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ংং A person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a goal ংং A person who guides others, showing the way by example, and creating an environment in which other members feel actively involved in the entire process I. Kurt Lewin’s Leadership Styles ংং In 1939, Lewin led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership ংং The 3 a. b. c. major styles of leadership are: Authoritarian/ Autocratic Participative/ Democratic Delegative/ Laissez-Faire
A. Autocratic Leadership ংং Used when leaders tell their members what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers ংং Works best when there is no need for input, and when any input would not strengthen the outcome of the decision ংং Managers are less concerned with investing their own leadership development, and prefer to simply work on tasks on hand ংং In Lewin’s experiments, he found that this caused the most level of discontent ADVANTAGES Enables a quick decision-making process Leaders will be powerful enough to control member Reduced stress due to increased control A more productive group while the leader is watching
DISADVANTAGES: Fear and resentment Dependency culture Poor leadership skills Increase workload for manager
B. Democratic Leadership ংং Democratic leaders encourage group members to participate, but retain the final say over the decision-making process ংং Useful in highly competitive and complex industries where it allows the best ideas to rise to the top, and facilitates the rising and establishment of future leaders within the organization ংং Normally used when you have part of the information, and your members have other parts ংং Using this style is of mutual benefit- it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions
ADVANTAGES Positive work environment Creative thinking Reduced employee turnover DISADVANTAGES Lengthy decision making Danger of pseudo participation C. ংং Managers gain instant authority with their position ংং Employees are rewarded for their ability to adhere to the rules and follow procedure perfectly ংং Bureaucratic systems gradually develops over a long period of time. and hence. and hence are more commonly found in large and old businesses ংং Bureaucratic leaders work “by the book”. business-like attitude in the workplace and between each other. They follow rules rigorously and ensure that their staff follows procedure precisely ংং You will often find this leadership role in a situation where the work environment is dangerous and specific sets of procedures are necessary to ensure safety ংং Leaders expect the employees to display a formal. it often leads to poorly defined roles and lack of motivation ংং Based on Lewin’s experiments. Bureaucratic Leadership ংং Bureaucratic leaders work “by the book”. it is the least productive of all 3 groups ADVANTAGE: subordinates get all the decision-making power to make decisions so they may feel motivated DISADVANTAGE: subordinates may not be coordinated and that work may be unstructured II. They follow rules rigorously and ensure that their staff follows procedure precisely ংং You will often find this leadership role in a situation where the work environment is dangerous and specific sets of procedures are necessary to ensure safety . Laissez-Faire ংং This style is to minimize the leader’s involvement in decision-making. allowing people to make their own decisions. although they may still be responsible for the outcome ংং While this style can be effective in situations where group members are highly qualified in an area of expertise.
and recognition. as when the nurse manager gives a staff member an extra day off in exchange for working during the weekend. However.The power granted to an individual or a group by virtue of position. allowing days off. hospital. They are critical to the operation of most health-care organizations and could cause considerable trouble if they refused to work. that organization would eventually cease to exist. services. aides. recognition. PATIENTS . economic. as when a nurse administrator transfers a “bothersome” staff nurse to another unit after the staff nurse pointed out a physician error. and other personnel by virtue of their position in the hierarchy. which may be physical. another source of nurse power. promotions.The promise of money. nursing home) would be impeded if all the nursing aides failed to appear one morning. NURSES have expert power and authority over licensed practical nurses.at first appear to be relatively powerless within the health-care organization. Many of them are readily available to nurses. however. or NEGATIVE. how the work of the organization (e. or other benefits Expertise .may also appear to be relatively powerless because of their low positions in the hierarchy. and so on. Sources of Power There are numerous sources of power. Reward . 2. Authority .are able to reward people with salary increases. ☝ II. one person or group can impose its will on another person or group The use of power can be POSITIVE. or psychological Various groups of people in a healthcare organization have different types of power available to them: 1. MANAGERS . They can also cause economic or psychological pain for the people who work for them.The special knowledge an individual is believed to possess Coercion .The threat of pain or of harm.POWER I. c.g. d. Patients can reward health-care workers by praising them to their supervisors. b. goods. but some of them are: a. Imagine. ASSISTANTS AND TECHNICIANS . 3. . if patients refused to use the services of a particular organization. Power Defined POWER is the ability to influence other people despite their resistance. particularly through their authority to evaluate and fire people but also through their responsibility for making assignments. 4.. ☝ ☝ Using power. They can also cause problems by complaining about them.
recognition. Feeling that people listen to your ideas. Confidence in your ability to do your work well ■ Impact.” according to Max Weber Empowerment is a psychological state. Empowering Nurses POWER is the actual or potential actual ability to “recognize one’s will even against the resistance of others. They do not want to feel unimportant or insignificant to society or to the organization in which they work. Confidence in your ability to do your work well ■ Impact. ☝ Given these definitions. and entitlement. They want to be heard. enjoying it. a feeling of competence. Feeling empowered includes the following: ■ Self-determination. that you can make a difference ☝ The opposite of empowerment is DISEMPOWERMENT. and taking it seriously ■ Competence. it is possible to be powerful and yet not feel empowered. like most people. and to be respected. Feeling free to decide how to do your work ■ Meaning. Caring about your work. to be recognized.How to increase your expert power: Participate in interdisciplinary conferences Attend continuing education offerings Attend professional organization meetings Read books and journals related to your nursing practice Problem-solve and brainstorm with colleagues Return to school to earn a higher degree III. Feeling that people listen to your ideas. control. Inability to control one’s own practice leads to frustration and sometimes failure. and taking it seriously ■ Competence. Feeling free to decide how to do your work ■ Meaning. Nurses. Work overload and lack of meaning. Caring about your work. that you can make a difference ■ Self-determination. . or reward produce emotional exhaustion and burnout. enjoying it. Power refers to ability. and empowerment refers to feelings. want to have some power and to feel empowered. to be valued.
” ⇲ “I don’t have the skills to delegate well. It is the connecting link between organizing for work and getting the job done. or experience required. ⇲ “Effective delegation must be two-way: responsibility given.” -Stephen Covey in First things First. ⇲ “I don’t have enough time to delegate properly. Utilization of policies and procedures 4. What is Directing? Is the issuance of orders. ⇲ Delegation helps in time management.” ⇲ “The people to whom I could delegate are already too busy. don’t have the knowledge. ⇲ Manager’s can demonstrate professionalism and effectiveness with the help of delegation. when work is in high volume.so that in doing their job well. the interpersonal process by which nursing personnel accomplish the objectives of nursing. trust. nurses can maximally contribute to the organization’s goals in general and to the nursing service objectives in particular. WHY DELEGATION IS REQUIRED? ⇲ “Delegation is an effective tool in grooming the future managers or leaders”. WHY DELEGATION IS NOT PERFORMED OFTEN? Here are the few reasons why managers do not delegate work. assignments and instructions that enable the nursing personnel to understand what are expected of them. Making decisions II. Supervision of personnel 5. responsibility received.DIRECTING I. whether it is a work task or a non-work task. to do something. A. Staff development 8.” . Coordination of services 6. Delegation of work to be performed 3. or aren’t ready to accept this level of responsibility. 2. Is a physical act of nursing management. Included in Directing…… 1. even the power. Supervision and guidance .” ⇲ “It’s easier to do it myself than to ask someone else. opportunity to grow and recognition” B. WHAT IS DELEGATION? ⇲ Delegation is the act of giving someone else the responsibility. skills. Communication 7. the member – gets sense of accomplishment. ⇲ “Delegation creates the WIN-WIN situation – The manager and organization – gets the work done faster.
PRINCIPLES OF DELEGATION? 1. Responsibility for maintaining morale or the opportunity to say a few words of encouragement to the staff especially to the new ones. (Whoever performed the task will be the one to sign it) 3. Quantity and quality of work performed (How many? What is the result?) 2. I’ll end up looking bad. (Expertise can be achieved through training & experience) 4.” ⇲ “Risk taking is not encouraged in this organization. Authority to sign one’s name is never delegated. SUPERVISION Is providing guidelines for the accomplishment of a task or activity with initial direction and periodic inspection of the actual accomplishment of the task or activity. and delegation is risky. and influencing the outcome of a person’s performance of an activity. It is the active process of directing. Delegate both interesting and uninteresting tasks. Overall responsibility. (They will loose trust to mgr) 2. (Due process) 4. (to bring out the best in them) (To challenge) 3.” C. (boost morale & build up self confidence) 5. Select the right person to whom the job is to be delegated. D. (Clarification minimizes problems & promote teamwork) 7. “Hot potato” (It will cause clinical nurses to assume that mgrs are incompetent to handle these concerns) III. (give accountability & authority) 2. The time within which the work is accomplished (Meet deadline) 3. authority and accountability for satisfactory completion of all activities in the unit. What Cannot be Delegated? 1. Avoid gaps (Occurs when a job is left out w/ no one taking responsibility) and overlaps (2 or more people have responsibility for the same job). Evaluating the staff and/or taking necessary corrective or disciplinary action.⇲ “I’ve been let down in the past. Delegate in advance. (They will not assume full responsibility) 5. (Describe the specific results expected out of the activities to be performed) 6. FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN SUPERVISION 1. A. Consult before delegating. guiding. and if they don’t get the job done. The proper and economic utilization of resources(Cost cutting) . Jobs that are too technical and those that involve trust and confidence. Delegate gradually. Provides subordinates with enough time to learn.
2. Ability to communicate well in both spoken and written language.4. A. Techniques in Supervision ংং Observation of the worker while making the rounds (Charting @ 8 am. esp in public it build resentment. Fairness in dealing with employees. Qualities of Good Supervision Good technical. The amount of assistance needed by the worker (What can you offer) 5. Ability to accept changes and consider them as challenges. B. and Advocacy for nurses and nursing. Firmness with flexibility to adjust to the needs of the situation. Willingness to grow and develop. (This will accept willingly & as a challenge) (given harshly. C. The need for staff development or CPE. Unstable staffing and work schedules . Failure to provide assistance or complete information on patient care. ংং Conflict is a warning to managers that something is wrong and needs solution through ⥤ Problem solving and clarification of objectives ⥤ Establishing of group norms. Good decision-making skills. Factors that provoke conflicts 1. Familiarity with hospital and nursing policies that affect patient care. ংং It is a type of behavior involving two or more parties in opposition to each other. Varying perception of work situation can be caused by difficult responsibilities 3. Dignified and pleasing personality Ability to motivate employees and provide opportunities for continuing professional growth and development. How the workers do their job) ংং Spot checking of charts through nursing audits Completion of entry) ংং Asking the patients about the care they receive (If satisfied) ংং Looking into general condition of the units (Identify the needs of the units) ংং Getting feedback from co-workers or other supervisors or relatives (To assess) ংং Asking question discretely to find out the problems they encounter or drawing out suggestions from the workers for improvement of their work or work situation. ংং A clash between two opposing and oftentimes hostile parties. and ⥤ Determination of group boundaries. Conflict ংং A dynamic process. poor quality of work) IV. ability to listen. managerial and human relation skills.
Intrapersonal – occur within one individual 2. b. 2. Interpersonal – occur between two or more individuals 3. Behavioral – it is a perceived condition that exists between two parties. Overt Conflict .Obvious or unconcealed b. Horizontal or line or staff conflict arises as a common struggle or strife (Trouble) between departments or services wherein the degree of interdependence and collaboration determines the success in achieving shared goals and objectives.4. Process – conflict can be defined as “what occurs when real or perceived conflict exists in goals. beliefs. Overt and Covert a. Intergroup – occur between two or more groups i. values. a. Vertical and Horizontal a. 7. Types of Conflict 1. ideas. Individual or Group or Department – due to goal incompatibility & opportunity for interfering achievement of the other. or action of two or more parties. Conflict Resolution . attitudes.) B. Disagreement over policies and procedures 6. Conflict can be viewed from both BEHAVIORAL and PROCESS standpoints. feelings. Intra group – occur within one group 4. Competition for scarce resources (Insufficient resources). b. and ⥤ Lack of shared perception and attitudes.e Difference in opinion C. 3. perception of the events by supervisor & manager.. Vertical conflict – Differences in opinions between superiors and subordinates are caused most often by: ⥤ Inadequacy in communication ⥤ Opposing interest. It results in harbored feelings that drain both physical and psychological energy. (Diff. Highly differentiated work positions or role change 5. 1. Covert Conflict – is more dangerous because it is not what it appears on the surface. Poorly expressed relationships including unfulfilled expectations.
Forcing – method that yield an immediate end to the conflict but leaves the cause of the conflict unresolved. This is accomplished by: Complementing one’s opponent Downplaying differences Focusing on minor areas of agreement. Collaboration – This is the most effective method of conflict resolution. Competition – exertion of power at the subordinates expense. ☝ This method maybe appropriate to solve minor problems but issues also remain unresolved & may later resurface 6. alternatives are explored. ☝ It is an assertive position that fosters conflict resolution on the part of the subordinates.method commonly used by groups who do not want to do something that may interfere with their relationships.Self-sacrifice. Smoothing – where disagreements are ignored so that surface harmony is maintained in a state of peaceful co-existence. 3. (Sharing of opinions to solve/address the problem) It focuses on problem-solving to find mutually satisfying solutions. 5. 7. Neutrality is maintained at all cost The participants never acknowledge that a conflict arise 2. This enforces the rule of discipline. Some of the basic rules on mediating a conflict between two or more parties are: . Avoidance . and threats are considered until disagreements are resolved. It is used to preserve harmony and gain social credits that can be used later.1. Accommodation . Withdrawing one party is removed thereby making it possible to resolve the issue. (The superior may issue orders but the subordinate will lack commitment) It may be appropriate in life or death situations but is otherwise inappropriate. as if little disagreements exist. The person neglects his own needs to meet the goals of the other party. (By Supervisor or Manager) It is expressed through suppression of conflict through authority obedience approach. It is appropriate when: The person is wrong The opponent is more powerful The issue is more important to someone else. It produces the same results as smoothing. ☝ Focus on minor problems but the real problem still exist & need to attend to. (Building 1 goal w/c is to solve problem) Problems are identified. 4. Inspires mutual attention to the problem and utilizes the talents of all parties.
Select a time that is best for all parties. (Set a specific date to talk & arrange & fix the concern) Create environment that makes people comfortable to make suggestions. (Develop a plan for successful resolution) Follow-up on the progress of the plan. and helps translate conflict into a positive or constructive force. (Open forum to voice out other concern) Create a two-way communication. (Focus on issues & not on personality. Establish clear guidelines and make them known to all. 6. Build a bridge of understanding. (Give feedback to participants regarding their cooperation in resolving the conflict) Conflict management keeps conflict from escalating. 5. 7. . establish & protect self-respect) Emphasize shared interests. 4. Do not postpone indefinitely. (Interaction Verbal or written) Stress a peaceful resolution rather than confrontation. Examine all solutions and select the most acceptable to both parties. makes work productive. 2. 3.1.
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