# Stoichiometry Stoichiometry

Chapter Chapter 9 9

Version 1.0

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Objectives
• Define stoichiometry • Solve stoichiometric problems involving mole-ratio method
– Mass-mass relation – Mass-volume relation – Volume-volume relation

• Define excess reagent, limiting reagent, and percent yield • Differentiate theoretical from actual yield 2

A Short Review

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• The molar mass of an element is its atomic mass in grams. • It contains 6.022 x 1023 atoms (Avogadro’s number) of the element.

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5 .The molar mass of an element or compound is the sum of the atomic masses of all its atoms.

0 amu Na + 35.7 amu Molecular Compounds Water (H2O) Aspirin (C 9H8O4 ) 2(1.0 amu O = 18.0 amu 9(12.0 amu H) + 16.7 amu Ni + 2(35.0) amu H) + 6(12.Formula Weight • Formula weight: weight the sum of the atomic weights in atomic mass units (amu) of all atoms in a compound’s formula: Ionic Compounds Sodium chloride (NaCl) 23.0 amu O) = 237.0 amu .0 amu H) + 4(16.5 amu Nickel(II) chloride hydrate 58.0 amu C) + 8(1.5 amu Cl = 58.0 amu O) = 180.5 amu Cl) + (NiCl2•6H2 O) 12(1.

. • For comparison. it tells nothing about whether a compound is ionic or molecular. we use formula weight for ionic compounds and molecular weight for molecular compounds.Formula Weight • Formula weight can be used for both ionic and molecular compounds. • Molecular weight should be used only for molecular compounds.

number of a substance of molecules gramsgrams of a monoatomic element molar number mass of= moles = molar mass = 23 number 6.022 of x 10 of molecules/mole the element substance number ofmoles moles the 8 .

Avogadro’s Number of Particles 6 x 10 Particles 23 1 MOLE Molar Mass 9 .

• For calculations of mole-mass-volume relationships. – The chemical equation must be balanced. 2 Al + Fe2O3 → 2Fe + Al2O3 2 mol 1 mol 2 mol 1 mol 10 ∆ . – The number in front of a formula represents the number of moles of the reactant or product. The equation is balanced.

Introduction to Stoichiometry: The Mole-Ratio Method 11 .

.• Stoichiometry: The area of chemistry that deals with the quantitative relationships between reactants and products. • Mole Ratio: a ratio between the moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction. – The coefficients used in mole ratio expressions are derived from the coefficients used in the balanced 12 equation.

u s e t h e c o e f f ic ie n t s i n u s e m o la r m a s s (g / m o l) t h e b a la n c e d e q u a ti o n a s a c o n v e r s io n f a c t o r a s a c o n v e r s io n fa c t o r .Stoichiometry • Stoichiometry: the study of mass relationships in chemical reactions – following is an overview of the types of calculations we study Y o u a re g iv en o n e o f th es e A n d a s k e d t o f in d o n e o f t h e s e G ram s of A M o le s o f A M o le s o f B G ram s of B F r o m g r a m s t o m o le s . u s e m o la r m a s s (g / m o l) a s a c o n v e r s i o n f a c to r F r o m m o le s t o m o le s . F r o m m o l e s to g r a m s .

Examples 14 .

1 mol N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 3 mol 2 mol 1 mol N 2 3 mol H 2 15 .

1 mol N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 3 mol 2 mol 3 mol H 2 2 mol NH 3 16 .

• The mole ratio is used in the solution of every type of stoichiometry problem. 17 .• The mole ratio is used to convert the number of moles of one substance to the corresponding number of moles of another substance in a stoichiometry problem.

18 . 3.The Mole Ratio Method 1. Convert the quantity of starting substance to moles (if it is not already moles) 2. Convert the moles of desired substance to the units specified in the problem. Convert the moles of starting substance to moles of desired substance.

NH3 N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) 2NH3 ( g) – first find how many moles of NH3 are in 1 mol NH3 7.0 g NH3 x 2 mol NH3 = mol N2 .50 g NH3 x 17.50 g of ammonia.0 g NH3 – next find how many moles of N2 are required to produce of NH3 1 mol NH3this many 1 molmoles N2 7.Stoichiometry • Problem: how many grams of nitrogen.50 g of 7. are required to produce 7.50 g NH NH3 3 x = mol NH3 17. N2.

0 g NH3 x 1 mol N2 2 mol NH3 x 28.0 g N2 1 mol N2 = 6.Stoichiometry • Finally convert moles of N2 to grams of N2 and now do the math 7.18 g N2 .50 g NH3 x 1 mol NH3 17.

Identify the starting substance from the data given in the problem statement.  1 mole  moles = grams    molar mass  21 .Step 1. Determine the number of moles of starting substance. if it is not already done. Convert the quantity of the starting substance to moles.

moles of desired substance in the equation mole ratio = moles of starting substance in the equation 22 .Step 2. The number of moles of each substance in the balanced equation is indicated by the coefficient in front of each substance. Use these coefficients to set up the mole ratio. Determine the mole ratio of the desired substance to the starting substance.

Step 2.  moles of desired substance    in the equation  moles of desired substance = moles of starting substance   moles of starting substance    in the equation   23 . Multiply the number of moles of starting substance (from Step 1) by the mole ratio to obtain the number of moles of desired substance. Determine the mole ratio of the desired substance to the starting substance.

500 mol PbCl 2  2 mol NaCl  24 .In the following reaction how many moles of PbCl2 are formed if 5.000 moles NaCl   = 2.000 moles of NaCl react? 2NaCl(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) → PbCl2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)  moles of desired substance in the equation  moles of desired substance = moles of starting substance    moles of starting substance in the equation   1 mol PbCl 2  moles of PbCl 2 = 5.

Calculate the desired substance in the units specified in the problem. multiply the moles of the desired substance (from Step 2) by the appropriate factor to convert moles to the units required. • If the answer is to be in moles. the calculation is complete • If units other than moles are wanted. 25 .Step 3.

Step 3. Calculate the desired substance in the units specified in the problem. To calculate grams: grams = moles x    1 mol   18.10 grams H 2O = 5.  molar mass  1.02 g H 2O  90.000 mol H 2O    1 mol H 2O  26 .

 6. To calculate atoms: atoms = moles   1 mol   23 Na  6.022 x 10 Na atoms  3.011 x 1024 Na atoms = 5.Step 3.000 moles Na atoms   1 mol Na atoms   27 . Calculate the desired substance in the units specified in the problem.022 x 1023atoms  2.

022 x 1023molecules  3.011 x 10 molecules H 2O = 5.  6.Step 3.000 moles H 2O   1 mol H O 2   28 . Calculate the desired substance in the units specified in the problem. To calculate molecules: molecules = moles x   1 mol   23  6.022 x 10 H 2O molecules  24 3.

Stoichiometry • Problem 1. What mass of aluminum oxide is required to prepare 27 g of aluminum? electrolysis Al2 O3 ( s) Al( s) + O2 ( g) • Problem 2.83 mol of urea? ( NH2 ) 2 CO(aq) + H2 O Urea urease 2NH3 (aq) + CO2 (g) . How many grams each of CO2 and NH3 are produced from 0.

Mole-Mole Calculations 30 .

Phosphoric Acid • Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is one of the most widely produced industrial chemicals in the world. Ca5(PO4)3. • Most of the world’s phosphoric acid is produced by the wet process which involves the reaction of phosphate rock. Ca5(PO4)3F(s) + 5H2SO4 → 3H3PO4 + HF + 5CaSO4 31 .F with sulfuric acid (H2SO4).

Ca5(PO4)3F + 5H2SO4 → 3H3PO4 + HF + 5CaSO4 1 mol 5 mol 3 mol 1 mol 5 mol Step 1 Moles starting substance: 10.0 mol H2SO4 Step 2 The conversion needed is moles H2SO4 → moles H3PO4 Mole Ratio 3 mol H 3PO 4 10 mol H 2SO 4 x = 6 mol H 3PO 4 5 mol H 2SO 4 32 .Calculate the number of moles of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) formed by the reaction of 10 moles of sulfuric acid (H2SO4).

Ca5(PO4)3F + 5H2SO4 → 3H3PO4 + HF + 5CaSO4 1 mol 5 mol 3 mol 1 mol 5 mol Step 1 The starting substance is 10.Calculate the number of moles of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) that react with 10 moles of Ca5(PO4)3F.0 mol Ca5(PO4)3F Step 2 The conversion needed is moles Ca5(PO4)3F → moles H2SO4 Mole Ratio 5 mol H 2SO4 10 mol Ca 5 (PO4 )3F x = 50 mol H 2SO4 1 mol Ca 5 (PO4 )3F 33 .

Mole-Mass Calculations 34 .

1. we need to convert it to moles. The object of this type of problem is to calculate the mass of one substance that reacts with or is produced from a given number of moles of another substance in a chemical reaction. 2. 35 . If the mass of the starting substance is given.

4.3. 36 . We use the mole ratio to convert moles of starting substance to moles of desired substance. We can then change moles of desired substance to mass of desired substance if called for by the problem.

Examples 37 .

00 mol H 3PO 4   = 13.3 mol H 2SO 4  3 mol H 3PO4  38 Mole Ratio .Calculate the number of moles of H2SO4 necessary to yield 784 g of H3PO4.00 mol H 3PO4  98.  5 mol H 2SO4  8. Step 2 Convert grams of H3PO4 to moles of H3PO4.0 g H 3PO4  Step 3 Convert moles of H3PO4 to moles of H2SO4 by the mole-ratio method. Method 1 Step by Step Ca5(PO4)3F+ 5H2SO4 → 3H3PO4 + HF + 5CaSO4 Step 1 The starting substance is 784 grams of H3PO4.  1 mol H 3PO4  784 g H 3PO4   = 8.

3 mol H 2SO 4  98.Calculate the number of moles of H2SO4 necessary to yield 784 g of H3PO4 Method 2 Continuous Ca5(PO4)3F+ 5H2SO4 → 3H3PO4 + HF + 5CaSO4 The conversion needed is grams H3PO4 → moles H3PO4 → moles H2SO4 Mole Ratio  1 mol H 3PO 4   5 mol H 2SO 4  784 g H 3PO 4     = 13.0 g H 3PO 4   3mol H 3PO 4  39 .

0 mol NH 3   = 18. Method 1 Step by Step N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 Step 1 The starting substance is 12.0 moles of NH3.  3 mol H 2  12. 2 1  m o = l H Mole Ratio 3   2.0 moles of NH3 Step 2 Calculate moles of H2 by the mole-ratio method.0 g H g . 02 1 8 2 6 2 2 .0 40 .Calculate the number of grams of H2 required to form 12.0 mol H 2  2 mol NH 3  Step 3 Convert moles of H2 to grams of H2.

0 g H 2 2   2 mol NH 3   41 .0 moles of NH3.02 g H 2  12.Calculate the number of grams of H2 required to form 12.0 mol NH 3    1mol H  = 36. Method 2 Continuous N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 The conversion needed is moles NH3 → moles H2 → grams H2 Mole Ratio  3 mol H 2   2.

Mass-Mass Calculations 42 .

43 . 1. The mole ratio is then used to determine moles of desired substance. 3. The moles of desired substance are converted to mass of desired substance.Solving mass-mass stoichiometry problems requires all the steps of the mole-ratio method. 2. The mass of starting substance is converted to moles.

Mass-mass Relations Mm u N u mu = mg • Mm g N g mu = mass of unknown substance mg = mass of given substance Mmu = molar mass of the given substance Mmg = molar mass of the given substance Nu = coefficient of the unknown in the balanced equation Ng = coefficient of the given substance in the balanced equation 44 .

9 moles NH 3  3 mol H 2  45 .4 moles H 2  2. grams → moles  1 mol H 2  112 g H 2   = 55.  2 mol NH 3  55. Convert 112 g of H2 to moles.02 g H 2  Step 2 Calculate the moles of NH3 by the mole ratio method.Calculate the number of grams of NH3 formed by the reaction of 112 grams of H2.4 moles H 2   = 36. N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 Method 1 Step by Step Step 1 The starting substance is 112 grams of H2.

moles → grams  17.9 moles NH 3   = 629 g NH 3  1 mol NH 3  46 .Calculate the number of grams of NH3 formed by the reaction of 112 grams of H2.0 g NH 3  36. N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 Method 1 Step by Step Step 3 Convert moles NH3 to grams NH3.

N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 Method 2 Continuous grams H2 → moles H2 → moles NH3 → grams NH3  1 mol H 2   2 mol NH 3  112 g H 2     2.02 g H 2   3 mol H 2   17.Calculate the number of grams of NH3 formed by the reaction of 112 grams of H2.0 g NH 3    = 629 g NH 3  1 mol NH 3  47 .

Mass-Volume Calculations 48 .

Mass-volume Relations • Remember: – 1 mole of any substance occupies 22.4 L – Gases are assumed to behave as ideal gases – The reaction must take place at STP (standard temperature and pressure) where T = 0o C = 273 K P = 1 atm = 760 mm Hg As gas not in STP must be converted to 49 .

50 .

Gas Stoichiometry Primary conversions involved in stoichiometry. 51 .

Mole-Volume Calculations Mass-Volume Calculations 52 .

4 L volu = m g • • Mm g N g 1 mol given For unknown mass N u 1 mol given m u = v g • Mm u • • Ng 22.Mass-volume Relations For unknown volume Nu 1 22.4 L 53 .

Mass-volume Relations volu = volume of unknown substance mu = mass of unknown substance mg = given mass vg = given volume Mmg = molar mass of the given substance Mmu = molar mass of the unknown substance Nu = coefficient of the unknown in the balanced equation Ng = coefficient of the given substance in the balanced equation 54 .

The conversion is moles KClO3 → moles O2 → liters O2 55 .500 mol of potassium chlorate? • Step 1 Write the balanced equation 2 KClO3 → 2 KCl + 3 O2 • Step 2 The starting amount is 0.What volume of oxygen (at STP) can be formed from 0.500 mol KClO3.

using the mole-ratio method.What volume of oxygen (at STP) can be formed from 0. Calculate the moles of O2.  3 mol O2  (0.500 mol KClO3 )  = 0. Convert moles of O2 to liters of O2 22.750 mol O2 )   = 16.8 L O2  1 mol  56 .750 mol O 2   2 mol KClO3  • Step 4.500 mol of potassium chlorate? 2 KClO3 → 2KCl + 3 O2 • Step 3.4 L   (0.

500 mol of potassium chlorate? The problem can also be solved in one continuous calculation.8 L O2   2 mol KClO3   1 mol  57 . 2 KClO3 → 2KCl + 3 O2  3 mol O2   22.4 L  (0.500 mol KClO3 )    = 16.What volume of oxygen (at STP) can be formed from 0.

Volume-Volume Calculations 58 .

Volume-volume Relations This can be solved by ratio and proportion Nu vu = vg • Ng vu = volume of unknown substance vg= volume of given substance Nu = number of moles of unknown substance from the balanced equation ng = number of moles of given substance from the balanced equation 59 .

4 L STP 1 volume Y volume + Cl2(g) 1 mol Cl2 22.4 L STP 2 volumes 2Y volumes 60 .For reacting gases at constant temperature and pressure: Volume-volume relationships are the same as mole-mole relationships. H2(g) 1 mol H2 22.4 L STP 1 volume Y volume → 2HCl(g) 2 mol HCl 2 x 22.

Calculate by using reacting volumes: 2H2(g) 2 mol 2 x 22.4 L 2 volumes 61 .4 L 2 volumes + O2(g) → 2H2O(g) 1 mol 22.4 L 1 volume 2 mol 2 x 22.What volume of oxygen will react with 150 L of hydrogen to form water vapor? What volume of water vapor will be formed? Assume that both reactants and products are measured at STP.

What volume of oxygen will react with 150 L of hydrogen to form water vapor? What volume of water vapor will be formed? 2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(g)  1 vol O 2   (150 L H 2 )  = 75 L O 2   2 vol H 2   2 vol H 2 O   (150 L H 2 )  = 150 L H O 2   2 vol H 2  62 .

ml H 2  = 200. mL of hydrogen to form ammonia? What volume of ammonia will be formed? N2(g) + 3H2(g) → 2NH3(g)  1 vol N 2  600. mL N 2   3 vol H 2   2 vol NH 3  = 400. mL NH 3 600.What volume of nitrogen will react with 600. ml H 2    3 vol H 2  63 .

Limiting-Reactant and Yield Calculations 64 .

Limiting Reactant/Reagent 65 .

• The limiting reactant/reagent is one of the reactants in a chemical reaction. 66 . • The limiting reactant limits the amount of product that can be formed. • It is called the limiting reactant because the amount of it present is insufficient to react with the amounts of other reactants that are present.

be constructed.2 . 67 9.How many From bicycles From eight three wheels From pedal four four assemblies frames four can be assembled bikes three can be bikes constructed. bikes can can be constructed. from the parts shown? The limiting part is the number of pedal assemblies.

3 .H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl + → 4 molecules Cl2 can form 8 molecules HCl 7 molecules H2 can form 14 molecules HCl Cl 3 molecules of limiting H remain 2 is the H is in excess reactant 2 2 68 9.

Steps Used to Determine the Limiting Reactant 69 .

70 . 3.1. which reactant is limiting. Calculate the amount of the other reactant required to react with the limiting reactant. the other reactant is in excess. as needed) formed from each reactant. then subtract this amount from the starting quantity of the reactant. This gives the amount of the substance that remains unreacted. Determine reactant that gives the least amount of product is the limiting reactant. Calculate the amount of product (moles or grams. (The 2.

Examples 71 .

0 mol H2 and 3.5 mol Cl2? Which compound is the limiting reagent? H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl Step 1 Calculate the moles of HCl that can form from each reactant.   2 mol HCl 4.0 mol HCl  1 mol Cl 2  Step 2 Determine the limiting reactant.How many moles of HCl can be produced by reacting 4.0 mol H 2   = 8. .0 mol HCl  1 mol H 2  2 mol HCl  3.5 mol Cl 2    = 7. The limiting reactant is Cl2 because it 72 produces less HCl than H2.

0 g of MgBr2 and 100.1 g MgBr2   1 mol MgBr2   1 mol AgBr   1 mol AgNO3   2 mol AgBr   187.0 g of AgNO3 are mixed together? How many grams of the excess reactant remain unreacted? MgBr2(aq) + 2AgNO3 (aq) → 2AgBr(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq) 2 = 102 g AgBr        184.How many grams of silver bromide (AgBr) can be formed when solutions containing 50.5 g AgBr ( 100.9 g AgNO3   2 mol AgNO3   1 mol AgBr  ( 50.0 g MgBr2 ) Step 1 Calculate the grams of AgBr that can form from each reactant.8 g AgBr  = 110. The conversion needed is g reactant → mol reactant → mol AgBr → g AgBr  1 mol MgBr   2 mol AgBr   187.8 g AgBr  .0 g AgNO3 )     73  169.

1 g MgBr2   1 mol MgBr2   1 mol AgBr   1 mol AgNO3   2 mol AgBr   187. The limiting reactant is MgBr2 because it forms less Ag Br.0 g of AgNO3 are mixed together? How many grams of the excess reactant remain unreacted? MgBr2(aq) + 2AgNO3 (aq) → 2AgBr(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq) Step 2 Determine the limiting reactant.5 g AgBr ( 100.8 g AgBr  = 102 g AgBr ( 50.8 g AgBr  = 110.0 g AgNO3 )     74  169.9 g AgNO3   2 mol AgNO3   1 mol AgBr  .0 g MgBr2 )        184.  1 mol MgBr2   2 mol AgBr   187.How many grams of silver bromide (AgBr) can be formed when solutions containing 50.0 g of MgBr2 and 100.

The conversion needed is g MgBr2 → mol MgBr2 → mol AgNO3 → g AgNO3  1 mol MgBr2   2 mol AgNO3   169.3 g AgNO3    184.0 g AgNO3 .1 g MgBr2   1 mol MgBr2   1 mol AgNO3  The amount of MgBr2 that remains is 100.9 g AgNO3  ( 50.92.3 g AgNO3 = 7.How many grams of the excess reactant (AgNO3) remain unreacted? MgBr2(aq) + 2AgNO3 (aq) → 2AgBr(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq) Step 3 Calculate the grams of unreacted AgNO3.0 g MgBr2 )   = 92. First calculate the number of grams of AgNO3 that will react with 50 g of MgBr2.7 g AgNO75 3 .

Reaction Yield 76 .

The quantities of products calculated from equations represent the maximum yield (100%) of product according to the reaction represented by the equation. 77 .

This occurs because of side reactions and the fact that many reactions are reversible. 78 .Many reactions fail to give a 100% yield of product.

• The theoretical yield of a reaction is the calculated amount of product that can be obtained from a given amount of reactant. 79 . • The actual yield is the amount of product finally obtained from a given amount of reactant.

actual yield x 100 = percent yield theoretical yield 80 .• The percent yield of a reaction is the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield multiplied by 100.

0 g of silver bromide was obtained from the reaction: MgBr2(aq) + 2AgNO3 (aq) → 2AgBr(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq) Step 1 Determine the theoretical yield by calculating the grams of AgBr that can be formed.0 g MgBr (  2)  184. Calculate the percent yield if 375.8 g AgBr  = 408. The conversion needed is g MgBr2 → mol MgBr2 → mol AgBr → g AgBr  1 mol MgBr2  200.Silver bromide was prepared by reacting 200.0 g AgBr      1 mol MgBr2   1 mol AgBr  81 .0 g of magnesium bromide and an adequate amount of silver nitrate.1 g MgBr 2    2 mol AgBr   187.

Silver bromide was prepared by reacting 200.0 g of magnesium bromide and an adequate amount of silver nitrate. Calculate the percent yield if 375.0 g of silver bromide was obtained from the reaction:
MgBr2(aq) + 2AgNO3 (aq) → 2AgBr(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq) Step 2 Calculate the percent yield.

actual yield percent yield = x 100 theoretical yield
must have same units

must have same units

375.0 g AgBr x 100 = 91.9% percent yield = 408.0 g AgBr
82

Solve the following problems correctly. 1. Given the equation Al4C3 + 12 H2O 4 Al(OH)3 + 3 CH4

a. How many moles of water are needed to react with 100 g of Al4C3 ? b. How many moles of Al(OH)3 will be produced when 0.600 mol of CH4 is formed?

2. How many grams of zinc phosphate are formed when 10.0 g of Zn are reacted with phosphoric acid? 3 Zn + 2 H3PO4 Zn3(PO4)2 + 3 H2 83

Solve the following problems correctly.
1. Given the equation

4 FeS2 + 11 O2

2 Fe2O3 + 8 SO2

a. How many moles of Fe2O3 can be made from 1.00 mol of FeS2? b. How many moles of O2 are required to react with 4.5 mol of FeS2? c. If the reaction produces 1.55 mol of Fe2O3 , how many mol of SO2 are produced? d. How many grams of SO2 can be formed from 0.512 mol of FeS2?
84 e. How many grams of FeS2 are needed to produce 221

In the following equations, determine which reactant is the limiting reactant and which reactant is in excess. 1. 2 Bi(NO3)3 + 3 H2S 50.0 g 6.00 g Bi2S3 + 6 HNO3

2.

3 Fe + 40.0 g

4 H2O 16.0 g

Fe3O4

+

4 H2

85

540 mol of C2H2. what is the percent of CaC2 in the 86 commercial grade material? . determine which reactant is the limiting reactant and which reactant is in excess. 0. CaC2: CaC2 + 2 H2O C2H2 + Ca(OH)2 When 44. Assuming that all CaC2 was reacted to C2H2 . Acetylene (C2H2) can be manufactured by the reaction of water and calcium carbide.In the following equations.5 g of commercial grade (impure) calcium carbide is reacted. is produced.

87 .