travel upwards in the plant. which have become dead. ii. found parenchyma Sieve plate in the leaf stalks and in the stems below the outer epidermis B Sieve and provide support. such as • cells that fill up the interior of Companion cells potatoes. and Fig. Seive cell • cells that are more elongated Phloem and thick at the corners.Cells. It provides passage for the fluids to move up and down in the plant. c) same structure and same function. which store food. d) different structures and different functions. A tissue is a group of cells with a) same structure but different functions. Which one of the following is a matching pair of an example and its kind of tissue? a) Blood – Epithelial tissue b) Muscle – Connective tissue c) Cartilage – Nervous tissue d) Bone – Connective tissue .9 Conducting tissue in plants– phloem provide strength to the plant.Tissues and Organs . Conducting tissue: It is also called the vascular tissue. which secretes a waxy Sieve cell waterproof covering. Xylem is located more towards the centre of the stem. epidermis (outermost layer of cells) of leaves. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 24. 24. Phloem Supporting tissue: It provides parenchyma support to various parts of the plant.The Building Blocks of the Body : 167 : ii. b) Transverse section have very thick walls . It is of two types–xylem and phloem (Fig. 24.4 1. b) different structures but similar function.9). Choose the most appropriate answer. i. Seive plate • cells that provide temporary support to the plant. such as in the pith (central region) of roots A and stem. iii. cell It is of several types. Phloem is located outward of the xylem and serves to conduct the food (sugar) synthesized in the leaves to flow downward and upward so as to reach all other regions.

and after getting old and aged it dies. Cell is the lowest level of organization in all living beings. iii. for example. Similarly. But as a whole it is concerned with one or more very specific tasks. respiratory system or the reproductive system are some of the organ systems in animal body.10 Levels of organisation in the living world Organism is the whole living being by which different life processes are performed. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 24. lungs. the heart is an organ consisting of the muscle. 2. leaf. respires. flower. All the organs concerned with one specific process collectively constitute an organ system. iii) xylem. nerve. For example. which work in a cooperative and a coordinated manner to perform a specific function in the body. there are only two organ systems – the root system and the shoot system.10). The digestive system. 24.5 1. Human body. blood.: 168 : Cells. Tissue Organ Tissue is a group of similar cells that perform a particular function. Organ system Fig. the plant leaf is an organ formed of several tissues but its one main task is to manufacture food. ii) collenchyma. Organ system is formed of many organs that act together to perform a specific life process. excretes. Organ is formed of many tissues. finger . Name the kind of tissue found at the following places: i) Surface of the human skin ii) Inside the salivary glands iii) In the brain iv) Inner lining of the wind pipe 24. xylem. has a muscular tissue made of muscle cells. iv) phloem. In plants. 24. Circle the organs out of the following: tongue.5 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION – INCREASING COMPLEXITY FROM CELL TO ORGANISM There are various levels of organisation which increase in their complexity from the cell stage to the organismic level (Fig.Tissues and Organs . Every cell has its own life. such as digestion. which brings about movement by contraction. Every action of the organism is ultimately the outcome of the activity of the cell. and blood. bone. responds and even reproduces. It feeds.The Building Blocks of the Body Cells The plant tissue which transports prepared food material from the leaves to other parts of the plant is called i) parenchyma.

phloem). organ system. Name any three organ systems found in the human body. cuboidal epithelium. columnar epithelium. unstriped and cardiac muscles. organism. Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis. Similar cells with similar functions packed together form a tissue.Cells. A cell primarily consists of cell membrane. Plant cells have plastids as very special organelles.The Building Blocks of the Body : 169 : 2. Connective tissue consists of cartilage. cell. Plant cells have an extra rigid cell wall made up of cellulose. Nucleus contains the genetic material in the chromosomes.Tissues and Organs . Which are the two organ systems found in a maize plant. Nervous tissue consists of neurons whose long axons are bundled together to form a nerve. Animal tissues constitute epithelial. tissue • • • • • • LET US REVISE Cell is the smallest unit of structure and function in an organism. Muscular tissue consists of striped. cytoplasm and nucleus. fat. Multiple choice type questions. 3. The chloroplasts among them are concerned with production of food (starch). Epithelial tissue consists of squamous epithelium. each of which has a specific function. Different tissues arranged together to perform some specific activities make up an organ. mitochondria produce chemical energy (ATP). golgi apparatus produces secretions. Every organism starts as a single cell. collenchyma. Permanent tissues include protective tissue (epidermis) and supporting tissues (parenchyma. 1. Related organs together constitute an organ system. • • • • • • • • • • • • TERMINAL EXERCISES A. Also. it controls the activities of the cell. etc. sclerenchyma) and conducting tissues (xylem. ciliated epithelium and glandular epithelium. lysosomes destroy foreign substances around them. Rearrange the following in their correct sequence from the lowest to the highest level of organisation: organ. Plant tissues are of two types – meristematic (actively dividing cells) and permanent. blood. connective. Cytoplasm contains several organelles. The structural and functional unit of the living body is a) Lungs b) Cell c) Stomach d) Tissue . bone. 4. muscular and nervous tissues.

Mention three features found only in plant cells and one found only in animal cells. Meristematic tissue in a plant is found in one of the following parts a) Tip of the leaf b) Tip of the root c) Base of the stem d) Base of the flower B. Descriptive type questions. Division of a cell into two daughter cells by the formation of a cell plate occurs in the body of a) Human beings b) Apple tree c) Cat d) Elephant 4.: 170 : Cells.The Building Blocks of the Body 2. Differentiate between the following: i) Centrosome and chromosome ii) Nucleolus and nucleus iii) Organ and tissue iv) Conducting and protective tissue in plants v) Chromosome and chromatid vi) Cell and tissue vii) Organ and organelles viii) Organ and organism ix) Organ and organ system 4. 2. Transport of substances within the cell is performed by a) Nucleus b) Chromosomes c) Endoplasmic reticulum d) Lysosomes 3. 1. 3. The connective tissue that connects muscles to bones is a) Tendon b) Ligament c) Blood d) Cartilage 5.Tissues and Organs . State the major functions of the following: i) Plasma membrane ii) Lysosome iii) Golgi apparatus iv) Ribosomes v) Mitochondria . List any common three features found both in plant and animal cells.

Write the correct name of each of the item in the jumbled spellings.The Building Blocks of the Body : 171 : 5. a) b) c) d) e) f) Organelles found only in plant cells HCRMOOOEMS ( ___________ ) Carriers of heredity LEMYX ( ___________ ) A conducting tissue ILIAC ( _________ ) Structures present on a kind of epithelial cells SOLESOMY ( ___________ ) An organelle that destroys foreign substances SUNCLUE ( ___________ ) The cell organelle that regulates cell activities ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 24. “First meiotic division is the reduction division. Given below are the jumbled spellings of some of the cell structures and tissues. The diagram alongside represents a stage in the mitotic type of the cell division.” What does the word reduction refer to in this statement? 6.Cells.1 1. Why is it necessary that the sex cells (gametes) must be produced by meiosis? 7. A special point about each of them is also given on the side. chromosomes SPASDITL ( ___________ ) 24.Tissues and Organs . 8. i) Is it a plant cell or an animal cell? ii) Which stage does it represent? iii) How many chromosomes have been shown in it? iv) Name the stage that precedes it and the one that follows it. 2. i) ii) iii) iv) v) i) ii) iii) iv) i) ii) iii) iv) T T F F F F F T F Cellulose Plasma membrane or cell membrane Animal Chromatin. .2 1.

3 1. 3. organism GLOSSARY Axon: The process of a neuron that conducts impulses away from the cell. Heredity: Transmission of characteristics from parent to the offspring. 4. etc. respiratory system. Tongue.Tissues and Organs . organ system. tissue. Egg: The female sex cell also called the ovum or the female gamete. lungs. i) ii) iii) iv) i) ii) iii) i) ii) iii) i) ii) iii) iv) growth repair replacement reproduction mitosis meiosis mitosis c) d) d) Epithelial (squamous) Epithelial (columnar) Nervous Epithelial (ciliated) 24. Chlorophyll: The green-coloured matter contained in the chloroplast of plant cells. digestive system. 24.4 1.: 172 : Cells. 2. flower. Tissue: A group of structurally similar cells that perform the same function. Nucleolus: A well-defined part inside the nucleus. finger Nervous system. 2. Shoot system.The Building Blocks of the Body 24. root system Cell. Cell wall: A layer that surrounds the plant cells. Pith: The soft spongy tissue in the centre of most stems. 2. . leaf. organ. Cell: The structural and functional unit of the living body.5 1. Chloroplast: The plant cell organelle that contains chlorophyll.

• d e f i n et h et e r mp h o t o s y n t h e s i s .s u c ha sr e s p i r a t i o na n dd i g e s t i o n . repair and maintenance. • define food adulteration. I s n ’t i t ?B e i n g h u n g r yi st h eb o d y ’s w a yo fs a y i n gt h a ti tn e e d sm o r ef u e lt ok e e pg o i n g . 25. • d e s c r i b es o m en u t r i t i o n a ld i s o r d e r s .25 Food and Nutrition Why do we have food? We have food because we feel hungry. S o m eo fu sm a yp r e f e rt oe a tr i c et ob r e a do rc h a p a t t i s . .y o uw i l lb ea b l et o : • d e s c r i b ev a r i o u sm o d e so fn u t r i t i o ni no rganisms. • e x p l a i nt h ei m p o r t a n c eo fp h o t o s y n t h e s i sa sas o u r c eo ff o o df o ra l ll i f eo ne a r t h .T h ef o o d we eat provides energ yf o ra l lb o d yf u n c t i o n sa n di sa l s ou s e dt of o r mn e wc e l l s f o rt h eb o d y. We e a tav a r i e t yo ff o o da c c o r d i n gt oo u rt a s t e . Wi l lt h e c h i l ds u r v i v ea n dg r o w ?T h ea n s w e ri s‘ N o ’ . Food serves the following purposes: • p r o v i d e se n e rg yf o rv a r i o u sm e t a b o l i ca c t i v i t i e s( b i o c h e m i c a lr e a c t i o n st a k i n g p l a c ei nt h eb o d y ) .b o d yr e q u i r e m e n t a n da v a i l a b i l i t y.t h e i rc a u s e sa n dp r e v e n t i o n . • p r o t e c t su sf r o md e f i c i e n c yd i s e a s e s .A l ll i v i n gb e i n g sn e e df o o dt os u r v i v e .A l ll i v i n gb e i n g s . Think of a young child who is deprived of food for a few days.1 The need for Food How do you feel if you do not have food for a day or two? You may feel exhausted and weak. and list some common food adulterants.1 FOOD Food provides the essential raw material our body needs to grow and stay healthy. • h e l p si ng r o w t ho ft h eb o d ya n dr e p a i ro fw o r n o u tt i s s u e s .e t c .a n dl i s ti t sr a wm a t e r i a l sa n dp r o d u c t s . • l i s tt h ec o m p o n e n t so fab a l a n c e dd i e ta n ds t a t et h ef u n c t i o n so fe a c ho ft h e m .i d l i s . We m a yb eav e g e t a r i a no ra n o n v e g e t a r i a n .O t h e r s m a yl i k et oh a v ed o s a s . 25.b o t hp l a n t sa n da n i m a l sn e e df o o df o rg r o w t h .b u rg e r s . • d r a wt h ep a r t so ft h ea l i m e n t a r yc a n a la n dd e s c r i b et h ef u n c t i o n so fe a c h .n o o d l e s . OBJECTIVES A f t e rc o m p l e t i n gt h i sl e s s o n . • l i s ta n dd e s c r i b et h ef a c t o r sa ff e c t i n gp h o t o s y n t h e s i s .1.

2 ) . Org a n i s m st h a td e r i v et h e i rf o o df rom dead and ro t t e no rganisms are c a l l e ds a p ro t rophs ( F i g .1. The fungus grows and feeds on s u b s t a n c e s .i fi tm e e t sy o u re n t i r eb o d y ’s r e q u i r e m e n t a n di su t i l i z e db yt h eb o d y.S a p r o t r o p h s help in cleaning the environment by decomposing the dead and recycling the n u t r i e n t s . bread mould. .T h i sp r o c e s si sc a l l e dp h o t o s y n t h e s i s . etc. yeast. All animals including man and nongreen plants cannot make their food and depend on green plants. The process by which.t ro p h o s :f o o d ) W e cannot make food inside our own body.t ro p h o s : food) You must have noticed a gardener w a t e r i n gt h ep l a n t so ro c c a s i o n a l l y p r o v i d i n gt h e mw i t hf e r t i l i z e r s . i ) Sapro t rophic nutrition: You must have seen a white cottony growth developing on your wet leather shoes or belts especially when they get wet during rainy days. 1 .w h i c hw e r eo n c ep a r to ft h el i v i n go rg a n i s m s . i nt h ep r e s e n c eo fs u n l i g h t . Some common examples are bacteria. The gre e np l a n t s and certain bacteria which can manufacture t h e i ro w nf o o dw i t h i nt h e m s e l v e s . a re c a l l e da u t o t rophs.s u c ha ss t o r e df o o d . 1 ) . i ti sc a l l e dn u t r i t i o n (n u t r i n e: t on o u r i s h ) .2 5 .2 5 .a re c a l l e dh e t e ro t rophs a n dt h e i r m o d eo fn u t r i t i o ni sc a l l e dh e t r o t r o p h i cn u t r i t i o n . This is a fungal growth. 2 5 . b ) Hetro t rophic nutrition(h e t e ro s :d i ff e r e n t . leather and rotten plant products.:174 : F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n 25.2 Nutrition Yo u rf o o dm a yi n c l u d ean u m b e ro fi t e m s . 3 Types of nutrition Depending upon the mode of food uptake. wood. a n dt h e i rm o d eo fn u t r i t i o ni sc a l l e da u t o t r o p h i cn u t r i t i o n ( F i g . org a n i s m so b t a i na n du t i l i s ef o o df o rt h e i rg r o w t ha n d d e v e l o p m e n t( f r o mt h e i re n v i r o n m e n t )i sc a l l e dn u t r i t i o n .A r e w a t e ra n df e r t i l i z e r sf o o df o rt h e m ? I si ta l lt h a ta l lp l a n t sn e e d ? From soil through absorption C O2 f r o ma i r Sun Chlorophyll + Wa t e r ↓ Glucose + Oxygen R e l e a s e di n t ot h ea i r L i g h te n e rgy To d i ff e r e n tp a r t so ft h ep l a n t Fig. nutrition could be of two b r o a dt y p e s – autotrophic n u t r i t i o n a n dh e t ro t rophic nutrition.1 Gre e np l a n t ss y n t h e s i s et h e i r Green plants synthesize their own food food from water and carbon dioxide. a ) Autotrophic nutrition ( a u t o s :s e l f . 25. The organisms. which depend on other org a n i s m sf o rt h e i rf o o d . O nt h eb a s i so ft h e i rf e e d i n gh a b i t sh e t e r o t r o p h sm a yb ec l a s s i f i e da s– sapro t rophs a n d parasites. mushrooms.

25.a n d worms.2 NUTRITION IN PLANTS Yo um u s th a v es e e na n i m a l s .s u c ha sc o w s .t od e r i v et h e i rf o o d a re c a l l e dp a r a s i t e s. head louse and leech remain outside the body. 25. mushroom 6 . Dodder plant (Amar bel) i sap a r a s i t eo ng r e e np l a n t s . such as tapeworm and roundworm. D i ff e r e n t i a t eb e t w e e np a r a s i t i ca n ds a p r o t r o p h i cm o d eo fn u t r i t i o n . How do plants get their food? Yo uh a v ea l r e a d ys t u d i e dt h a ta u t o t r o p h s . live inside the body (Fig.3). 5 .F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n : 175 : Fungal spots S l i c eo fb r e a d Fig.h o r s e s . Which group of org a n i s m si sc a p a b l eo fp r e p a r i n gi t so w nf o o da sw e l la s nourishing others? 4 . head louse. Which are the two major groups of org a n i s m so nt h eb a s i so fn u t r i t i o n ? 2 . 25.2 Some sapro t rophs i i ) P a r a s i t i cn u t r i t i o n : Have you ever been bitten by a head louse or a bed bug? Have you heard of some children having worms inside their body? These o rg a n i s m st h a tl i v eo no ri n s i d eo t h e rl i v i n go rg a n i s m s . Name one parasitic plant. C l a s s i f yt h ef o l l o w i n ga ss a p r o t r o p h so rp a r a s i t e s : leech. Bed bug.s h e e p . 3 . . yeast.e t cg r a z i n gi nt h ef i e l d s for food.3 Some parasites on human body CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25.1 1 . S u c ham o d eo fn u t r i t i o ni sk n o w na sp a r a s i t i cn u t r i t i o n . Give two examples of saprotrophs. S o m eb a c t e r i a . Mouth Gut Mosquito Ovary Hookworm Head Mouth Sucker Rare Sucker Tapeworm Leech Fig. 25.

about which you h a v ea l r e a d ys t u d i e di nl e s s o n2 4 .D u r i n g t h i ss t e p .D u r i n gt h i ss t e p . 5T h e products o fp h o t o s y n t h e s i s i ) Light re a c t i o n : T h ef i r s ts t e po fp h o t o s y n t h e s i so c c u r si nt h ep r e s e n c eo f l i g h t . Such compounds are needed by all living beings for energy production. i i ) Dark re a c t i o n : T h i ss e c o n ds t e po fp h o t o s y n t h e s i sd o e sn o tr e q u i r el i g h t . O x y g e ni sa l s or e l e a s e di nt h i sp r o c e s s .T h e s ec e l l sp o s s e s st i n ys t r u c t u r e sc a l l e d chloro p l a s t s. The process by which green plants manufacture food from carbon dioxide a n dw a t e ri nt h ep r e s e n c eo fs u n l i g h ti sc a l l e dp h o t o s y n t h e s i s ( photos:l i g h t .2 How does photosynthesis occur? I nt h i sp r o c e s s . a green pigment. .c h l o r o p h y l lc o n t a i n e di nt h ec h l o r o p l a s to fp l a n tc e l l s a b s o r b sl i g h te n e rg y.2 5 . 4T h ep ro c e s so f p h o t o s y n t h e s i si nal e a f F i g .e n e rgy generated during light reaction is used to combine carbon dioxide and water molecules to form energy rich compounds.I tc a na l s oc a r r yo ni nt h ep r e s e n c eo fl i g h t . The process of photosynthesis is completed in two steps – l i g h t reaction a n d dark reaction. 25.2 5 .s y n t h e s i s: t oc o m b i n e ) . which can b es u p p l i e df o rt h ec o m p l e t i o no ft h ed a r kr e a c t i o n . 25.:176 : F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n s u c ha sg r e e np l a n t s . consists of p l a n tp r o d u c t s .p l a n t su s ec a r b o nd i o x i d ea n dw a t e ra sr a wm a t e r i a l st ob u i l d e n e rgy containing chemical compounds. T h e s e structures remain packed with chlorophyll. The food that humans and animals eat.1 Where does photosynthesis occur? I to c c u r si nt h ec e l l so fg r e e nl e a v e sa n do t h e rg r e e np a r t so ft h ep l a n tt h a ta r e e x p o s e dt ol i g h t . such as glucose.2.L e tu s s e eh o wp l a n t sh a r v e s t( g a t h e r )t h i se n e rg yf o rt h ep r o c e s so fm a k i n gf o o d . T h i se n e rgy is converted into another form. C O2 Sun Chlorophyll Glucose + Wa t e r + Oxygen Glucose + Wa t e r + Oxygen Sun Wa t e r F i g .G r e e np l a n t su t i l i z ee n e rg y from sunlight to prepare food.P l a n t sr e q u i r ee n e rg yf o rp h o t o s y n t h e s i s .c a ns y n t h e s i z et h e i ro w nf o o d . Glucose is one such compound. a n di sc a l l e dd a r kr e a c t i o n .2.o rp r o d u c t so fa n i m a l st h a te a tp l a n t s .

I si tn o tw o r t ha p p r e c i a t i n gt h a tw ed on o th a v et o b u yo x y g e nf i l l e dc y l i n d e r sf o ro u rs u r v i v a l !O x y g e ni sn a t u r a l l ya d d e dt o the environment by the plants. Wa t e r :I ti sa ne s s e n t i a lr a wm a t e r i a l . Temperature :M o s to ft h ep l a n t sw o r kb e s ta ta no p t i m u mt e m p e r a t u r eo f2 5oC .G l u c o s ec a n n o tb es y n t h e s i z e di ni t s a b s e n c e . They are sometimes called the g reen lungs a st h e y help in keeping the environment clean by maintaining low levels of carbon dioxide. and the shape. structure a n da g eo ft h el e a f . T h ec y c l eo fl i f e L o o ka tt h eF i g u r e2 5 . 6 . • • L i g h t :T h er a t eo fp h o t o s y n t h e s i sd e p e n d sd i r e c t l yo nt h ei n t e n s i t yo fl i g h t .c a r b o nd i o x i d e . o Ar i s ea b o v e3 5 Cl e a d st oad e c r e a s ei nt h er a t eo fp h o t o s y n t h e s i s .P l a n t st h a t g r o wi nt h et r o p i c sc a ne ff i c i e n t l yp r o d u c es t a r c he v e na tah i g h e rt e m p e r a t u r e .L e tu ss t u d yt h ew a yt h e ya r ef u n c t i o n a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . whereas the excess present is removed by transpiration. number of stomata.2. • • b ) Internal factors These include chlorophyll content.F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n : 177 : Green plants – The green lungs Green plants constantly absorb carbon dioxide from the environment and r e t u r ne n o u g ho x y g e ni n t oi t . .i t sl o wa v a i l a b i l i t yr e d u c e st h er a t eo f photosynthesis.w a t e ra n dt e m p e r a t u r e . T h er a t eo f p h o t o s y n t h e s i sd e c r e a s e sw i t ha ni n c r e a s ei nt h ea g eo fl e a f . The following equation summarizes the raw materials and products of photosynthetic process: R AW M ATERIALS 6CO2 + 12H2O c a r b o n w a t e r d i o x i d e s u n l i g h t c h l o r o p h y l l PRODUCTS C 6H 12O 6 + 6H2O + 6O2 g l u c o s e w a t e r o x y g e n (Wa t e ra n dc a r b o nd i o x i d ea r eu s e di ne q u a lp r o p o r t i o n si nt h es y n t h e s i so f o rganic compounds.) 25.C h l o r o p h y l li st h em o s ti m p o r t a n ti n t e r n a lf a c t o r. Carbon dioxide: H i g hc a r b o nd i o x i d ec o n c e n t r a t i o ni n c r e a s e st h er a t eo f p h o t o s y n t h e s i su pt oac e r t a i ne x t e n t .3 Factors that influence photosynthesis T h er a t eo fp h o t o s y n t h e s i si si n f l u e n c e db y external a n d internalf a c t o r s . G l u c o s ei sn o tf o r m e di nt h ea b s e n c eo fl i g h t . Yo uh a v ea l r e a d ys t u d i e dt h es t r u c t u r ea n df u n c t i o n s o fm i t o c h o n d r i aa n dc h l o r o p l a s t s . a ) External factors These include l i g h t .

tapioca. sweet potato. During which step of photosynthesis are carbohydrates synthesized – light or d a r kr e a c t i o n ? . Products of photosynthesis are i m p o r t a n tf o rt h en o u r i s h m e n ta n ds u r v i v a lo fa l ll i f ef o r m so nt h ee a r t h . energy Chloroplast f r o mt h es u ni sc a p t u r e d and stored in the Carbon dioxide AT Pf o rc e l la c t i v i t i e s : A c t i v et r a n s p o r t and water glucose molecules.p e a s . W h e r ed o e sp h o t o s y n t h e s i st a k ep l a c ei nt h ep l a n tc e l l ? 2 . Following table indicates materials synthesized by green plants and t h e i ru s ea sas o u r c eo ff o o d .g r a m ) . Ta b l e2 5 . coconut Glucose Fructose Sucrose C e l l u l o s e S t a r c h Pro t e i n s Oil and fats CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25.w h o l eg r a i n s( b r a n–g o o d source of roughage) Cereals (wheat.I na d d i t i o n . Inside the t h e i ri n t e rr e l a t i o n s h i p mitochondria.6 Chloroplasts and mitochondria – Repair oxygen. P l a n t s Movement Animals Growth with the release of Reproduction Fig.b e a n s .4 Materials synthesized by plants as a sourc eo ff o o d You may have seen farmers caring for their crops.:178 : F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n T h ea c t i v i t i e st h a t o c c u r i n c h l o r o p l a s t a n d Sun mitochondria make life Oxygen Mitochondrion possible. maize. and vegetables (potato. maize a n dp a d d yg r o wt oy i e l dg r a i n s . Young plants of wheat. onion. rice.n u t s Groundnut.l e n t i l s .T h i sp r o d u c t i o no ff o o dg r a i n so rg r o w t ho ff r u i t s and vegetables is a result of photosynthesis. water c h e s t n u to r singhara) P u l s e s( s o y a b e a n . mustard seeds.o x y g e np r o d u c e d i nt h ec h l o r o p l a s ti su s e di nt h eb r e a k d o w no fg l u c o s e . 1 : Nutrients synthesized by plants that are used as food Type of nutrient Carbohydrates l l l l l Food source ( some examples ) Grapes A l lf r u i t st h a tt a s t es w e e t Sugarcane and beet root. Glucose formed during photosynthesis is converted into starch and a number of other useful forms by undergoing chemical changes or combining with other molecules. banana.2 1 . the energy stored in g l u c o s ei su s e dt oc a r r yo u to t h e rc e l la c t i v i t i e s . Photosynthesis Respiration Glucose 25.2. barley). common sugar P e e l so ff r u i t sa n dv e g e t a b l e s .25. Inside the chloroplast.

P o t a t o .3. sweet potato and banana are few good sources of starch. Starc hc a nb ee a s i l yd i g e s t e di no u rb o d y. y o un e e dt oe a tf o o d st h a t provide enough of the essential nutrients.m i n e r a l sa n dw a t e r.a tl e a s t . T h e s en u t r i e n t sa r ec a r b o h y d r a t e s .f r u c t o s e( f r u i ts u g a r ) .s t a rc ho rc e l l u l o s e. Carbohydrates may be in the form of s u g a r s . lactose (natural sweetness in milk) and sucrose (common sugar made f rom sugarc a n ej u i c e ). a ) Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds made up of three elements – carbon. D o e sy o u rd i e tf u l f i l ly o u rb o d y ’s r e q u i r e m e n t s ?S h o u l di ts a t i s f yy o u rt a s t eb u d s or body needs? For healthy growth and development of the body. You may have diff e r e n t t y p e so ff o o di ny o u rd i e t . hydrogen.i ti si m p o r t a n tt oh a v es o m ec e l l u l o s e ( i nt h ef o r mo f roughage) i nt h ed i e t . fats are composed of carbon. wheat. C e l l u l o s ec a n n o tb ed i g e s t e di no u rb o d yy e t . 25. rice.f a t s . These are the main source of energy in our diet. W h i c hf o r mo fs u g a ri sp r e s e n ti ns u g a r c a n ea n db e e t r o o t ? 5 .F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n : 179 : 3 . G i v et h eo v e r a l lc h e m i c a lr e a c t i o ni n v o l v e dd u r i n gp h o t o s y n t h e s i s . What does the term nutrient mean? Nutrients are the chemical constituents present in our food that arerequire d for the nourishment of our body. On complete oxidation each gram of fat provides around 37 kJ ( 9 k i l o c a l o r i e s )o fe n e rg yt ot h eb o d y.p e e l so fm o s tf r u i t sa n dv e g e t a b l e sa r eg o o ds o u r c e so fr o u g h a g e . You may prefer to take more of one and less of another.3 OUR DIET The food that we have on regular basis forms our diet. we get mainly six types of n u t r i e n t s . One gram of carbohydrates on complete oxidation yields 17 kJ ( 4k i l o c a l o r i e s )o fe n e rg y. I tf o r m st h eb u l ko fo u rd i e t . • • b ) Fats Much like carbohydrates.Af a tm o l e c u l ec o n s i s t so ft w op a r t s : glycero la n df a t t y a c i d s . I ti sa l s o g i v e nt ot h ep a t i e n t sw h oc a n n o td i g e s tf o o d . • Sugars a r ea v a i l a b l ei nt h ef o l l o w i n gf o r m s :g l u c o s e .p r o t e i n s . and oxygen but i nd i ff e r e n tp r o p o r t i o n s .W h o l e g r a i n s .R o u g h a g eh e l p si ne a s ym o v e m e n to f f o o dt h r o u g ht h ef o o dc a n a lp r e v e n t sc o n s t i p a t i o na n dh e l p si nd i g e s t i o n .s m a l la m o u n t so fe a c hk i n do fn u t r i e n t .M o s tf o o d sp r o v i d e .v i t a m i n s . F a t sp e r f o r mt h ef o l l o w i n gf u n c t i o n s : • • Keep body warm by providing extra energ y F a td e p o s i t si nt h eb o d yp r e v e n tl o s so fb o d yh e a t .1 Components of diet and their functions From the wide variety of food items that we consume. N a m ea n yt w op l a n t st h a ta r ear i c hs o u r c eo fs t a r c h ? 4 . G l u c o s ep r o v i d e sa l m o s ti n s t a n te n e rg y.hydrogen a n d oxygen. 25.

oxygen.f o re x a m p l e a c t i na n dm y o s i n . This is because carrots contain vitamin A. What are vitamins? Vi t a m i n s ( v i t a: e s s e n t i a lo ri m p o r t a n t )a r ec o m p l e xo rg a n i cc o m p o u n d se s s e n t i a lf o rl i f e .P r o t e i n sa r em a d e up of molecules of carbon.D e f i c i e n c yo fap a r t i c u l a rv i t a m i nf o ral o n gp e r i o dc a u s e sd i s e a s e .g h e e . d ) Vitamins You have often heard your mother saying ‘Eat carrots and your eyesight will improve’.f o re x a m p l eg a m m ag l o b u l i n s . m e a ta n dn u t sl i k eg r o u n d n u t s .B12) a F a t s o l u b l e Vitamins A. P r o t e c t i v ep r o t e i n sp r o v i d ep r o t e c t i o nt ob o d ya g a i n s ti n f e c t i o n sw i t ht h eh e l po f a n t i b o d i e s .A l lt h e s ea r er i c hi np r o t e i n s . also proves harmful.f o re x a m p l e c o l l a g e na n de l a s t i n . O nt h eb a s i so ff u n c t i o np e r f o r m e dp r o t e i n sm a yb eo f f o l l o w i n gs i xt y p e s : • • • • • • Structural proteins h e l pb u i l du pt i s s u e sa n dr e p l a c ew o r no u tc e l l s . which regulate body functions. c ) Proteins Yo um u s th a v eo f t e nh e a r dy o u rm o t h e ri n s i s t i n go nh a v i n gag l a s so fm i l ko rab o w lo f c o o k e dp u l s e s (d a l s) o re v e na ne g g .:180 : F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n • A c ta ss h o c ka b s o r b e ra n dp r o t e c ti n t e r n a lo r g a n sa g a i n s ti n j u r y • H e l pi nt h et r a n s p o r to ff a t s o l u b l ev i t a m i n s S o m ec o m m o ns o u r c e so ff a t sa r ee d i b l eo i l .B2. and sometimes sulphur a l s o . 2l i s t sc e r t a i nv i t a m i n st h a ta r ee s s e n t i a lf o rh u m a n s . Enzymes r e g u l a t et h ec h e m i c a lr e a c t i o n sg o i n go ni n s i d eo u rb o d yl i k ed i g e s t i o n a n dr e s p i r a t i o n . E and K . a n da r er e q u i r e di nr e l a t i v e l ys m a l l a m o u n t s .B4. C o n t r a c t i l ep r o t e i n sh e l pi nm o v e m e n ta n dl o c o m o t i o no fb o d yp a r t s .G r o w t ho fb o d yt i s s u e si st h em a i nf u n c t i o no fp r o t e i n s . Overdose of certain vitamins. Hormones serve as chemical messengers.D u r i n gs t a r v a t i o np r o t e i n s a l s os e r v ea sas o u r c eo fe n e rg y. VITAMINS Wa t e r s o l u b l e Vitamins B-complex n dC ( B1. and maintenance of the body. and nitrogen.T h e ya r en e c e s s a r yf o r normal growth. hydrogen. such as vitamins A and D. W e cannot make vitamins for ourselves and so must get them from our diet.b u t t e r. Transportp ro t e i n sc a r r yd i ff e r e n ts u b s t a n c e si nt h eb l o o dt ob o d yt i s s u e s . D.f o r e x a m p l eh a e m o g l o b i ni nt h eb l o o dt r a n s p o r t so x y g e n . for example insulin and thyroxine. O nt h eb a s i so fs o l u b i l i t yi nw a t e rv i t a m i n sm a yb ew a t e r s o l u b l eo rf a t s o l u b l e .f o re x a m p l ep e p s i na n dt r y p s i n . Ta b l e 2 5 .

green leafy Ascorbic acid v e g e t a b l e s . tomatoes. egg. digestive and nervous system Formation of red blood corpuscles Healthy growth.T h e ya l s oh e l pi nr e g u l a t i n gb o d yf u n c t i o n sa n d m e t a b o l i s m . turnip. meat. their sources and functions Mineral I r o n Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Iodine Sourc e s Functions Green vegetables.s o d i u ma n dp o t a s s i u m . 3 : Some important minerals. 2 : Types of vitamins. strong blood vessels Formation of strong bones and teeth Beri-beri (a disease which a ffects the nervous system) Skin disease and retarded growth Pellagra (a disease which a ff e c t st h es k i n . butter. cereals. potatoes. which is the oxygens p r o u t s . tomatoes. osmotic Common salt balance Sea food. peas.c a l c i u m . whole Calciferol grains and vegetables E Tocopherol K Phylloquinone Ve g e t a b l eo i l s . F o l l o w i n g t a b l ei n d i c a t e st h es o u r c e sa n df u n c t i o n so fs o m ei m p o r t a n tm i n e r a l s . s u c ha si r o n . clotting of blood Tapioca.i o d i n e . making n e rgy-rich compounds in our bodies Whole grains.w a t e r chestnut D Sunlight. green leafy vegetables.p h o s p h o r u s .e g g Milk. Whole cereals. eggs.F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n : 181 : Ta b l e2 5 . meat. e g g s .l i v e r. development of brain .c i t r u sf r u i t s .f i s h Cyanocobalamine C Amla.t h ev a r i o u sc h e m i c a lr e a c t i o n st a k i n gp l a c ei nt h eb o d y. fish Functions Deficiency disease Normal growth. c o d l i v e ro i l . fish e For growth and keeping osmotic balance of cells and Green and yellow vegetables blood Proper functioning of the nervous system.m i l k . meat Peas.a r ee s s e n t i a lf o r t h ef o r m a t i o no fb o d yt i s s u e s .b u t t e r.M i n e r a l s . growth Healthy skin. functions and deficiency diseases Vitamin A Retinol B1 Thiamine B2 Riboflavin B4 Niacin Sourc e s Milk.i . Ta b l e2 5 . b u t t e r. whole grains. soya bean oil of blood e ) Minerals M i n e r a l sa r ei n o rg a n i cs u b s t a n c e sr e q u i r e db yt h eb o d yi ns m a l lq u a n t i t i e s . muscle contraction. alimentary canal and nervous system) Anaemia (deficiency of red blood corpuscles) Scurvy (a disease in which gums swell up and bleed) Rickets (a disease which a ffects bones in children making them soft and deformed) Aff e c t sf e r t i l i t yt os o m e e x t e n t Excessive bleeding from wounds B 12 Liver. vegetables P r o t e c t st h ec e l l membranes Green vegetables like spinach H e l p si nt h ec l o t t i n g and cabbage. yeast. milk. c a r r o t s . green leafy vegetables For the development of strong bones.t o m a t o e s . green vegetables. e . their sources. iodized salt Body metabolism.m i l k . sea food. e g g s . m e a t carrying pigment in RBCs Milk and milk products Formation of strong bones and teeth.y e a s t . meat. Formation of haemoglobin. teeth. keeps Night blindness (poor eyes and skin healthy v i s i o ni nd i ml i g h t ) Growth and development Healthy skin.

A balanced diet contains adequate a m o u n to fe s s e n t i a ln u t r i e n t ss u c ha sc a r b o h y d r a t e s . T h el o n gt u b e . The digestive system enables c o n v e r s i o no fi n g e s t e df o o di n t oi t ss i m p l e rf o r m . y o un e e dt oe a tf o o d st h a t p r o v i d ee n o u g ho fa l lt h ee s s e n t i a ln u t r i e n t s . The digestive system includes the food canal (mouth.E a t i n gav a r i e t yo ff o o d si np r o p e r q u a n t i t ye v e r yd a yp r o v i d e s a balanced diet. Which of the two will provide greater amount of energy – one gram of starchy food or one gram of fatty food? 4 .H e r ei tc a nb ed i s t r i b u t e dt oa l lb o d yc e l l sb yt h ec i r c u l a t o r ys y s t e m .3 1 . try to analyze your own food intake. y e ti ti sc o n s i d e r e da ni m p o r t a n tc o n s t i t u e n to f b a l a n c e dd i e t .3. S u g g e s to n eu s eo fi n c l u d i n gr o u g h a g ei no u rd i e t .:182 : F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n ) f Wa t e r Wa t e ri sa ni m p o r t a n tp a r to fo u rd i e t . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25. pharynx. H i g h l i g h to n ed i fference between vitamins and minerals.t r a n s p o r t a t i o na n du s eo fn u t r i e n t s . Digested food is transferred from the external environment to body’si n t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t .s m a l li n t e s t i n e . 25. 5 .1 Enzymes The process of digestion requires a number of enzymes for the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones.l a rg ei n t e s t i n e .I th a st h ef o l l o w i n gf u n c t i o n s : • Wa t e rr e g u l a t e st h eb o d yt e m p e r a t u r e . • P r o v i d e sm e d i u mf o rb i o c h e m i c a lr e a c t i o n s . s t o m a c h .4 THE PROCESS OF NUTRITION IN HUMAN BEINGS T h ef o o dt h a tw ee a ti si nq u i t ead i ff e r e n ts t a t ef r o mt h eo n et h a tc a nb eu s e db y t h ec e l l si nt h eb o d y.f a t s .Conversion of complex food material into smaller units so t h a tt h ec e l l sc a na b s o r bi ti sc a l l e dd i g e s t i o n .i sc a l l e d alimentary canal a n dt h ed i g e s t i v ep r o c e s si sc a l l e d e x t r a c e l l u l a rd i g e s t i o n. C a t e g o r i z ev i t a m i n so nt h eb a s i so ft h e i rs o l u b i l i t y.The amount of these nutrients in diet depends upon a number o ff a c t o r s . Wa t e r does not provide any energ y. Which group of functional proteins serves as chemical messengers? 3 .s t a r t i n gf r o mt h em o u t ht o t h ea n u s . esophagus.p ro t e i n s . 25.4. .s u c ha sd i g e s t i o n .2 Balanced diet Now that you are aware of the components of diet.l i v e ra n dp a n c re a s ).D i g e s t i o nr e q u i r e ss p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n sf o rd i ff e r e n tn u t r i e n t sp r e s e n ti nt h ed i e t . • Provides means of excretion of body wastes.r e s p i r a t i o n . Do you include all the components in your diet? For healthy growth and development of the body. and the glandular organs ( s a l i v a ry g l a n d s . 25.v i t a m i n s . rectum).s e xa n dn a t u r eo fw o r ka ni n d i v i d u a lp e r f o r m s . 2 . • P l a y sa ni m p o r t a n tr o l ei na b s o r p t i o n . minerals and water.I tm a k e s6 5 7 0 %o fo u rb o d yw e i g h t .s u c ha sa g e .

The expansion and contraction of muscles of the o e s o p h a g u si sc a l l e dp e r i s t a l s i so rp e r i s t a l t i cm o v e m e n t . 4 .T h e s e j u i c e sc o n t a i nh y d r o c h l o r i ca c i d( H C l )a n de n z y m e sl i k ep e p s i n.d i g e s t i o n . Carbohydrates. Pepsin Pro t e i n s P e p t o n e s( p a r t l yd i g e s t e dp r o t e i n s ) . S a l i v a r ya m y l a s e S t a r c h M a l t o s e Oesophagus: T h eo e s o p h a g u so rt h ef o o dp i p eh e l p si np u s h i n gt h ef o o d into the stomach.T h eg a s t r i cg l a n d sp r e s e n t i ni t sw a l l ss e c r e t eg a s t r i cj u i c e sa n dh e l pi nt h ed i g e s t i o no ff o o d .a r eb r o k e n Liver Stomach down or digested to form Gall bladder Pancreas Ascending colon s u g a r. 2 5 . Wi n dp i p e ) i i i ) i i i ) Mouth: The food is (trachea) Oesophagus ingested through the Diaphragm mouth. Spleen s u c ha ss t a r c h .T h et o n g u eh e l p si nr o l l i n ga n dp u s h i n g o ff o o di n t ot h eo e s o p h a g u s . T h es a l i v ac o n t a i n s Transverse colon S m a l li n t e s t i n e an enzyme salivary Descending colon Appendix amylase t h a th e l p si nt h e Rectum d i g e s t i o no fs t a r c hi n t o sugar. H C lc r e a t e s a na c i d i cm e d i u mf o rt h ea c t i v a t i o no fe n z y m e sa n dk i l l sb a c t e r i a . T h ee n t i r ep r o c e s so fn u t r i t i o ni n c l u d e st h ef o l l o w i n gs t e p s :i n g e s t i o n .7 Alimentary canal in human beings h e l p si nl u b r i c a t i n gt h ef o o d a n dm a k i n gi te a s i e rf o rs w a l l o w i n g . S i n c et h e ys p e e du pt h er a t eo fc h e m i c a lr e a c t i o n si nt h eb o d y t h e ya r ea l s ok n o w na sb i o c a t a l y s t s .T h e y c a nb eu s e dr e p e a t e d l y. 25.F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n : 183 : E n z y m e sa r ec h e m i c a l sn e e d e df o rt h ec o m p l e t i o no fc h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n st a k i n gp l a c ei na l ll i v i n gc e l l s . assimilation and egestion. A l le n z y m e sa r ec o m p l e xp r o t e i n sa n dr e m a i nu n c h a n g e dd u r i n gt h er e a c t i o n . Stomach: T h es t o m a c hi sah i g h l ym u s c u l a ro r g a n .T h e d i g e s t i o no ff o o ds t a r t sf r o mt h em o u t h Mouth Salivary gland a n de n d si nt h ei n t e s t i n e s . The saliva also Fig. a ) I ngestion and digestion T h ep r o c e s so ft a k i n gi no ff o o dt h r o u g h t h em o u t hi sc a l l e di n g e s t i o n .T h e s e e n z y m e sb r e a kd o w nt h ep r o t e i n si n t os m a l l e rf r a g m e n t sc a l l e d peptones. 2N u t r i t i o n S u mt o t a lo fc e r t a i np r o c e s s e st h a te n a b l eac e l lt ou t i l i z en u t r i e n t si sc a l l e dn u t r i t i o n . T h em u s c l e so ft h es t o m a c hh e l pi nc h u r n i n gt h ef o o ds ot h a ti ti sp r o p e r l y m i x e dw i t ht h ed i g e s t i v ej u i c e s . absorption.E n z y m e sm a yh e l pi nj o i n i n go rs p l i t t i n go f b i o m o l e c u l e s .

w h i c hi st h eu p p e rp a r to ft h es m a l li n t e s t i n e . T h i si sk n o w na sa b s o r p t i o n . P a n c r e a ss e c r e t e st r y p s i n. glucose from digested food is broken down into carbon dioxide and water along w i t ht h er e l e a s eo fe n e rgy.T h ef a e c e sp a s s o nt ot h el o w e rp a r to ft h el a rg ei n t e s t i n e . What is the movement of muscles of oesophagus that pushes down food called? 4 . b ) Absorption The simple soluble food molecules are absorbed from the small intestine into the b l o o dw h i c ht a k e st h e mt oa l lt h ec e l l so ft h eb o d y. T h e s ea r er e s p o n s i b l ef o ri n c r e a s i n gt h es u r f a c ea r e ao fa b s o r p t i o n o fd i g e s t e df o o di nt ot h eb l o o d .T h eb l o o dt h e nc a r r i e st h ea b s o r b e d f o o dt od i ff e r e n tp a r t so ft h eb o d ya n du n d i g e s t e df o o di sp u s h e di n t o t h el a rg ei n t e s t i n e .:184 : F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n Pepsin i v ) Milk pro t e i n s Calcium paracaseinate Small intestine: The food moves from the stomach to duodenum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25. T h ei n n e rs u r f a c eo ft h ei l e u mc o n t a i n st h i nf i n g e r l i k ep r o j e c t i o n sc a l l e d v i l l i. Name the enzyme that converts proteins into peptones in the stomach? 3 . c ) Assimilation The absorbed food supplied to cells is used to release energy and build up the cell components. .a n dt h r o w n o u to ft h eb o d yt h r o u g ht h ea n u s . Trypsin P e p t o n e s Amino acids ( c o m p l e t e l yd i g e s t e dp r o t e i n s ) Amylase Glucose Maltose and Sugars Lipase F a t s Fatty acids + Glycero l T h ef o o dm o v e st oi l e u m . Name the two glands associated with digestion.c a l l e dt h er e c t u m . W h a ta r et h ef i n g e r l i k ep r o j e c t i o n sp r e s e n ti ns m a l li n t e s t i n e sc a l l e d ? 2 .H e r et h ee m u l s i f i c a t i o n o ff a t( f a ti sb r o k e ni nt of a td r o p l e t s )t a k e sp l a c ew i t ht h eh e l po ft h e b i l ej u i c es e c r e t e db yt h el i v e r. Amino acids are used to make proteins required b yt h ec e l l s .amylase a n dl i p a s e( p a n c r e a t i cj u i c e s )w h i c h are poured into the duodenum.w h i c hi st h el o w e rp a r to ft h es m a l li n t e s t i n e . v ) Large intestine: T h i sp a r to ft h eb o d ya b s o r b sw a t e rf r o mt h eu n d i g e s t e d f o o da n ds o l i dw a s t ei sl u b r i c a t e dt of o r mt h ef a e c e s . This is called assimilation. d ) Egestion The process by which the undigested food material or waste is released from the b o d yi sc a l l e de g e s t i o n .4 1 . For example. T h eb i l ej u i c ei ss t o r e di nt h eg a l lb l a d d e r.

2 5 . I n a b i l i t yo ft h eb o d yt oa b s o r bn u t r i e n t sp r o p e r l ym a ya l s o l e a dt om a l n u t r i t i o n . • body growth and development slows down.F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n : 185 : 5 . • legs become thin. and • r e t a r d a t i o no fp h y s i c a la sw e l la sm e n t a lg r o w t h .T h i so c c u r si n deprived children of mother’ s milk. • ribs become prominent. Deficiency diseases caused due to m a l n u t r i t i o na r eo ft h r e et y p e s : • Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) • Mineral deficiency diseases • Vi t a m i nd e f i c i e n c yd i s e a s e s 2 5 . j a g g e r y.5 DEFICIENCY DISEASES OR NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS Ad i s e a s et h a to c c u r sd u et ol a c ko fa d e q u a t ea n db a l a n c e dd i e ti s c a l l e dd e f i c i e n c yd i s e a s e . The symptoms of this disease are: • e n l a rg e m e n to fl i v e rd u et ow a t e rr e t e n t i o n .f a t s .m e a t .v i t a m i n s a n dm i n e r a l s . N a m et h ea c i dt h a tt a k e sp a r ti nd i g e s t i o np r o c e s s .g r o u n d n u t . 1 Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) D e f i c i e n c yo fp r o t e i n si nt h ed i e tm a yl e a dt om a l n u t r i t i o n i nc h i l d r e n . 5 .Intake of improper or inadequate diet in human beings is c a l l e d malnutrition. 25. • b o d yd e v e l o p sl o o s ef o l d so fs k i n .b yd e l a y i n ga n o t h e rp r e g n a n c y i nc o n t i n u a t i o na n db yh a v i n gad i e tr i c hi np r o t e i n .M a l n u t r i t i o ni sh a r m f u lf o rc h i l d r e na si tr e t a r d st h e i rp h y s i c a l growth and may cause mental disabilities. PEM is the most common nutritional disorder among children. • hair become reddish-brown.e a tp u l s e sa n do t h e rs o u r c e so f proteins. Two diseases caused due to PEM are – marasmus and kwashiorkor.s o y a b e a n . E a t i n gt o om u c ho fan u t r i e n to rd e f i c i e n c yo fan u t r i e n tm a yl e a dt oan u m b e ro f nutritional disorders. ( a ) ( b ) F i g . and a ) Marasmus (b) Kwashiorkor I ta ff e c t sc h i l d r e nu pt oo n ey e a ro fa g e . The symptoms of this disease include: • l o s so rw a s t i n go fm u s c l e s . e t c . I tc a nb ec u r e db ye n s u r i n gm o t h e r’ sm i l kf o ri n f a n t s . 8E f f e c to f (a) Marasmus. • digestion becomes weak. E a t i n gap r o t e i n r i c hd i e tt h a tc o n s i s t so fm i l k . . b ) Kwashiorkor Amongst children of age group 1-5 years protein deficiency causes kwashiorkor.c a r b o h y d r a t e s .c a nc u r ei t . • darkening of the skin with scaly appearance.T h i si st h ep r i m er e a s o nw h yy o u rp a r e n t si n s i s t t h a ty o us h o u l dd r i n km i l k .

d r ys c a l ys k i n . 9G o i t re : e n l a rgement an important constituent of haemoglobin. Beans.g o i t r e .:186 : F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n 25.5.b u t t e ra n dg h e e also provide vitamin A.a n d n i g h tb l i n d n e s s( i m p r o p e rv i s i o ni nd i ml i g h t ) .e s p e c i a l l y f o rp e o p l el i v i n gi nt h eh i l l yr e g i o n so re v e np l a i n si s recommended to reduce incidence of goitre. c o dl i v e ro i l . I o d i z e ds a l t .p r o d u c e db yt h et h y r o i d g l a n dl o c a t e di no u rn e c kr e g i o n .e g g s .g u a v a . a disease in which the following symptoms are observed: • • • • cornea (white area of the eye ball) may become dry. e . • retarded growth. foggy or cloudy and may u l t i m a t e l yl e a dt ot o t a lb l i n d n e s s .3 Vitamin deficiency diseases a ) Xerophthalmia Lack of Vitamin A leads to Xerophthalmia. green vegetables.c a nh e l pt oc u r ea n a e m i a . calcium and phosphorus.a p p l e . Iron deficiency causes deficient production of haemoglobin.P e o p l el i v i n gi nc o a s t a lr e g i o nd o n o ts u ff e rf r o mi o d i n ed e f i c i e n c y.5. b ) Anaemia This is a very common diet related condition in which the level of haemoglobin becomes lower than normal. resulting in the following symptoms: • Body becomes pale.g r o u n d n u t s . • e x h a u s t i o n . e t c . T h i sc a nb ea v o i d e db yp r o p e ri n t a k eo fg r e e nl e a f yv e g e t a b l e sl i k eS p i n a c h . whole gram and tapioca are other sources of calcium. Let us study about two common mineral deficiency diseases – goitre and anaemia.S e a f o o di sa g o o ds o u r c eo fi o d i n e .P r o l o n g e di o d i n ed e f i c i e n c y c a u s e se n l a rg e m e n to ft h y r o i dg l a n di . A ni r o n r i c hd i e tc o n s i s t i n go fs p i n a c h . retarded growth.y e l l o w vegetables and fruits. pumpkin. Iron is F i g .2 Mineral deficiency diseases Yo ua r ea w a r eo ft h ei m p o r t a n c eo fc e r t a i nm i n e r a l si ny o u rd i e t( r e f e r Ta b l e2 5 .2 5 . such as carrots. the respiratory o ft h et h y roid gland pigment of our blood. 25. b ) Rickets Milk and liver are good sources of vitamin D. a ) Goitre I o d i n ei sr e q u i r e df o rt h es y n t h e s i so fh o r m o n e .t h y r o x i n e . papaya and ripe mango. • l a c ko fa p p e t i t e . Liver. 3 ) d e f i c i e n c yo ft h e s em i n e r a l si ny o u rd i e tm a yl e a dt oc e r t a i nd e f i c i e n c yd i s e a s e s .b a n a n a . . • l o s so fb o d yw e i g h t .

• headache.f i s ha n de g g s . Adulterants n o to n l yd e t e r i o r a t et h eq u a l i t ya n df o o dv a l u eo ft h ep r o d u c t b u tm a ya l s oc a u s es e v e r ei l le ffects.T h i sd i s e a s ec a u s e s : • reddening and drying of skin (eczema).C a l c i u ma n dp h o s p h o r u sa r et h em a j o rc o n s t i t u e n t so f b o n e sa n dt e e t h .a st h e yc a n n o t s u s t a i nb o d yw e i g h t . p o t a t o .g r e e nl e a f yv e g e t a b l e sa n d n u t s .T h e i rd e f i c i e n c ym a yr e s u l ti nad i s e a s e c a l l e dr i c k e t si nc h i l d r e n . d ) Pellagra Deficiency of vitamin B4 r e s u l t si np e l l a g r a .T h es y m p t o m so f d e f o r m i t i e si nl e g s t h i sd i s e a s ei n c l u d e : • s w e l l i n go ft i s s u e sa n dw a t e ra c c u m u l a t i o ni nt h e body.2 5 . • extreme weakness. s u b s t a n d a rd .p a r t i c u l a r l yo ft h el o n gb o n e s .I ti sad i s e a s eo fh e a r ta n dn e r v e s .s t o n e s . c ) Beri-beri Deficiency of Vitamin B1 i nt h ed i e tl e a d st ob e r i F i g .l i k eb o wl e g s . Normal hand P e l l a g r av i c t i m ’s h a n d 25. Mixing colour (complex org a n i cd y e s ) . 1 0R i c k e t s: b e r i . • swelling of gums and tongue.t o m a t o . 4g i v e nb e l o wl i s t ss o m eo ft h ea d u l t e r a n t su s e di nd i ff e r e n t f o o dm a t e r i a l s . • p a r a l y s i sa n de v e nh e a r tf a i l u r e . Mixing water in milk may reduce its food value.Any a t t e m p tt om i xp u re f o o ds u b s t a n c e sw i t hc h e a p e r.6 FOOD ADULT E R ATION p e r s o ns u f f e r i n gf rom W h yd ow ep r e f e rt ob u yf o o dp r o d u c t ss o l di ns e a l e dp a c k e t s ? pellagra Why do we prefer to buy items made by a standard reliable c o m p a n y ?As i m p l ea n s w e ri st h a tt h em a n u f a c t u r e rs e l l i n gi t sp r o d u c t si ns e a l e d p a c k e t so rb r a n d se n s u r e sd e l i v e r yo fq u a l i t yo fi t sc o n t e n t st ot h ec o n s u m e r. This disease is observed more in people consuming more of polished rice in t h e i rd i e t .2 5 . along with diarrhoea. P e l l a g r ac a nb ea v o i d e db yh a v i n ga d i e tf u l lo fw h o l eg r a i nc e r e a l s .t o x i cc e r e a l sa n dr o t t e n ingredients in grains and pulses causes severe damage to body parts and hence s i c k n e s s . 11 Hands of a . Ta b l e2 5 . F i g . Symptoms of this disease are pigeon chests and bone d e f o r m i t i e s . and • m e n t a ld i s o r i e n t a t i o n .b e a n s .F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n : 187 : P h o s p h o r u si sa l s oi nb a j r a .e d i b l eo ri n e d i b l e s u b s t a n c e si sc a l l e d food adulteration. Consuming a lot of maize interferes with the absorption of Vitamin B4 i nt h eb o d y.g r e e nv e g e t a b l e s .

m u d . colour dust 25.t h e Bureau of Indian Standards c a r r i e so u tt h ec e r t i f i c a t i o no f food products at the manufacturer’ se n d . starch Dried papaya seeds Saw dust.a rg e m o n eo i l .6. saw dust.4 : Some food items and their common adulterants Food item C e r e a l s P u l s e s Wheat flour.e t c .5 1 .i n f e r i o rq u a l i t yg r a i n s . 2 .a r t i f i c i a lc o l o r s Sugar syrup.i n f e r i o rq u a l i t yg r a i n s .i n f e c t e d grains. Milk E d i b l eo i l s Honey Tu r m e r i c( h a l d i ) Coriander Black pepper C h i l l i e s Common adulterants Straw. T h e s ei n c l u d e : Prevention of Food Adulteration Act and Rules a n d Food Product Orders w h i c hs e r v et h ef o l l o w i n gf u n c t i o n s : • • • lay a minimum standard for the quality of food requires date of manufacture and expiry to be mentioned on the packet of the food item q u a n t i t yo ft h ec o n t e n tt ob ei n d i c a t e d I nI n d i a .e x t r a c t i o no f f a t s .w a t e r. h u s k .g r i t . 3 . 6 . s u j i.o u rg o v e r n m e n th a si s s u e dc e r t a i nl a w s . Give the full form of PEM. i n f e c t e do ri n s e c ti n f e s t e dg r a i n s Straw. 5 . Name one common adulterant used in edible oils. metanil yellow dye G r i t .:188 : F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n Table 25. jaggery Starch coloured with chromate or metanil yellow dye Powdered cow/horse dung. • Nutrition amongst org a n i s m sc o u l db ea u t o t r o p h i co rh e t e r o t r o p h i c( p a r a s i t i c a n ds a p r o t r o p h i c ) . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25. • The process by which green plants synthesize their food is called p h o t o s y n t h e s i s . List any two symptoms of anaemia.maida. LET US REVISE • Food is the raw material that our body needs to grow and stay healthy.1 Prevention of food adulteration To p r e v e n ta d u l t e r a t i o no ff o o dp r o d u c t s . Name the org a n i z a t i o nt h a tc e r t i f i e sf o o dq u a l i t yi nI n d i a . k e s a r id a l . Name any two diseases caused due to lack of vitamins.i n f e s t e ds t o c k . . W h i c ht y p eo fs a l ti n t a k ec a np r e v e n to c c u r r e n c eo fg o i t r e ? 4 .e x c e s so fb r a n S t a r c h . m i l ko fo t h e ra n i m a l s .s t o n e s .s y n t h e t i cm i l k M i n e r a lo i l .

TERMINAL EXERCISES A. • Hormones are the chemical messengers.c e l l u l o s e .i nt h ed i e t .s t a r c h . • C o n v e r s i o no fc o m p l e xf o o dm a t e r i a li n t os m a l l e ru n i t ss ot h a ti tc a ne n t e rt h e c e l l si sc a l l e dd i g e s t i o n . • D e f i c i e n c yd i s e a s e sm a yb ed u et op r o t e i n s ( k w a s h i o r k o ra n dm a r a s m u s ) .i nt h er e q u i r e dp r o p o r t i o n . • L a c ko fb a l a n c e dd i e tl e a d st ov a r i o u sn u t r i t i o n a ld i s o r d e r s .l i v e ra n dp a n c r e a sh e l pi nd i g e s t i o na n da r e c a l l e dg l a n d u l a ro rg a n so ra s s o c i a t e dg l a n d s . • D i g e s t i o no fp r o t e i n sy i e l d sa m i n oa c i d s . R i c k e t si sc a u s e dd u et od e f i c i e n c yo f a ) I r o n b ) Vitamin D c ) P r o t e i n s d ) Carbohydrates .m i n e r a l s ( g o i t r ea n da n a e m i a ) o rv i t a m i n s (x e r o p h t h a l m i a . • Ab a l a n c e dd i e ti n c l u d e sa l lt h ee s s e n t i a ln u t r i e n t s . along with water and roughage. o i l s . which regulate body functions.s e xa n dp r o f e s s i o n . • T h el o n gt u b eo rc a n a lo ft h ed i g e s t i v es y s t e mi sc a l l e da l i m e n t a r yc a n a l . O n eo ft h ef o l l o w i n gi sn o tas t e po fn u t r i t i o n a ) I n g e s t i o n b ) Assimilation c ) S e c r e t i o n d ) Egestion 2 .i no u rb o d y.r i c k e t s ) • Mixing pure food substances with cheaper.p r o t e i n s .d i g e s t i o n . s u b s t a n d a r d . fats.f a t s . a s s i m i l a t i o na n de g e s t i o n . • L a c ko fb a l a n c e dd i e tm a yl e a dt on u t r i t i o n a ld i s o r d e r s . T h ee n dp r o d u c t s a r eg l u c o s ea n do x y g e n .F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n : 189 : • T h er a wm a t e r i a l so fp h o t o s y n t h e s i sa r ec a r b o nd i o x i d ea n dw a t e r.a b s o r p t i o n . • Components of balanced diet are carbohydrates. • E x t r ag l u c o s em a yg e tc o n v e r t e di n t os u c r o s e .D i g e s t i o no fo i l sa n df a t sg i v e sf a t t y a c i d sa n dg l y c e r o l . • T h ep r o c e s so fn u t r i t i o ni n c l u d e ss t e p so fi n g e s t i o n . • S a l i v a r yg l a n d si nt h em o u t h . • D i g e s t i o ns t a r t si nt h em o u t ha n dc o n t i n u e su pt ot h el a rg ei n t e s t i n e .T h er a t i oo ft h ea b o v e m e n t i o n e di t e m s . Multiple choice type questions. 1 . • Certain chemicals called enzymes play an important role in the process of d i g e s t i o n. proteins.p e l l a g r a .e d i b l eo ri n e d i b l e s u b s t a n c e si sc a l l e df o o da d u l t e r a t i o n .b e r i b e r i . vitamins and m i n e r a l s .n e e d st oc h a n g e w i t ht h ea g e .e t c .f r u c t o s e .

Ap e r s o nl i v i n gi nt h eh i l l yr e g i o n so fS h i m l ad e v e l o p e ds w e l l i n gi nh i sn e c k region. What are vitamins? Name the diff e r e n tt y p e so ff a t s o l u b l ev i t a m i n s . Diagnose the deficiency. 1 2 . Can you name the n u t r i e n td e f i c i e n ti nh i sd i e t ? a ) Calcium b ) I r o n c ) Phosphorus d ) I o d i n e 5 . D e f i n eb a l a n c e dd i e t . The doctor said his thyroid gland got swelled up. 1 . which of them would yield more energy? 4 . Give the chemical equation of photosynthesis. W h yi sw a t e ra ne s s e n t i a ln u t r i e n to fab a l a n c e dd i e t ? 1 5 . L i s tt h ef u n c t i o n so ff o o d ? 7 . D i ff e r e n t i a t eb e t w e e np a r a s i t i ca n ds a p r o p h y t i cn u t r i t i o n . 2 .e x h a u s t i o na n di sl o s i n gw e i g h t .:190 : F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n 3 . W h a tk i n do fd i e tw o u l dy o us u g g e s tf o rt h ep a t i e n t ? 1 3 . How would you establish the presence of starch in a given sample? 5 . The energy released amounted to 9.N a m ea na g e n c yt h a tc e r t i f i e sr e l i a b i l i t yo ff o o d produced. 9 . 1 0 . Deficiency of which vitamin causes night blindness. List the major components of food. One gram of a substance was oxidized. 3 . 8 . Ap a t i e n tc o m p l a i n so fl a c ko fa p p e t i t e . What would you suggest t op r e v e n tt h i sd e f i c i e n c y ? 1 4 . If equal amounts of fats or carbohydrates were oxidized. Draw a neat and labelled diagram of the human alimentary canal. D e f i n ea d u l t e r a t i o ni nf o o d . 6 . Name five common adulterants in food. . What are the main steps of photosynthesis? Is sunlight essential for photosynthesis and why? 11 . The substance was of the type: a ) Carbohydrates b ) F a t s c ) Vi t a m i n s d ) P r o t e i n s 4 .0 Kcal. Descriptive type questions. T h ev i t a m i nt h a th e l p si nt h ec l o t t i n go fb l o o di s a ) Vitamin A b ) Vitamin D c ) Vitamin E d ) Vitamin K B.

growth hormone. 4 .2 Kcal/g. 5 . 4 . 2 5 .h e a dl o u s e Saprotrophs: yeast and mushroom D o d d e rp l a n to r Amar bel Chloroplast Dark reaction P o t a t o . 2 .F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n : 191 : 1 6 . Vi l l i(s i n g. 2 . Which component in your diet will not be digested if the enzyme lipase is not s e c r e t e d ?A l s on a m et h es e c r e t i o nt h a th e l p si nt h ea c t i v i t yo ft h i se n z y m e . Fat soluble: Vitamins A. yeast (any two) Autotrophs/plants P a r a s i t e s :L i v eo no ri n s i d eo t h e rl i v i n go rg a n i s m st od e r i v et h e i rf o o d Saprophytes: Derive their food from dead and rotten organisms P a r a s i t e s :l e e c h . Hormones. while minerals are inorg a n i cs a l t s . 4 . bread mould. 1 7 .l i v e ra n dp a n c r e a s HCl (hydrochloric acid) .p r o t e i n sa n df a t st a k ep l a c ea n dw h a ti st h e r o l ep l a y e db yt h ea s s o c i a t e dg l a n d s ? 1 8 . 3 . 2 .t a p i o c a( a n yt w o ) Sucrose s u n l i g h t 6CO2 + 12H2O c a r b o n w a t e r c h l o r o p h y l l d i o x i d e C 6H 12O 6 + 6H2O + 6O2 g l u c o s e w a t e r o x y g e n 2 5 . 2 . 3 1 . 6 . 3 . Fats: 9 Kcal/g Wa t e rs o l u b l e : Vitamins B and C. Cuscuta ( d o d d e rp l a n t ) . bacteria.D i s c u s st h ef i v es t e p si n v o l v e di nt h ep r o c e s so fn u t r i t i o n . Roughage adds bulk to the food and helps in digestion. 4 1 . 5 . 3 . 2 1 .o n i o n . 2 5 . Autotrophs and heterotrophs Mushrooms. 5 . such as insulin. 5 . 3 .W h a ta r et h eb u i l d i n gb l o c k so fp r o t e i n s ?C l a s s i f yp r o t e i n so nt h eb a s i so f their functions along with one example. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2 5 . 1 9 . 1 1 . E and K Vi t a m i n sa r eo rganic molecules. D.W h e r ed o e st h ed i g e s t i o no fs t a r c h . 4 .Vi l l u s ) Pepsin P e r i s t a l s i s S a l i v a r yg l a n d s . Carbohydrates: 4. thyroxine One gram of fatty substance yeilds more energy upon oxidation.

:192 : F o o da n dN u t r i t i o n 2 5 . . Hetero t rophs: O rganisms that depend upon other org a n i s m sf o rt h e i rf o o d . P a r a s i t e s :O rg a n i s m st h a tl i v eo no ri n s i d et h eb o d yo fo t h e rl i v i n go rganisms t od e r i v et h e i rf o o d . 6 .l o s so fb o d yw e i g h t M i n e r a lo i l . 5 .a rgemone oil (any one) Bureau of Indian Standards GLOSSARY Nutrition: The process by which org a n i s m so b t a i nm a t e r i a lf o rt h e i rg r o w t h and development (from their environment).m i n e r a l s . 3 . Balanced diet: D i e tt h a tc o n t a i n sa d e q u a t ea m o u n t so fe s s e n t i a ln u t r i e n t s . 4 .r i c k e t s( a n yt w o ) U s eo fi o d i z e ds a l t L a c ko fa p p e t i t e . Autotrophs: O rganisms that can manufacture their own food. s u c ha sc a r b o h y d r a t e s .f a t s .p r o t e i n s . Nutrients: C h e m i c a lc o n s t i t u e n t sp r e s e n ti no u rf o o da n dr e q u i r e df o rt h e nourishment of our body. 2 . 5 1 .v i t a m i n sa n dw a t e r. P r o t e i nE n e r g yM a l n u t r i t i o n N i g h tb l i n d n e s s .b e r i b e r i . Photosynthesis: The process by which green plants manufacture food from c a r b o nd i o x i d ea n dw a t e ri nt h ep r e s e n c eo fs u n l i g h t . D i g e s t i o n :C o n v e r s i o no fc o m p l e xf o o dm a t e r i a li n t os m a l l e ru n i t ss ot h a ti t c a nb ea b s o r b e db yt h ec e l l s .p e l l a g r a . Sapro t rophs: O rganisms that derive their food from dead and rotten o rganisms.

Likewise. and the poisonous body wastes like urea has to be transported to the kidneys for elimination in urine. you will be able to: • explain the need for a system of transport in plants and animals. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. veins. • list the major blood groups and state the matching groups for blood transfusion. • explain the structure and function of human heart. Similarly. and capillaries. which means that it permits entry and exit of certain molecules only. • recognise the importance of blood as a medium of transport. All this transportation is the function of conducting tissues. You have also learnt that the leaves for photosynthesis need water. the roots flowers and fruits etc. and active transport . The movement of molecules takes place by diffusion. which means that water has been conducted upward into the leaves. osmosis. All such functions are the outcome of a transport system.26 Transport of Materials in Plants and Animals All plants need water. • list and explain mechanism for movement of molecules such as diffusion. the food produced in the leaves has to be transported to other parts of the plant including the stem. the food absorbed by the gut has to be carried to all the body parts. 26. • differentiate between arteries. The wilted leaves recover when water is added to the soil. osmosis and active transport. • mention disorders of circulatory system. • explain the structure and function of xylem and phloem in plants. You will read about these aspects of plant and animal life in this lesson.1 MECHANISMS FOR MOVEMENT OF MOLECULES Molecules move in and out of a cell through the cell membrane. the carbon dioxide produced in the cells has to be carried to the lungs for elimination. The cell membrane is selectively permeable to substances. which forms the boundary of each cell. in animals. • describe the composition of blood. oxygen absorbed in the lungs has to be transported to every cell of the body. and so on.

26. 26. which are non-living cells of xylem.1 The process of osmosis 26.. Such movement of particles or molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration is termed diffusion. Open end of vessel Lignified wall Lignified thickening to give the wall extra strength Root hair Cavity carries water and mineral salts Root tip Root cap Fig.e. Energy is required in active transport.1 Diffusion Molecules move out from their region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration. oxygen-laden air in lungs being at a higher concentration moves into blood capillaries having lower concentration of oxygen in them. 26. from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration.g. No energy is spent during diffusion or osmosis.1. For example. which allows some molecules (e.2.3 Active transport In active transport. Tracheids and vessels (Fig.2 Osmosis Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from a region having more water molecules to a region having less water molecules when separated by a semipermeable membrane. molecules have to move (against concentration gradient) i. Semi-permeable membrane Sugar molecule Watar molecule Watar Watar molecules at high concentration Sugar solution Watar molecules at low concentration 26. 26.2 Vessels in xylem Fig. 26. 26.1). How does this water move up from roots to leaves for needs like photosynthesis? You have already learnt about conducting tissues of plants – xylem and phloem in lesson 24. Semipermeable membrane means a membrane.1.3 Root hairs .: 194 : Transport of Materials in Plants and Animals 26.1 Transport of water Roots of plants take up water and minerals from the soil.2). transport water picked up by root hairs (Fig. Fig.1. during respiration. water molecules) to pass through it but not some other larger molecules (Fig.2 TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS IN PLANTS 26. 26.3) from soil to the leaves.

3. Sieve tubes are living cells of the phloem.2. 3. • Capillaries: Thin vessels between the artery and the vein. stem or roots.3 TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS IN ANIMALS In the body of majority of animals. which are tube-like structures. substances are transported from one part of the body to another through blood.Transport of Materials in Plants and Animals : 195 : The upward movement of water and minerals termed ‘ascent of sap’ is against gravity and is due to transpiration pull. respiratory gases. sieve tubes? Fig.1 Human circulatory system Fig. Define osmosis.1 1. Which cells of phloem pass on food from one part of the plant to another? 5.6). . and (ii) Blood vessels. 26.2 Transport of food material Sugars and other food molecules synthesised in the leaves are transported to other parts of the plant through phloem. In which type of molecular movement is energy required? 2. Transpiration is the process in which a lot of water evaporates (as water vapour) from pores on the surface of leaf called stomata (Fig. which make blood circulate throughout the body. hormones and waste material from one part of the body to another. Cellulose wall Cavity contains very fine strands of cytoplasm 26. Blood vessels are of three kinds: • Arteries: Carry blood from heart to various parts of body. Name the two kinds of cells of xylem.4). connected to the heart (Fig. 4. • Veins: Bring blood from various parts of body to the heart. 26. This evaporation creates a vacuum and pulls up water through the xylem.5). 26.5 Sieve tubes in phloem Human circulatory system consists of (i) Centrally located muscular pump called heart. vessels. Blood transports nutrients. Transport of food material from leaves to other parts of the plant is called translocation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 26. which transport food (Fig. Which out of the following are non-living parts: tracheids. This food may be stored in fruits. Thus blood is the “tissue for transport” and circulates throughout the body. 26.4 Structure of stomata Nucleus Stomatal pore Guard cell epidermal cell Chloroplast End wall perforated by pores 26. 26. 26. Circulatory system consists of organs. The capillaries allow the exchange of materials between blood and tissues.

The heart is made of specialised muscle cells (also called cardiac muscle fibers). which contract and relax all the time without getting tired. In one minute. . and two (right and left) ventricles.7).7 The human heart Rhythmic heart beat results in the proper transport of substances to the various organs. The contraction and relaxation follows a rhythm called heartbeat to pump blood into the vessels. atrium. 26.2 Heart a) Structure: Heart is a powerful muscular organ lying between lungs in the upper part of thorax of our body. 26. 26. Right ventricle Left ventricle Fig.two (right and left) atria (sing. 26. Abnormalities in heartbeat can be seen by taking ECG or Electrocardiography (Fig. (Fig.3.6 Circulatory system in human beings Sinoatrial node Left auricle Right auricle 26.: 196 : Transport of Materials in Plants and Animals Jugular vein Carotid artery Subclavian artery Aorta Subclavian vein Pulmonary vein Heart Vena cava Hepatic vein Pulmonary artery Lung Liver Hepatic portal vein Gut Renal vein Hepatic artery Kidney renal artery mesenteric artery Iliac vein Iliac artery Fig.8). normal human heart beats about 72 times. It is four-chambered. also called auricles).

Transport of Materials in Plants and Animals : 197 : b) Functions of heart: A large vein. 26. the ventricles contract while the atria relax. At the same time vein from the lungs brings oxygen-laden blood to left atrium. What are the different parts of human circulatory system circulatory system? 2.8 Electrocardiograph Head Anterior vena cava Lungs Pulmonary vein Carotid artery Great veins (venae cavae) Pulmonary artery Heart RA LA RV LV Aorta Posterior vena cava Hepatic vein Liver Hepatic artery Hepatic portal vein Gut Rest of Body CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 26. What are capillaries? 3.2 Fig. The oxygen laden blood from the left ventricle gets pumped into a large artery called aorta. You must have noticed that veins bring impure blood to the heart and the arteries take the pure blood away from the heart. 26. 26. In which category of blood vessels exchange of nutrients and respiratory gases occur between blood and tissues? 4. Name the kind of muscle fibres that make the heart? 5.3 Blood Blood is a connective tissue that circulates throughout the body. (Fig.3.9). But here are two exceptions – the pulmonary artery carries impure blood and the pulmonary vein carries pure blood.10) a) Red blood cells (RBC or Erythrocytes) . 26. Valves within the heart prevent blood from flowing back.9 General plan of the human 1. white blood cells and blood platelets. At this time all the four chambers of the heart are relaxed. the vena cava collects impure or deoxygenated blood (blood low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide) through veins from all parts of the body and empties into the right atrium. called red blood cells. It is made up of a fluid medium called plasma in which float three types of blood cells. Fig. Blood to be purified is transported to the lungs from right ventricle through two pulmonary arteries. What is the function of valves in the heart? 26. Blood cells are manufactured in the bone marrow. Then the atria contract and impure blood (blood full of carbon-dioxide) from right atrium enters the right ventricle and purified blood (blood full of oxygen) from left atrium enters the left ventricle. Next. It carries oxygenated blood to all parts of the body (Fig.

hormones and waste material to the relevant parts of the body. Blood transfusion is successful only when the blood of donor (who gives blood) and of the recipient (who receives blood) match. Unmatched blood transfusion causes agglutination (clumping together) of red cells due to which the recipient may even die. Table 26. Injecting blood into the body from outside is called blood transfusion.4 BLOOD GROUPS AND BLOOD TRANSFUSION You must have heard that blood has to be arranged for a person undergoing a surgery (operation) or in the case of an accident.: 198 : Transport of Materials in Plants and Animals • These are circular in shape. and contain a red coloured pigment called haemoglobin No nucleus is present in RBCs RBC carry oxygen to tissues and bring back carbon dioxide from tissues About 5 million mm 3 erythrocytes occur in circulating blood • Section through red cell (a) Red cells • Blood platelets Bacteria Nucleus • Phagocyte Lymphocyte (c) White cell engulfing bacteria (b) Two types of white cells Fig.1 shows the matching blood groups. oxygen. Table 26. Blood of all human beings belongs to one of four blood groups named A. AB and O. 26. the blood group is inherited from parents. Some medicines when taken in the body are also distributed through blood. 26. This arrangement is to replace blood lost from the patient. they so are colourless WBC have irregular shape They prevent body from infections by eating up germs or by producing antibodies c) Blood platelets (Thrombocytes) • These are very small fragments of cells • They have no nuclei • They participate in clotting of blood Functions of blood: Blood carries nutrients. therefore. carbon dioxide.1 : Various blood groups in humans .10 Types of blood cells b) White blood cells (WBC or Leucocytes) • • • • In the circulating blood 5000 to 7000 mm3 WBCs are present Since they carry no pigments. B.

and blood platelets. What are the components of blood? 2. 3. Which blood group is called “universal donor”? 5. • It returns proteins and fluid from circulation to tissues. B. Anaemia: When haemoglobin level falls below a certain point the condition is called anaemia. medicines and tension free mind helps to cure high blood pressure. B. A Universal donor O AB Universal recepient 26. heart also needs food and oxygen. Iron in the diet helps remove anaemia. The bone narrow makes excessive WBCs at the cost of RBCs. • It is light yellow in colour. Heart attack: Like all other organs. muscle cells of the heart cannot beat in the proper rhythm. High blood pressure is caused by anxiety also. WBC. State one function each of RBC. Which category of blood cells do not have nuclei? 4. AB. AB AB A. When arteries supplying the heart become thick due to age or faulty diet consisting of excessive fatty food. AB B.5 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM B Lymph is also a circulatory fluid and flows in the lymph vessels. AB. In which direction does lymph flow? LET US REVISE . It makes the person weak and look pale and inactive.3 1. O A.Transport of Materials in Plants and Animals : 199 : BloodGroup A B AB O Can donate to blood group A.6 DISORDERS RELATED TO CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 1. Leukemia: This is blood cancer. O Can receive blood from blood group A. • Lymph carries digested fats from intestine to other parts. O B. Heart attack occurs which can be detected in an abnormal ECG and there are methods of treatment. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 26. O O The same may be depicted in a simple form as follows: You must have noticed that persons with blood group O can donate blood to all and ‘O’ group is called universal donor and AB group can receive blood from all and is called universal recipient. Proper diet. exercise. • Cells called lymphocytes present in lymph eat up germs and prevent body from infections. 26. • It always flows only in one direction from tissues to heart. Normal blood pressure is 120/80. dizziness and fatigue. Hypertension: It is high blood pressure and leads to headache. 4. 2.

Tracheids and vessels are cells of xylem. Blood is made of plasma. Heart in humans is four-chambered. In osmosis. Every human being belongs to one of four blood groups: A. Energy is required for active transport. hormones. haemoglobin. They are non-living. TERMINAL EXERCISES . Blood platelets play a role in blood clotting. a fluid and three types of blood cells called RBC. They contain a red pigment. Lymph flows only from tissues to heart and serves to transport proteins and digested fat. In active transport. In plants. the cells of phloem are living structures. water molecules move from their region of higher concentration to that of their lower concentration. WBCs are colourless and of varied shape. molecules move against concentration gradient. Heart is made of cardiac muscle fibres. Sieve tubes. Of the blood vessels. RBCs are circular. B. Ascent of sap is facilitated by transpiration pull. vein carries blood towards heart. O group is universal donor and AB blood group is universal recipient. artery carries blood away from heart. Heartbeat is recorded as ECG or Electrocardiogram. In most animals. non nucleated and carry respiratory gases. Blood flowing through the body transports food. Blood transfusion can be between matching blood groups. Lymphatic system is made of lymph vessels in which a colourless fluid called lymph flows. two upper chambers are called atria and lower chambers are ventricles. Capillaries are thin blood-vessels between an artery and a vein. Food in plants is translocated by phloem. Diffusion is movement of molecules from region of their higher concentration to the region of their lower concentration. oxygen. WBC and blood platelets (cell fragments).: 200 : Transport of Materials in Plants and Animals • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Molecules move in and out of cells by diffusion. metabolic waste and carbon dioxide. Blood transfusion can save life when blood loss occurs due to accident or surgery. nutrients. osmosis or active transport. They protect the body from infections. water is absorbed from soil by root hairs and reach leaves and other parts through xylem vessels. Heart pumps blood into blood vessels for transport by relaxing and contracting in a rhythmic manner called heartbeat. AB and O. blood circulates through heart and blood vessels to reach all parts of body.

Name the three kinds of blood cells. Through which pores on the leaf does transpiration occur? 5. What does “ascent of sap” mean? . From donor of which blood group can a person with blood group O receive blood? 8.Transport of Materials in Plants and Animals : 201 : A. 1. c) Blood from pulmonary vein enters left atrium. State two functions of lymph. Mention one point of distinction between (a) artery and vein(b) vein and capillary 6. What happens when the atria contract? a) Blood from left ventricle flows into aorta. b) Blood from right ventricle flows into pulmonary artery. 5. Which kind of muscle fibres is found in the human heart? a) Striated b) Unstriated c) Cardiac d) Voluntary 3. Descriptive type questions. 9. 1. How many chambers does the human heart have? What are the lower chambers called? 3. It is still called an artery because. d) Blood which is almost without oxygen flows from right atrium to right ventricle. In plants. What happens to blood when (a) right atrium contracts (b) left ventricle contracts 7. What is a lymph? a) A fluid which flows in one direction only b) A fluid which carries material from heart to tissues c) Another name for blood d) A fluid with red coloured cells 4. Which cells of conducting tissues of plants are dead? a) Sieve tubes b) Tracheids c) Stomata d) Phloem 2. Multiple choice type questions. 2. Name the two kinds of cells of xylem. a) its structure is like that of a artery b) it carries blood away from heart c) it transports blood towards the heart d) it brings blood from lungs to heart B. where is food synthesised and through which tissue is it translocated? 10. Pulmonary artery carries carbon dioxide laden blood while all other arteries carry oxygenated blood. 4.

2. WBC and blood platelets. 15.1 1. Difficult but try Rahul’s blood group is A. to fight against disease Blood platelets – Factor required for blood clotting RBC Group O From tissues to heart GLOSSARY 3. 26. 4. Make a flow chart to show the flow of blood from one chamber of heart to the other and to the lungs and other parts of the body. 5. vessels Heart and blood vessels like artery. Capillaries Cardiac muscle fibres To permit blood to flow only in one direction / to prevent back flow of blood. . 5. C. Gita’s blood group is AB and Ravi’s blood group is O. 2. 12. 26.: 202 : Transport of Materials in Plants and Animals 11. Active transport Net movement of water molecules from a region of higher concentration of water to a region of lower concentration of water.3 1. 16. 2. 4. Who can donate blood to whom in case of an emergency? ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 26. 3. Sieve tubes Tracheids. Describe the events in the heartbeat. Plasma and blood cells like RBC. Capillaries connect artery to vein. 14. 5. Write a note on composition of blood.2 1. RBC – To carry oxygen to tissues from lungs / carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs. 4. Tracheids and vessels. vein and capillaries Thin walled blood vessels through which exchange of material takes place. 3. Draw a simple labelled diagram of the internal structure of human heart. Name two disorders related to the circulatory system and write a note on any one of them. to produce antibodies. Write a note on lymph. WBC – To eat up foreign particles. 13.

Diffusion: Process of movement of molecules from the region of their higher concentration to the region of their lower concentration. Hypertension: High blood pressure. Atria: Upper chambers of the human heart. Active transport: Movement of molecules. Blood transfusion: Introduction of blood from one person into another. with consumption of energy against the concentration gradient that is from a region of their lower concentration to that of their higher concentration. Translocation: Transport of food materials in plants from leaves to other parts.Transport of Materials in Plants and Animals : 203 : Selectively permeable: That membrane which permits transport of only certain molecules through it and not others. Blood group O is considered as the universal donor. Heart attack: A condition of the muscles of heart in which rhythm of heartbeat becomes abnormal. . Universal recipient: A blood group in whose case blood from any other group can be received during blood transfusion. Leukemia: Blood cancer in which the number of WBCs increase in blood beyond normal number. Osmosis: Process of movement of molecules of water from region of their higher concentration to a region of lower concentration of water. Universal donor: A blood group in whose case blood can be donated to all other groups. Transpiration pull: Ascent of water against gravity because of pull exerted by transpiration of water from leaves. Ventricles: Lower chambers of the human heart.

Breathing provides oxygen to the cells of our body for oxidation of food in order to generate energy for various activities.: 204 : Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes 27 Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes We can live without food for several days but we cannot live without breathing even for a short while. you will be able to: • • • • • • • • • • • • distinguish between breathing and respiration. which if retained in the body would act like a poison and make us ill or even kill us. explain the need for respiratory gaseous exchange. explain the structure of stomata and their role in respiratory gaseous exchange in plants. Another vital function of life is excretion. explain briefly the mechanism of waste formation and its elimination. give a brief account of excretion in plants. list the different parts of human excretory system and draw them. Excretion is the process of eliminating certain body waste. explain briefly the exchange of gases at the level of tissues. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. suggest a treatment for kidney failure. name few respiratory disorders. you shall learn how oxygen reaches all the cells and how carbon dioxide and other wastes are removed from our body. define the term excretion. . explain the mechanism of breathing in the human body. You will also learn about respiration in plants in this lesson. In this lesson. sketch the human respiratory organs. Breathing along with utilization of oxygen in the cells and release of carbon dioxide is included in the process of respiration. Plants too need to respire as well as need to remove wastes from their body.

It is through these lenticels that oxygen reaches the Thick cell wall inner living tissues and carbon dioxide moves out. the guard cells become flaccid closing the stoma. similarly.1 Root hairs Flaccid guard cell Closed Turgid guard cell Open Stoma closed Stoma open Thin cell wall When a plant has plenty of water. You may check the mechanism of diffusion in the lesson Primary root 26 on transportation. Oxygen is required for oxidation of glucose in the cell. 27. which the cell receives as product of digestion. Root hairs Apical meristem Root cap Tiny apertures called stomata (Fig.1 1. Root hair are embedded in the soil.2 BREATHING AND RESPIRATION The mechanism by which organisms obtain oxygen from the environment and release carbon dioxide into it is termed breathing. tiny openings called lenticels are present. Roots take up oxygen by means of root hair (Fig.3 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS Plants do not have any special respiratory organs. This energy is produced by oxidising the food (glucose). they curve away from each other. The carbon dioxide given out.1 NEED FOR RESPIRATORY GASEOUS EXCHANGE Every cell of our body needs to produce energy for its activities. So as the guard cells swells up. The cell wall on the inner surface is very thick. In the older parts of roots or bark of woody plants. Fig. opening the stoma. 27. Name the apertures found on the green stems and leaves that let in oxygen. Fig. Roots are present below the soil.2) are found on the surface of the leaf. the guard cells become turgid. Respiration in ordinary sense is a wider term. Oxygen in the air surrounding them diffuses into the root hair and from there into Lateral root the roots. When a plant is short of water.Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes : 205 : 27. They open to let in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.2 Opening and closing of stomata .27. They have a mechanism for opening and closing. and (ii) action of oxygen on glucose inside the cell to release energy (oxidation). it includes breathing as well as (i) exchange of oxygen and carbondioxide in the tissues.1). Do they pick up oxygen from air surrounding the root hair or from the water surrounding them? 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 27. 27. 27. diffuses out through roots. 27. The intake of oxygen for the release of energy by its action on glucose is termed as respiration. so it cannot stretch as much as the outer surface.

1a Respiratory system Respiratory system of human beings has the following parts (Fig.4). 27.: 206 : Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes 3.4 Respiratory system in human beings . Most aquatic animals have gills (e. The bark of woody plants is dead but the inner layers inside the bark are living. fish.g. human beings take in oxygen from the surrounding air and release carbon dioxide into it. 27.4. How do they get oxygen and release carbon dioxide? 4. How does respiration help in the release of energy? 27.3 Gill and lung breather 27.4. The major organs for respiration in land animals are the lungs.1 Respiration in human beings Like other land animals. • • • • • External nares or nostrils Nasal cavities inside the nose Internal nostrils opening into pharynx Pharynx that leads into the wind pipe or trachea Trachea divides into two bronchi (sing bronchus) which lead into the two lungs Branch of pulmonary artery Bronchiole Alveoli covered with capillaries Branch of pulmonary vein Voice box Alveoli Wind pipe Alveoli cut open Bronchus Ribs Right lung Bronchiole Heart Rib Diaphargm Fig. prawn).4 RESPIRATION IN ANIMALS Animals have special organs for respiration. 27. 27. 5. Nostril Tongue Trachea (windpipe) Rib Bronchiole Left lung Bronchi (a) Fish (gill breather) Diaphragm (b) Human (lung breather) Heart Fig. Differentiate between breathing and respiration.

Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes : 207 : The opening of the pharynx into the trachea is called glottis. These two cavities are separated from each other by a dome-shaped (upwardly arched) muscular sheet called diaphragm (see figure). This increase is caused by the changes that take place in the position of diaphragm and ribs.5 How the thorax changes shape during breathing . Diaphargm springs up Volume of thorax decreases.5a) is the result of increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity. so air is drawn into the lungs Diaphargm is pulled down (a) Inhalation Trachea Rib cage drops down • Ribs are lowered downward and inward. 27.1b Mechanism of breathing or Ventilation of lungs Lungs are located in the chest cavity or the thoracic cavity. forcing air out of the lungs Rib cage is raised Volume of thorax increases.5b) is the result of decrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity. 27. The alveolar carbon dioxide diffuses out. Breathing. Lungs enclose within them branches of bronchi called bronchioles which branch further and end in very thin walled sac-like structures called air sacs or alveoli (sing. The thoracic cavity is compressed and the pressure inside the lungs is increased.4. 27. (a) Exhalation Fig. Air is pushed out through the trachea and nose. Trachea is thin walled but its walls do not collapse even when there is negligible amount of air in it as it is supported by rings of cartilage. also called ventilation of the lungs involves two processes • inhalation (taking the air inside) • exhalation (forcing the air out) (i) Inhalation (drawing the air inwards) (Fig. • The air drawn in brings in oxygen which diffuses into the alveolar air. Below the chest cavity is the abdominal cavity. 27. This decrease in the volume is caused due to the following: • Diaphragm relaxes and resumes its domeshape arching upwards. (ii) Exhalation (Fig. This breathing out of carbon dioxide laden air is called exhalation. You can breathe heavily and feel your chest go up and down. The movements of this diaphragm help in breathing. • Diaphragm straightens out • Ribs are raised upward and outward and volume of chest cavity increases. alveolus).

oxygen acts upon the digested food (glucose) which has reached the cells of the tissues. Divers carry oxygen masks because we derive our respiratory oxygen from air and not water. pain and under stress. the air pressure becomes lower and lower. fever. .1c Cellular respiration Once inside the tissues. 27. blood capillaries on alveoli (Fig 27. Thus as the first step. 27. As a result energy and carbon dioxide are released. Exchange of gases between blood and tissues Inhalation fills in the alveoli of lungs with oxygenated air. Respiration suffers at high altitudes and great depths.6) pick up oxygen from alveoli and carbon dioxide brought by the capillaries from the tissues is exchanged for oxygen and diffuses into alveoli. This occurs in the mitochondria of the cells and is called cellular respiration. Breathing rate increases during physical exercise. an adult human breathes about 16 to 18 times per minute.4. The carbon dioxide picked up by blood from tissues is carried to the heart through veins. Do you know why mountaineers and sea divers carry oxygen cylinders and wear oxygen masks? As we climb higher and higher altitudes. oxygen gets used up and carbon dioxide is accumulated which is now exchanged for oxygen.6 Exchange of gases between blood and alveoli In the tissues. People living in hilly areas have evolved adaptation such as increased number of red blood corpuseles and large thoracic cavity. Air moves in and out Bronchiole Cell in wall of capillary Wall of alveolus Wall of capillary Cell in wall of alveolus CO2 diffuse O2 diffuse in out Alveolus Blood vessels bring blood without much oxygen from the pulmonary veins Air space in alveolus Blood vessels return oxygenated blood to the pulmonary veins Red blood Elastic fibre cell White blood cell. This oxygen has to reach the various tissues of the body.: 208 : Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes Breathing rate When at rest. which can destroy bacteria that get into the alveolus Layer of moisture Red blood cell (a) Alveoli (b) Section through part of a lung (magnified) (c) Gaseous exchange in an alveolus Fig. disease. Reduced oxygen supply causes breathing troubles and oxygen masks facilitate breathing.

Their removal from the body is called excretion.4. The symptoms are blueing of lips.1 Excretion in plants In plants.2b Pneumonia Pneumonia is caused by pneumococci bacteria. 4. Antibiotics have to be administered to cure bronchitis and pneumonia. They may even be harmful. In which organelle of the cell does cellular respiration occur? 5. Often these help the patient to overcome respiratory problems. breakdown of substances is much slower than in animals. Medical technology has introduced certain gadgets like the “oxygen mask” and “ventilators” which aid in respiration when a patient develops breathing problems. the bronchi and bronchioles get inflamed and their cavities become narrow so that air cannot pass in and out of lungs easily. This happens due to excessive smoking. 27. The pathway gets constricted either due to accumulation of mucus on the walls of the bronchi or bronchioles. tongues and stoppage of breathing. 27. We shall now learn about the excretory organs and mechanism of excretion. fingernails. 27.4. State the events which occur during inhalation. which narrow the airways and cause difficulty in breathing.5 EXCRETION Many chemical reactions take place inside the body cells.Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes : 209 : 27.2a Bronchitis In bronchitis.2 Respiratory disorders Two common diseases of the respiratory system are bronchitis and pneumonia. Also infection of the accumulated mucus leads to inflammation of walls of the lungs and bronchi. Symptoms of pneumonia are shivering. 3.4. Most of these waste products contain nitrogen and therefore they are termed nitrogenous waste products. Why does the trachea not deflate (collapse) when the air is pushed out? 2. vomiting and continuous fever. These bacteria attack the trachea and bronchi and spread to the terminal bronchi.1d Artificial respiration A victim of an accident like drowning. You must have realised how important respiration is for survival. electric shock or inhalation of poisonous gas suffers from “asphyxia” or the condition of lack of oxygen. Some products of these chemical reactions are not needed by the body. In such cases mouth-to-mouth respiration is given. Name the parts of the human respiratory system in a sequence starting from the nose. Why are the alveoli supplied with capillaries? 27.4.5.2 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 27. 27. Hence accumulation of waste is much slower and there are no special organs of excretion .

(one from each kidney). resins and crystals of silica.7) and locate the following parts: • Two bean shaped kidneys. Morphine in poppy fruits was used as an anaesthetic.27. has a network of capillaries within it called glomerulus. However. Glomerulus is a knot of capillaries formed from the artery which brings blood containing wastes and excess of water to the kidney. ureters open into it. These substances may be nitrogenous such as alkaloids. The tubular part of the nephron or renal tubule has three sub-parts. The non-nitrogenous substance exuded by plants include: tannins found in tea leaves.: 210 : Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes in plants. One urinary bladder. excretion is carried out by an organ system known as the urinary system or the excretory system.27. the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). located below the diaphragm in the abdomen and towards the back. Bowman’s capusle leads into a tubular structure. A muscular tube called urethra arises from the bladder. See the figure (Fig.2a Structural and functional unit Fig. resins thrown out are deposited on the bark of pine trees. 27. Carbon dioxide released during respiration gets utilized during photosynthesis. old wood.7 Human excretory system of the kidney — Nephron Each kidney is made of tube like structures called nephrons (renal tubules). or non-nitrogenous such as oils.5. We use resins in varnish and polish. old leaves etc. The cup-shaped upper end called Bowman’s capsule. Two excretory tubes or ureters. The urinary opening is at the end of urethra. which deposits in the bark of the cinchona tree and is a medicine for malaria. A nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney.5. a number of chemical substances which are formed as byproducts during certain activities of plants. a thinner tube called loop of Henle and the . are known to be thrown out of the plant and deposited on the bark. In certain grasses crystals of silica are deposited by the plant. essential oils such as are deposited in leaves of tulsi and lemon and Eucalyptus. The alkaloids include Quinine. which yields the beverage coffee is deposited in coffee leaves. Blood vessels Diaphragm Kidney (makes urine) • • • Ureter (carries urine to the bladder) Bladder (stores urine) Sphincter muscle (when relaxed urine can leave body) Urethra tube (leading from bladder out of body) 27. Caffeine.2 Human excretory system In human beings.

The filtrate which now comes into the renal tubule not only contains waste but also useful substances.2c Functions of the kidneys Fig.5. the waste alone which is primarily in the form of urea enters into collecting tubules from various renal tubules. 27. the urine enters the ureters to reach the urinary bladder where it is stored temporarily. Thus.8). The useful substances get reabsorbed from the tubule into the blood capillaries surrounding the tubule.8 Structural and functional • Excretion of nitrogenous wastes. The red blood corpuscles and proteins do not filter out. a person can fall sick. 27. Ureter (a) A Kidney Urine Branch of renal artery Glomerulus Bowman’s capsule Distal convoluted tubule Proximal convoluted tubule Capillaries Branch of renal vein Loop of Henle Collecting duct Capillaries 27. When this balance is upset.9) Skin Liver Amino acids Blood Excess Heat Kidney Urea Excess water and minerals Oxygen Glucose Heat Cells Lungs (b) One nephron (highly magnified) Carbon dioxide Fig. 27.5.5. Blood capillaries surround these tubules. 27. 27. It is the urine.2b Mechanism of excretion Blood leading into the glomerulus gets filtered in the Bowman’s capsule and is called the nephric filtrate. The urine is thrown out periodically through the urinary opening.Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes : 211 : distal convoluted tubule (DCT) (Fig. These organs are as follows (Fig.3 Other organs that remove waste from our body Apart from kidneys. Renal artery Renal vein 27. unit of the kidney — Nephron • Regulating the water content of the body (osmoregulation). Excess water and salts like sodium and chloride also get reabsorbed into the blood from the renal tubule. and • Keeping the normal mineral balance in the blood.9 Some organs of our body that remove waste . From the kidneys. some other organs of the body also remove waste from the body.

The kidney dialysis fluid carrying waste is removed from the machine. Homeostasis means maintaining a steady state inside the body.5. However. Since the number of nephrons is as large as almost one million in each kidney.5 Kidney failure. 27.: 212 : Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes • Sweat glands in the skin remove excess salts when we perspire.5.10) an artificial kidney is employed. Kidneys and liver play an important role in maintenance of homeostasis. in case both the kidneys are damaged. 27. however. It requires the regulation of all substances inside the body in the correct amount and proportion. A tube is inserted in an artery in the patient’s arm or leg. a person can survive even with one kidney. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 27. Define excretion. The tube is connected to the kidney machine. 27. Maintenance of the correct amount of water and mineral ions in the blood is termed osmoregulation.3 1. • Rectum (large intestine) removes undigested food. In the inner tube flows blood from patient’s artery. This technique is termed dialysis. This blood is surrounded by fluid (dialysis fluid) in the outer tube. 27. separated from it by the membrane of the inner tube.10 Kidney dialysis Used dialyzing solution (with urea and excess salts) . Osmoreulation is a function of the kidney. water or even hormones inside the body is upset. has to be taken so that a foreign kidney gets accepted by the body. • Lungs remove carbon dioxide. surgeon sometimes remove a nonfunctioning kidney from a patient and replace it with a kidney donated by another person. which stores urine before its removal from the body. This plastic tube has two membranes so as to form one tube within the other. Line from apparatus to vein Line from artery to apparatus Pump Tubing made of a selectively permeable membrane Dialyzing solution Fresh dialyzing solution Fig. The blood cleaned of its waste goes back from the kidney machine into the vein in the arm or leg and back into the body. Name the organ of the excretory system. As shown in the figure (Fig. dialysis and kidney transplant Certain diseases or sometimes an accident may lead to kidney failure. Wastes move out of blood into the fluid.4 Maintenance of the internal environment A person gets sick if the balance of substances such as mineral ions. 2. Care. it is difficult to remain alive. Nowadays. Modern technology can now save such patients with the helps of new techniques like dialysis and kidney transplant.

Excretion is a process of removal of _______________ waste. 1.Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes : 213 : 3. What happens to the size of thoracic cavity when we breathe in air? 4. The openings in plant leaves through which gaseous exchange takes place are called _____________________ C. Which one of the following is not a part of nephron? (a) Loop of Henle (b) Proximal Convoluted tubule (PCT) (c) Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) (d) Seminiferous tubules. 2.breathing or cellular exchange of gases? 3. State one point of difference between each of the following: (i) Breathing and respiration (ii) Inhalation and exhalation (iii) Ureter and urethra (iv) Homeostasis and osmoregulation (v) Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus (vi) Bronchi and bronchioles 2. Select the most appropriate answer of the following. Identify the process involved in the functioning of the artificial kidney. From which part of the respiratory system is oxygen picked up by the blood? (a) Trachea (b) Bronchus (c) Alveolus (d) Nostrils 3. The main excretory nitrogenous product in human beings is _____________ 4. Which step occurs earlier than the other . . Which of the following is NOT a step in the process of respiration? (a) Breathing (b) Diffusion of oxygen from blood to tissues (c) Diffusion of oxygen from tissues to blood (d) Production of energy 2. Descriptive type questions. 1. 1. What is osmoregulation? TERMINAL EXERCISES A. Fill in the blanks. What happens to the useful substances that get filtered into the renal tubule? 5. Multiple choice type questions. Describe the mechanism of breathing in human beings. 4. Nephrons are the functional units of __________________ 3. In which part of the nephron does filtration occur? 4. (a) Renal transport (b) Dialysis (c) Renal failure (d) Catalysis 5. Which is the correct sequence of the following parts of the urinary system? (A) Kidney (B) Ureter (C) Urethra (D) Urinary bladder (a) B A C D ( b) D C B A (c) A B C D (d) A B D C B.

lungs. 5. Air 2. 27. thoracic cavity increases in volume. internal nostrils. pharynx.3 1. trachea. They are reabsorbed into blood 5. Maintaining the normal amount of water and mineral ions in blood is termed Osmoregulation GLOSSARY Bowman’s capsule: Thin walled cup-shaped part of the nephron with the glomerulus lying within the cup. 3. Stomata 3.2 1. bronchi. 8. 2. 9. Glomerulus 4. Breathing: The mechanism in which oxygen from the environment is taken into the lungs and carbon dioxide present in the lungs removed. Explain the mechanism of excretion. They pick up oxygen from alveoli and carbon dioxide carried by them diffuses into alveoli.: 214 : Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes 5. nasal cavity.1 1. How are respiratory gases exchanged between blood and tissues? Draw the urinary system in the human body and label its parts. 27. Write notes on the following: (i) artificial kidney (ii) glomerular filtrate (iii) organs of excretion in human beings ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 27. Mitochondria 5. 2. External nostrils. What is glottis? Mention its function. air from outside rushes into lungs. . The cartilaginous rings around the trachea prevent its collapse. The diaphragm contracts. Excretion is the process of removal of nitrogenous waste products. 4. Through lenticels 4. Bowman’s capsule leads into the renal tubule. Urinary bladder 3. Energy is released through oxidation of food (glucose) during respiration in cells. 6. 7. Breathing is the mechanism for obtaining oxygen from the environment and release carbon dioxide into it / respiration is the intake of oxygen as also its utilization by cells for release of energy.

Diaphragm: A muscular partition between the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity of mammals which participates in breathing. Stomata: Openings in leaves which open and close for exchange of gases. Exhalation: Removal of carbon dioxide from the lungs during breathing. Respiration: The intake and utilization of oxygen for oxidation of glucose in the cells for the liberation of energy. It is made of glomerulus and renal tubule. Pneumonia: The inflammation of lungs due to fluid accumulation in the alveoli caused by bacterial infection. Cellular respiration: The oxidation of glucose in the mitochondria of the cell.Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes : 215 : Bronchitis: A respiratory disease in which the air passages in lungs become inflamed. Dialysis: The mechanism of cleansing the blood of its waste outside the body by using a ‘kidney machine’. Nephron: The structural and functional unit of the kidney. Lenticels: Tiny openings in older parts of roots and bark of woody plants for exchange of gases. . Glomerulus: A network of capillaries. Inhalation: Intake of oxygen-laden air into the lungs during breathing. Renal tubule: The tubular part of the nephron. Excretion: The process of elimination of nitrogenous waste products from the body. which is a part of nephron.

Signals from one part of the body are transmitted to another part through these nerve cells. • recognise sense organs as gateways for receiving information from the environment. On the other hand the nervous system consists of a series of nerve cells throughout the body. You know that our sense organs are gateways for receiving information or stimuli from the environment and help in maintaining a state of stability between the internal conditions of an organism and its external environment.:216: Control and Coordination 28 Control and Coordination In the earlier lessons you have studied that the body of all living organisms is made up of cells. and if any of these activities misses or does not occur in time then the body will not get nutrition. • describe the major regions of human brain and list their functions. our nose senses the food. . some form of control is needed to coordinate their functions. • identify the components of central nervous system and explain what is grey matter and white matter. the endocrine system and sense organs of our body. when we eat food. • define nerve impulse. For example. Therefore. including man. the chemicals produced by ductless (endocrine) glands also bring about coordination. The various organs perform their functions at the right time so that they can work together efficiently. This coordination by chemicals is brought about by the endocrine system. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. In this lesson we will learn about the nervous system. our eyes help in locating the food. • recall nerve cell as the basic structural and functional unit of nervous system and explain the terms synapse and nerve. In case of animals. These cells aggregate and differentiate to form tissues and assembly of different tissues forms different organs. our hand brings the food to our mouth and our jaw muscles help the teeth to chew the food. you will be able to: • relate nervous system and endocrine system with the function of control and coordination. All these activities occur in a coordinated manner.

long sightedness (hypermetropia) and their correction. the nervous system has two main divisions: • The central nervous system (CNS) • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) The central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord. 28. state the symptoms and cause of cretinism. 28. thyroid and pancreas. goitre and diabetes mellitus. list the hormones secreted by pituitary. draw an outline diagram of human body and show the location of various endocrine glands. In humans. The organisation of nervous system is given in Fig. The peripheral nervous system includes the sensory and motor nerves and connects the central nervous system with the sense organs. give a brief idea of feedback mechanism in hormonal activity. name the parts of the eye and explain vision in simple terms. muscles and glands of the body.Control and Coordination: 217: • • • • • • • • • describe the location and structure of spinal cord and recognise its function relating to reflex action.1 NERVOUS SYSTEM The organ system in an animal that serves to coordinate and control the functioning of all other organ systems in the body is known as nervous system. integrate and coordinate the functions of various organs and systems in our body and helps the body to respond to the external stimuli. NERVOUS SYSTEM Central nervous system Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system Sensory (afferent) nerves Motor (efferent) nerves Autonomic nervous system Parasympathetic Somatic nervous system Sympathetic Fig.1 Organisation of nervous system in humans . describe various ways of taking care of sense organs. The peripheral nervous system is regarded as ‘actor’ or ‘performer’ in the body. 28. explain the structure and working of the ear. It is regarded as the ‘thinker’ or ‘information processor’ in the body. explain accommodation of the eye and give reasons for short sightedness (myopia).1. Nervous system works with the endocrine system to communicate.

Our nervous system contains about 10 billion nerve cells. 28. in skin Motor nerve ending in muscle (or gland) Motor nerve ending in muscle (or gland) 28.2 A neuron (highly magnified) called the cell body or cyton.4). iii. thread like branches called dendrites arise from the cell body.g. Motor neurons. 28. which connect sensory and motor neurons.1 Nerve cell or neuron A neuron is the basic unit of nervous tissue. which transmit impulse from receptor (sense organ) to coordinator (brain or spinal cord). 28.4 A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibres .1. Sensory neurons. which transmit impulse from modulator to effectors (muscle or glands). 28.2 Nerves Nerves are thread like structures. Nerve fibre or axon Sensory neuron ii. 28.1.1a Structure of the neuron Each neuron has a central area Fig. which emerge from brain and spinal cord and branch out to almost all parts of the body. One branch arising out of the cell body is very long in comparison to others. found in the grey matter. Connecting neurons. This covering is missing at intervals. i.:218: Control and Coordination Dendrites Nucleus Cytoplasm ] Cell body Schwann Cell nucleus Node of Ranvier Myelin sheath Axon Neurofibrils Nissl granules 28. Several short. 28.1b Types of neurons Sensory nerve ending e.1. which communicate with each other in a specific manner. This branch is called axon or nerve fibre. Nerve fibre with cover (sheath) of fat Motor neuron Sheath of electrical insulating material Cell body (cyton) Dendrites Connector neuron CNS (brain or spinal cord) Connective tissue Fig. The nerves are composed of axons or nerve fibres bundled together like the strands of an electric cable (Fig. The cell body has a large central nucleus and cytoplasm. Axon may or may not be covered by a fatty sheath called myelin sheath.1.3 Types of neurons Fig. These gaps on the sheath are known as nodes of Ranvier.

28. Mixed nerves: These nerves contain both sensory and motor nerve fibres and perform a mixed function.2 FUNCTIONING OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM The nervous system functions in a coordinated manner. etc.3 NERVE IMPULSE 28. This junction of two neurons is called synapse. These are: i. Stimulus Sense organ Nerves Central Nervous System (CNS) Receives information makes a plan of action Nerves Effector Response Red hot object Temperature Nerves sensory cells in skin Nerves Sends instructions Muscles of arm and shoulder Hand pulled away Fig. Sensory nerves: These nerves contain sensory fibres.3. tongue. The motor nerves pass on the action to the required organ (muscle or gland) and this way a response is generated. iii. This is called synaptic cleft. Nerve impulse upon generation passes along a neuron in only one direction. There is a space at the synapse between the end of axon of first neuron and cell body or dendrite of the next neuron. Sensory nerves bring impulse from sense organs to the brain or the spinal cord. .1 What is an impulse? Let us understand this by an example.2a Kinds of nerves There are three kinds of nerves. which integrates it and give action. ii. This flow of message through the nerve is called impulse.3. Then your brain senses the prick and generates a response and you withdraw your hand. The stimulus through sensory nerves reaches the brain and spinal cord.2 Synapse The axon of one neuron is close to the dendrites of cell body of the next neuron. 28. These electrochemical waves are carried by the neuron.Control and Coordination: 219: 28.1. you have felt the sensation. It receives a stimulus through a receptor organ like eye. conducted to cell body (cyton) of the neuron and finally to the effector organ. 28. Motor nerves: These nerves contain motor fibres. The stimulus from the receptor organ is received by the dendrites. ear.5 Nervous system works in a coordinated manner 28. The neuron is connected to a sensory receptor that receives the message or stimulus and converts it into electrochemical waves. Motor nerves carry impulse from brain or spinal cord to the effector organ like muscle or glands. Suppose your finger is pricked.

• It filters out low-level stimuli. emotions and speech. There are many synapses between the millions of nerve cells. Presynaptic membrane Postsynaptic membrane Synaptic cleft Dendrite Fig.BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD 28. It controls feeling of love. It has three main parts: • Cerebrum • Cerebellum • Medulla oblongata a) Cerebrum The cerebrum is the largest and most prominent part of the brain.4 CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. iii. Each hemisphere contains two regions . admiration and hatred. b) Cerebellum It is a small area of brain lying below the mid-brain which is under the large cerebrum. Among all vertebrates cerebrum of humans is most highly developed. it also has grey matter in its outer region and white matter in the inner region. which contains cell bodies of the neuron. 28. It weighs about 1200-1400g in an adult.6 A synapse 28. reasoning. which contains nerve fibres or axons of the neurons. 28. a neurotransmitter (a chemical substance) is released in the synaptic cleft of the synapse. Like cerebrum. It is divided into left and right hemispheres by a deep median longitudinal groove. ii. It controls our will.3 What does a synapse do? • It allows the information to pass from one neuron to another. • It ensures the passage of nerve impulse in one direction only.4. which helps in passage of nerve impulse from one neuron to the next neuron. The outer region of cerebrum contains grey matter. .the outer region and the inner region. The inner region of cerebrum contains white matter. When the impulse reaches the end of axon of first neuron.3. iv. It controls all involuntary functions.:220: Control and Coordination Axon Synaptic vesicle containing neurotransmitters Mitochondrion Synaptic bulb Through the synapse the impulse passes from one neuron to the next neuron. learning. • It helps in information processing by combining the effects of all impulses received. The cerebrum performs the following functions: i. It governs our mental abilities like thinking.1 Brain The human brain is a highly developed organ situated in the skull. memorising and intelligence.

It controls posture of the body. It coordinates muscular movement. It maintains equilibrium (balance) of the body. It controls vital reflex centres such as cardiac centre. heart etc. respiratory centre and centres for swallowing. iii. It controls the internal organs like movement of lungs. by regulating breathing and heart-beat. 28. c) Medulla oblongata It is the lowermost part of the brain located at the base of the skull. 28.7 Components of the human nervous system The cerebellum performs the following functions: i. coughing and vomiting (Fig.8). .Control and Coordination: 221: Brain Spinal nerves Spinal cord Hole between vertebrea from which spinal nerves emerge Spinal cord Nerves (b) Vertebral column (enlarged view) Dorsal root of spinal nerve (Sensory) Dorsal root ganglion Grey matter White matter Ventral root of spinal nerve (Motor) (c) Transverse section of spinal cord (a) The nervous system in human beings Fig. sneezing.. ii. ii. The medulla oblongata performs the following functions: i.

1 1. Cerebrum Thalamus 28. The stimulus from the receptor organ is received by the __________.8 Different parts of the brain i. Fill in the blanks. A synapse is the point of contact between the terminal branches of the _________ of one neuron with the _________ of another neuron. The grey matter lies on the inner side while the white matter on the outer side. List any two functions of cerebellum. It conducts motor response from brain to the muscles of trunk and limbs. iii. which are different in nature at different times depending on our body activity. i) ii) iii) iv) The central nervous system consists of _________ and ___________ Pathway meant for transmission of the message from the receptors to modulators is called _____________ pathway. ___________________ nerves carry impulse from brain or spinal cord to the effectors.4.2 Spinal cord The spinal cord is a long cord that extends from the medulla oblongata and continues downward inside the vertebral column. electrodes are taped on different parts of the scalp and the activity is recorded in the form of an electrocephalogram (EEG). Name the main organs of our body regulated by medulla oblongata. ii. Spinal cord has within it a narrow canal and this central canal of the spinal cord is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. v) 2. An instrument called electroencephalograph can record this activity of our brain. 3.:222: Control and Coordination Do you know? Our brain sends out certain waves. The arrangement of the grey and white matter is just reversed in the spinal cord. The spinal cord performs the following functions: Cerebellum Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Medulla Spinal cord Fig. It controls the reflexes below the neck region. For doing this. 28. conducted to the cell body of neuron and finally to the __________ organ. It conducts sensory impulses from the skin and muscles to the brain. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 28.

which carry information from sensory receptors into central nervous system. iii.9 Components of a reflex arc . a relay or intermediate neuron of spinal cord which transmits the impulse from sensory to motor neuron. It also controls voluntary actions like movement of arms and legs. Stimulus (a short blow below the knee cap) Sensory organ Motor neuron Spinal cord Response (leg straightens) Sensory neuron Effector organ Fig. b) Autonomic nervous system or visceral nervous system It consists of a pair of chains of ganglion (a ganglion is a group of cell bodies of neurons) and nerves found on either side of the backbone. Similarly we withdraw our hand immediately if we prick our finger or touch a hot object. sight. For example. joints. 28. You will learn more about autonomic nervous system in higher classes. nose and ears and thus gives an organism the sensation of touch. voluntary muscles. A reflex action may be defined as a spontaneous. It controls the involuntary actions of the internal organs of the body like heart etc. The peripheral nervous system is further subdivided into two systems: a) Somatic nervous system It receives and processes information from receptors in the skin.6 REFLEX ACTION AND REFLEX ARC There are many actions in our body which are spontaneous and do not require any processing by brain. ii. It is subdivided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. These nerves are of two types: • Afferent or sensory nerves. 28. pain.6. tendons. a receptor or sensory neuron which perceives the stimulus. taste. and iv. smell and sound.5 PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM The peripheral nervous system includes nerves that carry impulse to and from the central nervous system. cold. autonomic and mechanical response to a stimulus controlled by the spinal cord without the involvement of brain.1 Components of a reflex arc A reflex arc has the following components: i.Control and Coordination: 223: 28. we blink our eyes in response to high beam of light that falls on our eyes. eyes. motor nerve which carries the message from spinal cord to effector organmuscle or gland. heat. and • Efferent or motor nerves which carry information from the central nervous system to the effector organ. Reflex actions are controlled by spinal cord. tongue. These responses are called reflex actions. a sensory nerve which carries the message from sensory neuron to spinal cord. 28. balance.

__________ carry information from sensory receptors to central nervous system. Define reflex action. Fill in the blanks. What are the various components of a reflex arc? 28. 28. . ii.2 1. __________________ system receives and processes information from receptors in the skin.10 Sequence of events in a reflex arc CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 28. The pathway followed by sensory or motor nerves in a reflex action is called __________________ 2. iiii. 3. voluntary muscles and eyes. iii.7 OUR SENSE ORGANS What are sense organs? Sense organs are the organs through which we sense or feel change in the external environment.:224: Control and Coordination Stimulus received by the sensory receptors in the sensory organ Impulse generated and carried along by the sensory neuron toward the spinal cord Impulse arrives at the nerve endings of sensory neuron in the grey matter of spinal cord Neurotransmitter released at nerve endings Impulse pass across the relay neuron to motor neuron Impulse travels away from spinal cord along motor neuron The nerve endings of motor neuron connect effector organ like muscle Response produced by effector organ Fig.

Our sense organs and their functions are given in Table 28.1. heat and cold. bacterial infections.5 to 1. • Cold Light/ Touch Pain Pressure Heat Fig. • Touch and pressure: These receptors are concentrated on fingertips. 28.5 oC. ii) dermis. The brain gives us feelings or sensations.7. When a sense organ detects a stimulus it sends messages along the nerves to brain. smell. pain and temperature.a Functions of skin • Skin protects the body from mechanical injuries. • Skin regulates our body temperature.7. These nerve endings are of different types for different stimulations. The fingertips can detect temperature differences as small as 0.11 Different types of sensory cells of skin . The skin is composed of two distinct layers: i) epidermis. etc. • Temperature: There are separate cold and heat receptors. heat and cold.5 to 3 mm. nails. In a human adult the surface area of the skin is 1. Pain: Pain receptors are evenly distributed over the skin. meters. which contains hair. smooth. • Skin is sensory to touch. Excessive heat is lost through evaporation of sweat otherwise it is conserved by fat and hair in the skin. 28.7 sq.1. Table 28. pain Chemicals in food and drink Chemicals in air Sound and movement Light Senses Touch Taste Smell Hearing and balance Sight 28. They detect the texture of objects. hard or soft. Touch receptors are attached to hair. hear and see because of our sense organs.Control and Coordination: 225: We all touch. which is made up of connective tissue mixed with blood vessels and nerves. taste. The thickness of the skin varies from about 0.1: Different sense organs in our body Sense organ Skin Tongue Nose Ears Eyes Sensitive to stimuli Pressure. sweat glands. whether they are rough. These detect changes in temperature.1 Skin The sense of touch is produced by the ends of nerve cells called nerve endings or receptors because they receive stimulation from the outside world.

12 The human eye This eyelid protects our eye from an external discomfort.2a Focusing and accommodation (i) Eye focused on a distant object Lens is less convex (somewhat flattened) due to being stretched by suspensory ligament. 28. as shown in fig. Table 28. Cornea 28.7. the ciliary (circular) muscles along the suspensory ligament are relaxed. aqueous humour.:226: Control and Coordination • • • Oily substances are freely absorbed by skin. The curvature of cornea and lens bend the light rays to form an image on the retina. cornea.3: Common skin diseases Nature Disease Fungal Allergic Ring worm Eczema. iris. The eyes are lodged within the skull. The excess of water. • It should be protected from sun rays and fire. pupil. The nerve impulses are produced in retina. When we close our Iris Lower lid Pupil eyes a layer of skin with hair (eye lashes) in its margin covers each eye.2 Eyes Eyes are well-protected organs of our body through which we see. scaly skin Prevention Personal hygiene Most of the allergy can be prevented by avoiding offending substances Personal hygiene and domestic hygiene Parasitic Scabies Itching Eyebrow Tear gland Duct Upper lid Eye lash We should take care of our skin! • The skin must be washed daily because it gets dirty by dust and sweat. lens and vitreous humour). Fig. dermatitis Symptoms Itching/rashes/burning sensation Itching.12. . It is an eyelid. The brain interprets the image and the image that was formed inverted on the retina is viewed or perceived here correct and upright. 28. retina etc. • It should be protected from injury. 28. Different parts of the eye are cornea.7. How do we see? The light rays enter our eyes through transparent structures (conjunctiva. which are transmitted to the brain (visual area of cerebrum). salts and waste products are excreted through the sweat. Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin. The image formed on retina is inverted and real.

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(Fig. 28.13a). (ii) Eye focused on a near object Ciliary (circular) muscles contract. This reduces tension of the suspensory ligament and the lens turns thicker and more convex (Fig. 28.13b).
Radial muscle (contracted) Circular muscle relaxed Suspensory ligament Lens Pupil (wide) Radial muscle (relaxed) Pupil (narrow) Circular muscle(cntracted) Suspensory ligament Lens

Light from a distant object

(a)

Light from a near object

(b)

Fig. 28.13 Focussing and accomodation of the eye a) Distant object b) Near object

28.7.2b Defects of the eye i) First, understand the normal sight Both distant and near objects can be focused on the retina (Fig 28.14a). (ii) Long sightedness or hypermetropia It occurs when the eyeball is shorter than normal. In this defect distant objects can be focused properly, but the point of focus for an object close to the eye is behind the retina (Figs. 28.14 b,c).
Small short eye ball

Focus behind retina

(a) Normal sight
Eye ball

(b)Long sightedness or hypermetropia
Long, oval eyeball Eye ball

Convex lens

Focus in front of retina

Concave lens

Fig. 28.14 The normal sight and the defects of vision (c) Correcting hypermetropia using convex lens (d) Short sightedness or myopia, (e) Correcting myopia using concave lens

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(iii) Short sightedness or myopia It occurs when the eye-ball is longer than normal. In this defect objects close to the eye can be focussed properly, but the point of focus for distant objects is in front of the retina (Fig. 28.14 d,e). We should take care of our eyes! • Do not read in the dark or when the light is too bright. You must keep your book at a proper distance from your eyes. While reading, maintain correct posture. Do not rub your eyes with unclean hands because germs can enter into your eyes. When dust, insects or other object goes into your eyes, do not rub them. Rinse the objects away with plenty of clean water. Wash eyes daily carefully. Eyes should be protected from direct sunlight sparkling and injuries. In case of an injury consult the doctor immediately.
Semi-circular canals External ear Nerve to brain

• • • •

Ear canal Ear drum

Eustachian tube

Sacculus

Fig. 28.15 Structure of the ear

28.7.3 Ears Ears help us in hearing different sounds and balancing our body. The air around us is full of vibrations called sound waves. We have one ear on each side of the head. Ears change vibrations in the air into nerve impulses, which travel to brain where they are interpreted as sound.

28.7.3a Functions of ears The part, which we call our ear, is a flap of skin in the shape of a funnel. This is the external ear. This leads to a tunnel – the ear canal, at the end of which is a thin sheet of skin called the eardrum. Sound waves are collected by the outer ear and directed inside the ear canal, where they set the eardrum vibrating. The eardrum is connected to the inner ear by three small bones or semicircular canals called ear ossicles. These are hammer (malleus), anvil (incus) and stirrup (stapes). These bones transmit and amplify the vibrations increasing their force by about 20 times. The ossicles are connected to an oval window. Due to vibrations, oval window moves in and out causing vibrations through the cochlea. The cochlea contains a carpet of tiny hair like structures, which are connected to nerves. They are actually sensory cells which help us to hear the sound.

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Our ears helps us to balance Our ears tell us if we are standing upright or not. The semicircular canals of our inner ear tell us to keep balance or to move. The semicircular canals are three tubes full of liquid. When we move the liquid moves. Sensitive hair cells inside the tubes detect this movement and send impulses along nerves to the brain. Our brain detects loss of our balance and sends impulses to muscles to keep us upright. 28.7.3b Deafness—disorder of the ears The vibrations of the eardrum cause disturbance within the middle ear. This space is linked with the back of a canal – the Eustachian tube. We know that when the air pressure changes, we feel a strong sensation in our ears until we open our mouth, and the air in the mouth and the pressure is equalized. Unfortunately, the Eustachian tube may become a channel for infection. This may happen for a brief period during a cold and if neglected the infection may spread to the middle ear and cause inflammation. The eardrum may become thickened and the little bones may have Bitter their articulations affected. This may cause deafness. Deafness may also be due to the injury to the ear nerve. Sweet Sour We must take care of our ears! • • • We should clean our ears with towel after bath every day. Never use a pin or stick to remove wax from the ear. We should protect our ear from injury, cold and dirt.

Sour

Sweet and salt

Fig. 28.16 Our tongue

28.7.4 Tongue You know that your tongue helps you to talk and helps in moving food inside the mouth and swallowing the food. Tongue is a sense organ, which distinguishes different tastes. Our tongue contains taste buds. Taste buds are groups of sensory cells. These are sensitive to chemicals, which must dissolve in saliva, before we can taste them. Taste buds send messages to brain by taste nerves for analysis, resulting in the sensations. This is why dry food has no taste until we chew it with saliva. We must take care of our tongue! • • It should be cleaned daily by tongue cleaner. If there are any rashes or cut on the tongue it should be treated as per doctor’s advice.

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28.7.5 Nose We can detect about 3000 different kinds of smells. Smell helps animals to hunt food and find their way. Smell can also warn if there is certain danger. Our nose is sensitive to smell. Smell is basically detecting chemicals in the air. The chemicals dissolve in moisture on lining of our nose. The stimulation of nerve endings in our nose send message to the brain which produces the sensation of smell. Smell receptors are called olfactory receptors. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 28.3 1. Name the five sense organs in our body. 2. Fill in the blanks. i) Skin is made up of ________________ and ____________________ ii) Oily substances are freely absorbed by __________________ 3. Match the items in column A with those in column B:
A B

i) ii) iii) iv)

Eustachian tube Cornea Nerve ending Olfactory organ

a) b) c) d)

Eye Nose Ear Skin

Hypothelamus Pineal gland Pituitary gland

Parathyroid gland

Thyroid gland

Thymus

Kidney Pancreas

28.8 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Our body has a number of organs called endocrine glands. Their main function is to produce chemical secretions and these secretions are known as hormones. The term hormone has been derived from the Greek word hormaein meaning to set in motion or to spur on. Hormones play an important role in control, coordination and regulation of the functioning of tissues and organs in the body. For the smooth and normal functioning of the body, different hormones are required in different quantities. Hormones are secreted by ductless glands or endocrine glands (Greek: endo means within, krinein means to separate). The endocrine system is responsible for chemical coordination in the animals including man.

Ovary (in females) Testis (in males)

Fig. 28.17 Location of various endocrine glands in the human body

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What are hormones? A hormone is a chemical secreted by an endocrine gland and carried by blood or lymph to a target organ elsewhere in the body to stimulate a specific activity. There are different endocrine glands for secretion of different hormones (Fig. 28.17). Table 28.2 lists some important hormones, glands secreting them and their effects on the functioning of our body. Did you know? Hyperactivity (overactivity) or hypoactivity (underactivity) of endocrine glands cause disease. 28.8.1 Pituitary gland • Hyperactivity of cells of pituitary gland cause Cushing’s disease. In this disease excessive growth of hair occurs in males. In some cases this disease may even cause atrophy of testes leading to impotency. In females, this disease causes sterility, musculisation, growth of beard, moustaches, etc. • Deficiency (hypoactivity) of growth hormone (GH) or somatotrophic hormone (STH) secreted by pituitary gland causes dwarfism (retarded growth of the long bones) while its excessive secretion or hyperactivity causes gigantism (excessive growth of long bones) making a person very tall. 28.8.2 Thyroid gland • Hypoactivity of thyroid gland causes hypothyroidism causing cretinism in young children. In this disease the child has stunted growth, short club like fingers, deformed bones and teeth. The skin becomes rough, dry and wrinkled with scanty hair growth. The abdomen gets pot-bellied and the child is mentally retarded. • Hypoactivity of thyroid gland also causes abnormal swelling of thyroid called goitre. 28.8.3 Pancreas • Hyposecretion of insulin secreted from pancreas, causes diabetes mellitus, in which glucose present in excess in the blood sometimes appears in urine. Table 28.2: Major hormones secreted in the human body, their sources and effects Endocrine glands and their location
Pituitary gland

Hormone secreted

Effects

(It is attached to the lower surface of the brain. It has three lobes-anterior lobe, Adenocorticotropic hormone Controls the growth and functioning of middle lobe and posterior (ACTH) adrenal cortex. Stimulates adrenal cortex lobe) to produce steroid hormones called glucocorticoids.

Growth hormone (GH) or Controls the overall growth of the body, Somatotrophic hormone (STH) muscles and bones.

Controls reabsorption of water in kidney tubules. Regulates the conversion of glycogen and some non-carbohydrates back to glucose. Fill in the blanks. Hypoactivity of thyroid gland leads to__________ • LET US REVISE Nervous system works with the endocrine system to communicate. i) ii) iii) iv) v) A hormone is carried by _________ or ________ to the target organ.:232: Control and Coordination Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Controls the growth and functioning of thyroid gland. Thyroid stimulating hormone is secreted by ___________ ________ hormone regulates the conversion of glucose to glycogen.Islets of Langerhans secrete hormones. Glucagon CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 28. In females stimulates the ovulation and secretion of progesterone and hence helps in preparation and maintenance of pregnancy. and in males stimulates the process of spermatogenesis. integrate and coordinate the functions of various organs and systems in our body and responds to the external stimuli. Pancreas (Situated in the abdominal region. Thyroxin Insulin Regulates the conversion of glucose to glycogen. Luteinizing hormone (LH) Prolactin (PRL) Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) Oxytocin Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Thyroid gland (It is situated in the neck region on the ventral side of the body.one on either side of the trachea). It has two lateral lobes. ___________________ hormone controls the reabsorption of water in kidney tubules.4 1. Stimulates the cellular metabolism and oxidation. . Stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroxin. Stimulates the maturation of ovarian follicle and secretion of estrogen by ovary in females. In males it stimulates the secretion of testosterone. In general it controls the growth and metabolism of the body. Enhances development of mammary glands and milk production in females. Controls the production of melanin pigment in skin. Its endocrine cells . Controls the uterine muscle contraction at the time of child birth (parturition).

muscles and the glands in the body. The five sense organs are eyes. the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. A chemical known as neurotransmitter is released from the ends of a) axon b) synapse c) nodes of Ranvier d) neuron . cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The brain has three parts .Control and Coordination: 233: • • In humans the nervous system has two divisions. Without our sense organs we would know nothing about our environment. Which of the following carry impulse from brain to effector? a) Sensory neuron b) Motor neuron c) Connecting neuron d) Mixed nerve 2. TERMINAL EXERCISES • • • • • • • • • • A.sensory neurons. autonomic and mechanical response to a stimulus controlled by the spinal cord without the involvement of the brain. Therefore we should take care of them and protect them from injury and disease. Brain analyses these messages and as a result the sensations are produced. skin. which connect the central nervous system with sense organs. Messages from the sense organs are carried to the brain by nerves. tongue and nose. The central nervous system comprises of brain and the spinal cord. Tick the most appropriate answer of the following. ears. The pathway followed by sensory or motor nerves in a reflex action is called reflex arc. A reflex action is a spontaneous. It is the site of transfer of nerve impulse from one neuron to another. Sense organs are the organs by which you detect changes in the external environment. motor neurons and connecting relay or intermediate neurons. Nerves are thread like structures that emerge from brain and spinal cord and branch out to almost all parts of the body. A synapse is the junction of the terminal branches of the axon of one neuron with the dendrites or cell body of another neuron. Multiple choice type questions. 1. There are three types of neurons . while the peripheral nervous system includes the nerves.cerebrum. A neuron is the basic unit of nervous system. Short thread like branches of nerve cell are called a) dendrites b) synapse c) nodes of Ranvier d) neuron 3.

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4. The pituitary gland is found a) in the neck c) beneath the stomach

b) d)

at the base of the brain near the kidneys

5. The transparent window at the front of the eyeball is called a) cornea b) iris c) cone d) retina 6. Hormones are carried around in the body by a) blood b) nerves c) lymph d) both blood and lymph 7. Which of the following glands secretes the hormone thyroxin? a) Pituitary gland b) Thyroid gland c) Brain d) Pancreas 8. Which of the following hormones is secreted by the pancreas? a) Growth hormone b) Thyroxin c) Insulin d) Prolactin 9. The disease cretinism is caused due to a) hypoactivity of pituitary gland b) c) hypoactivity of thyroid gland d) 10. Hyposecretion of insulin causes a) Goitre c) Diabetes insipidus B. Descriptive type questions. 1. Define the following: (i) central nervous system, (iii) receptor (v) nodes of Ranvier, (vii) synapse, (ix) reflex arc, and b) d) hyperactivity of pituitary gland hyperactivity of thyroid gland Cretinism Diabetes mellitus

(ii) (iv) (vi) (viii) (x)

hormone, neuron, impulse, reflex action, power of accommodation

2. Differentiate between the following: i) Sensory nerve and motor nerve ii) Cerebrum and cerebellum iii) Somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system iv) Grey matter and white matter v) Hypermetropia and myopia vi) Insulin and glucagon 3. What are nerves? Classify nerves into different types stating their functions. 4. What are sensory neurons? How do they help in transmission of nerve impulse in our body? 5. What is a synapse? What is the main function of a synapse? 6. State the main functions of cerebrum and medulla oblongata.

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7. Mention one function of each of the five sense organs of our body. 8. Draw a labelled diagram of the human eye. 9. What is the function of sweat glands? 10. What are endocrine glands? How do their secretions reach various parts of our body? 11. Name various hormones secreted by pituitary gland stating functions of each one of them. 12. Endocrine glands are ductless glands, then how do their secretions reach the target site? 13. Name the hormone secreted by thyroid gland and state its main functions. 14. What is Cushing’s disease? Name the endocrine gland responsible for this disease. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 28.1 1. i) ii) iii) iv) v) brain and spinal cord sensory pathway motor dendrites, effector axon, dendrites

2.

Any two functions of cerebellum like, maintenance of equilibrium of the body, controlling the posture of the body, coordinating muscular movement, etc. Internal organs of the body like lungs, heart, etc.

3. 28.2 1.

i) Afferent nerves ii) Somatic nervous system iii) Reflex arc A spontaneous, autonomic and mechanical response to a stimulus controlled by the spinal cord without the involvement of brain is called reflex action. Components of a reflex arc i) A receptor or sensory organ which perceives the stimulus, ii) A sensory nerve which carries message from receptor to spinal cord, iii) A relay neuron of spinal cord which transmits the impulse from sensory to motor neuron, and iv) Motor nerve which carries the message from spinal cord to effector organ - muscle or gland.

2.

3.

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28.3 1. Eyes, Nose, Ear, Skin and Tongue 2. (i) Dermis, epidermis (ii) Skin 3. (i) (c) (ii) (a) (iii) (d) (iv) (b) 28.4 1. i) ii) iii) iv) v)

Blood, lymph Pituitary gland Insulin Antidiuretic hormone Goitre

GLOSSARY Nervous system : The organ system in an animal that serves to coordinate and control all the physiological systems in its body. Neurons : The nerve cells that transmit messages throughout the body. Nerves : Thread like structures that emerge from brain and spinal cord and branch out to almost all parts of the body. They are bundles of axons or nerve fibres enclosed in a sheath. Synapse : The junction between the terminal branches of the axon of one neuron with the dendrites or cell body of another neuron. Nodes of Ranvier : Regular gaps on the medullary sheath covering the axon. Neurotransmitter : A chemical released at the synapse which helps in the transmission of nerve impulse from one neuron to another. Cerebrum : The largest and most prominent part of the brain. It controls intelligence activities, motor activities, etc. Cerebellum : The region of the brain under the large cerebrum which controls balance of the body. Medulla oblongata : The lowermost part of the brain located at the base of the skull. It controls cardiac and respiratory activities. Spinal cord : A long cord that extends from the medulla oblongata and runs inside the vertebral column. Reflex action : The action in our body which are spontaneous and do not require any processing by brain. Sense organs : The organs through which we sense or feel change in the external environment.

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Hypermetropia : The defect of the eye in which the eye can focus the distant objects clearly but the point of focus for an object close to the eye is behind the retina. Myopia : The defect of the eye in which the eye ball is longer than normal. In this defect objects close to the eye can be focused properly but the point of focus for distant objects is in front of the retina. Hormone : A chemical secreted by an endocrine gland and carried by blood or lymph to a target organ elsewhere in the body to stimulate a specific activity.

: 238 : Reproduction

29

Reproduction
Reproduction is the process by which a living organism is able to produce more of its own kind. The continuity of life on earth, from its origin to the present day, has been possible only because of reproduction. Living organisms reproduce in two ways—asexual and sexual reproduction. In this lesson we will learn about the modes of reproduction in plants and animals especially humans, population growth and its control and sexually transmitted diseases. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • define reproduction and differentiate between asexual and sexual reproduction; • describe different modes of reproduction in plants; • illustrate male and female reproductive systems in humans and state functions of each part; • describe the physical and physiological changes occurring during puberty and menstrual cycle; • describe the main events in the process of reproduction in humans starting from the production of gametes to pregnancy and parturition; • recognize the factors responsible for the growth of population and explain the consequences of rapid increase in population; • reason out the importance of contraception and suggest methods for control of population growth; • emphasize the importance of reproductive health and suggest ways to prevent transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. 29.1 TYPES OF REPRODUCTION Living organisms reproduce in two ways—asexual and sexual reproduction. 29.1.1 Asexual reproduction Asexual reproduction involves the production of an offspring from body parts other than reproductive organs. It is a common process of reproduction in lower plants and animals.

ii) Upon fertilization. 29. ii) The cell divisions during this type of reproduction are either mitotic or amitotic. This type of reproduction by multiple fission occurs during unfavourable conditions. Fission Fission is of two types: Binary fission and multiple fission. This type of reproduction is found in organisms like bacteria. Sexual reproduction is by fusion of male and female gametes and it occurs in flowering plants. many individuals are formed from a single parent. fragmentation and regeneration. 29. Divison of nucleus Division of cytoplasm Daughter cells Mother cell Fig. Binary fission: In binary fission. This type of reproduction occurs both in plants and animals.1 Binary fission in Amoeba Multiple fission: In multiple fission.e. 29. are involved. . 29. the male and the female. Asexual reproduction in plants is either by fission. iv) It is a fast mode of multiplication.1.2 Sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction in which two sexes. iii) New individuals produced are genetically identical to the single parent.2 REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS Like animals plants also reproduce both asexually and sexually. 29. which develops into a mature organism. Basic features of sexual reproduction i) It is the production of offspring by the fusion of egg and sperm. two individuals are formed from a single parent. yeast and Amoeba (Fig.2. budding. spore formation or by vegetative propagation or vegetative reproduction of plant parts. the male and female gametes unite to form a zygote. iii) It results in the combination of genetic material from two parents.1 Asexual reproduction 1.Reproduction : 239 : Basic features of asexual reproduction i) It involves only one organism i. which are the sex cells or gametes.1). different sexes are not involved.

such as the malarial parasite (Plasmodium) (Fig. which detaches and forms a new organism. . A small protruberance arises from one side of its body. This type of reproduction is seen in many algae and in some protozoans. the body of an individual breaks up into two or more parts and each part develops into a complete individual. the unicellular organism develops a protective covering called cyst over the cell. and Planaria. When spores are released in the surrounding medium they develop into new plants. 5. Chlamydomonas. Budding In this type of reproduction. 3. In this type of reproduction. Regeneration or Fragmentation In this type of reproduction. These being motile are termed as zoospores. 4. Many daughter cells are produced within the cyst. Spore formation In lower forms of life like the alga. 29. Hypostome Parent Hydra Parent Hydra Bud (Protuberance) Daughter Hydra Tentacles Basal disc For example. a bulb-like projection or outgrowth arises from the parent body known as bud. 29. develops tentacles and gets detached to lead an independent life. the protoplast of the cell divides to form 4–8 spores. 29.3).3 Budding in Hydra reproduces by budding (Fig. The cyst breaks and small offsprings are liberated. The nucleus of the cell divides repeatedly producing many nuclei. any vegetative part of the plant body like leaf. Hydra Fig. stem or root develops into a complete new plant.2). Vegetative propagation or vegetative reproduction in plants Vegetative reproduction (or vegetative propagation) is a form of asexual reproduction in plants in which a bud grows and develops into a new plant.: 240 : Reproduction Cyst Parent cell Daughter cells Fig. 29. 2.2 Multiple fission in Plasmodium In this type of reproduction. Examples: Spirogyra. which grows. Vegetative reproduction can take place by two methods—natural and artificial.

5 Vegetative propagation by corm in Gladiolus Node Bud Germinating bud Scale leaf Young plant Potato tuber Fig. such as runners of grass. e. etc. rhizomes of ginger. The part of the stem that bears buds serves as an organ for vegetative multiplication. suckers of mint and Chrysanthemum. corms of gladiolus and Colocasia. 29. Some common modes of vegetative reproduction are given below: i) By roots The roots of sweet potato and mint bear adventitious buds.g. stem or leaves. 29. and tubers of potato.7 Vegetative propagation by tuber in potato . Stem Scale leaves Scale leaves Storage leaves Auxillary buds Roots Stem Stem Adventitious roots Old corn (previous year) Fig. 29. bulbs of onion and tulip.4 Vegetative propagation by bulb in onion Fig.Reproduction : 241 : I) Vegetative reproduction by natural methods This type of vegetative reproduction can involve roots. new plants are produced ii) By stem In many plants the stem develops buds on it. When these roots are planted in the soil.6 Vegetative propagation by rhizome in ginger Fig. 29. the modified parts of stem.

sugarcane. which can be separated and grown into independent plants (Fig. The plant whose shoot system is taken is called scion. apples.10 Vegetative propagation by leaves of Bryophyllum Fig. are cut obliquely and placed face to face and are bound firmly with tape (Fig. in Bryophyllum and Bigonia. The stock supplies all the desired nutrients to the scion. b) Vegetative propagation by artificial methods Some plants can be propagated artificially. 29. cutting and tissue culture.11 Vegetative propagation by grafting ii) Cutting: In some plants like rose. of the stock and the scion. this method is used quite frequently. 29.9 Vegetative propagation by sucker in mint iii) By leaves In some plants. Obliquely cut ends of stems Cambia of each stem in close contact Stock and scion bound firmly Bud New plant Fig.g.: 242 : Reproduction New plant Parent plant Stem of parent plant New plant Runner Scale leaf Sucker Tap root Tap root Lateral roots Adventitious roots Lateral roots Fig. Bougainvillaea. layering. roses. 29. The ends to be grafted. The methods of artificial propagation include grafting.29. 29. The plant whose root system is taken is called stock. these buds develop into small plantlets. rubber and citrus. This technique has been used in raising superior quality plants of mango. taking the root system of one plant and the shoot system of another plant. i) Grafting: It is the method of obtaining a superior quality plant from two different plants. When the leaf falls on moist soil.10). 29.11).8 Vegetative propagation by runner in grass Fig. Stem cuttings with nodes and internodes are placed . adventitious buds are developed in the margins of their leaves. etc. e..

Gynoecium is the female reproductive part of a flower.1 1. and forms a callus. Gynoecium Androecium Corolla Thalamus Calyx Pedicel (a) Section through a flower (b) Stamen (magnified view) (c) Section through a stamen Filament Filament Anther Connective Pollen grain Pollen sac Fig.12 Parts of a flower The androecium is the male part of the flower. It is a means of reproduction in black raspberries.2 Sexual reproduction in plants In flowering plants. Chrysanthemum. Magnolia. 29. Small portions of this callus are transferred to another medium which induces differentiation and plantlets are produced. The female part . corolla (petals). Asparagus and many other plants are now being grown by using plant tissue culture technique. Each stamen has anther and a filament. Give one example each of organisms which reproduce by (a) binary fission (b) multiple fission (c) budding (c) fragmentation (d) vegetative propagation by leaf 29. a small piece of tissue is cut from a plant and is transferred to a container with nutrient medium under aseptic conditions. It consists of stamens. 29. flower is the reproductive part of a plant.2. Most flowers have both male and female reproductive organs. Name the two main methods of reproduction found in living organisms. The stem or the branch that develops adventitious roots while still attached to the parent plant is called a layer. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 29. etc. The androecium and gynoecium are directly concerned with sexual reproduction. 2. and grow into new plants. divides and re-divides. In this technique. These plantlets are transplanted in soil to form an adult plant. Orchids. Each anther possesses many pollen grains. A typical flower has four whorlscalyx (sepals). iv) Tissue culture: This is a modern technique of vegetative propagation. which are the male gametes in pollen sacs.12).Reproduction : 243 : in moist soil which give rise to adventitious roots. jasmine (Jasminum). androecium (stamens) and gynoecium (carpels) (Fig. The tissue utilizes nutrients from the medium. iii) Layering: Layering is the development of roots on a stem while it is still attached to the parent plant.

Each pistil consists of three parts—an upper flat stigma. Secondary nucleus • The other male gamete fuses with the Egg nucleus diploid secondary nucleus and forms the endosperm nucleus.g.: 244 : Reproduction contained in this whorl is called pistil. The ovary wall ripens and forms the pericarp of the fruit. and a lower. cylindrical style. a medial. Pollination Pollination is the process of transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of a flower. It is of two types: i) Self-pollination: If the pollen grains from the anther of a flower are transferred to the stigma of the same flower. Each ovule develops into a seed. then this is called as cross pollination or allogamy (allos: other. • The tip of the pollen tube ruptures in the Ovary ovule and discharges two male gametes wall Ovule into it. The style bears the stigma at a suitable position to receive the pollen grains. Cross pollination has the advantage of increasing the chances of variations. 29. petals. The ovary contains ovules that are found attached to the placenta. This fusion is called fertilization. The whole ovary after fertilization changes into a fruit. it is termed as self-pollination or autogamy (auto: self. • • • The stigma receives pollen grains during pollination. Ovules are the structures in which embryo sacs develop. gamy: marriage). and mature into seeds after fertilization. style and stigma degenerate and usually fall off. . • The ovule contains the egg cell inside the embryo sac. the sepals. pea and china rose. swollen ovary.13 Zygote formation Following fertilization. The seed contains a potential plant or embryo. gamy: marriage) e. Fertilization • After pollination. The arrangement of ovules in the ovary is called placentation. ii) Cross pollination: If the pollen grains from anther of one plant reach the stigma of a flower on another plant of the same species. The endosperm nucleus grows to form the endosperm of the seed. long. Embryo sac • One of the male gametes fuses with the egg to form the zygote. Fig. Male nuclei • The zygote that is formed as a result of Tube nucleus fertilization divides several times and gives rise to an embryo. • This tube grows down through the style Style Pollen tubes and finally reaches the ovule. the pollen grains Germinating germinate on the stigma to produce a pollen grains Stigma pollen tube.

sperms.2 1. the sperms are passed from the epididymis through the vas deferens to the ejaculatory duct. a urethra.000. During copulation. the urethra is a common passage for sperms and urine. The process of discharging of semen is called ejaculation.1 Male reproductive system Urinary bladder Ureter Ejaculatory duct Seminal vesicle Vas deferens Epididymis Prostate gland Urethra Penis The male reproductive system in humans consists of the following organs—a pair of testes. A pair of ovaries lies in the lower part of the abdominal cavity. the male gametes. oestrogen and progesterone.3 REPRODUCTION IN HUMANS Humans reproduce sexually. one on each side of the body. 29. Which part of the flower usually changes into fruit? 29. At the time of mating. The process of Erectile tissue formation of sperms in the testes of Testis Prepuce an organism is called Scrotal sac Glans penis spermatogenesis . which is the copulatory organ (organ for transfer of sperms during mating or copulation) in humans. In one ejaculation about 200. the sperms are mixed with certain secretions from the accessory glands.14). The sperms along with the secretions form the semen. 29.2 Female reproductive system The female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries. The urethra passes through an organ called penis.Reproduction : 245 : CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 29.14 Male reproductive contains certain coiled tubes called system in humans seminiferous tubules that are actually responsible for the production of sperms. 29. During their passage from the epididymis to the urethra. Reproductive organs in humans are described below. penis and accessory glands (Fig.15). The process of formation of egg in the ovary is known as . These sperms are released from the testes and stored in the epididymis until mating.3. In human males. semen is discharged. (a) Self-pollination (b) Cross-pollination 2. Ovaries produce ova and secrete female sex hormones. 3. uterus and vagina(Fig. a pair of epididymis. The testes produce. a pair of oviducts (or fallopian tubes). a pair of vasa deferentia. 29. 29. The ejaculatory duct opens into the urethra. Define the following terms.3. an ejaculatory duct. Name the specialized organs meant for sexual reproduction in flowers.000 (2 × 108) sperms are discharged. Each testis Fig.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 29. .15 Female reproductive system in humans 29.3 1. the female reproductive system passes through a regular monthly sequence of events called the menstrual cycle (Fig. Between puberty and menopause. i) Human male reproductive system ii) Human female reproductive system 4. Vagina is the organ where the penis is inserted during coitus for the discharge of semen. In a human female.16). 29. enlargement of breasts and initiation of the menstrual cycle. Name the various parts of the following. At what age do human males and females attain puberty? 2. hormonal changes take place in males and females. During sexual maturity. thick-walled organ. There is a pair of oviducts or fallopian tubes in the human female reproductive system. Oviduct Ovary Space in which th baby develops Uterus Funnel of the oviduct Cervical canal Cervix Vagina Vulva Hymen Fig. widening of shoulders. and under the influence of these hormones secondary sexual characteristics are developed. Describe three secondary sexual characteristics each in human male and human female. In human females. Both fallopian tubes open into the uterus. 29.3. • Development of secondary sexual characteristics in males include deepening of voice. muscular. widening of pelvis and hip. Name the tubules present in the human testis.: 246 : Reproduction oogenesis. it extends from about 12–13 years (puberty) up to 45–50 years (menopause).3 Puberty The reproductive organs in human beings become functional at an age of 13–14 years in males and 12–13 years in case of females. This age is known as puberty. 29. One end of each oviduct is funnel-shapped. It serves as the birth canal during childbirth. It collects the eggs released by the ovary. the urethra and the genital duct have separate openings. the lower end of the uterus opens into the vagina that opens to the outside by a genital opening. 3. The uterus is a pear-shaped.4 SEXUAL CYCLE IN HUMAN FEMALES (MENSTRUAL CYCLE) The period of life during which a female has the capacity to produce young ones is called the fertility period. and growth of axillary and pubic hair. • Development of secondary sexual characteristics in females include growth of axillary and pubic hair. appearance of beard and moustaches. The events of menstrual cycle are given here.

It consists of an ovum and a mass of cells surrounding it. The release of the ovum from the ovary is called ovulation.Reproduction : 247 : • • • • During each menstrual cycle. oestrogen.16 Sexual cycle in females • • • The cells lining the uterus grow rapidly and develop a dense network of blood vessels. The graafian follicle produces the female hormone. 29. Ovulation takes place 12–13 days after the onset of menstruation. which secretes the hormone. This process continues for 3–4 days. growth and maturation of the graafian follicle takes place. . The menstrual cycle starts with menstrual flow. From the 5th up to the 13th day of the onset of menstrual cycle. progesterone. The cells of the ruptured follicle form the corpus luteum. CHANGES IN THE EGG CELL Growing follicle Graafian follicle Rupturing follicle Corpus luteum Regressing corpus luteum CHANGES IN THE UTERINE WALL Menstruation CHANGES IN THE ENDOMETRIAL LINING Uterus grows a new lining of blood vessels and glands Menstrual phase CHANGES IN HORMONE LEVELS IN THE BLOOD Follicular phase Ovulatory phase Luteal phase Progesterone Oestrogen 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Most likely period of ovulation (Fertile period) Menstruation Fig. an ovum matures and is released once every 28 days. The graafian follicle ruptures to release the ovum. during which cellular lining of the uterus is shed off alongwith blood flow.

an ovary releases only one ovum. 29. triplets and quadruplets etc. If the ovum does not receive any sperm during this period it starts degenerating. What happens if the ovum receives sperm? If the ovum receives sperm it is in the fallopian tube. This is how twins. This fluid acts as a shock-absorber and helps to protect the embryo from damage. This is called fertilization.4. The sperms are taken from her husband. This problem can be overcome by the test tube baby technique. The zygote immediately begins to divide and forms a mass of cells called morula. Placenta supplies oxygen and nourishment from the maternal blood to the foetus. The Umbilical cord is a tough structure that serves as the blood vascular connection between the foetus and uterine wall. which passes down to the uterus and fixes itself to the wall of the uterus (known as implantation).4. usually. When a sperm fertilizes an ovum a zygote is formed.: 248 : Reproduction • • • The ovum reaches the uterus via the fallopian tube on the 13th or 14th day and remains there up to the 16th day (for 48–72 hours). But. which divides repeatedly to form an embryo. Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube. Under the influence of these hormones neither ovulation nor menstruation take place till pregnancy continues. Fertilization of an egg by a sperm outside the body of the female is called in-vitro fertilization or IVF. the two unite to form a zygote. Menstruation does not occur and the female is said to be pregnant. Placenta also produces two hormones— progesterone and oestrogen.2 Twins In every reproductive cycle. both of which . This embryo is them inserted into the woman’s uterus where it gets implanted and develops into a baby. 29.1 Test tube babies In some women. sometimes more than one egg may be released and fertilized by more than one sperm or an ovum may divide into two or more cells after fertilization which separate and develop as different individuals. the embryo is enclosed in a sac called amnion. In this technique. At the end of the 28th day this ovum is rejected along with the uterine lining. These sperms and ova are kept together in a container for a few hours for fertilization to take place. The developing young one or the foetus is attached to the uterus by a tissue called placenta. This marks the start of a slow disintegration of the thickened lining of the uterus and the next menstrual cycle. It also transports carbon dioxide and excretory waste from the foetal blood to the maternal blood. the fallopian tube gets blocked. From the first few weeks of development. a) Identical twins When a fertilized egg divides into two independent sets of cells. which is filled with amniotic fluid. one or more mature ova are sucked from a woman’s ovaries using a special syringe. which prevents the ova from being fertilized. are produced.

1c Contraception methods These methods involve prevention of fertilization and conception. (ii) 29. • . Coitus interruptus: In this method. shelter. 29. non-identical or fraternal twins are produced. b) Non-identical or fraternal twins When two eggs are produced at the same time and a different sperm fertilizes each egg. Thus. In this method. Thus. due to a variety of reasons more and more children have been surviving. It is also a phenomenon that leads to increase in the number of individuals of a species to ensure that at least some will survive in the struggle for existence.5. Tubectomy This is a method of sterilization in females. This has currently led to what we call the population explosion. clothing.5. in this method. The twins thus produced are identical twins. The main methods of contraception are given below: i) • Natural methods of contraception Rhythm method of contraception: In this method copulation is avoided for those days when the ovum is available for fertilisation. 29.1 b Preventive methods These methods prevent the fusion of the egg and the sperm. In humans. the penis is withdrawn from the vagina prior to ejaculation. etc. each vas deferens is cut and tied at both cut ends by a thread (ligature). Let us study about few such methods.5 POPULATION CONTROL Reproduction serves to replace the older generation. fertilization can be avoided.1a Education Imparting education to the people about various ways of fertility control is the most effective method of population control. the fallopian tube is cut and the two ends are tied to prevent passage of ova down the fallopian tubes. Education helps to make people aware of the advantages of a small family and the disadvantages of a large family. (i) Vasectomy This is a method of sterilization in males. Two important preventive methods are discussed below. 29. So it has become very essential to limit the human population. There are various ways to prevent fertilization and hence to check the increase in population. the eggs continue to be released but do not reach the fallopian tube and no fertilization takes place. two identical embryos are produced from the same egg.Reproduction : 249 : continue to divide.5. The increase in population has created many problems like problems of food. In this method.

are applied in the vagina before copulation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 29. which releases certain secretions that prevent the implantation of embryo in the uterine wall. • Oral contraceptives or pills: The oral contraceptives or pills are taken daily. Diaphragm: It is fitted over the cervix in a woman’s body by a doctor to prevent the entrance of sperms into the cervical canal. During the act of sexual intercourse. Name the term given to the sterilization process in the following. Name the commonly used contraceptives in the following: (i) human males (ii) human female 4. (i) human males (ii) human Females 3. • Condoms: It is a thin rubber tube worn over the penis before sexual intercourse. etc. The ejaculate gets collected in this tube and is not discharged into the vagina. iv) By Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) MTP methods are also known as if conceptive methods. 29. Abortion and aspiration are two corrective methods in which pregnancy can be terminated by either mechanical method or by using hormones.4 1. Intra uterine device (IUD): IUD or loop is made of plastic or stainless steel. which prevent ovulation in females. Write the full form of IUD. Sometimes microganisms may infect areas around reproductive parts. Three important sexually transmitted diseases are: i) Syphilis ii) Gonorrhoea . It is inserted in the uterus.6 SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES Diseases which spread through sexual contact are called sexually transmitted diseases (STD).: 250 : Reproduction ii) Mechanical methods of contraception In this approach. these microorganisms may be easily transmitted from one person to another. jellies. These pills prevent ovulation but allow monthly shedding of the uterine lining through menstrual bleeding. There are applied if conception has taken place. various mechanical methods are used to prevent the passage of semen to the fallopian tube or to prevent implantation. Name the hormone secreted by graafian follicle? 2. which kill the sperms and prevent fertilization. • • iii) Chemical methods of contraception Spermicides: Strong spermicidal (sperm-killing) creams.

Acne-like warts in the groin area.6. 29.Reproduction : 251 : iii) Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) 29. through semen or vaginal fluid.2 Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) AIDS is caused by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Fig. Mode of transmission (i) HIV may be transmitted in the following ways.17 HIV virus . White patches in the mouth.17). once the virus enters the body it lives and grows in the body fluids and blood cells of the infected person. Prevention and cure i) Having sexual intimacy with only one person ii) Avoiding prostitution and homosexuality iii) Taking appropriate medical treatment 29.6. in the throat and urinogenital areas especially vagina or penis. (iii) Exposure to infected blood and blood products by using the same syringe already used by an infected person. feet and palms. 29. and by use of infected Fig.1 Syphilis and Gonorrhoea Causative organism Both these diseases are caused by bacteria. Syphilis: Treponema pallidum Gonorrhoea: Neisseria gonorrhoeae Modes of spread Sexual contact with the infected person Incubation period Symptoms of gonorrhoea disease occur in about 2-5 days and that of syphilis are seen in 10-90 days.e. anus. Symptoms The common symptoms of these bacterial diseases are given below: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Fever and sores appear on the skin. Hairfall occurs in patches from infected areas. rectum and mouth. (ii) Sexual contact with the affected person i. Break out of rashes on hands.

visual disturbance. iii) Headache. oral rash and shortness of breath may be observed. Name any two diseases that are spread by sexual contact. 4. It is of two types. and sweats profusely. Give the full form of AIDS.: 252 : Reproduction blood during blood transfusion. the brain may be badly damaged leading to a loss of memory. fungal infection and sometimes skin cancer may be observed. from an infected mother’s blood to her baby’s blood. 3. vomitting and fits are also witnessed. Symptoms i) The person feels fatigued or tired. iv) Gastro-intestinal problems like mild diarrhoea may occur. suffers from loss of weight and fever. Incubation period The average incubation period of HIV virus is about 28 months (range 15–57 months). (a) Syphilis (b) Gonorrhoea • LET US REVISE The process by which living organisms produce more of their own kind is called reproduction. and ability to speak and to think. v) Skin blotches. the HIV infection can be prevented by i) ii) iii) iv) v) Avoiding multiple sex partners Using a condom or other method of contraception Avoiding prostitution and homosexuality Screening of blood before transfusion Treatment of all blood and other products used in transfusion to destroy the HIV vi) Avoiding sharing of injection needles vii) Avoiding pregnancy if the mother is HIV positive viii) Educating people CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 29. vii) A completely infected AIDS patient may die within three years of infection. (iv) Organ transplant from an affected person to a healthy person. vi) Nervous system may be affected. ii) Persistent dry cough. (v) During pregnancy. eczema.5 1. Prevention and control Although there is no cure for AIDS.asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. Name the causative organism of the following diseases. . What are sexually transmitted diseases? 2.

Reproduction : 253 :

• • • • • • • •

• • • • •

In asexual reproduction only one organism is involved, no gametes are produced and no fertilization takes place. In sexual reproduction both male and female gametes are produced and fertilization occurs. Some methods of asexual reproduction are - fission, budding, fragmentation and spore formation. Some artificial methods of propagation of plants are grafting, cutting, layering and tissue culture. A typical flower has four whorls—calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium. Each member of the androecium is called stamen and each member of the gynoecium is called pistil. Most animals and some plants reproduce sexually. Sexual reproduction involves two main processes, i.e. meiosis and fertilization. The age of 13–14 years in males and 11–12 years in females is called puberty in human beings. At this age, sex organs get matured and several secondary sexual characteristics appear in them. Placenta is an association between maternal and foetal tissues meant for physiological exchange. Twins are of two types—fraternal and identical twins. Unchecked population control has led to population explosion. Fertility control methods can be preventive or corrective. We can control the rising population by fertility check. Diseases that spread through sexual contact are known as sexually transmitted diseases. TERMINAL EXERCISES

A. Multiple choice type questions. Select the correct answer from the following statements. 1. In potato, vegetative propagation takes place by a) leaves b) stem c) root d) seeds 2. Bryophyllum plant reproduces vegetatively by a) leaf bud b) adventitious buds c) root d) stem 3. In the process of grafting, the plant forming the shoot system is known as a) scion b) stock c) sucker d) bulb

: 254 : Reproduction

4. Pollen sacs are present in a) thalamus b) anther c) ovary d) corolla 5. The transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma of the same flower is a) self pollination b) ovulation c) cross pollination d) fertilization 6. In the human female, fertilization of the ovum takes place in a) vagina b) ovary c) fallopian tube d) uterus 7. The process of release of the egg from the ovary is called a) ovulation b) oogenesis c) menstruation d) spermatogenesis 8. Which of the following is the sperm storage organ in human males? a) Epididymis b) Penis c) Vas deferens d) Testis B. Descriptive type questions. 1. Define reproduction. Name the two types of reproduction that occur in the living beings. 2. Give one example each of organisms, which reproduce by i) Budding ii) Fragmentation iii) Fission 3. Give one example each of the plants, which reproduce by vegetative propagation of the following parts: i) Stem ii) Leaves iii) Layering iv) Grafting 4. What is vegetative propagation? Write various methods of artificial vegetative propagation. 5. What is a zygote? How is it formed? 6. Where does fertilization take place in plants and in animals?

Reproduction : 255 :

7. 8. 9. 10.

Name the organs of male reproductive system in humans. Name the organs of female reproductive system in humans. Name any two mechanical methods of contraception. Give one word for the following statements. i) Process of transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma. ii) Male reproductive whorl of the flower. iii) Diseases spread through sexual contact. iv) Site of sperm production in males. v) Site of fertilization in females. 11. Differentiate between binary fission and multiple fission. 12. What is placenta? 13. A woman gave birth to twin daughters. Both the daughters looked exactly alike. What type of twins could they be? 14. What is meant by population explosion? 15. What are contraceptives? Name any two contraceptives used by females. 16. How does the process of pollination differ from that of fertilization? 17. Explain the different methods of vegetative reproduction in plants. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 29.1 1. Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. 2. i) Amoeba ii) iii) iv) v) 29.2 1. i) ii) Self- pollination: If the pollen grains from the anther of a flower are transferred to the stigma of the same flower, it is termed self-pollination. Cross pollination: If the pollen grains from anther of one plant reach the stigma of a flower on another plant of the same species, then this is called as cross pollination Plasmodium Hydra Spirogyra Bryophyllum

2. Androecium and gynoecium 3. ovary 29.3 1. 13-14 years in males and 12-13 years in females. 2. Seminiferous tubules

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3. i) ii)

Human male reproductive system: a pair of testes, a pair of epididymis, a pair of vasa deferentia, urethra, penis and accessory glands

Human female reproductive system: a pair of ovaries, a pair of fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina 4. i) Human male: deepening of voice, appearance of bread and moustaches, growth of axillary and pubic hair, widening of shoulders (any three) ii) Human female: Growth of axillary and pubic hair, widening of pelvis and hip, enlargement of breasts 29.4 1. Oestrogen 2. i) Males: Vasectomy ii) Females: Tubectomy 3. i) Males: Condoms ii) Females: Intra uterine devices, spermicides, diaphragm, oral contraceptive pills etc. 4. IUD: Intra Uterine Device.

29.5 1. Diseases spread through sexual contact are called sexually transmitted diseases. 2. AIDS, Gonorrhoea, Syphilis etc. 3. Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. 4. i) Syphilis: Treponema pallidum ii) Gonorrhoea: Neisseria gonorrhoeae GLOSSARY Reproduction: A process by which a living organism is able to produce more of its own kind. Asexual reproduction: Production of an offspring from body parts other than the reproductive organs. Sexual reproduction: Production of an offspring by the fusion of egg and sperm which are the sex cells or gametes. Binary fission: Process in which two individuals are formed from a single parent. Multiple fission: Process in which many individuals are formed from a single parent. Vegetative propagation: Method in which any vegetative part of the plant, such as leaf, stem or root, develops into a new plant. Androecium: The male part of a flower. Gynoecium: The female part of a flower. Placentation: The arrangement of ovules in the ovary of a flower.

Reproduction : 257 :

Autogamy (self pollination): Pollen grains from the anther of a flower are transferred to the stigma of the same flower. Allogamy (cross pollination): Pollen grains from the anther of a flower are transferred to the stigma of another flower of the same species. Spermatogenesis: The process of formation of sperms in the testes of an organism. Oogenesis: The process of formation of eggs or ova in the ovaries of an organism. Semen: The sperms along with the secretions. Puberty: The age at which the reproductive organs become mature and functional in human beings. Fertilization: The process of fusion of the egg and the sperm. Zygote: The product of the fusion of the egg and the sperm. Identical twins: When two embryos are formed from the same egg due to division of the fertilized egg into two sets of cells. Non-identical or fraternal twins: When two embryos are formed from two different eggs produced at the same time and fertilized by two different sperms.

purple or white flowers. colour and texture of hair and many other observable characterics. • state the number of chromosomes in a normal human being. you will learn about some basics of genetics. eyes. which may also be either round or wrinkled.: 258 : From Parents to Children . • state the symptoms and explain the cause of haemophilia.1 MENDEL AND SUTTON’S CONTRIBUTION TO GENETICS Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884) an Austrian monk. forehead. • name at least three genetic disorders. He selected . Heredity means passing down of characteristics from parents to children. These differences are termed ‘variations’. • state the distinction between autosomes and sex chromosomes. • highlight Mendel’s and Sutton’s contributions to genetics. which has striking contrasting characteristics such as. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. Similarities between members of a family are due to ‘heredity’. feet. Differences between members of the same family are due to different combinations of parental characteristics. He performed his experiments on the garden pea plant. you will be able to: • define heredity and variation. hands. You will be surprised to find marked resemblances in physical features such as the shape of nose. Heredity and variation are due to genes and gene combinations and study of heredity is termed ‘Genetics’. colour blindness and thallasemia. tall or dwarf plants. 30. was the first to observe the manner in which characteristic features pass down from parents to offsprings. green or yellow seeds.Elements of Genetics 30 From Parents to Children – Elements of Genetics Collect a few photographs of your family members and close relations. • explain the chromosomal basis of sex determination in humans. In this lesson.

Mendel began his historic research work with the garden pea and published his work entitled “Experiments on plant hybrids” in 1866. That was the beginning of genetics.1884) first significant contribution in the field of genetics was given by Mendel and so he is known as “the father of genetics”. he became a priest. 30. colour of flowers. For example. These are present at fixed loci (locations) on the chromosomes. etc. The lower end of the ear lobe may be attached or free. genes are the units of heredity. . The factors later got to be known as genes. In other words. You may similarly try and observe the rolling of your tongue and notice who all in your family can roll their tongues and notice who all in your family can curve the tip of the thumb and who all cannot. for this ability is also hereditary. Upon fertilisation. Later in 1920. In 1847. Such a type of pollination that is done manually is known as artificial pollination. he artificially pollinated plants with other contrasting features. he chose a tall plant whose seeds always produced tall plants. One factor each from each pair goes into the gamete (sperm or egg). In 1856. Unfortunately his work was rediscovered Fig.1 Gregor Johann Mendel sixteen years after his death in 1900. ACTIVITY 30.g. Differences that you note are variations. note any two other features such as colour of eyes or shape of the nose or any other feature among your friends. He grew up on a small farm in Northern Moravia. He used the pollen of a tall plant to pollinate and fertilise the pea flower of a dwarf plant. Similarly.1 Check your ear lobes and those of your friends and family members.Elements of Genetics : 259 : seven pairs of contrasting features in the pea plant and carried out selective breeding. The (1822 . One of Mendel’s laws states that for every feature or character (e. Gregor Johann Mendel was born in 1822. these factors express themselves according to a set pattern. then in Austria. in the monastery of St.) there is a pair of ‘factors’. This feature of the ear lobe is hereditary. Sutton while observing grasshopper chromosomes confirmed that ‘Mendelian factors’ are present on chromosomes. and a dwarf plant from whose seeds only dwarf plants could be raised. It was accepted that genes are responsible for heredity.From Parents to Children . height of plants. Also. Observe the ear lobes of your parents and your siblings (brothers and sisters) and note from which of your parents you have inherited this feature. Thomas. After experimenting for several generations he was able to formulate certain ‘laws of inheritance’.

the rest 22 pairs are termed autosomes. One chromosome of each pair comes from the father and the other from the mother. The number of chromosomes remains constant in all normal human beings.3. one pair represented as X and Ychromosomes have genes that determine the sex of an individual.3 Human chromosomes . X and Y chromosomes are. Chromosomes are present in pairs. 30. therefore.Elements of Genetics Ear lobes Tongue rolling Free ear lobe Attached ear lobe Shapes of Nose Roman Straight Up turned Fig.2 Some variations found in people 30. Pairs of similar chromosomes (called homologous chromosomes) are selected and arranged in the mitotic metaphase of a dividing cell. called sex chromosomes while. 30. The chromosome number is thus a “diploid” (i.2 HUMAN CHROMOSOMES Every cell in the human body contains 46 (23 pairs) chromosomes.e. Of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes (2n = 46). Chromosomes can be seen only during cell division. You can see the chromosomes arranged according to size and also based on certain other considerations in the Fig. 30. You have Chromosomes of a normal female 1 2 A 3 4 B 5 6 7 8 9 C 10 11 12 13 14 D 20 F 15 16 17 E 18 19 21 G 22 X X Chromosomes of a normal male 1 2 A 3 4 B 5 6 7 8 9 C 10 11 12 13 14 D 15 16 17 E 18 19 F 20 21 G 22 X Y Fig. You have already learnt that chromosomes are present in the nucleus of a cell.: 260 : From Parents to Children . paired) number and is represented as 2n.

3. From the work of many scientists.e. The gametes. 30. You might have heard that criminals can now be identified by DNA tests called “DNA fingerprinting”. When an egg of the mother and sperm of the father fuse to produce a zygote. i. Needless to say this is because children inherit DNA from parents.Elements of Genetics : 261 : already learnt about cell division earlier and know that at metaphase chromosomes are clearly seen lying at the equator. Dr. today we know that genes are segments of chemical molecules called DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid. Zygotes having two X-chromosomes develop into females and zygotes with one X and one Y-chromosome develop into males. One chromosome contains one molecule of DNA and genes are fragments of this DNA molecule. . 4. Hargobind Khorana: the creator of man-made gene It is a matter of pride that Nobel laureate Dr Hargobind Khorana who was born in our country synthesized an artificial gene in the laboratory for the first time. Fig. Gamete has 22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome. 5. This is because DNA of an individual is same in each and every cell of the body and also resembles the DNA of parents. it can be used to detect the DNA of the criminal and compare with the suspect to ascertain the truth. Who proposed that hereditary units are located on chromosomes? What are ‘Mendelian factors’ called today? How many autosomes do humans have? Why are X and Y-chromosomes called sex chromosomes? What is the diploid number of chromosomes in human body cells? 30. Just like the fingerprint. the diploid number is restored.4 SEX DETERMINATION IN HUMANS In the earlier section you have learnt about autosomes and sex chromosomes. DNA of every individual is unique and even if a hair or drop of blood or semen of the criminal is left at the site of the crime.. 2.3 CHEMICAL NATURE OF GENES By now you know that genes are bearers of hereditary characters and they are present on chromosomes.4 Dr. Zygote develops into an individual whose sex depends on whether there are two X chromosomes or one X and one Y-chromosome. Hargobind Khorana 30.From Parents to Children . Dr Khorana got the Nobel Prize in 1970 for this contribution. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 30. sperms or eggs have haploid or half the number of chromosomes as you have learnt earlier in lesson 29 on gamete production and fertilization.1 1.

. These contain 22 autosomes and a single X chromosome. AB or O.5 INHERITANCE OF BLOOD GROUPS You have already learnt in lesson 26 that every human being belongs to one of the four blood groups i.Elements of Genetics Eggs are of one kind only.: 262 : From Parents to Children . 5. Table 30. or (ii) having 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome (See figure below). B.the basis of sex human are 44 autosomes + XY and that determination in humans in a female are 44 autosomes + XX. IB and i. These genes are designated as IA. One gene for blood group is inherited from the father and the other from the mother. How many X chromosomes can be found in the cells of (i) a boy.2 1. and (ii) a girl.5 Chromosomes . the chromosomes in a male Fig. therefore. 30.5) and X and Y chromosomes. wrong to blame a woman if she does not bear a male child as is done in some ignorant families of our country. a female child results with 44 autosomes and two X chromosomes. Sperms are of two kinds (i) having 22 autosomes and one X chromosome. If Y bearing sperm fuses with egg then a male child results with chromosomal constitution 44 autosomes (Fig. What is a gene made of? 2. How many molecules of DNA are present in one chromosome? 30. It is. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 30. If a Y bearing sperm fuses with an egg. Sex of an individual is purely due to chance and neither the mother nor the father can be blamed. A. The following table shows the combination of genes and the resulting blood group. 30. Parents 44 + XY 44 + XX 22 + X 22 + Y 22 + X 44 + XX 44 + XY Note : Thus. The blood group of a person is inherited from parents and depends on the combination of genes for blood group inherited from either parent. Why is DNA fingerprinting a foolproof test? 3. what will be the sex of the individual developing from the zygote? 4.1: The combination of genes and the resulting blood group Gene combination IA IA or IA i IBIB or IB i I I Ii A B Blood group A B AB O .e. When X bearing sperm fuses with egg.

Such a child suffers from the genetic disorder as shown below. Haemophilia and colour blindness.(Rh negative) blood group.into Rh. which is normal. Thus.Rh.From Parents to Children .6 HEREDITARY (GENETIC) DISORDERS Sometimes a defective gene present in a parent may be passed down to the offspring. Parents: Normal mother (defective gene masked) + – Normal father (defective gene masked) + – Gametes : + – + – Offsprings : + + Normal + – + – – – Normal Normal Abnormal (Genetic disorder) There are several kinds of hereditary disorders. This is because the expression of the defective gene may be masked by its pair. the pigment in red blood corpuscles which carries oxygen to tissues. Thallasemics (persons suffering from thallasemia) require frequent blood transfusion in order to survive. Scientists are trying to discover methods by which a defective gene occurring in an individual may be removed or replaced by a normal gene. This is because the pair of genes controlling hemoglobin production are defective. But the child may inherit one defective gene from each parent and hence have both genes defective. Genetic disorders cannot be cured by medicines.Elements of Genetics : 263 : Similarly the Rh+ (Rhesus positive) blood group is inherited when one or two genes for Rh+ antigen are present in a person.combinations result in Rh+ blood group and Rh. A person with Rh. . The defective gene may not express itself in the parent. Rh+ Rh+ or Rh+ Rh. Three common hereditary disorders are Thallasemia. This is called gene replacement therapy. a) Thallasemia Patients suffering from this disorder are unable to manufacture haemoglobin. 30.(Rhesus negative) blood group lacks Rh+ gene. some of which may be caused due to the presence of only one defective gene or sometimes as shown above by the presence of two defective genes.

Also. (1) XC-chromosome + (colour blindness gene in mother’s X–chromosome) XC (From mother) + X-chromosome (normal gene in father’s X-chromosome) Y (From father) XCX (daughter carrying colour blindness gene but not suffering from it) XCY Son born colour blind does not have any gene for colour vision so son with defective gene suffers. What will be the blood group of an individual with genetic combination IAIB? 2. the defect may not show up. in the daughter. once bleeding starts. the disorder is passed down form mother to the son. In the mother with two X-chromosomes. haemophilia and colour blindness are sex-chromosomal or X-chromosomal disorders. and hence. which control production of substances responsible for blood clotting. Again. the person suffers from the genetic disorder.: 264 : From Parents to Children . This is called variation.3 1. On which chromosome are genes for haemophilia and colour blindness located? 4. which is inherited from the nother and if it bears the defective gene. 3. c) Colour blindness Different kinds of colour blindness are met with but commonly those suffering from this genetic disorder are unable to distinguish blue colour from green. while. Name the therapy in which defective gene is substituted by normal gene. In the absence of such substances blood does not coagulate. Both haemophilia and colour blindness genes are located on X-chromosomes.Elements of Genetics b) Haemophilia Those persons suffering from haemophilia have either a defective gene or lack genes. So. How can a person be normal for a trait even when carrying one defective gene for that trait. this is due to the presence of a defective gene or absence of a gene. On which kind of chromosome–autosome or sex chromosome is defective gene causing Thallasemia located? 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 30. LET US REVISE Passing down of characters from parents to children is called heredity. (2) Thallasemia is an autosomal genetic disorder. • • . Children of same parents differ because they posses different combinations of parental genes. But males have only one X-chromosome. it does not stop. the effect of defective gene on X-chromosome from mother may be masked by a normal gene on the X chromosome derived from the father.

Colourblind people cannot distinguish blue colour from green due to defective genes for colour vision located on X-chromosomes.g. Which statement is true for ‘genes’? (a) Genes are imaginary factors. Study of heredity is called genetics. haemophilia and colour blindness. Defective genes or absence of genes may cause genetic disorders e. Multiple choice type questions. Genes are made of DNA. The sex chromosomes in females are (a) XX (c) XY (b) (d) one X and no Y one Y and no X . of which 22 pairs are autosomes and 2 chromosomes X and Y are sex chromosomes. In which genetic disorder is the patient unable to manufacture haemoglobin? (a) Haemophilia (b) Thallasemia (c) Tuberculosis (d) Jaundice 3. The number of chromosomes in a human sperm is. Their blood cannot coagulate as they lack genes responsible for production of substances required for blood coagulation. haemophilia and colour blindness are sex chromosomal disorders. Select the correct answer in the following. Thallasemics lack genes responsible for production of haemoglobin so they need frequent blood transfusion for survival. (a) 46 (b) 44 (c) 23 (d) 22 4. Females have two X-chromosomes.From Parents to Children . (b) (c) Genes are present in the (d) ribosomes of the cell. Sutton explained that “Mandelian factors” were the genes and that genes are present on chromosomes. One Chromosome has one molecule of DNA. Thallasemia is an autosomal genetic disorder while. Mendel was the first to postulate laws of inheritance (heredity) and said heredity was due to “factors”. Haemophiliacs are bleeders. The diploid number of chromosomes in humans is 46. Genes are not inherited. Genes are fragments of DNA. Sex determination in humans is based on combination of sex chromosomes. 1. while males have one X and one Y chromosome. Genes are fragments of DNA. TERMINAL EXERCISES A.Elements of Genetics : 265 : • • • • • • • • • • • • Heredity and variation are due to genes and their varied combinations. 2. thallasemia.

3. Sutton Genes 22 pairs or 44 They determine sex of a person. 3. 13. genetic disorder. 3. 30. What are the chances of Rahul being colour blind if his father has normal colour vision? ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 30.1 1. sex chromosomes. Difficult but try Rahul’s maternal grandfather (mother’s father) was colourblind. What is meant by “gene replacement therapy”? 16. 12. Why is haemophilia found mostly in boys? With the help of a line diagram explain the chromosomal basis of making of a male child. What is the basis of sex determination in humans? Why is DNA fingerprinting a sure test for identification of a person? Write notes on any one genetic disorder. 4. variation. 5.Elements of Genetics 5. 15. 4. 14. 2. 4. 9. 7. 1. 46 DNA DNA of a person is unique Male (i) one (ii) two One . Descriptive type questions. 5. 6.: 266 : From Parents to Children . 11. State any two facts about human chromosomes. 10. 5. Name the scientist who gave the laws of inheritance. What has been the contribution of Mendel and Sutton to science of genetics? State in one sentence for each of the two scientists. What are “factors” named by Mendel called today? What is the chemical nature of a gene? Where are genes located? Why is haemophilia called bleeder’s disease? State two differences between autosomes and sex chromosomes. 2. 2.2 1. Who can be called the founder or father of genetics? (a) Sutton (b) Mendel (c) Darwin (d) Bateson B. Define: heredity. 8.

3. .From Parents to Children . DNA fingerprinting: A technique by which a person’s identity can be established by the study of his DNA. Thallasemia: Genetic disorder in which haemoglobin cannot form in RBCs due to the presence of defective gene. X chromosome autosome Gene replacement therapy GLOSSARY Autosomes: Chromosomes containing genes for characters other than those for sex determination. 5. Genetics: Science of heredity and variation. Heredity: Passing down of characteristics from parents to offsprings. AB The normal gene masks the effect of defective gene. Variation: Genetic differences between individuals.2 1. Colour blindness: Genetic disorder in which a person cannot distinguish between blue and green colours due to defective genes. Haemophilia: Genetic disorder in which blood does not clot because of the presence of a defective gene. 2. Sex chromosomes: Chromosomes containing genes for sex determination (Designated X and Y). 4. Diploid: Full (double) set of chromosomes in pairs in a cell. chemical substance of which genes are made. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid.Elements of Genetics : 267 : 30.

mode of transmission. • define hygiene and suggest ways to show that health and hygiene are interrelated. • define disease and classify diseases into communicable and noncommunicable types. Most of you must be in good health. and enjoy life to the fullest. free from stress. In this lesson we will discuss the characteristics of good health and the various factors that help to maintain it. Good health may enable us to do well at work and in life. Good health involves proper functioning of all body organs. Cleanliness inside and outside the house. healthy habits and physical exercise in maintaining good health. . We take health as being free from diseases but it is much more than just the absence of a disease. Only if you are in good health you can be of help to others and the community. • mention the cause. 31. Hygiene and Diseases You must have heard the saying ‘health is wealth’. mental and social well-being. symptoms and preventive measures of some common communicable diseases. It also involves feeling well both in body and in mind. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. along with proper sanitation helps in keeping the environment disease free. But to define it formally. Health is of prime concern for individuals as well as for the community at large. You will learn about some first aid techniques also in this lesson.1 HEALTH AND HYGIENE What is good health? Different people may consider good health differently. People enjoying good health are cheerful. • define immunity and list the various national immunisation programmes. Hygiene and Diseases 31 Health. you will be able to: • define health and differentiate between personal and community health. If you keep good health your parents may not have to worry about your health. • explain the role of proper nutrition. Knowledge of first aid can be of great help in saving a victim’s life in case of an emergency.: 268 : Health. Good health requires certain efforts and cannot be purchased. health is a state of complete physical. • define first-aid and identify some of its methods.

Proper nutrition. The word hygiene comes from a Greek word hygiea that means ‘Goddess for health’ and deals with personal and community health. cleaning eyes. Magnified Eggs on hair Brushing of teeth before going to bed is a very good habit. and cause bad breath. we should be careful about hygiene. Balanced diet: You have already studied about the need and importance of balanced diet in lesson 25. vitamins. ears and nails: Regular washing and combing of hair helps in preventing dirt accumulation to keep the germs away. harm your gums and teeth.1).1 Regular cleaning and combing keeps hair free from lice • Washing hair. Nails should be clipped regularly. physical exercise. Fig. Personal hygiene: There are some activities you perform everyday in order to keep yourself clean. body lice and germs (Fig. The various practices that help in maintaining good health are called hygiene. Can you list them out? These activities are: • • Regular toilet habits: Regular bowel movements keep us free of body wastes generated inside the body. Brushing of teeth Eggs every day do not let the germs grow. 31. rest and sleep. Obtaining a balanced diet depends on one’s choice and what one can usually afford. Washing hands before eating: Having food with dirty hands may make us sick because the dirt in our hand might carry certain diseasecausing germs. Hygiene and Diseases : 269 : Do you consider yourself to be in good health by the above-mentioned definition? To keep ourselves free from diseases and to have good health. health and hygiene go hand in hand or they are interrelated. 31. Bathing regularly and wearing clean clothes: Dirt is a place for germs to grow. Thus. 31. minerals and roughage in your diet.2 PERSONAL HEALTH Taking care of oneself to remain healthy and free from diseases is personal health. nail biting is unhygienic and must be avoided.Health. • . some food particles may remain Adult Louse sticking to your teeth. and medical care are essential parts of maintaining good health. Health includes both personal and community health. It also includes the correct proportion of carbohydrates. Washing hands with soap make them germ free. Some important aspects of good personal health are as follows: 1. Bathing regularly keeps your body free of dirt. cleanliness. 2. proteins. • Cleaning the teeth: After eating food. We should wash our hands after going to the toilet. These food particles form a medium for the germs to grow.

Outdoor games and sport maintain the heart and circulatory system in good condition. Define good health. Cooking with care: Food should be prepared in a clean kitchen and in a clean manner. 8. cups and other utensils should be kept clean. undertaken at the Government or local organisation level to maintain health of the people (for controlling diseases) are known as community health. it is important to heat it to high temperature to kill any germs present in it. Hygiene and Diseases 3. Clean food and water • Fruits and vegetables should be washed in clean water to make them free from germs and pesticides (chemicals sprayed on plants to keep them insect free) before consumption and cooking. We often read in the newspaper or see on television about the fast spread of certain diseases in a particular area.1 1. 4. bathing and washing utensils should be from a clean source. cooking. • While cooking food. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 31.3 COMMUNITY HEALTH Activities. Intake of such habit-forming substances may lead to health problems such as liver damage. • Cooked food should be eaten fresh or stored in cool. 6. but the problem of community and requires immediate attention. 31. one should avoid smoking. Balanced diet includes correct proportions of _________. flies and germs. plates. List two precautions that should be taken while storing cooked food. fly-proof place. • Cooking utensils. Intake of alcohol and narcotics may cause damage to ____________ and__________ 4. • Water used for drinking. chewing of betel nut. Abstaining from habit-forming substances: To keep healthy. Many people seem to get affected. This may not be an individual problem. Regular sleep and relaxation: These also play an important part in maintaining sound mental health. _______. __________. Domestic hygiene • House should be kept clean and free from dirt. Exercise: Regular walking and physical exercises have a good effect on health. 7. Local or government organisations may take steps to control .: 270 : Health. gutka and tobacco. kidney failure and heart failure. Walking keeps the joints of bones healthy. List any two activities that keep heart in good condition. 2. • Milk stored in the refrigerator or outside should be boiled again to make it germ free. 3. and drinking alcohol. Washing of fruits and vegetables makes them free from _________ and ___________ 5. 5. They also help in the repair of body tissues. and ________________ 6. __________.

dengue. National Pulse Polio Programme Some of the important tasks. Some of these are listed below. B.) Eradication Programme 4. polio. meat and milk outlets. 31. To spray insecticides to kill harmful insects. You must have seen notices and banners put up by the government agencies stating the date and time of immunization programmes and the precautions to be taken against different diseases. • • • • Concrete drains to drain soil Clean compounds Oiling surface of stagnant water Fish eat larvae Use Mosquito nets on beds Spraying insecticides on walls Clean and airy rooms Fig. Government hospitals. leprosy. To maintain food standards. and Hepatitis B. To provide health education. cover open drains and pour kerosene oil on the surface of stagnant water. which the community health centres undertake are: • • • To maintain proper cleanliness by disposing off the sewage from colonies. The Tuberculosis (T.2 Some efforts made towards maintenance of community health . To run various immunization (vaccination against various diseases) programs and other health awareness programmes wherever there is danger of spreading of a disease. The National Malaria Eradication (removal) Programme 3. regular inspection at food stores.Health. and dispensaries 2. Such awareness is regularly created through nationwide campaigns against the spread of diseases such as malaria. National Immunization Programme 5. There are several organisations working towards good community health. 1. Hygiene and Diseases : 271 : spreading of a disease. To provide safe and germ free drinking water. by creating awareness and ensuring adequate supplies of medicines. To prevent mosquito breeding. AIDS.

: 272 : Health. List any two national organisations working towards good community health. leading to spread of diseases. thus. The bins should also be cleaned after emptying the garbage.5 DISEASE A disease is defined as any deviation from health or any state when body is not at ease. You may have heard of some common diseases or may be you have seen people suffering from some diseases. The furniture must also be wiped clean. Garbage should be thrown inside the dustbins. A disease can be as mild as a sore throat. 2. The cobwebs from the walls and roof should be cleared at least once a week. 3. Hygiene and Diseases 31. malaria. Disease can strike almost any part of the body and anybody at some stage or the other. To keep the environment healthy. • Throwing garbage in dustbins: Do not throw your household garbage on the roadside. i) Mosquito breeding may be prevented by pouring ___________ on stagnant water. rickets. such as typhoid. common cold. mosquitoes and other animals to breed. Disease may be the sickness of the body or the mind. Some of the practices for disposing the garbage are: • Keeping the house clean: The house must be cleaned every day. jaundice. Unclean surroundings may become breeding ground for flies and germs. They can also affect a person’s mental and emotional health. We must sweep and mop the house to remove dirt from every nook and corner of the house. ii) Unclean surroundings become breeding ground for __________ and ____________ 31. Name any two diseases for which awareness is being spread at the national level. common cold.2 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 31. Thus. we should be careful about the disposal of the garbage. In this section we will mainly discuss diseases of the body. This garbage not only gives a dirty look but also produces foul smell. and stomach upset or as serious as cancer. etc. Can these diseases be categorised on some basis? One . scurvy. Environmental hygiene includes environmental sanitation or keeping the surroundings clean. Fill in the blanks. This makes street dirty and allows flies. you are sure to fall sick. to have a healthy living one must live in clean surroundings. • Keeping dustbins covered: To prevent entry of insects and other animals inside the house dustbins should be kept covered.4 ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE You can keep your body clean but what will happen if you live in dirty surroundings? If so.

They produce toxins in the host’s body which leads to symptoms. water and physical contact or spread through vectors like flies and mosquitoes are termed communicable diseases. • . the pathogens try to come out of the body of an infected person and reach out to more hosts for their survival. fungi. Diseases that are transmitted through air. To carry on their life cycle. It may affect large number of people. • • • • • • Epidemics Sometimes you would have seen or heard about a disease affecting a large number of people in a small period. cholera takes an epidemic form in our country. protozoa and worms Some examples are malaria. etc. common cold. measles and tuberculosis Non-communicable Do not spread from an infected person to another Pathogens are not involved These diseases may be caused due to dietary deficiency (rickets. hormonal imbalances. genetic defects. Hygiene and Diseases : 273 : of the bases could be the cause of the disease. scurvy. • Direct method • Indirect method Direct method: by contact with the infected person. Cholera is a bacterial disease and marked by uncontrolled vomiting and diarrhoea. Indirect method may include the following: • Touching and sharing items used by the infected person: Using the same towel or sharing a handkerchief or same bed with the patient may also spread diseases.Health. Contaminated food and drink: Food and drinks may get infected by flies and insects carrying germs. How do communicable diseases spread? We all know that there are a lot of germs or pathogens (disease causing organisms) in the environment we live in. These pathogens may be transferred from one person to another by the following methods. etc. Sometimes. Diseases Communicable Diseases that spread from infected person to another Caused by pathogens. allergy. leading to dehydration and death. such as fever and eruption of rashes. bacteria. What is a communicable disease? Diseases that spread from one person to another by the entry of pathogens are called infectious or transmissible or communicable diseases. A disease that affects a large population in a particular area is considered to be an epidemic. kwashiorkor). such as viruses. typhoid.

3 Droplet method of spread of communicable disease as infected needles. Bacteria Fungi Protozoa Helminths (worms) Diseases caused Influenza (common cold). the causative organism.2 will give you an idea of cause and symptoms of some diseases and the different ways to prevent them. mode of transmission and preventive measures against the disease I. Ring worm Amoebic dysentery. etc. 31.6 CLASSIFICATION OF VARIOUS COMMUNICABLE DISEASES We can classify various communicable diseases according to the type of causative organism or pathogen (Table 31. eyes and nails Loss of appetite. nausea and vomiting Prevention/ Cure Taking precautions Antibiotics to prevent secondary infections Intake of treated water Vaccination Avoiding contact with an infected person and his and his articles Influenza Influenza virus Hepatitis Virus (Jaundice) Contaminated water II. Table 31.2: Symptoms of some common infectious diseases. i. For example. During blood transfusion or other equipment such Fig. redness Prevention Personal cleanliness .1). Malaria Filariasis The following table 31. Measles Cholera.: 274 : Health. Tetanus.1: Diseases caused by certain pathogens Type of pathogen Virus (Jaundice). or mosquitoes. coughing and sneezing by the infected person (Fig.e. 31. Hygiene and Diseases • • • • Carriers: These organisms carry germs from one place to another. Table 31. Hepatitis Chickenpox. cockroach. animals such as dogs and monkeys.3). Viral diseases Disease Causative organism Mode of transmission Direct or Indirect contact Symptoms Fever Body pain Sore throat Sneezing Weakness Rise in body temperature Yellowing of urine. Tuberculosis. Fungal diseases Disease Ringworm Causative organism Fungus Mode of transmission Direct contact Symptoms Ring like discoloured patches over the skin and scalp Itching. Vectors: These are agents that harbour germs but they themselves remain unaffected. Air: Through droplet method. 31. for example housefly.

Protection from mosquito bite. blood in sputum.4) in the feet. muscle cramps Prevention BCG vaccination at birth Tuberculosis Bacteria Cholera Bacteria Contaminated food and water From germs present in faeces of patients Use of clean. swelling of lymph nodes. containing stools per day Preventing food and vegetables from contamination. Enlargement of spleen and liver Prevention Prevent accumulation of water in surrounding. IV. . Bacterial diseases Disease Causative Mode of organism transmission Direct contact with infected person Coughing Contaminated food and drinks Symptoms Difficulty in breathing. treated water. Taking preventive medicines in disease prone areas. Chilliness during periods of high fever. legs and thighs. low grade fever especially in the evenings over long period. dehydration. Helminthic diseases Disease Causative organism Mode of transmission Female Culex mosquito Symptoms Prevention Filariasis Helminthic worm (Elephantiasis) Fever. vomiting. night sweating Acute diarrhoea. Protozoan Disease Malaria Causative organism Protozoa Mode of transmission Symptoms Female Anopheles mosquito bite Intermittent high fever. accumulation of large number of worms causing elephant leg-like swelling (Fig. permanent swelling of feet. headache. Hygiene and Diseases : 275 : III. taking anti-malarial drugs Amoebiasis Protozoa (amoebic dysentery) Contaminated water and food Unwashed vegetables House flies Abdominal pain. chest pain. 31. five to Proper disposal of six blood and mucus human excreta. loss of weight. Prevention from mosquito bite. Drinking safe water V. Vaccination.Health. Prevention of contamination.

hepatitis. they make the body develop body resistance to fight against disease but do not themselves cause disease. imparting education on habit-forming substances. Diphtheria. Immunity can be of two types: • Innate immunity (present from birth) • Acquired immunity (achieved during one’s Fig. Most of the immunization for life long immunity should be provided at an early age.7 MEASURES TO PREVENT DISEASES Contracting infectious diseases can be prevented by adopting measures such as: • • • • personal and community hygiene. Tetanus. etc. • By vaccination: By taking vaccines against diseases. proper disposal of waste material. such as polio. Mother’s milk during infancy is very important as it provides immunity against diseases to a newborn baby. Chicken pox.4 Elephantiasis (elephant-like lifetime legs) caused by helminthic worms Ways to acquire immunity • Exposure to a disease: A person suffering from a disease. intake of balanced diet. Table 31. develops life-long immunity against the disease. Protection from communicable diseases by immunization Immunity is body’s ability to defend (fight and protect) against diseases. and • immunization against communicable diseases. Whooping cough. such as chicken pox. immunization through vaccines is highly effective.: 276 : Health. Under National Immunization Programme vaccination facilities are available at Government run clinics and hospitals for protection against some common communicable diseases.3: Vaccines given to a newborn child and mother Age 2-6 weeks 3-12months Vaccine Immunity against disease Tuberculosis Diphtheria Pertussis (whooping cough or kaali khansi) Tetanus Measles Child BCG DPT Measles vaccine . When introduced into the body. tuberculosis. To prevent the occurrence of a number of communicable diseases. Tuberculosis and various kinds of Hepatitis. measles or mumps. Vaccines are available against Polio. Vaccines are weakened germs. Hygiene and Diseases 31. 31. etc.

Hygiene and Diseases : 277 : 18-24 months DPT-booster dose.3 1. Name a disease caused by the same group of organism that causes amoebic dysentery. Name any two diseases that can be prevented by taking vaccines. . Name the body organ(s) affected by hepatitis (jaundice). Are rickets and diabetes examples of communicable or non-communicable diseases? 3. List any two diseases transmitted from an infected person to other healthy person. 4. Polio booster dose (oral) Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus 5-6 years 10 years Diphtheria and Tetanus booster dose Diphtheria and Tetanus Tetanus Toxoide-booster dose Tetanus and Typhoid Typhoid vaccine Mother (During pregnancy) 16-24 Weeks 24-32 Weeks First dose of Tetanus toxoid Booster dose of Tetanus toxoid Protection against tetanus during child birth from surgical instruments IMMUNITY Innate immunity (Inborn or natural) Acquired immunity Non-specific Specific (For infections in general) (For particular infections) Active (Produced in one’s own body) Passive (Supplied from outside) Natural (By previous infection) Artificial (By vaccination) Natural (Antibodies received from mother) Artificial (Readymade antibodies having been produced in other animals) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 31. 31.8 FIRST AID Activities that can prevent serious deterioration of a victim’s condition before he gets proper medical attention are called first aid activities.Health. 5. 2.

Keep sterilised dressing or clean handkerchief. Consult the doctor immediately for anti-rabies treatment.3 Fainting It is a brief.4 Dehydration It is a condition when water is lost from body cells.8. sudden illness or other medical emergency can save life. Sometimes you or your friends may get hurt. 31. 31. excessive physical activity and inability to drink water. • Consult a doctor if bleeding doesn’t stop. sudden period of unconsciousness. extreme heat. • Place an ice-cold cloth on the victim’s face. All this comes under first-aid. . • Press nostrils for a short while.: 278 : Health. Make the victim lie down and elevate the bleeding part above the rest of the body. In most cases it occurs when a person is standing motionless for too long and may fall to the ground. 31.8. • Loosen the clothing and raise the feet slightly. ORS can be made by adding one teaspoon of sugar and a pinch of salt in a glass of (about 200mL) water. To stop bleeding: • • • Press directly on the wound with thumb. Blood will flow back in the head and consciousness will be regained. low blood pressure and even death. 31. Dehydration may be caused due to reasons. • Victim should be made to drink small quantities of Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) at frequent intervals.2 Nosebleed • Make the victim sit up and lean forward to minimise blood flow from that part. such as.8. Some first-aid techniques are given here.8.1 BLEEDING Severe bleeding due to deep injury may lead to acute loss of blood. • • • Wash the area of bite thoroughly with soap and water and cover it with a gauze dressing. Early symptoms include severe headache and dizziness.8. 31. the dog should be kept under observation to determine if it has rabies (aversion from water or hydrophobia). Hygiene and Diseases You often share work with your parents at home or go outside to play or work. Acute dehydration can result in death. frequent vomiting and diarrhoea. Immediate care given to a victim of an accident.5 Animal bite It can result in serious infections and diseases if left untreated. In case of a medical emergency it may not be possible to get medical attention at once. In case of dog bite.

Splint can be padded and tied to remain in place (Fig. umbrella. rod. Do not tie it very tight. as this may interfere with blood circulation. Splint is a support given to the injured area that prevents movement of the bones. • • Fig. Third degree burns destroy the deepest layer of skin and should not be treated with water. To treat the first and second degree burns: • • Place the injured area in cold water to relieve the pain. such as a walking stick. Victim may not be able to move the affected body part. Improper handling may cause more damage. This may happen when we fall or injure ourselves while playing. clean towel or cloth sheet. and tenderness and swelling around the injury. unusual position of a joint or bone. Blot the area and apply a dry sterile dressing. Things. 31. Do not move a person who has suffered neck or spinal injury. What needs to be done? • • Do not move the victim until the expert help arrives. driving or working etc.6 Burns The first-aid treatment of burns depends upon the severity of the injury. Second degree burns damage the deeper skin and may form blisters. big scale. 31. Signs of fracture and dislocation include pain.8. Hygiene and Diseases : 279 : 31.8. A doctor should be consulted immediately. 31. etc. stick. Chemical burns caused by acids or alkalis should be flushed with large amounts of water for at least 10 minutes.Health.5 Technique showing application of splints . They should be immediately covered with thick dressing. can be used as a splint.7 Fractures and dislocations A fracture is a break in the bone and a dislocation occurs when the end of the bone is forced out of its normal position in a joint. Apply a splint in that area if victim has to be taken for further treatment. Firstdegree burns produce a reddening of the top layer of skin.5).

Keeping nails. Organisations such as government hospitals and dispensaries. Polio. Items such as _________ and ________may serve as a splint in case of a fracture. and worms (helminths). personal hygiene. water. The various practices that help maintain health constitute hygiene. exercise and relaxation and abstaining from habit-forming substances. Protozoans cause diseases such as: malaria. water and air. food and articles (objects). Activities that can prevent any deterioration before medical help is available to a victim are called _________________ 2. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Community hygiene includes keeping the surroundings clean and not letting germs breed and cause diseases. protozoans. and programmes such as: pulse polio. Personal hygiene includes clean habits such as: daily bath. 3.: 280 : Health. hair and teeth clean. malaria eradication. Activities that can prevent serious deterioration of a victim’s condition before the person gets proper medical attention are called first aid. Hygiene and Diseases CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 31. Environmental hygiene and health means keeping the house clean and not letting environment get dirty by throwing of the garbage. In case of animal bite. Extreme pain on movement.4 Fill in the blanks. tenderness and swelling around the area are signs of ________________ LET US REVISE • • Health can be defined as a state of physical. fungi. Communicable diseases spread from an infected person to another person through air. leprosy and tuberculosis control aims at good community health. Elephantiasis (Filariasis) is caused by worms. washing of hands before eating food and going to the toilet. affected areas should be washed with _______and_______ 5. bacteria. hepatitis are caused by viruses. Cases of first and second-degree burns should be immediately dipped in ________________ 4. Basic conditions for good health are: balanced diet. mental and social well being. 1. clean food. Immunization by vaccines is an effective way of protecting body against communicable diseases. influenza (common cold). Communicable diseases may be caused by viruses. Hygiene could be personal and community (environmental). Tuberculosis and cholera are bacterial diseases. amoebic dysentery etc. Diseases can be communicable and non-communicable.

The causative organism for malaria is a: a) bacteria b) virus c) fungus d) protozoa B. Immunity against tuberculosis is provided by which of the following vaccines? a) DPT b) Tetanus Toxoide c) BCG d) Booster dose 5. 2. Name the vaccine given to the mother during pregnancy. 1. against which protection is usually provided by vaccination.Health. 7. 8. Which one of the following diseases is caused by bacteria? a) Polio b) Hepatitis c) Tuberculosis d) Ringworm 2. Which of the following is a communicable disease? a) Rickets b) Scurvy c) Marasmus d) Cholera 3. Communicable diseases are those which are a) caused by bacteria b) carried from one person to another c) caused by the deficiency of nutrients d) carried from one organ of the body to another 4. 4. Name any two viral diseases. legs and thighs showing an elephant leg like appearance. What is an epidemic? Give one example. Descriptive type questions. A patient comes with symptoms of swollen feet. 5. . Identify the disease and the category of causative organism. 6. Multiple choice type questions 1. Why is it insisted to use water from a reliable source? 3. Define hygiene. Name any two organisations working towards community health. 9. Name any two diseases. Hygiene and Diseases : 281 : TERMINAL EXERCISES A. List any two ways in which food and water get contaminated.

12. Hepatitis-B. List any two precautions that should be taken while disposing the garbage. proteins. Tuberculosis. Flies and mosquitoes . 16. Identify the disease and the category of the causative organism. kidney. Pathogens/germs and pesticides. 3. Why is community health important? List any five major tasks undertaken by community health centres.: 282 : Health. Liver. Malaria. Visit a government hospital and find out about the immunizaton programme followed in our country. After a few months they started complaining of symptoms such as abdominal pain. What is personal hygiene? Discuss any four activities that are included in personal hygiene. Difficult But Try 1. minerals and vitamins. 5. 2. at a cool place. People in a certain village have been drinking water from a pond and eating unwashed vegetables plucked from the fields.2 1. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 31. 3. Classify them on the basis of causative organisms and symptoms. AIDS 2. What is immunization? List any four vaccines and age at which they should be taken as per National Immunisation Programme specifying the diseases. Carbohydrates. List any four ways of spread of communicable diseases. C. age at which it is given and its functions. Food should be kept covered. Walking. mental and social well being. Government hospitals and dispensaries. Make a list of diseases people have suffered in the last six months in your locality. Hygiene and Diseases 10. What is the difference between first and third degree burn? What important precaution should be taken while handling them? 15. five to six mucous and blood containing stools/ motions per day. 14.1 1. Kerosene 4. 2. 13. playing 31. Tabulate the information giving the name of vaccine. 11. 6. Perform a survey in your area to list precautions people usually take to ensure good health for their family. fats. Differentiate between communicable and non-communicable diseases. heart (any two) 4. 3. A state of physical. Polio.

Hepatitis. Hygiene : Keeping personal body and surroundings clean. Stick. Tuberculosis 2. Typhoid. Soap and water 5. umbrella. Hepatitis. Influenza. Hygiene and Diseases : 283 : 31. long scale rod (any two) 3. Toxins : Poisonous substances Vaccination : Introduction of weakened germs in the body to develope body’s resistance against communicable diseases. Liver 5. Polio. Tuberculosis. First aid 2. Diphtheria. Filariasis/ Elephantiasis 31. Dehydration : Excessive loss of water from body tissues. Tetanus (any two) 4. .4 1. Fracture GLOSSARY Antibiotics : Chemicals secreted by bacteria and some fungi for their own protection.3 1. Epidemic : A disease that affects a large number of individuals in a population in a particular area. Cold/ ice cold water 4. also used to cure certain infectious diseases. Non-communicable 3. Immunity : Body’s ability to fight and protect against diseases.Health.

vegetables and fruits or animal products like milk. • cite examples of three groups of domesticated animals. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. • define and differentiate between agriculture and horticulture. • explain various agricultural practices adopted for improvement of food such as.1 HUMAN DEPENDENCE ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS FOR FOOD Our food items are either plant products. and therefore. • differentiate between manures and fertilizers with the help of examples. chicken etc. • state the need for animal husbandry. 32. • explain the terms and give examples of weedicides and insecticides. • list and explain the various steps for raising an improved crop. • explain the meaning of green revolution. crop rotation and multiple cropping. Indian scientists have experimented and researched and suggested ways and means by which more food can be grown than before. • state the need for protection of crops. such as grains. as it provides energy for doing work. • explain methods adopted for management of live stock for better production. However. mutton. our land availability is limited. • suggest methods of storage of agricultural produce. egg. you will be able to: • state reasons for human dependence on plants and animals for food. You also know that to produce such a large amount of food we need a large area of land. on the same piece of land. we need to produce a lot of food. • state common diseases of domestic animals and their prevention. and raw material for building and repair of various parts of the body.: 286 : Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry 32 Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry We all need food to survive. . Improved methods of agriculture have led to the production of about 360m tonnes of plant food products and about 88m tonnes of animal food products. You know that our country has a large population. Food is the basic need for all living beings.

Lentil Oilseeds Mustard. Soyabean. etc. Thus. Besides studying the new methods of food production. agricultural products have been divided into the following groups as given in the table 32. as food. Does your list look like the one given below? For easy reading. Ginger and Turmeric Sugar crops Sugarcane and Beet root Plantation crops Coffee.1. Ragi (finger millet) and Bajra (pearl millet) Arhar (Tur). For our clothes. fruits. we need the fibre of plants or animals. Sweet potato Tuber crops Potato. Table 32. ACTIVITY 32.Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry : 287 : We eat various parts of plant as food. and Bengal gram (Channa) Beans Peas.1? Yes. radish and carrot are roots. We need vegetables. Cowpea. We get all these foods and fibres by farming or agriculture. . Soyabean. grains of rice. Turnip. potatoes and ginger are the stem.2 AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES The branch of science which deals with methods of food production is known as agriculture.3 HORTICULTURE Did you observe that something is missing from the list of food items which we eat every day. human beings depend on plants and animals for food. etc. Castor and Cotton seed Root crops Carrot. Sunflower. hens. Tapioca. in this branch of science we also study about how new and better varieties of crops can be grown. we have neither included vegetables nor fruits in this list. Black gram (Urad).1: Various categories of food items Examples Sorghum (Jowar). Vegetables and fruits are essential items of our diet and their growth and production are studied under a branch of agriculture called horticulture. how animals and birds like cows. pulses. Green gram (Moong). cereals. Categorise those items which you get directly or indirectly from agriculture. Tea. wheat and corn are seeds. Rubber and Coconut Category Millets Pulses 32. Groundnut. We also eat leaves and stem of spinach and plenty of fruits. Horticulture is derived from two latin words: hortus which means garden. can be reared well and made to give more milk or better quality eggs? All these new methods which scientists develop come under agricultural practices. and culture which means cultivation. What is it that we have not listed here in table 32. Linseed. For example. 32.1 Make a list of things which you use every day.

ornamental plants and management of orchards is called horticulture. Sevin. So farmers treat these seeds by dipping them in certain chemicals like cerosan or agrosan. 4. Seed treatment Seeds can easily be attacked by micro-organisms. Some of the agricultural practices which scientists have developed and which our farmers have started are explained here. 2. This can be achieved by digging or ploughing the field well. 1.4 STEPS IN RAISING IMPROVED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE To increase our food production we can sow good quality seeds and improve the methods of sowing. Preparation of soil This is an important practice which helps to enrich the soil and make it more fertile and aerated. Transplanting The process of removing the seedlings from the nursery bed and planting them in the main field is called transplanting. Once they grow to a certain age they are transferred and planted in the main field. When we transplant. seeds are not sown directly in the main field. The seedlings also need to be protected from diseases and pests. they can be sown. When the farmers prepare a nursery bed they take care of the following: • The soil of the bed should be soft and loose so that the tender roots of the seedlings can grow well. the water distributes itself uniformly all over the field. These chemicals do not allow the microorganisms to attack the seeds and damage them. we must select those seedlings which have 4 to 5 healthy . Dimecron and Rogor on the seedlings.: 288 : Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry The branch of agriculture that deals with growing and production of vegetables. Once the seeds are treated. • All weeds or unwanted plants in the field must be removed. Such chemicals are called Fungicides. First these seeds are sown in a nursery bed. • The seed bed or where the seedlings are planted should be even so that when we water the plants. Do you know why? It is because these weeds also take water and nutrients from the soil and as a result the desired plants cannot get enough of the nutrients. loosening and levelling of the soil. using agricultural implements like spade. fruits. The crops that grow out of diseased seeds will also be unhealthy. plough or mechanical farm implements. Preparing the seed bed and care of the seedlings In certain crop plants like paddy and some of the vegetables. It involves addition of manure followed by turning. 3. This is done by spraying chemicals like Parathion. We can make the soil more rich and even use better techniques for harvesting the crops. These small plants are called seedlings. 32. Horticulturists research to find new ways by which better varieties of fruits and vegetables can be grown in large quantities.

7. The crop is irrigated according to its requirement and soil characteristics. While fertilizers are manufactured from chemicals in factories. etc. manure is made from organic substances and contains nutrients in small quantities. Vermicompost is compost broken down by earthworms. Compost is manure made from vegetable and animal refuse collected from domestic waste. Adding fertilizers Crops need nutrients like phosphorus. for their growth and pick up these nutrients from the soil. Depending on the type of soil and the crop to be grown. calcium.. to get a better yield of crops. This enables us to select good and healthy seedlings and get a better crop. abscisic acid etc. Use of plant growth regulators Plant growth regulators are certain chemicals which regulate the growth of plants. they grow into healthy plants and give a better yield. dumped in a deep pit to decompose. A fertilizer which contains nitrogen (nitrogenous fertilizer) is generally given in two or three doses. We can now add some plant growth regulators like auxins. You will learn more about these plant growth regulators in higher classes. P for phosphate and K for potassium. The main field must be ploughed and manured before transplanting. how big its fruit will be. flowering and grain filling stages of the crop. 5. You must have heard about the most commonly used fertilizer ‘NPK’. straw. we use different fertilizers. Rice crop needs standing water. All plants have growth regulators which determine how tall the plant would be. 6. cytokinins. These are sowed at proper distance from each other. gibberellins. Roots fail to develop and penetrate in the dry soil. When seedlings get good food. It is very important to add fertilizers to the soil. Generally rice and vegetables like tomato and brinjal are sown by transplanting. . left over fodder (cattle feed) and litter (bedding provided to cattle in the farm). when we transplant seedlings. Like fertilizers manures too add nutrients to soil. Irrigation Irrigation is necessary for proper development of plants. The letter N stands for nitrogen. Other fertilizers are phosphatic and complex fertilizers. They provide nutrients to the soil and help to obtain a better crop yield. weeds etc. Some fertilisers are added to the soil before transplanting. The way we use a fertilizer also depends upon what type of fertilizer is being added to the soil. Irrigation is essential during the seedling. Transplanting of seedlings is a very important practice.Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry : 289 : leaves. Some of the commonly used manure are: Farmyard manure. Besides. nitrogen etc. their roots are able to go deep into the soil and get more nutrients. as the name suggests is a mixture of decomposed cattle dung (excreta) and urine.

wheat etc. plant parts to be harvested. crop rotation restores the fertility of . after the leguminous crop is harvested. year after year.1 Rotation of crops If you stay in a village you must have seen that the wheat crop is planted during the month of November and harvested in March and April. Fig. 32. separate desired parts and eliminate parts not needed.5. So by the time the farmer has to plant the cereal crops (rice. However. Thus.: 290 : Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry 8. grams and pulses. they will keep on using the same nutrients from the soil till all the nutrients in the soil get used up. 32. crop use.) the pulse is ready to be harvested. If we do not practice crop rotation by growing different crops on a piece of land. (i) the land gets utilized. The machines gather the plant parts. beans. This way the next cereal crop gives a better yield. can be used by the farmers for sowing a leguminous crop at this time. These bacteria convert free nitrogen from atmosphere into usable form. Certain harvesting machines may even load the crop for transport. The rice crop is planted in June-July and harvested in October and November. the soil is left fertile for other crops. They harbour nitrogen fixing bacteria in nodules of their roots (Fig. Harvesting machines cut or dig out the plant or its parts as required. Thus. (ii) the pulse crop uses up different nutrients from the soil but it fixes the nitrogen from the air and makes the soil richer in nitrogen and so more fertile. the above mentioned functions of harvesting machines depend on kind of crop. Harvesting Harvesting machines have now replaced the back breaking job of hand harvesting with the sickle and scythe. but continue to grow the same crop. A leguminous crop does not take as long as wheat or rice to grow.1).5 SOME OTHER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES 32. The process of growing a different crop preferably a leguminous crop in between raising of two similar crops is called rotation of crops. The newly grown plants get poor nourishment from the soil and grow up to be weak and of bad quality. Leguminous crops include pea. When plants are weak the insects can easily attack them and destroy them. stage of maturity. etc. 32.1 Nitrogen fixing bacteria in the root nodules Crop rotation has a lot of benefits. The land that lies fallow in between these two cereal crops.

Langra.3 Improving the variety of seeds You must have often heard or read advertisements which encourage farmers to buy new and better varieties of seeds. Padma. Plant breeders have not only raised better quality seeds but also better quality fruits. multiple cropping is the best solution for a country with food problem because same piece of land is used to grow different kinds of crops. Chausa. Jaya. they have to be protected such that they produce a healthy yield. The weeds growing along with crops have to be removed and growing crops have to be saved from the attack of pests especially insects pests. prevents crop from diseases and pests and reduces the dependence on chemical fertilizers. Mulgoba. Observe and note down the agricultural practices being used there. Kalyan sona. Mango has been named the ‘king of fruits’ and in our country we grow many varieties of mangoes. The increased cultivation of agricultural crops is in order to meet requirements of a growing population. 32. Sinduri.2 Multiple cropping Growing two to four crops one after the other in a year in the same field is called multiple cropping. Dussehri. Hira-moti. Amini. Some of the improved high-yielding crop varieties which our scientists have developed are given in table 32. Bala Sarbati sonara. Sonalika. it gives better yield.2 Improved high-yielding varieties of crops Crop Rice Wheat Maize Lady’s finger (Bhindi) Brinjal Variety I R-8. Pusa kranti and Muktabeshi Do you know what name is given to scientists who develop such new varieties of seeds? They are called plant breeders. In fact. Table 32. Visit a nearby agricultural farm or vegetable garden.2. Along with these developments in our country we have also brought under cultivation more and more land. 32. Multiple cropping is possible. All the above mentioned practices are meant to ensure that plants have a healthy growth and yield a good crop. RR-21 and UP 301 Ganga 101.5. to get best results there must be a properly managed field. . when we make use of crop varieties that grow for a short period of time.5. Rankit and Deccan hybrid Pusa savani Pusa purple.6 PROTECTION OF CROPS IN THE FIELD As crops grow in the field. Some of them are Alphonse.2 Here is something you can do. Saroli. Some of these new varieties are resistant to diseases and give a very good crop. However. Safeda. Himsagar. ACTIVITY 32. 32.Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry : 291 : the soil.

Weeds can be divided into two groups: (i) graminaceous (Monocotyledonous). while Choulai is Convolvulus a non-graminaceous weed. bacteria. biological control methods are also used. 32. Amaranthus Before sowing or transplanting seedlings.6.3). Insects are generally pests which eat and destroy crops (Fig. Rust of wheat and Blast of rice are two common fungal diseases of plants.6. They can be removed by hand or by spraying weed killing chemicals called weedicides like 2.3 Some insect pests of crops pests are controlled by introducing their predator insects. To control plant diseases and pests we can spray fungicides and pesticides on the crops or on the soil. Weeds must be removed as they use up the nutrients in the soil and thereby make them unavailable for the crop itself. 4-D.1 Weed control The undesirable plants that compete with the main crop for sunshine. They have to be saved from being attacked and eaten up by rodents.7 PRESERVATION AND STORAGE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS Once harvested. These diseases are transmitted either through the seed itself (seed-borne) or by air (airborne) or soil (soil-borne).: 292 : Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry 32. Also they have to be . water and space in the field are called weeds. 32. Apart from chemical methods.2 Control of plant diseases and pests A lot of plants die due to some diseases and pests which attack and damage them. food grains have to be safely stored. (Choulai) Chenopodium Wild Oat Doob grass (Common weeds) Fig. birds or insects. Generally plant diseases are caused by fungi. Some insect Fig. If some of these weeds start growing again during the crop growth they must be removed. weeds are removed by hand or with the help of a plough or harrow. MCPA and Simazine. 32. 32. and viruses. For example aquatic weeds are eaten up by certain fish. Hariali or Doob grass is a graminaceous weed. and (ii) nongraminaceous (Dicotyledonous).2 Some common weeds 32.

• Use of improved storage structures: Structures which are airtight. pest resistant and better yielding varieties of crops and animals. S. Fig. Pusa cubicle and Pusa kothar. irrigation and power projects to provide timely supply of water and power. Thus. Few of Fig.Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry : 293 : protected from spoilage due to improper temperature and moisture in the storage place or due to growth of fungi. Some of the methods to prevent loss and spoilage of agricultural products are as follows: • • Drying: The grains can be dried in the sun or by blowing hot air on them. pumps. fertilizers and pesticides. 32. Dr. Grains are often treated with neem kernel powder or pepper or mineral oil which prevent laying of eggs by insect pests.4 shows a type of of storage structure called ‘silos’. moisture proof and can maintain a steady temperature are now used for storage. Swaminathan. He is the recipient of World Food prize for fighting against hunger. rat proof. sturdier. The credit for green revolution goes to a great agricultural scientist of our country. • . Chemical treatment: Spraying or fumigation (insecticide solution converted into fumes) of godowns and containers with insecticides and fungicides should be done before storage. and research and development institutions to breed newer.8 GREEN REVOLUTION A general improvement in crop yield and food production occurred in our country between 1960 and 1980 and marked a turning point in Indian agriculture. This is commonly referred to as the golden era of agriculture or the green revolution. In fact we are able to have surplus crop to stock and use in natural calamities like drought and floods. M. 32. Maintaining storage containers: Godowns or gunny bags or tanks or earthen pots used for storage should be free of the cracks and holes and should be clean. 32. Care should be taken to ascertain that the grains for consumption by human beings are not treated with chemicals poisonous to human beings. As a result of this we have become self-sufficient in food. we find that modern agriculture needs the support of: • • • industries to produce farm implements.4 Silos them are named Pusa bin.

which deals with the study of various breeds of domesticated animals and their management for obtaining better products and services from them is termed animal husbandry (the term husbandry comes from ‘husband’ which means one who takes care). Yet we do not get as much food from these animals as we possibly can and need for our large population. Give two examples of weeds. cattle. feathers and leather from some of these animals which can be used for making various things.9. which we get from animals. Name three kinds of organisms. Name any two plant growth regulators. fruits. 32. which is being used for cultivation we find that only two individuals of cattle are available to plough 3. buffaloes and goats who give us milk. 4-D is a _____________ v) A nitrogenous fertilizer is applied in ________________ doses. In India.1 1. which cause diseases in plants. Their urine and droppings help to make the soil fertile by acting as manure. 32. which work in the fields. ornamental plants and management of orchards and parks is called _______________ iii) The improved varieties of plants are resistant to diseases and give high ________ iv) 2. Fill in the blanks. If we take the ratio of working cattle to the area of land.8 hectares of land. we need them to do a lot of our work. Working (draught) animals: Bullocks. We also get horns.4 million cattle. goat. 5. i) The branch of science which deals with the study of the cultivation of land. From hens and ducks we get eggs. Besides the food. which deals with growing and production of vegetables. • • • Milk giving (milch) animals: Cows. sheep. 3. 4.: 294 : Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 32.1 Need for animal husbandry We have a large number of animals in our country.9 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY The branch of science. Meat and egg giving animals: Pigs. buffaloes. 6. Mules are also used especially by the army to take things from one place to another in the hilly areas. we have about 80. 2. and breeding and management of crops is called ___________________ ii) The branch of agriculture. Name two improved varieties of wheat. camels and horses are draught animals used for doing work in the field and for transportation of goods and human beings. Give one point of difference between crop rotation and multiple cropping. fowls and ducks which are the main source of meat. .

Water and its supply To keep these animals healthy they should be given clean water to drink and in sufficient quantities. on an average a cow consumes about 27-36L of water. which is mixed with a sufficient amount of grain. Generally roughage has a low nutrient content. For example. Roughage includes fibrous and rough food like straw and stems of cereal crops. Different animals require different types of houses. what kind of drinking water should be given to them and how the sick and diseased animals ought to be treated? This way we learn to manage our livestock for better production and utilization. They are very rich in most of the nutrients. minerals and vitamins. This open yard should have a hedge of iron wires all around to prevent the animals from running away. minerals. rain and cold. Unfortunately. Pigs are usually given cereals and their products to eat. cereal grains. Too many animals should never be kept in a small space. Poultry birds are given a mixed feed consisting of cereals. The food should contain the requisite nutrients i. 3. 32. oilcakes. Their houses should have proper sanitation and ventilation. which is partially covered with roof made of straw. Housing of animals We must protect our animals from too much heat. Feeding of animals All animals must be fed properly. Thus. pigs require 5-23L. Goat and sheep eat grass. We must. 2. Besides this we must also bathe the cattle with clean water. fats. be careful where we house them. camel 8-90L and poultry birds require about 240mL of water. we find that animal husbandry is a very important field which helps us to improve our livestock and other useful animals and make the maximum use of them. A cow drinks about 32 litres of water.2 Management of livestock When we study about improving our livestock we learn how they must be sheltered. carbohydrates. An average Indian cow eats about 15-20 kg of green fodder and 4 to 5 kg drygrass. fed. therefore. Hens and fowls are kept in cages while sheep and goats stay in open yard. . in India we do not use all the cowdung available and a lot of it goes waste. 1. bone meal.e. The food which is given to cattle can be divided into two categories: • • Concentrates like cotton seeds. herbs and waste products from the farms. bran etc. vitamins and water.9. and mated.Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry : 295 : You all know that cattle wastes like urine and faeces are natural manure which enrich our soil. proteins. Gobar gas plants have been developed so that we can make use of the cattle dung both for fuel as well as to make manure.

dermatitis in goats and sheep. a controlled diet. breeding is done to obtain animals with desired characters. we can get breeds of cow which produces more milk. diphtheria in calf. Holstein-Friesian cow Murrah Sahiwal cow Fig. Some examples are: Karan Swiss (Crossbreed of brown Swiss and Sahiwal) Karan Fries (Crossbreed of Tharparkar and HolsteinFriesian) Frieswal (Crossbreed of Holstein-Friesian and Sahiwal) Over the last two decades. foot and mouth disease in cattle. Important breeds of cow In India. poultry. This has substantially increased our milk. 5. Karnal. horse and goat etc. These are then crossed to obtain new breeds of animals. sheeps. cholera in fowls. The two individuals of desirable characters can be selected as parents. goats. improved practices of raising animals have resulted in the development of new breeds of dairy animals.g. improved breeds of dairy cows have been developed at National Dairy Research Institutre (NDRI). diarrhea in chicks. Haryana. In case of animals. Some of the common diseases of animals are listed below. Artificial insemination is an important and effective method of breeding. e. Bacterial diseases: Tuberculosis in cattle and poultry birds. Some common diseases of animals and vaccination Sometimes domestic animals may be afflicted by diseases. poultry and pigs. Animal breeding Breeding means to reproduce. Viral diseases: Pox in cattle. proper housing and also by vaccinating the animals against these diseases at the proper time and age. Most of these diseases can be prevented by proper sanitation. and fowls. 32. buffaloes. egg and meat production. foot rot in sheep. by cross breeding a cow of low milk yielding breed.: 296 : Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry 4. and is widely used to improve the qualities of cow. The process involves injecting the semen obtained from desired bull belonging to high milk yielding breed into the reproductive tract of female during heat period.5 High yield breeds of cows . It generally gives important breeds.

addition of fertilizers. 3. Define management of livestock. Green revolution through use of improved techniques has led our country to attain self sufficiency in food. TERMINAL EXERCISES A. use of plant growth regulators. seed treatment. improving the seed variety. The credit for increased milk production goes to Dr. Which of the following is the proper sequence of agricultural steps? (a) Seed treatment. transplanting. Name any two diseases that are caused by virus in cattle? • • LET US REVISE To increase food production we must use improved agricultural practices. and multiple cropping. We must look after them properly. addition of fertilizers (c) Preparation of seed bed. Select the most correct answer of the following: 1. Management of livestock involves proper feeding. seed treatment. preparation of seed bed. Domestic animals are very useful for us. use of fertilizers. give them good food and water and keep them free from diseases. preparation of seed bed (b) Preparation of soil. They give us milk. meat and eggs. Dr Kurien is the founder chairman of National Dairy Development Board which designed and implemented “Operation flood” – the programme which led to the “white revolution” or self sufficiency of the country in dairy products. They also help in ploughing our fields and for transporting things. control of plant diseases.Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry : 297 : There is no dearth of milk. Various agricultural practices which we can use to increase our food production are preparation of soil. 2. make proper houses for them. preparation of seed bed. addition of fertilizers • • • • . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 32. housing. weed control. vaccination and breeding of animals. Multiple choice type questions. the most wholesome food in the country. Write the importance of domesticated animals. seed treatment.2 1. Corosan or agrosan are chemicals belonging to a group of (a) pesticide (b) fungicide (c) weedicide (d) fertilizer 2. Kurien. Artificial insemination is an important breeding activity to improve high yielding animals. have proper knowledge of animal husbandry and prevent soil erosion. preparation of soil. preparation of soil. rotation of crops. V. irrigation.

(i) agriculture (ii) horticulture (iii) yield (iv) weedicide (v) split 2. oil cakes. 5.: 298 : Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry (d) Addition of fertilizers. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 32. Sonalika.G. Padma (b) Ganga 101. preparation of soil. Jaya. seed treatment. Auxin. Pox.2 1. Abscisic acid (any two) 32. Food items such as cotton seeds. H. 2. Taking proper care of the livestock. Swaminathan (d) Dr. Credit of ‘Green revolution’ in our country goes to. Descriptive type questions. (a) Aryabhatta (b) Dr V. List and briefly discuss major aspects of animal husbandry. . 5.1 1. Give one improved variety of each of the following crops—wheat. Deccan hybrid (c) Sarbati sona. 3. what steps would you suggest? 6. Any two of the wheat varieties as given under varietal improvement. Rankit. Khorana 5. Cytokinin. Hira moti (d) Pusa purple. Crop rotation means growing a pulse crop between two cereal crops. Muktabeshi 4. maize. 4. Foot and mouth disease. rice. Define the terms agriculture and horticulture.S. Kurien (c) Dr M. Give names of two viral diseases of domesticated animals. cereal grains and bran belong to which of the following category? (a) Roughage (b) Concentrate (c) Minerals (d) Vitamins B. Gibberellin. preparation of seed bed 3. Pusa savani. Choose the high yielding variety of wheat (a) IR-8. 3. and lady’s finger. (i) They provide milk (ii) They provide meat and eggs (iii) They are used for work 2. (i) Seed borne (ii) Air borne (iii) Soil borne 4. 1. Doob grass and Chaulai 6. Why is it advisable to cultivate pulse crops in between two successive cereal crops? 3. To meet increased demand of food.

Dermatitis: Disease of skin. . Animal husbandry: Branch of Science dealing with study of various breeds of domesticated animals and their management for obtaining better products and services from them. Seedlings: Plantlets growing out of seeds. Biological control: Killing insect pests by predators. which can kill weeds. water and sunshine with the main crop. Agricultural practices: Methods used in agriculture for growing better quality and high yield varieties of crops. Weed: Undesirable plants growing in the same field as the main crop and competing for nutrients.Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry : 299 : GLOSSARY Agriculture: Branch of Science dealing with methods of production of food crops. Horticulture: Branch of Science dealing with production of vegetables. Weedicide: Chemicals. Multiple cropping: Growing two to four crops one after the other in a year in the same field. Fungicides: Chemicals that kill fungi or moulds growing on crop plants. Transplanting: Process of removing seedlings from the nursery bed and planting them in the main field. fruits and ornamental plants. Draught animals: Animals used to carry goods or working in the fields. Plant breeders: Scientists who develop new varieties of plants and seeds.

g. distinguish between natural and artificial satellites. Satellite pictures estimate forest cover and (on finding that it is decreasing fast) you are advised to save paper. differentiate between the different types of launch vehicles on the basis of their capacity.: 302 : Space Exploration 33 Space Exploration Man-made satellites orbiting the earth beyond the atmosphere have. the list is endless. You talk to your friend far away while electromagnetic waves carry your massage via a satellite. a cricket match live on TV which is being played in Australia or any other country. recall the efforts made by different countries for space exploration. remote sensing and weather forecasting. (i. satellites orbiting the earth or space probes which leave the earth) for various purposes of importance to mankind. give an elementary idea of how a satellite is launched. Daily weather forecast and a picture of clouds taken from a satellite on your TV. or for communication). reaches the local TV station through satellite. and so on.e. limitless and continuous expanse (or region) beyond the earth’s atmosphere. you will be able to: • • • • • • • • explain the meaning of space exploration and state its need and importance. mention the aim and objective of Indian space programme and identify the Indian achievements in the field of space science. This field of knowledge is called space exploration. examine the applications of artificial satellites in the field communication. now a days. Sometimes we call it outer space in order to distinguish it from space occupied by atmosphere. become a part of our everyday life. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. define the nature of path of different types of artificial satellites. In this lesson you will study how we use space with the help of space vehicles. Space means the vast. . for the study of earth’s atmosphere or surface or heavenly object like planets. (e.

Space Exploration : 303 : 33. A satellite launched by man around any planet for our own purpose is called an artificial satellite or man-made satellite.1.2). scientific data collection. The planet Jupiter has 16 satellites revolving around it. shown at O in Figure 33. Explorer-I. 33. Inclination: The angle between the plane of orbit of the satellite and plane of the equator of Earth is called inclination of the orbit.1 Parameters that define the orbit of a satellite Apogee: It is a point on the orbit where vertical distance of the satellite from the Earth’s surface is maximum.1. Sputnik-I.g.2 The path of a satellite The path of a satellite revolving around the Earth is called its orbit. It is a circle or an ellipse lying in a plane passing through the center of Earth. then during one revolution around the Earth. Man has no role in the existence of these satellites. The following three parameters define the orbit of a satellite. Now-aday we have acquired technology to launch satellites revolving around Earth or any other planet for our own purposes. it is a satellite of Earth. Perigee: It is a point on the orbit where vertical distance of the satellite from the Earth’s surface is smallest. Such an orbit is called a . these are natural satellites. 33.3 Types of orbits If the inclination of the orbit of a satellite is 90o (Fig. the satellite passes once vertically above the north pole of Earth and once above the south pole of the Earth. GSAT-I and GSAT-II (recently launched by India) are examples of artificial satellites. Hence. e. Fig. It revolves around Earth. The smallest distance of the satellite from the Earth’s surface is also called perigee of the orbit of the satellite.1 Natural and artificial satellites You all are familiar with the Moon. 33.1.1. 33. The maximum distance of the satellite from Earth’s surface is also called apogee of the orbit of the satellite. Hence.1 KINDS OF SATELLITES AND SATELLITE ORBITS 33.

: 304 : Space Exploration polar orbit. its inclination is 0o. 33. While Earth spins one rotation. earth spins through an angle a little more than 360o in 24 hours. Thus. This orbit is called geo-stationary orbit. After passing over a certain place on Earth.2 A satellite in a polar orbit Fig. next day it will again pass over the same place at the same time of day.e. Thus.1 or 33. which is also the time period of rotation of earth. 33. all lie in the plane of a polar orbit. Thus. At this height. the time period of a geo-stationary satellite is precisely one day.4). A satellite revolving in this orbit is called a geo-stationary satellite. The satellite moving in this orbit is called a sun-synchronous satellite. It is to the west of that place through angle θ in longitude. which is perpendicular to the plane of equator. Sun being in the same position relative to that place. To be precise. satellite will be able to look at that place and photograph it on consecutive days in identical illumination. Hence. though its latitude is same. 36000 km N Equator of Earth Fig. consider a satellite whose time period is such that it makes exactly an integral number of revolutions (usually 13. Consider a satellite whose orbit is in the plane of equator (Fig.33. In the same time it revolves around Sun through angle θ. the position of the satellite is stationary. the illumination at that place on Earth is the same. North Pole and South Pole. 33. It is at a height of about 36000 km above the equator and keeps this distance constant. which a satellite takes to make one complete revolution in its orbit is called its time period. 33.3 A satellite in the geo-stationary orbit Referring to Fig. the satellite makes one revolution around earth in just as much time as the earth itself takes to spin 360o around its axis. i. say (360o + θ) (Fig. The time. the satellite makes an accurately integral number of revolutions. Thus. relative to any location on earth. 14 or 15) around earth in 24 hours. relative to sun in 24 hours. The satellite moving in a polar orbit is called a polar satellite.2. The center of Earth. . Such an orbit is called a sun-synchronous orbit. But the position of Sunsynchronous satellite is not precisely above that place after 24 hours. it is a circular orbit. Thus.3). the position of Sun relative to any place on Earth is same after 24hours.

2. Because its direction and distance relative to any ground station A. In the beginning of space research. 33. both are extremely expensive tasks. What are the areas in which it finds application? Some areas of application are given herewith. Draw a labelled diagram to show the orbit of a satellite having parameters. 5. State two features of a sun-synchronous orbit? What are its parameters? 33. or D. cost came down and newer applications were developed. With development of technology. today it has become an essential part of our everyday life due to its many applications. It focuses the microwaves coming from the satellite to its focus F. It revolves through angle θ around Sun and spins 360o + θ CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 33.Space Exploration : 305 : Fig. this activity was considered a waste of money. Dish antenna is of parabolic shape. Thus. which serves useful purpose. or C.4 E1 is the first position of Earth and E2 the position after 24 hours. Time taken by an artificial satellite for revolving once around Earth is same as the time which earth takes to complete one rotation about its axis.5) receives signals from an earth station A and transmits them to Earth in different directions. remains fixed.1 Satellite communication Sending massages to long distances using a geo-stationary satellite is called satellite communication. 33. 33. Wavelength of these waves is of the order of a centimeter so that these can travel from satellite to ground unhindered by atmosphere or . Name the type of this orbit.1 1. What are the parameters of a polar satellite? 6. etc. to be done only by some rich countries. Give two other features of this orbit. 4. The satellite S (Fig. perigee 300 km and inclination 90o. apogee 900 km. or B. What is meant by the statement ‘perigee of the orbit of a satellite is 450km’? 3. What is meant by the statement ‘apogee of the orbit of a satellite is 900 km’? 2. any ground station can send signals to it or receive signals from it with the help of a dish antenna whose direction is adjusted once for all.2 NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF SPACE EXPLORATION Launching a satellite in orbit and designing and fabricating a satellite.

A satellite being used for this purpose is called a communication satellite. For this purpose a geo-stationary satellite is used. A communication satellite is like a 36000 km high television tower.6). 33. television broadcast. It is like a fixed observation station at a height of approximately 36000 km (Fig.like a fixed observation station synchronous orbit.3 Study of world resources (remote sensing) Fig. using . It is equipped with cameras and other sensors. 33. It is now possible to get prior information about an S emerging cyclone or flood or possible draught condition.5 Signal sent by station A to geo-stationary satellite S is retransmitted to TV-stations in almost half the Earth The data collected by the satellite is sent by it to a ground station.6 A geostationary satellite is For this purpose we use a satellite in sun. telephonic conversations and conferencing. FAX and computer related network services.2 Weather monitoring and forecasting by satellite Satellites are very useful in weather monitoring and forecasting. The satellite being stationary relative to any place on earth.2. like light rays are focused by a parabolic mirror. 33. It is equipped with cameras and other sensors by which photographs of cloud formations and many other data about atmosphere in a vast area can be quickly obtained. Satellite used for this purpose is O called a weather satellite (or meteorological satellite). The data is analyzed and weather forecast is done. This enables the government to take A appropriate measures to minimize loss of lives and property. The technique of satellite communication is being used now-a-day for many purposes. We build high television towers to reach longer distances. e. These equipments observe and photograph Earth’s surface illuminated by sunlight.: 306 : Space Exploration even by clouds.g. 33. 33. it can monitor the movement of clouds accurately. S Dish Antenna A B C D E Earth Fig.2. by which data about Earth’s resources can be obtained. and can be focused by an antenna of about 3 m diameter. and signals broadcast from it reach almost half the Earth.

ground A water surveys.2. It photographs a particular location on Earth each day (Fig. detection of potential fishing zones in the ocean. preparing waste land maps. A satellite used for this purpose is called remote-sensing satellite. and survey for exploration of minerals.e. earth-based telescope cannot study heavenly bodies by those wavelengths. (i. Repetitive surveys of the same regions make a comparative study possible. draught assessment. 33. Atmosphere is transparent for these wavelengths. 33.. ultra-violet and infrared waves coming from heavenly bodies and sends the data back to Earth. estimation of Fig. Then came the launching of Hubble Space Telescope by the US in 1990. which are very difficult to be reached physically. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Anticlockwise rotation of Earth selected wavelengths in ultra-violet. a gamma ray observatory in 1975 jointly by five European countries. because the data is observed from a large distance (almost a thousand kilometres).g. This telescope observes the visible. The most significant feature of this technology is that it offers some special advantages: i) A remote-sensing satellite can provide information about the areas/objects. detection of crop diseases.4 Scientific experiments and collecting information about heavenly bodies This is done by sending unmanned spacecrafts (called space probes) to target destinations. The first noteworthy attempt of the second method was the launching of Cos-B. to study X-rays coming from heavenly bodies. It absorbs most of the wavelengths of electromagnetic spectrum. Thus. Another method is by launching a satellite in a suitable orbit above the Earth’s atmosphere equipped by a telescope and suitable sensors. This list keeps on expending with time. e.7 Satellite in a polar orbit yield of various crops. Again. It was soon followed by launching of Einstein X-ray Telescope and Chandra X-ray Telescope in space by the U.7).S. Atmosphere creates many problems for the earth-based telescopes. Venus. ii) A remote-sending satellite can survey a vast area in a very short time. visible and infrared electromagnetic spectrum.A. The era after 1970s is thus called the Golden Era of Astronomy and Astrophysics. atmosphere is like a . Mars. iii) A remote-sending satellite can survey any region repetitively at regular intervals.Space Exploration : 307 : Remote sensing satellites have served many practical purposes like. 33. which are inaccessible) like dense forests. and other planets. These are equipped with cameras and other sensors suitable for the objective of the project. forestry and estimation of A A A A A A forest cover.. This technique is called remote sensing.

Hence.8 Satellite in low orbit seen from north pole). it makes about 16 revolutions in a day. If it moves opposite to direction of rotation of Earth. In order to launch a polar satellite. Its operation is based on Newton’s III law of motion.9 SLV is accelrated forward by the force of reaction applied by hot gases function one after the other. 33.9) SLV is accelerated forward by the force of reaction applied by hot gases. There exists no fuel which gives so much energy per kg of its weight on burning which it can impart a speed of 7½ km /second. a vehicle. Burning of fuel in the vehicle produces gases at high temperature and pressure. Therefore.5 Satellite launch vehicles For a satellite to stay in an orbit close to earth Orbit of (just above the atmosphere in the plane of equator. or about 7½ km/ second with respect to Earth’s surface. 33. the vehicle is pushed forward (Fig. than the one for launching a satellite with small angle of inclination. in the ratio (16/15) 2. These are ejected backwards through a jet.2. satellite-launching vehicle usually has 3 or more stages. must have more powerful rocket motors. In order to launch a geo-stationary satellite. 33. Hence. it has to be lifted to a great height also (about 36000 km).9).8). it has to be given a horizontal speed of about 8 km per second. A telescope in orbit above the atmosphere overcomes these problems. Satellite Fig. Thus the vehicle must give more kinetic energy to the polar satellite than to the satellite in an orbit of low inclination. The satellite makes a revolution in about 90 minutes. which launches a polar satellite. Hence. it is easier to launch a satellite in the same direction as rotation of Earth. which Fig. Then due to reaction applied by the gases.e. 33. 33.: 308 : Space Exploration wavy windowpane through which we cannot see things clearly. instead of going in a straight line. The (Fig. then it has a greater relative speed (8½ km/second) with respect to Earth’s surface. 33. a geo-stationary satellite launch vehicle has to . it has to be given a speed of 8 km/second relative to ground. A rocket used for launching the satellite is called a satellite launch vehicle. then it has a relative speed of about 15 revolutions per day. If it moves in the same direction as rotation of Earth (anti-clockwise as Fig. i. At this speed attraction of Earth is precisely equal to the force required Earth to keep the satellite on the circular orbit.

Name the orbit of a meteorological satellite. it soon came down. He made a single revolution around Earth. How is it able to monitor accurately the movement of clouds? 5. Due to friction with air. 33. on 5 May 1961.1. Some landmarks in the history of development of space technology are given in table 33. What band of electromagnetic waves is used to carry audio-signals of telephone conversation in satellite communication? What is the order of their wavelength? State one reason to select this band for the purpose. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 33. It uses hydrogen as its fuel. Data about the health of the dog in space helped to better plan the journey of first man in space. 4. 2. Soon after. The whole journey took 108 minutes. which is the fuel having highest energy output per kilogram of its weight. Space age really began on 12 April 1961 when Yuri Gagarin of USSR made a journey into space in Vostok-I.2 1. biggest among them being Soviet Russia) successfully launched Sputnik-I weighing 84 kg. The process of launching of satellite is quite simple in principle. The second and subsequent stages provide it speed in horizontal direction and simultaneously bring it into the orbit at desired height. The first stage rocket motor lifts the satellite out of the atmosphere along the shortest path (i.1 . A cryogenic engine (or cryogenic rocket motor) is an essential last stage of a vehicle for launching geostationary satellite. Efforts of different countries in space exploration The first step into space was taken on 4th October 1957 when USSR (it has now been split up into several countries. the first American astronaut made a journey into space. the first human being. vertically upwards) so that the least amount of energy is spent against friction of air. What is a remote-sensing satellite? Why is it placed in a sun-synchronous orbit? 3.6 hours to complete one revolution around the earth.e. What are the four areas in which space technology finds application? State the kind of orbit in which satellite is placed for each. Neil Armstrong of USA set foot on the moon. State two purposes for which it can be used. On 20th February 1969. The orbit of a satellite is perpendicular to equator and it takes exactly 1.3.Space Exploration : 309 : give far more energy to the satellite than a PSLV gives.3 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 33. traveling in Apollo-XI. Sputnik–II a month later carried a dog whose health in space was closely monitored.

16. First gamma-ray observatory in space. 3. 12-04-1981 First space shuttle ‘Columbia’* Space station ‘Mir’ ‘Hubble space telescope’* 14.: 310 : Space Exploration Table 33. Sqn.No. 19-05-1971 02-03-1972 Mars – II Pioneer – X 10.1 Some landmarks in the field of technology S.sensing (USA). The first space flight by a woman (USSR). Voyager-II flew past Neptune precisely on the planned path and time (USA). 12-04-1961 04-12-1963 21-10-1968 16-07-1969 Vostok-I* Vostok –III Luna –IX Apollo –XI* 8. first scientific discovery by a spacecraft (Van Allen Radiation Belt in upper atmosphere).10) The first space flight by an Indian. 15. The first space flight by a man (USSR). First journey to all the outer planets of the solar system and photographing them from close distance. 9. After 10 years of flight. 03-04-1984 1986 25-04-1990 . First space craft to carry astronauts from earth to an orbiting satellite and back – spacecraft usable several times (USA) (Fig. First telescope in orbit to study heavenly bodies by infrared. Leader Rakesh Sharma. 09-08-1975 Cos-B 13. 11. 33. 2. (USA) (Fig.11). visible and ultra-violet light. Date of launching 1. First successful soft landing by a space-probe on the Moon’s surface (USSR). 6. 5. More than a year (366 days) of stay in orbit by two-person crew (Soviet Russia). Neil Armstrong of USA becomes the first human being to set foot on the moon on 2007-1969. First satellite to carry a living animal (dog) into space (USSR). 4. First satellite dedicated to remote. 7. operational till 1982 (five European countries). First landing of a space probe on the planet Mars (USSR) First space probe to (a) explore the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter and to (b) take photographs of Jupiter from a close distance (USA). 04-10-1957 03-11-1957 31-01-1958 Name of space flight or space mission Sputnik-I* Sputnik –II* Explorer –I* Achievement Fist ever man-made satellite launched in space by USSR. 33. First spacecraft by USA. July 1972 05-09-1977 20-08-1979 Landsat-I Voyager-I Voyager-II 12.

18.No. By using a space shuttle. including India.2.11 Hubble space telescope 33. It should not be inferred from this table that US and USSR (now Soviet Russia) are the only countries doing significant work in this field till now. Ldr.3. * The more significant space flights. 20.Space Exploration : 311 : S. with the co-operation of USSR. 1984. 1991 April. 19. April. Chandrashekhar (USA). Date of launching 17. American astronauts repaired a satellite in space itself and put it back into its original orbit. named after Professor S.10 Space shuttle Columbia to carry astronauts from Earth to satellite and back Fig. X-rays do not reflect or refract in usual experiments (USA). 33. 33. Space science in India The foundation of modern space research in India was laid in 1961. 1984 Sqn. though most of the ‘firsts’ go to their credit. On April 3. when Department of Atomic Energy was asked to develop a programme for space . Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian to journey into space. 1992 Prior to 1994 Name of space flight or space mission Compton gamma-ray observatory Achievement Second gamma-ray observatory in space (USA). Einstein X-ray observatory First true X-ray telescope in space. are noteworthy partners. He stayed there until April 11. Several other countries. 1999 Chandra X-ray observatory* Second X-ray telescope in space achieved are – second resolution. Fig.

It enabled our scientist to: i) Develope the skills of staff members and physical facilities for designing and fabricating satellite and monitoring their performance during journey. It was designed and fabricated by Indian scientists but was launched with the help of USSR.3 Indian satellite launch vehicles India started working in this area with the launch of a 75mm diameter meteorological rocket in 1963 for investigation of ionosphere over the geomagnetic equator at Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram. Today. Even today these are the most important objectives. designing and fabricating space satellites for various purposes. if satellite fabrication is achieved. Following objectives for space research in India were set then. The launch vehicle for carrying the satellite was a four-stage rocket SLV-3.3. Indian satellite and to command it for carrying out various tasks. if it is not available at that point of time. iii) Conduct some experiments in the fields of X-ray astronomy.: 312 : Space Exploration research. i) Rapid development of mass communication and education. . particularly in widely dispersed rural communities. which has the technical know-how for putting a satellite in any orbit around the earth. The first success in the launching of an Indian satellite by an indigenously developed launch vehicle was achieved on 18th July 1980.12 Aryabhata – The first communicating with satellite. ii) Establish ground facilities for Fig. 33. For example. However.12) was launched. It carried a 35 kg satellite named ‘Rohini’ into an orbit with an apogee of 900 km and perigee of 300 km. The Indian space programme has been simultaneously pursuing two objectives. solar physics and meteorology. 33. tracking it. The programme aims at developing i) expertise in planning. its launching is carried out in collaboration with one of the advanced nations without waiting for the availability of an Indian launch vehicle. and ii) the necessary technologies. 33. less progress in one area is not allowed to delay the other. India is one of the six nations in the world. and ii) Timely survey and management of the country’s natural resources. facilities and skills for the development of suitable launch vehicles to place satellites in predetermined orbits around the earth. India entered the space age on 19th March 1975 when the first Indian satellite Aryabhata (Fig.

13 Indian satellite launch vehicles .Space Exploration : 313 : The main objective of this launch was to test the performance of the fourth stage of the launch vehicle. It was 23 m tall having five stages and used solid fuel. On 15-10-1994 this 44 m tall. 33. It launched 106 kg satellite named SROSS-C into an orbit 450 km above earth. Fig. The second generation of India launch vehicles was called Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV). The first successful Indian polar satellite launch vehicle was PSLV-D2. four-stage rocket launched the 804 kg remote sensing satellite IRS-P2 in polar sun-synchronous orbit. The historic event of launching of a more than 100 kg Indian satellite on an India vehicle took place on 20-05-1992 by ASLV-D3.

In April 2001 this 49 m tall. INSAT-3B and INSAT-3C. study of weather. Above all the success of INSAT-1B provided the needed boost to efforts in developing space research further.: 314 : Space Exploration The first successful Indian geo-stationary satellite launch vehicle was GSLVD1. 1992 and of INSAT2B on July 23. first fully Indian built successful satellite communication satellite system in the world for communication and study of with five active satellites in orbit till March weather 2002: INSAT-2C. 33. 1993. weather monitoring and weather forecasting. 33. The second generation of satellites in this series started with the launch of INSAT-2A (fig. It also helped in better whether forecasting. These are being used for telecommunication. An exclusive meteorological satellite METSAT has also since been launched.14 INSAT –2A. This programme started with the launch of IRS-1A in 1988 and IRS –1B in 1991 (Fig.15). INSAT-2DT. This programme was established in 1984 when INSAT-1B was commissioned for being used for these two purposes. INSAT-2E.3. These are sun-synchronous satellites. The third generation of satellites started with the launch of INSAT3B in March 2000. 33. . television broadcasting. which are being used for the study of earth resources. India’s INSAT is one of the largest Fig. 33. It lead to the expansion of TV and telecommunication network to remote areas.13) on July 10. It has following series of satellites i) Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) These are geo-stationary satellites used for telecommunication and study of weather.4 Indian satellite programme India has been launching satellites for all the four purposes discussed earlier. It is planned to develop this GSLV further to carry a satellite of 2500 kg. viz. three-stage rocket launched the experimental satellite GSAT-1 of 1540 kg into a geo-synchronous orbit. telecommunication. exploration of earth resources and scientific experiments.

Sateliite Date Launching country/ Launching vehicle USSR. APPLE BHASKAR-2 ROHINI IRS-1A* IRS-1B* SROSS-3 June 19. At present Indian satellites of INSAT and IRS series are quite advanced and at par with those of any other advanced country. IRS-1D. about 0. India’s firest success to launch a satellite French Guyana (ARIANE) USSR India (SLV-3) USSR USSR India (ASLV) 1.2. The TES can take photographs with a resolution of 1 m on the ground (i. Significant events of Indian space research programme are summarized in table 33.2: Significant events in the Indian space research programme S. 9.e.Space Exploration : 315 : Fig. India’s first satellite USSR India (SLV-3). 1991 May 19. IRS-1B The Indian remote sensing satellite system.3 arc second in terms of angle). 1980 4. 1992 . 1983 March 17. 20. Table 33. 1970 July 18. 6. 8.No. 3. 1981 April 17. 33. 7. 1975 June 7. has the biggest constellation of satellites with five operational satellites: IRS –1C. Data collected by these is commercially used by many countries of the world.15 India’s remote sensing satellite. 1981 Nov. 1988 Aug. 29. 5. IRS. ARYABHATA* BHASKAR-1 ROHINI* March 19. These are being used for all the eight applications discussed earlier. IRS-P3. IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT dedicated exclusively for the study of oceans) and TES (Technology Experiment Satellite). iii) Stretched Rohini Satellite Series (SROSS) These are launched for purpose of scientific experiments carried out above earth’s atmosphere. 2. Their contribution in the study of gamma ray burst events is noteworthy.

Sept. INSAT-2C INSAT-2DT Dec. . INSAT-1D* SCROSS-C* June 12. 1992 15. INSAT-3B INSAT-3C Technology experiment satellite (TES) GSAT-1 Experiemental Satellite* METSAT March 22. 15. 18. Sateliite Date Launching country/ Launching vehicle India (PSLV-D2) USSR India (PSLV-C1) USA. IRS-P2 IRS-1C IRS-1D INSAT-1B* Oct. 2002 Oct. 12.: 316 : Space Exploration S. 1997 Aug. 16. 29. India’s success to launch a 1000kg class satellite in polar orbit French Guyana (ARIANE) Purchased from ARABSAT after a snag in INSAT-2D so that services are not disrupted International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) French Guyana (ARIANE) French Guyana (ARIANE) India (PSLV-C3). 1997 19. 21. India’s succes to launch a more than 100 kg satellite French Guyana (ARIAN E) Frech Guyana (ARIANE) India (PSLV-D2). 1995 Oct. 11. launched three satellite inlcuding Belgian PROBA and German BIRD India (GSLV-D1). 22. exclusively dedicated to study weather. 18. April. 2001 24. 1990 May 20. 2000 Jan. 1993 Oct. 24. 2002 India (PSLV-C4).No. 1999 20. 13. 1994 Dec. 15. 22. India’s success to launch a geo-stationary satellite 10. 1992 July 23.. 1982 14. INSAT-2E April 3. 30. INSAT-2A* INSAT-2B IRS-P2* July 10. 1995 Sept. 12. First major expansion of communication network in India by satellite in 1984 USA India (ASLV-D3). 7. launching a geostationary satellite by a vehicle of PSLV class is a technological feat * The more significant launches by India. 2001 23. 1994 17.

apogee = perigee = 36000 km (approx. using gamma rays.3 1. Low inclination satellites are launched revolving in the same direction as rotation of Earth. Name the first Indian who went into space. it is first lifted vertically out of the atmosphere.Space Exploration : 317 : CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 33. Explain how are TV programmes transmitted to remote areas through INSAT satellite? 2. so that less kinetic energy per unit mass of satellite need be given to them. perigee and inclination. eliminating all the disadvantages that atmosphere creates in • i) ii) iii) iv) • • • • . Exploration of resources. Artificial satellites revolving around Earth and space-probes find application for several areas of human activities: Communication over long distances: telephonic conversation and conferencing. visible and infrared rays. FAX and computer related network service. Sun-synchronous orbit: apogee and perigee so selected that it makes precisely an integral number of revolutions in 24 hours. Why was a dog first sent into space before sending a man? 4. More kinetic energy needs to be given to a satellite for launching it in polar orbit. so that least amount energy is spent against friction of air. Orbit of a satellite is defined by its apogee. 3. and inclination of any value depending on objective of the project. ultra-violet rays. visible light and infrared rays. Similarly Man can study heavenly bodies from above the atmosphere. provides. Man can look down on Earth from space. Scientific purposes like experiments in zero gravity and/or in near perfect vacuum.) Polar orbit: inclination 90o. Now days. Satellite may be launched to revolve around Earth in different types of orbit for different purposes: Geo-stationary orbit: inclination 0O. apogee and perigee of any value depending on the objective of the project. television broadcast. which mother Earth. For launching a satellite. Explain how does IRS-1D (launched in 1997) estimates the forest cover of India and detect its decrease. Weather monitoring and forecasting. observation of other planets and stars (including the Sun) etc. using ultra violet. Thereafter the task of providing it speed in horizontal direction and placing it into desired orbit is carried out. X-Rays. How long did he stay in space? Did he go into space by India’s own launch vehicle? • • • i) ii) iii) LET US REVISE Now-a-days man has the technology to launch artificial satellites revolving around Earth or any other planet for scientific purposes. Highest amount of energy per unit mass of satellite needs be given to launch a satellite in geo-stationary orbit.

Thus. Time period of revolution of a satellite around earth is 24 hours with reference to Sun. Give two reasons in support of this statement. In which type of orbit is it? State its parameters. 10. Since then India has been developing space science with two objectives: i) Designing and fabricating satellites for various purposes along with ground satellite to utilize the data provide by these satellites. What is a communication satellite? Name any three areas of application of space science and one characteristic feature of the satellite used in each case? State four purposes for which remote-sensing satellite is used? What bands of electromagnetic waves are used to study world resources by a satellite in outer space? What is the special advantage of using those bands? When was the first step into space taken and by which country? Name the first Man who went into space? When was the first step taken on the Moon. 17. 13. ii) Developing suitable launched vehicles to place satellites in desired orbits around the earth. . SROSS. 2. 9. its height above Earth is 900 km. 4. Name the parameters that define the orbit of a satellite around Earth.1 1. which has been launched by India’s own launch vehicle.: 318 : Space Exploration • such studies. 33. PSLV. 16. Name India’s geo-stationary satellite. 14. 11. GSLV ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the era after 1970s is called the golden era of Astronomy and Astrophysics. At the point where the satellite is farthest from Earth. INSAT. State for one of the applications why a geo-stationary orbit is used. TERMINAL EXERCISES What is meant by space (outer space)? What is a satellite? What is meant by orbit of a satellite? What is the height of a geo-stationary satellite above Earth’s surface? What do you understand by space exploration? What are two types of satellites? Give one example of each. India entered the space age with launching of Aryabhata in 1975. “Successful launching of INSAT-1B has brought revolution in the field of communication in India”. 8. by whom and in which spacecraft? What does IRS-1A refer to? Mention any two uses of it. 5. What is a geo-stationary satellite? State its two applications. 6. and name that vehicle too. 18. 7. Write the full forms of following abbreviations: IRS. 12. ASLV. 15. 3.

This re-broadcast signal can be received by any one in almost half the world (refer Fig. At the point where the satellite is closest to Earth. Its position with respect to any location on ground is fixed. A beam of microwaves from the transmitting station carries the signal to the satellite. 6. 3. 33. 2. The areas are: i) Communication to far-off places: Geo-stationary orbit. 5. The satellite is usable for remote sensing (for purposes refer to 33. Microwaves are used for satellite communication. 3.3 1. apogee = any value. Number of revolutions in 24 hours = 15 precisely. For study of heavenly bodies a satellite may be placed in a suitable orbit or a space probe may be sent to the target heavenly body. A meteorological satellite is placed in a geo-stationary orbit. 33.2. Inclination = 90o. perigee = 36000 km (Approx. Features: (i) Apogee = 36000 km (Approx. iii) Study of world resources: Sun-synchronous orbit. INSAT is 36000km above equator in a fixed position relative to Earth. apogee and perigee are so chosen as to satisfy the first feature. Please refer fig.3). in the geo-synchronous orbit.Space Exploration : 319 : 2. 33.) (or circular orbit). Being in a fixed position relative to Earth’s surface. Their wavelength is of the order of a centimeter. Thus it is like a fixed observation station 36000 km high. These are not hindered by atmosphere and not even by clouds. The satellite re-broadcasts it. It is a sun-synchronous orbit. 4.). It can see almost half of Earth. 33. i) It makes precisely an integral number of revolutions of Earth in 24 hours. 4. perigee= any value.5). it can accurately observe movements and formations of clouds. . ii) It looks at (or photographs) any location on Earth on consecutive days in identical illumination. Geo-stationary orbit.16. 5. It is placed in sun-synchronous orbit so that it can take repeated photographs of a location on consecutive days in identical illumination and very meaningful comparison of photographs can be done. its height above Earth is 450km.2 1. and (ii) inclination = 0o (or in the plane of equator). iv) Scientific experiment and collecting data about heavenly bodies: Orbit depends upon the objectives of experiment. ii) Monitoring and forecasting weather: Geo-stationary orbit. Inclination = any value. Remote sensing satellite is one by which we study the surface of Earth to explore its resources and other phenomena useful to mankind.

Satellite: A natural or man-made object revolving around earth or any planet. Ldr. Remote sensing satellite: A satellite in sun-synchronous orbit being used for study for world resources by cameras and other sensors placed in it. Rakesh Sharma. 3. . Their total area is measured. This data about a living dog helped very much to better plan the journey of first man in the space. 4. Satellite communication: The entire activity of telecommunication between various distant locations on earth with the help of geo-stationery satellites. Space/outer space: Vast limitless and continuous region beyond earth’s atmosphere. First Indian to go into space was Sqn. Satellite launch vehicle: Rocket of 3 or more stages that lifts a satellite and places it in a desired orbit. Polar orbit: An orbit passing over north and south poles of earth. IRS-ID is a remote sensing satellite in sun-synchronous orbit.: 320 : Space Exploration 2. Entire country is quickly covered by the satellite (in three weeks). which is used for purpose of telecommunication between distant locations on earth. Communication satellite: A geo-stationary satellite. He did not go into space by India’s own vehicle. Remote sensing: Study of world resources by cameras and other sensors placed in a satellite in outer space. Orbit of a satellite: The path along which the satellite revolves around a planet. It was the launch vehicle of USSR. Inclination: Angle between the planes of equator and of the orbit. The health of dog in space was closely monitored. Photographs of various areas of India illuminated by sunlight are taken by it. GLOSSARY Apogee: The highest point of the orbit or height of that point above earth’s surface. Geo-stationary orbit: The circular orbit in the plane of equator in which a satellite remains stationary with respect of any location on earth. The photographs clearly show-up forest areas. Meteorological satellite: A geo-stationary satellite being used for observing weather related data and sending it to ground stations. Perigee: The lowest point of the orbit or height of that point above earth’s surface. which gives the forest cover of India at that point if time. Artificial satellite: A man-made satellite. He stayed in space for eight day. Year after year values of forest cover clearly tell the yearly decrease of the forest cover.

Space telescope: A telescope placed in a satellite orbiting the earth above atmosphere in order to overcome the disadvantages to observing process caused by the atmosphere. . Space-laboratory: A laboratory set up in a satellite orbiting the earth for experiments in zero gravity. Time period of orbit: The time in which a satellite in the orbit makes one complete revolution. or for observation of rays or particles coming towards earth.Space Exploration : 321 : Space exploration: Study of earth’s atmosphere or surface or of heavenly bodies by man-made space vehicles. Sun-synchronous orbit: An orbit in which satellite makes accurately an integral number of revolution in 24 hours.

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