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and reproductive tissues begin to mature is called PUBERTY. CHANGES AT PUBERTY Increase in height Change in body shape Voice change Increased activity of sweat and sebaceous glands Development of sex organs Reaching Mental, Intellectual and Emotional Maturity Hormones from pituitary stimulate testes and ovaries to release testosterone( in male) and estrogen (in female)
Released in the blood stream and reach parts of the body ( Target site)
Stimulate changes in the body at onset of puberty
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS Testis- Produces male gamete (sperm). Secretes male hormone (testosterone).
Located outside abdominal cavity in SCROTUM because sperm formation requires a lower temperature than the normal body temperature. Epididymis- Temporary storage of sperms. Vas deferens- Transports sperm into urethra. Urethra- forms a common passage for both the sperms and urine Penis- Copulatory organ II) ACCESSORY GLANDS Prostate glandSecretion keeps the sperms active. Seminal vesicleSecretion provides nourishment and mobility to sperm. Cowper’s gland-Produces white viscous and alkaline secretion. SEMEN – Sperm and secretion of assessor glands. SPERM – consist of Head, Middle piece and Tail.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Ovaries- located close to the lateral walls of pelvic cavity. Maturation of ovum takes place and secretes female hormones ( estrogen and progesterone). Fallopian tube/oviduct- Site for fertilization Uterusembryo attaches here for further development o Nourishment of foetus o Contractions expel the baby out during birth. Cervix- the cervix projects slightly into an elastic muscular tube ,the vagina Vagina/birth canal- receives sperm and act as birth canal When a girl is born, the ovaries already contain thousand s of immature eggs which start maturing at the time of puberty. Menarche - commencement of menstrual cycle at puberty which marks the beginning of reproductive life of the human female.
Menopause - cessation of menstrual cycle which marks the end of the reproductive life of the human female. MENSTRUAL CYCLE – The cycle includes the maturation of egg, its release, thickening of uterine wall and its breakdown if pregnancy does not occur. FERTILISATION The union of sperm and egg is called fertilization It takes place in fallopian tube The fertilized egg ( the zygote) gets implanted in the lining of the uterus The embryo gets nutrition and oxygen from the mother’s blood with the help of PLACENTA. The child birth takes place after nine months as a result of rhythmic contraction of the muscles in the uterus.
Implantation- Attachment of embryo to the lining of uterus.
Placenta - A connection between the mother and the foetus. Gestation period - The period between fertilization and birth.
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Need and methods of family planning To check population explosion To maintain general and reproductive health of women Birth control methods
Mechanical - i) Diaphragam ii) IUCD iii) Condom Surgical - i) Tubectomy in female ii) Vasectomy in male
Chemical - i) Vaginal pills ii) Oral pills STDs Infectious diseases which are spread by sexual contact. Examples; Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Trichomoniasis and AIDS.