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MARCH-APRIL 2013 voLuMe 16 nuMbeR 2
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Solar-friendly
US States
The surprising
answer to which
states have the
most solar energy.
Floating
Offshore Wind
Power Taking
Hold
Signals that the
sector is maturing.
Unlocking
Geothermal
Energy's Great
Potential
Our spotlight on
South America.
p. 68 p. 86 p. 79
100 Percent
Renewable
Energy
Crazy, Idealistic
or Acheivable?
SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 VOLUME 16 ISSUE 5
Show Preview:
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The solar industry
prepares to light
up Chicago.
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RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 3
PROJECT PROFILE
The Magnificent
London Array
54
36
36
COVER STORY
Going All In with
Renewable Energy
Can a region obtain 100
percent of its energy from
renewables? Elisa Wood
42
WIND
Floating Offshore
Wind Power Taking
Hold Signs are signalling
that the sector is maturing.
David Appleyard
49
WIND TECHNOLOGY
The Air Up There
Wind farm developers
are using remote sensing
technology for assessments
and operations.
James Montgomery
56
WIND
The Promise of the
Ukrainian Wind Market
Wind power in Ukraine
increased 98 percent
between 2011 and 2012.
Galina Shmidt
68
SOLAR
Solar-friendly US States
Which US states have the
most solar energy? The
answer may surprise you.
James Montgomery
75
SOLAR
PV Module Quality
Concerns Persist Even
though steps have been
made to curb the problem,
poor-quality PV modules
are still making their way
into the global marketplace.
Jennifer Runyon
features
ON THE COVER:
100 Percent Renewable
Energy: A Sneak Peak at
our 2014 Renewable Energy
World Conference and Expo
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4 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
departments & columns
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79
GEOTHERMAL
Exploring the Untapped
Potential of South American
Geothermal Energy What
will it take to make use of the vast
geothermal energy resource?
Meg Cichon
82
BIOENERGY
A New Win-Win? Carbon-
eating Microalgae as a
Biofuel Feedstock An Australian
company is using the carbon from
a coal plant to grow microalgae for
biofuel. Bruce Dorminey
86
HYDROPOWER
Ocean Energy Technologies
are Speeding To
Commercialization What many
thought would take decades may only
be a few years away. Meg Cichon
90
DISTRIBUTED ENERGY
The Virtual Power Plant
Promise A new model for renewable
energy integration. Tildy Bayar
7 Editors Letter
GettingSmartAbout
RenewableEnergy
8 Renewable Technology
CreatingBestPractice
forWindO&M
10 Renewable Policy
WilltheUK'sEnergyReform
HelpRenewables?
12 Regional News
NewsfromtheGlobal
RenewableEnergyIndustry
31 Te Big Question
CanCountriesReach100
PercentRenewableEnergy?
54 Project Profle
TheWorld'sLargest
OffshoreWindFarm
62 Show Preview
OffshoreWindExploredat
EWEA'sOFFSHORE2013
64 Data Points
SustainableEnergyForAll
66 Show Preview
SolarPowerInternational
LightsUpChicago
94 Calendar
94 Advertisers index
95 Training and
Educational Events
96 Last Word
MarineRenewables
andEnergySecurity
features
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RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 7
Getting Smart About Renewables
Renewable energy education and training opportunities are becoming
more widespread with each passing year. I am always amazed that a
story I wrote back in 2008 about universities offering master degree
programs in renewable energy is consistently, year-after-year, one of
the most read stories on RenewableEnergyWorld.com. This tells me
that every year more folks want to become educated about the ever-
growing renewable energy industry.
There are so many opportunities to learn in this field. In October,
Ill be attending SPI and speaking with solar industry executives who
will bring me up to speed on the most pressing issues they are facing.
Then three weeks later, Ill attend our very own Renewable Energy
World Conference and Expo. There Ill learn from experts across all of
the renewable energy industries. These in-person events really cant
be beat for on-the-spot concentrated educational opportunities.
For hands-on training opportunities, there are institutions all
across the globe offering technical training programs for all of the
renewable energy technologies. Weve started highlighting upcoming
events in our new Training and Educational Events section (p. 95).
Finally, there are a plethora of universities and colleges that offer
degrees in renewable energy, sustainable energy, clean tech and
more. No matter where you are in your career, keeping up with the
latest trends in renewable energy is a necessity. While we hope that
Renewable Energy World gives you a healthy dose of knowledge when
you need it, when it comes to face-to-face education or hands-on expe-
rience, conferences, training institutes, colleges and universities really
are the places to be.
From t he Edi tor
Jennifer Runyon, Chief Editor
PUBLISHER James M. Callihan
CHIEF EDITOR Jennifer Runyon
SENIOR EDITOR David Appleyard
ASSOCIATE EDITOR Tildy Bayar
ASSOCIATE EDITOR Meg Cichon
ASSOCIATE EDITOR James Montgomery
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Renewabl e Technol ogy
8 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
A clear sign of market maturity is
the development of industry best
practice. Covering issues such as
health and safety, navigation, envi-
ronmental impact and the like, in
the case of wind power a number of
significant best practices covering
operations and maintenance (O&M)
have recently been revealed.
The economic importance of
an effective O&M strategy can-
not be understated. As Romax
Technologys Dr. John Coultate says,
typically up to 75 percent of the
operational expenditure for a large
wind farm is related to the sites
O&M.
And where thoughts turn to cut-
ting costs, there are always market
opportunities. Launching A Guide
to Offshore Wind Operations and
Maintenance which explores the
relevant concepts and trends in the
sector GL Garrad Hassans Head
of Strategy and Policy, Joe Phillips,
affirms this, saying: Offshore wind
O&M is set to become a two billion
pound a year industry by 2025. The
opportunity this presents for new
entrants to the offshore wind space,
especially small- and medium-sized
enterprises, is huge.
Given the potential scale of the
O&M business, the thinking is that
the emergent nature of the offshore
wind market will allow small and
medium enterprises to exploit
opportunities based on their
local presence, commercial
and technical flexibility, or
specialized and innovative techno-
logical solutions.
But there are still opportuni-
ties onshore too. The American
Wind Energy Association (AWEA)
has released its Operation and
Maintenance Recommended
Practices 1.0, which, while explic-
itly not a guide to best practice,
does nonetheless offer suggestions
from experts in the field who have
refined their procedures over time.
AWEA believes that many new
companies and technicians are set
to join the wind sector, working to
operate and maintain the 45,000
or so individual U.S. machines. The
Recommended Practices is designed
to serve as a baseline for the provi-
sion of those services.
With O&M services becoming
an ever bigger and more important
business sector, best practice guides
and basic performance standards
are, likewise, becoming far more
desirable and documents such as
these are important bricks in that
road. But the best practices of the
future will undoubtedly change and
evolve as the industry adopts more
sophisticated technology, materials,
sensors and communications. That
means that the best practices of the
future wind industry will be shaped
by the companies that are getting
involved in O&M now.
Creating Best Practice
for Wind O&M
David Appleyard,
Senior Editor
1309REW_8 8 9/11/13 2:33 PM
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1309REW_9 9 9/11/13 2:33 PM
Renewabl e Pol i cy
10 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Currently wending its way through
Parliament, theUKgovernments
sweepingElectricity Market Reform
package aims to stimulate much-
needed investment in low-carbon
power generation by providing
stable and predictable incentives
for renewables, nuclear and carbon
capture and storage.
The package replaces the current
Renewables Obligation (RO) with
Contracts for Difference (CfDs),
which guarantee that power gener-
ators will earn a fixed amount, or
strike price, for their electricity.
If the wholesale electricity market
price is less than the strike price,
the generator will receive a top-
up sum; if the wholesale electricity
market price is more than the strike
price, the generator must pay back
the difference. This should enable
cert ainty for developers as revenues
will be based on a known price.
When draft strike prices were
published in June, theRenewable
Energy Association (REA) and
theSolar Trade Association took
issue with the biomass and PV
prices. Both groups say CfDs will
create additional risks for smaller
independent power producers
(IPPs), and that the strike prices are
not high enough to mitigate them.
Under CfDs, the REA says it will
be difficult forIPPs to make their
projects viable. Because IPPs
do not sell power directly, get-
ting it to market involves costs
not incurred by utilities.
Wind, wave and tidal trade
bodyRenewableUK has noted that,
while the Renewables Obligation
guarantees a 20-year return,
CfDs will only be available for
15, thereafter reverting to mar-
ket rates. This will certainly have
an impact on onshore and offshore
wind farms yet to be built, said
Maf Smith, RenewableUKs deputy
chief executive.
Juliet Davenport, CEO of renew-
able power supplier Good Energy,
believes CfDs risk skewing the mar-
ket towards nuclear and the Big Six
[utilities], at the expense of renew-
able energy and smaller suppliers.
They will restrict competition rather
than attracting the new investment
the industry needs. AndutilitySSE
has said CfDs will benefit nuclear
generators more than renewables:
a wind farm, for example, could be
curtailed when the electricity mar-
ket price is highest.
More than half ofUKrenewable
energy executives surveyed by the
REA believe that CfDs will encour-
age new renewable development.
The government says it is listening
but until we see the final Bill in early
2014, it is difficult to say whether its
mechanisms will encourage or sti-
fle the uptake of renewable energy in
the UK. The devil, as always, will be
in the details.
Will theUKs Energy Reform
Help Renewables?
Tildy Bayar,
Associate Editor
1309REW_10 10 9/11/13 2:34 PM
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R
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12 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Indian Wind Power Now Cost-competitive with Coal
ASIAWind power in India is
now cost-competitive with new
coal capacity, according to a
recent report from HSBC Global
Research.
Indias wind development had
stagnated in 2012 due to the can-
cellation of the Generation Based
Incentive (GBI). Between April and
December 2012 India added only
982.5 MW of wind power capacity,
less than half the previous years
amount, according to the Indian
Wind Turbine Manufacturers
Association. But HSBC expects
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Project Planned in China
U.S. aerospace, defense, secu-
rity and technology company
Lockheed Martin announced that
it will develop an ocean ther-
mal energy conversion (OTEC)
pilot power plant off the coast of
southern China. The plant will be
built for the Reignwood Group, a
Chinese resort developer.
The 10-MW plant will be the
largest OTEC facility in existence
and will supply 100 percent of the
power used by a green resort
planned by Reignwood, Lockheed
Martin said.
OTEC generates power using
the solar energy absorbed by the
ocean. While the sun warms the
water at the surface the depths
remain cold, creating a temper-
ature differential. In an OTEC
installation the warm surface
water is used to vaporize a liq-
uid with a low boiling point (for
example, ammonia); when vapor-
ized, the liquid expands, spinning
a turbine coupled to a genera-
tor. Cooler water is then pumped
from the deeper ocean layers to
cool the vapor, condensing it back
into a liquid for re-use.
The temperature differen-
tial between warm surface and
cool depths determines how effi-
cient an OTEC installation can be
the greater the difference, the
greater the efficiency so OTEC
is primarily suitable for equato-
rial regions where the temper-
ature differential is at least 20
degrees C all year. OTEC can also
be advantageous in island and
coastal regions where the added
expense of transporting energy
can drive up costs for other tradi-
tional power sources.
Like biomass and geothermal
power but unlike solar and wind,
OTEC can generate baseload
power, and the OTEC Foundation
claims that a commercial-scale
OTEC power plant could be used
to support a small city.
In addition to several other
green-energy-related projects
across a number of industries,
Reignwood Group says it is cur-
rently developing two large-scale
low-carbon resort communities
and that it has others planned
around China. OTEC technology
will help the company to develop
its first net-zero resort commu-
nity, it says.
Once the proposed plant is
developed and operational, the
two companies say they plan
to use the knowledge gained to
improve the design and build
additional commercial-scale
plants over the next 10 years.

ASIA
Rendering of Lockheed Martins
Proposed OTEC pilot plant. Credit
Lockheed Martin.
1309REW_12 12 9/11/13 2:34 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 13
Can Japan Sustain Its Solar Growth?
ASIA Despite forecasts pre-
dicting phenomenal growth
for Japans solar energy sector,
some analysts say the nations
boom may be hampered by
significant problems.
This year, driven by a gener-
ous feed-in tariff scheme, Japans
total solar capacity 7.4 GW at
the end of 2012 will roughly
double, according to Bloomberg
New Energy Finance, bringing
the nation to second place glob-
ally, behind only China, in solar
market growth and to third
place, behind Germany and Italy,
in total installed solar capacity.
However some have cited the
high costs of installing solar pan-
els in Japan as a factor limiting
growth. In a Bloomberg inter-
view, Thomas Kaberger, exec-
utive board chair of the Japan
Renewable Energy Foundation,
said, Its difficult to explain why
solar PV installation should cost
three times as much in Japan as
in Germany. We must succeed in
bringing down the costs.
Others cite land procurement
and grid problems. Permitting
and approval for grid inter-
connection are challenging in
Japan, according to analysts,
and a survey earlier this year
by the Japan Renewable Energy
Foundation found that, as
opposed to the priority connec-
tion system in place in other
countries, because grid connec-
tion approval in Japan has been
left to the discretion of
[ cont >]
Photovoltaic Power Plant and
Mountain in Japan via Shutterstock
a recovery in 2013 and record
installations in 2014 due to an
improved policy and investment
climate. The report said that 5.6
GW of new wind capacity would
be added before the end of 2014.
This year has seen positive
policy changes in India, with the
GBI reinstated in March and an
increase in wind feed-in tariffs
(FiTs) across six of the seven key
wind states. The report points to
tariff increases of 2-36 percent
in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat,
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,
Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. Wind
FiTs across these states range
from INR 3.51-5.92/kWh (around
$6-11/kWh), the report said, with
four states which hold around
70 percent of Indias installed
wind capacity offering a tar-
iff that is lower than the lowest
tariff bids received for new coal
capacity in 2012.
In addition, INR 8 billion (US
$160 million) has been allocated
to the Ministry of New and
Renewable Energy (MNRE) to sup-
port the GBI for wind projects.
And the government has com-
mitted to providing low-interest
funds for five years from the
National Clean Energy Fund to
the Indian Renewable Energy
Development Agency (IREDA),
which provides debt financing for
renewable energy projects. HSBC
reports that another lender, the
Power Finance Corporation, has
cut its lending rate to renewable
energy projects by 50 basis points,
or 0.5 percent (while cutting
its rates to conventional power
plants by only 25 basis points).
Indias government has fore-
cast a wind potential of around
50 GW across the nation, but
new studies indicate a poten-
tial of over 100 GW. A National
Wind Mission, similar to the
Jawaharlal Nehru National
Solar Mission, has been pro-
posed to accelerate future wind
development.
Solar power in India will soon
follow winds lead, the report pre-
dicted, becoming cost-compet-
itive with new coal capacity as
early as 2016.

1309REW_13 13 9/11/13 2:34 PM


Meeting Latin Americas
Electricity Needs with
Renewable Energy
Latin America and the Caribbean are expected to enjoy nearly 3
percent annual economic growth for the foreseeable future. The
flip side: the region will have to strengthen its infrastructures to
support that growth. Installed power capacity will have to double
to 600 GW by 2030, and electricity demand is projected to double or
nearly triple to 2.5-3.5 petawatt-hours (PWh) by 2050. But renewable
energy could meet that surge in demand many times over, accord-
ing to a report from the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).
Presented this summer at the Global Green Growth Forum
Latin America and the Caribbean (3GFLAC) in Bogot, the report
Rethinking our Energy Future explores how lower prices and new
Solar PV Atacama 100 km
2
(Chile)
Marine energy (Chile)
Geothermal (Peru)
Wind On-shore (Northeast Region Brazil)
Solar (Northeast Region Brazil)
OTEC (Argentina)
Solid wastes (Brazil)
Small hydro <5MW (Venezuela)
Wind on-shore Guajira (Colombia)
Sugar cane co-generation So Paulo (Brazil)
Wind on-shore (Caribbean on-shore)
Geothermal (Central America)
Wind on-shore Oaxaca (Mexico)
Biomass from sustainable forestry
(Mexico)
Solar Sonora Desert 625 km
2
(Mexico)
358 TWh
50 TWh
32 TWh
26 TWh
22 TWh
172 TWh
144 TWh
92 TWh
81 TWh
11 TWh
14 TWh
64 TWh
33 TWh
212 TWh
70 TWh
news R
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G
I
O
N
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14 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
the power company, solar compa-
nies are at a significant disadvan-
tage. In 20 percent of cases, the
survey found, a grid connection
request had been rejected by the
utility due to limited grid capacity
and wariness about solar powers
variability.
The Asahi Shimbun reported
that 34 of the 79 solar companies
surveyed said they had abandoned
at least one planned solar power
project, with around 45 percent cit-
ing land procurement problems as
the reason and 25 percent blaming
problems with grid connection.
In another potential problem,
analysts have speculated that
Japanese consumers, who over-
whelmingly support renewable
energy, may change their minds
when they see their already high
electricity bills increase by up to
5 percent as the 15 GW of solar
projects that have already been
approved come online.
Japans tariff for solar was cut in
April from 42 [US $0.42] per kWh
to 37.8 [US $0.37] per kWh the pre-
vious year to account for falling
costs of solar panels and compo-
nents. Analysts say this has not sig-
nificantly affected the solar boom
to date, but some warn that the FiT
needs to be handled with care in
order to avoid the problems expe-
rienced in countries like Romania,
which was forced to scale back
renewable energy subsidies in order
to avoid consumer price increases.

[Japan Solar cont. from p13]


Renewable energy-rich sites for electricity generation.
Credit: Inter-American Development Bank.
[ cont >]
LATIN AMERICA
1309REW_14 14 9/11/13 2:34 PM
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technologies such as solar, wind,
geothermal, biomass, and wave
could produce up to 78 PWh
of electricity, and have nomi-
nal peak capacity of 33 TW. One
PWh is equal to 1 trillion kWh,
which is roughly three times the
electricity Mexico consumes in a
year, IDB says.
The results follow some of
the themes from another IDB
study released at the Rio+20
conference this spring, describ-
ing how Latin America could
achieve climate stabiliza-
tion with virtually no car-
bon footprint in its power
generation by 2050, through
a regimen of aggressive land-
use adjustments, transport
infrastructure upgrades, vastly
reduced energy demand, and
widespread adoption of renew-
able energy. Such a shift would
be expensive at a projected $66
billion, but not as expensive
as the $100 billion in projected
economic damage from climate
change that would hit Latin
America particularly hard.
Latin America is seen as
one of the strongest adopters
as well as a strong growth
market for renewable energy
adoption. Renewable energy
made up roughly 59 percent
of Latin Americas power sup-
ply in 2010, almost all of that
from hydro, according to the
IDB. But wind energy usage is
rapidly spreading across the
region; geothermal is strong
in Mexico and making inroads
into Colombia, Panama and
Ecuador; and solar, biomass,
and wind operations are being
ramped up in Brazil, Mexico,
Guatemala, Argentina and Chile.
Nevertheless, the region overall
represented just 5.4 percent of
the $244 billion invested world-
wide in renewable energies dur-
ing 2012, a total which is seen
exploding to a cumulative $6
trillion by 2035, with $16.9 tril-
lion invested in the regions total
power system. Broadening its
adoption of renewable energy
will require much more invest-
ments, and further evolution
of policy and regulatory frame-
works, says the IDB.

Central America At a Crossroads


with Renewable Energy
LATIN AMERICACentral America
has many of the same chal-
lenges as Latin America over-
all: electricity demand is rising
rapidly, yet millions of people
still have limited or no access to
electricity, use of imported fos-
sil fuels is rising, and thermal
power plants are proliferating to
meet demand. And in step with
the broader region it also seeks
to expand its use of renewable
energy, of which hydro and geo-
thermal are already expansive.
Central America plans to pursue
others in both small- and large-
scale. A rapid transition to 100
percent renewable electricity gen-
eration is both technically pos-
sible and socio- economically
beneficial in all Central American
countries, according to the
WorldWatch Institute, in its study
The Way Forward for Renewable
Energy in Central America. The
firm calls for more distributed
generation, less pursuit of fossil
fuel use, a rethinking of biomass
use (mainly fuel wood for cook-
ing), and curtailment of energy
used for transportation. Detailed
energy roadmaps will be neces-
sary to assess all the challenges
technical, socioeconomic,
finance, and political and then
identify policies and measures to
address them.
As more renewable energy is
brought online, though, another
challenge is whether the infra-
structure is capable of han-
dling the new output and getting
the electricity to customers.
Enter the Central American
Electrical Interconnection System
[Electricity Needs cont. from p14]
1309REW_16 16 9/11/13 2:34 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 17
(SIEPAC), a 230-kV transmission
line stretching 1,800 km from
Guatemala to Panama, which
came online this spring after 25
years of planning and develop-
ment (and $500 million in invest-
ment) to connect 35+ million
consumers. Initial capacity is 300
MW half of that earmarked
for natural gas with plans to
double it to 600 MW. Also now
formalized is the long-planned
Central American Regional
Electricity Market (MER) to reg-
ulate power transactions on
SIEPAC in a competitive frame-
work. SIEPAC member countries
include Guatemala, Honduras, El
Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica
and Panama; agreements are
being drawn up to consider and
plan integration with neighbors
Mexico, Belize, the Dominican
Republic and Colombia.
Together these efforts will
enable development of larger and
more efficient regional genera-
tion projects, while also facilitat-
ing the preparation of a larger of
renewable energy projects, states
the Inter-American Development
Bank, which financed half
of SIEPAC and contributed
millions of dollars in other aid.
Panama, it notes, used SIEPAC
this spring to import electricity
from El Salvador, Honduras, and
Nicaragua, fending off an energy
crunch caused by droughts that
drained reservoirs and weakened
its hydro generating capacity.
To fully realize their poten-
tial, SIEPAC and MER still need
to account for the dynamics and
the heterogeneity of the electric-
ity sectors of the various coun-
tries of Central America, notes
the IDB. Nonetheless, this is an
historic moment for investment,
principally for the private sec-
tor in energy projects that are
regional in scope and that fea-
ture the use of renewables and
natural gas as cleaner sources.

Chiles Renewable Energy


Applications Surge
LATIN AMERICAChiles Minister
of National Assets (Ministerio
de Bienes Nacionales) approved
24 applications for land con-
cessions for non-conventional
renewable energy (Energas
Renovables No Convencionales
aka solar and wind power)
projects through July of this
year, amounting to almost
1,500 MW on 12,707 hectares
spanning the Antofagasta,
Atacama, and Tarapaca regions.
Chile has received 265 applica-
tions to date for the NCRE pro-
gram totaling 10 GW, most of
which are for Antofagasta and
Atacama. Fewer than 20 percent
of the applications have passed
regional approvals, represent-
ing more than 1,200 MW of
installed capacity. In December
2012 the government approved
795 MW spanning 16 initia-
tives in the north of the country
on 7,800 hectares, including 12
solar farms.
Like many Latin American
countries, Chile has a grow-
ing appetite for renewables.
Renewable energy currently
makes up 3 percent of Chile's
energy capacity with 34 percent
from hydro and 63 percent from
thermal generation. In May of
this year Chile exceeded 1 GW
of installed capacity of renew-
able energy, and is on track to
possibly achieve 1.3 GW by the
end of the year (largely from
biomass and hydro). In all, more
than 10 GW of renewable energy
projects are in the pipeline
or under assessment, accord-
ing to the Centro de Energas
Renovables (CER). The country is
also eager to tap into potential
geothermal resources, hoping
for 1-1.5 GW of capacity by 2025,
and the government is seek-
ing to pair up with the IDB and
World Bank to create an insur-
ance program to mitigate risk of
failed drilling efforts

1309REW_17 17 9/11/13 2:34 PM


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Transformer Provides All-in-one
Renewable Energy Solution for US Military
The U.S. Department of Defense
set a goal to achieve 25 percent
renewable energy by 2025, and
has established several initiatives
to reach that mark. Now, the mil-
itary may have a new option to
help on its quest for renewables.
The X3 Energy Transformer
manufactured by Van Straten
Brothers Inc. is a portable power
station that consists of solar,
wind, battery reserves, and a die-
sel generator backup system.
X3 inherited the name
Transformer from the popular
fictional robots, since the entire
system can travel anywhere in
one shipping container. A team of
mechanical and electrical engi-
neers worked on self-deploying
hydraulic outriggers and a hydrau-
lically deployed turbine, a quick
change pallet system for the bat-
teries and generator, and a Smart
Control system designed to auto-
matically start the diesel gener-
ator for continuous power, when
renewables arent available.
On top of the astronomical
costs to transport fuel, our troops
are risking their lives every day to
ensure that power gets to the front
lines, said George Van Straten in
a statement. The X3 could elim-
inate many of these operational
risks and reduce our dependence
on fossil fuels at the same time.
The system boasts a 60-Amp,
240-Volt, 14.4-kilowatt (kW)
inverter, and is customizable.
Renewable energy options include
16, 24 or 32 solar panels that total
4-, 6-, or 8-kW capacity; a 3-, 5-,
or 10-kW wind turbine. There are
also various battery storage sys-
tems available with an optional
electricity generator.
Van Straten Brothers is also
working to apply X3 to disaster
relief and international aid orga-
nizations, as well as commercial
applications that require power
generation backup such as min-
ing and construction. According
to Van Straten, the success of
X3 Energy will also have a huge
impact on the local community
in hard-hit Michigan, creating
full-time manufacturing, engi-
neering and business employ-
ment opportunities.

NORTH AMERICA
First Offshore Wind Lease Off US
Coast Goes to Deepwater Wind
NORTH AMERICADeepwater
Wind New England is the win-
ner of the first competitive lease
sale of renewable energy in U.S.
federal waters, pledging approxi-
mately $3.8 million for two sites
in an auction July 31 by the U.S.
Department of Interior (DOI)
and Bureau of Ocean Energy
Management (BOEM).
Three companies were involved
in the bidding process: Deepwater,
Sea Breeze Energy, and U.S. Wind,
before Deepwater won with its
$3,838,288 bid for the two par-
cels. The area spans more than
164,000 acres off the eastern
state coasts of Rhode Island and
Massachusetts, with combined
potential of nearly 3.4 GW of wind
power generation.
1309REW_18 18 9/11/13 2:34 PM
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This is the best site for off-
shore wind in the U.S.,said
Deepwater Wind CEO Jeffrey
Grybowski. This is an enormous
step forward for the industry.
The company now has both
federal and state approval for
itsproposed Deepwater Wind
Energy Center(DWEC), 150-200
turbineswith combined 1-GW
nameplate capacitylocated 20-25
miles from land (no closer than
13 miles to shore) and virtu-
ally invisible from shore, accord-
ing to the company. DWEC plans
include a regional transmission
system linking Long Island to
southeastern New England.
After a 30-day antitrust review
of the auction, Deepwater will
have 10 days to sign and return
the leasing form, file for finan-
cial assurance, and pay the bal-
ance of its bid (minus an up-front
$900,000 deposit), and then six
months to submit a site assess-
ment plan to BOEM. Deepwater
will then have roughly four years
to submit a detailed plan to build
and operate the wind project with
a 25-year operational lifetime. The
firm projects construction could
begin as early as 2017, with com-
mercial operations by 2018.
BOEM will host a second
competitive lease sale for off-
shore wind in Sept., target-
ingabout 112,000 acres off the
Virginia coast. More auctions
for offshore parcels along the
East Coast are planned for later
this year and into 2014. Visit
RenewableEnergyWorld.com for
updates on this story.

For more information,


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1309REW_19 19 9/11/13 2:34 PM
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CanGEA Releases Best Practices for Geothermal
Development, Emphasizes Technology
NORTH AMERICACanadian geo-
thermal development is sig-
nificantly lagging behind other
countries with similar resources,
according to the Canadian
Geothermal Energy Association
(CanGEA). To address this issue,
CanGEA is developing a detailed
Technology Roadmap and
Implementation Plan (TRM&IP)
to be released in 2015. In the
meantime, it released a prelimi-
nary study entitled Geothermal
Technology Roadmap: Global Best
Practices Summary Exploration
through Generation.
While the report addresses
each step of geothermal devel-
opment, it highlights technology
innovations as the necessary step
to move the industry forward. As
global resource exploitation has
taken place for over a century, the
remaining resources are further
down the economic merit order,
it says. Technology has been
called on to respond to and push
both the operating and economic
boundaries and move these lower-
quality resources towards finan-
cial viability.
The report informs develop-
ers of the latest technologies in
use throughout the world and
offers advice about how to imple-
ment them in their own projects.
For technology developers, it also
touches upon areas that are still
in need of R&D. The report neatly
outlines all aspects of geothermal
development and best practices,
including exploration, reservoir
modeling, drilling, well stimula-
tion and completion, power con-
version, and the direct use of heat.
To create the report, research-
ers used information from
various international technol-
ogy roadmaps (Australia, the
IEA Geothermal Implementing
Agreement, Spain) and reports
from countries such as the
U.S. and organizations such as
the International Partnership
for Geothermal Technology
(Iceland, U.S., Switzerland,
Australia, New Zealand).

Wave Energy Testing Center Program


Under Development in Hawaii
NORTH AMERICAThe Hawaii Natural Energy
Institute at the University of Hawaii (HNEI-UH) is
developing a wave-energy testing program at its
Hawaii National Marine Renewable Energy Center
(HINMREC). The U.S. DOE Wind and Water Power
Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Navy, has
provided funding for the Wave Energy Test Site
(WETS) at the Marine Corps Base Hawaii.
WETS currently hosts one 30-meter-deep water
facility to test wave energy conversion (WEC)
devices, and is working to expand the site with
facilities at 60- and 80-meter depths.
HINMRECs role at the WETS facility includes
the evaluation of WEC system performance. GL
Garrad Hassan announced that it would support
HINMREC in evaluating wave systems. Garrad
Hasan will provide an expert wave energy team,
wave energy test protocols, support HNEI-UH with
processing performance data, and conduct inde-
pendent numerical model verification exercises
over the next two years.
We conducted a thorough search before choos-
ing GL Garrad Hassan to provide us with what I
like to call a reality check that can only be based
on actual experience said Dr. Luis Vega, Program
Manager for HINMREC in a statement.
According to GL Garrad Hassan, it will be apply-
ing detailed international best practices during
1309REW_20 20 9/11/13 2:34 PM
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MIDDLE EAST & AFRICA
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MENA Renewables Could Grow 450 Percent in Coming Years
The International Renewable
Energy Agency (IRENA) in coor-
dination with the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs of the United
Arab Emirates and the Renewable
Energy Policy Network for the
21st Century (REN21) released
a report indicating that mas-
sive renewable energy growth is
expected for the MENA region
in the coming years. Renewable
energy investment in MENA
topped US $2.9 billion in 2012,
up 40 percent from 2011 and 650
percent from 2004. With more
than 100 projects in development,
the region could see a 450 percent
increase in non-hydro renewable
energy generating capacity in
the next few years. MENA gov-
ernments have announced addi-
tional non-hydro renewable
energy capacity of 50 GW by 2020
and 107 GW by 2030. Today the
region has an installed renewable
energy capacity of 1.7 GW.
The full report, Status and
Trends of Renewables: From the
MENA Region to a Global Setting,
provides an overview of renew-
able energy markets, industry,
policy and investment trends.
Most noteworthy are the renew-
able energy plans for net oil-
exporting countries. These
oil-rich Middle Eastern countries
account for more than 80 percent
of the 107 GW of planned projects.
On the policy front, all 21
MENA countries have renew-
able energy targets, up from five
in 2007 and at least 19 coun-
tries have technology-specific
targets. To achieve these and
attract investment, 18 MENA
countries had enacted at least
one enabling policy such as a
feed-in tariff (FIT), net meter-
ing, fiscal incentives, or public
financing by the start of 2013.
Behind hydro, wind is the
largest renewable power source
in the region with a total capac-
ity of 1.1 GW by the end of 2012
across 8 countries. However,
solar power generation has been
growing faster than wind, first
through photovoltaic (PV), with
an annual average growth rate
of 112 percent from 2008-2011,
and more recently with the com-
missioning of large concentrat-
ing solar power (CSP) plants in
Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Morocco,
and the UAE. This trend is
expected to continue in the fore-
seeable future. Solar Hot Water
Heating accounts for about 9
million square meter (m) of col-
lector area, representing 6.3
gigawatts-thermal (GWth) of
installed capacity, most of which
is in net oil importing countries.
Finally, there is growing
interest in developing a supply
chain for renewable energy in
the MENA countries, with sev-
eral countries enacting policies
to stimulate local manufactur-
ing and innovation, especially
for solar and wind. This inter-
est is particularly strong in Saudi
Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, Morocco,
and Tunisia.

the testing and development of


marine technologies at the site,
and ensure they are adhered to
in order to properly and competi-
tively establish the emerging U.S.
wave energy industry.
The development of such test
sites in the United States, which
reduce costs and risks of deploy-
ment and enable technology
developers to learn more rap-
idly in a highly monitored envi-
ronment, said Jarett Goldsmith,
project manager for wave and
tidal energy at GL Garrad Hassan
America, is critical for growth
of the wave energy sector from
its early stages into a fully real-
ized commercial industry in this
country.

[ Wave Energy cont. from p20 ]


1309REW_22 22 9/11/13 2:35 PM
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Temposonics

Absolute, Non-Contact Position Sensors


Obama Sets Goal To Help Power
Africa With Clean Energy
MIDDLE EAST & AFRICAIn July, U.S. President
Obama announced a plan in which U.S. compa-
nies will work with African nations to double the
amount of power in the region. The initiative seeks
to develop clean geothermal, hydro, wind and solar
energy. More than two-thirds of sub-Saharan Africa
does not have electricity and a greater percentage of
those in rural areas in the region lack electricity.
The U.S. will commit more than $7 billion in
financial support over the next five years through
initiatives with the Export-Import Bank, the
Millennium Challenge Corporation, OPIC, the U.S.
Trade and Development Agency, the Agency for
International Development and the U.S. African
Development Foundation. Partner countries include
Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, and
Tanzania. The initiative has attracted more than
$9 billion from private-sector companies includ-
ing Aldwych International, which committed to
developing 400 MW of wind power in Kenya and
Tanzania; Harith General Partners, which commit-
ted $70 million to wind power investment in Kenya
and set up a $500 million fund to be used across
the African power sector; and Husk Power Systems,
which is installing up to 200 decentralized bio-
mass-based mini power plants in Tanzania.
Helping power Africa is an opportunity to
protect our planet and combat climate change,
Obama said at the University of Cape Town. So, a
light where currently there is darkness; the energy
needed to lift people out of poverty thats what
opportunity looks like, he said.

For more information, enter 11 at REW.hotims.com


1309REW_23 23 9/11/13 2:35 PM
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400-MW Ethiopian Wind Farm Planning Underway
MIDDLE EAST & AFRICA
SgurrEnergy announced that
it is providing wind monitor-
ing and analysis services for
phase 1 of a 400-MW wind farm
development in Debre Birhan,
75 miles north of Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia. Terra Global Energy
Developers, the first U.S. com-
pany to enter into the Ethiopian
wind market, is developing the
project. SgurrEnergy will pro-
vide analysis for a 12-month
wind measurement campaign
as part of the projects technical
and financial feasibility stage.
Wind data is currently being
collected by Terra using two
60mmet masts, located onsite.
Based on measured site data,
SgurrEnergys team provides
data management services, data
recovery and monthly report-
ing as well as site suitability and
Interactive Map Shows Renewable
Energy Projects At-a-Glance
MIDDLE EAST & AFRICAThe Clean Energy Business
Council (CEBC) represents companies involved in
clean energy development and deployment in the
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Created
to serve as a bridge between the private and pub-
lic sectors to drive development of clean energy, the
council seeks to develop regulation and policy sup-
port to enable the clean energy industry to flourish
in the region. In its efforts to inform and educate the
wider community, last year the council in partner-
ship with Ambata, a clean technology investment
and advisory firm, launched an interactive map that
showcases clean energy projects in MENA.
The projects mapped by the Clean Energy
Business Council and Ambata range from small,
off-grid projects of several kilowatts to utility-scale
plants like the 100 megawatt Shams 1 project. (The
Shams 1 project was profiled on pp. 46-47 in the
July/August 2013 issue of Renewable Energy World).
Sortable by region, project size, operation date,
status and technology, and based on Google technol-
ogy, the map gives an overview of renewable energy
activity in MENA and allows users to drill down into
individual project to see specifics about it.
The map shows that renewables are just start-
ing to make an impact on the region, according
to Daniel Zywietz, Managing Director of Ambata
Capital Middle East, Deputy Chair of the CEBC and
the projects director. The renewables industry is
in a similar position today to the oil industry 100
years ago it took a long time to gain market-
share from coal but today oil is one of the worlds
primary sources of energy. Renewables will follow
a similar trajectory, he said.

The Clean Energy Map by the CEBC. Credit CEBC.


1309REW_24 24 9/11/13 2:35 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 25
site classification. The company
has also provided a preliminary
six-monthenergy yield analysis,
providing Terra with an Annual
Energy Production (AEP) of the
project and offering advice on
wind farm layout and WTG
model selection.
Once the 12-month
measurement campaign is fin-
ished, SgurrEnergy will provide
a full, bank-grade site suit-
ability report and energy yield
analysis that will allow Terra to
obtain the necessary lenders
funding approval to progress
the project into construction,
according to SgurrEnergy.
Gareth Brown, principal
consultant in SgurrEnergys
Vancouver office, said, The
Ethiopia Wind Project is a real
milestone for the expansion of
renewable energy development,
not only in Ethiopia, but in East
Africa as a whole.
According to The World
Bank, Ethiopia has one of
the fastest growing econo-
mies in Africa. With abundant
wind, solar, and geothermal
resources, the country has
great potential for renewable
energy development.

Editors note: For an in-depth look at Wind Resource Planning, check out our
feature The Air Up There: Remote Sensing Gains Ground on page 49.
EU PV GRID Project Proposes Solar Stability Plan
Europes solar photovoltaic (PV)
industry has presented propos-
als for improved grid integration
of photovoltaic power plants as
part of its EU PV GRID project,
which is developing both tech-
nical solutions for grid integra-
tion for 17 European countries
and cost-efficient alternatives to
grid expansion.
State-of-the-art PV systems
are small power plants that pro-
vide valuable system services for
the networks, thus fulfilling a
key role for regional stakehold-
ers in the Energiewende, said
Jrg Mayer, Managing Director
of the German Solar Industry
Association (BSW), coordinator
of the EU PV GRID project.
Introducing a package of mea-
sures the document offers a pri-
oritized review of all technical
solutions available on the net-
work, consumer and PV system
sides in order to enhance the dis-
tribution grids hosting capacity
and operational efficiency.
In the first phase of the proj-
ect, the most appropriate techni-
cal solutions were identified. In
a second phase, based on these
results, the 21-member consor-
tium will investigate actions that
will allow a swifter and more
economical implementation
those technical solutions.
Phase one addressed the two
main distribution grid con-
straints: voltage fluctuation
and congestion management.
Among the solutions
EUROPE
Terra Global Energys met masts
collect data for the proposed 400-
MW Ethiopian Wind Farm. Credit
SgurrEnergy.
[ cont >]
1309REW_25 25 9/11/13 2:35 PM
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26 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Renewable Transport Fuels Could be
Competitive with Fossil Fuels by 2020
EUROPEAdvanced biofuels, bio-
methane and electric vehicles
could out-compete conventional
transport options like gasoline
by the end of the decade, the
International Renewable Energy
Agency (IRENA) concluded in a
new study.
IRENA said the signs are
encouraging, but continued
research and development,
funded by both public and pri-
vate sources, remains essential,
as are continued investments in
recharging stations for electric
cars and refueling stations for
EIB Support for
Renewables Investment
EUROPEFollowing a 10-month
review of its energy sector
lending policies, the European
Investment Bank (EIB) has
adopted new guidelines to sup-
port investment in renewables.
EIB said it will now focus on
financing energy efficiency,
renewable energy and energy
networks as well as related
research and innovation, and it
will no longer support fossil-fired
power developments that do not
meet strict carbon emissions cri-
teria. This essentially removes
EIB support for coal-fired plants.
Mihai Tanasescu, EIB Vice
President responsible for energy
lending, explained the new pol-
icy, saying: Adoption of the
new lending criteria reflects
the urgent investment chal-
lenges currently facing the
energy sector. Prioritizing lend-
ing to energy efficiency, renew-
able energy, energy networks
and energy RDI projects will
help EU to meet its energy
and climate objectives and
create local employment across
Europe. The new Emissions
Performance Standard will
ensure that outside these sec-
tors the Banks energy lending
makes a sustainable and posi-
tive contribution to economic
growth.
Over the last five years EIB
lending to power generation proj-
ects using fossil fuels declined,
with coal and lignite power sta-
tions representing less than 1.5
percent of its overall portfolio.
The new energy lending cri-
teria include streamlined guide-
lines for lending for energy
efficiency projects designed
to enhance co-financing of
national energy efficiency pro-
grams and enable increased
financial support for near-zero
energy buildings.

identified for Distribution System


Operators (DSOs) are network
reinforcement, but also the use
of On Load Tap Changers for MV/
LV transformers devices that
are able to adjust the lower volt-
age value of an energized trans-
former and Static VAR Control
to provide instantaneous reac-
tive power under various net-
work conditions.
On the consumer side, solu-
tions include storing electric-
ity at the homeowner level and
incentivising self-consumption
through tariffs. Other solutions
include curtailment of power
feed-in or active power control
by the PV inverter.
Hans-Joachim Reck,
Managing Director of the
Executive Board of the
Association for Local Public
Utilities (VKU), commented
that Municipal utility compa-
nies, as local network opera-
tors, are the natural partners of
the solar industry and also pro-
vide support in the direct mar-
keting of solar power. Increasing
numbers of communal com-
panies are already offering
their customers environmen-
tally friendly solar power within
the framework of their energy
mix. Municipal utility compa-
nies are thus contributing to an
economic transformation of the
energy system.
You can download the docu-
ment here.

[ EU PV Grid cont. from p25 ]


1309REW_26 26 9/11/13 2:35 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 27
biomethane vehicles.
However, the analysis Road
Transport: The Cost of Renewable
Solutions finds this will only
be achieved if support policies are
enhanced and expanded to get
these options rolling. The Agency
warns that policy changes, and
short-sighted reactions to budget-
ary constraints, could undermine
important achievements to ready
the transport sector for a sustain-
able energy future.
IRENAs Director-General,
Adnan Z. Amin, explained
that the signs are promising:
a range of technology path-
ways are being explored, amid
competition to prove the effi-
ciency, reliability and up-
scalability of innovative new
renewable transport fuels.
Electric vehicles, using renew-
able electricity, are also part of
the intensifying competition,
with mass-produced plug-in
hybrids and pure electric vehi-
cles appearing from a range of
manufacturers, and costs will
keep coming down with wider
deployment. He cautioned that
delaying support and investment
for these renewable technologies
now would endanger the prog-
ress made towards aspirational
targets for future years.
While renewable energy use
is generally considered to be low
in the transport sector, account-
ing for 3.3 percent of energy con-
sumption for road transport,
according to IRENA, conventional
biofuels have suffered due to feed-
stock price volatility. Advanced
biofuels are just starting to be
produced at commercial scale and
need further support for research,
development and deployment to
find the least-cost technologies.
While the road just ahead is
challenging, we can now see the
beginnings of widely available,
competitive renewable options
for transport, Amin said.

For more information,


enter 12 at REW.hotims.com
1309REW_27 27 9/11/13 3:58 PM
3,500 5
2002
Source: ESTIF 2013
Solar thermal market in EU27 and Switzerland
Glazed collectors
MW
th
m
2
(millions)
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
4
3
2
1
0
Other 20 EU countries and Switzerland
Next top 6 countries
(AT, ES, FR, GR, IT, PL)
Germany
Source:
ESTIF 2013
Shares of the European
Solar Thermal Market
Newly installed capacity
DE 34%
IT 10%
PL 9% FR 7%
GR 7%
ES 7%
AT 6%
CH 4%
DK 3%
PT 3%
BE 2%
UK 2% Others 8%
news R
E
G
I
O
N
A
L
28 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Growth Flat for European
Solar Thermal Markets
EUROPEA newly published
report, Solar Thermal Markets
in Europe - Trends and Market
Statistics 2012, reveals the
growth of Europes solar ther-
mal sector over the past year,
with some 2.4 GWth installed
during 2012. This volume, some
3.4 million square meters, is a
decrease of 6.4 percent in com-
parison with the previous year,
according to the study from
the European Solar Thermal
Industry Association (ESTIF).
According to the document,
while in 2012 the European mar-
ket experienced a reduction
in the overall newly installed
capacity, the total installed
capacity registered a net
increase of 2 GWth, now reach-
ing 28.3 GWth, equivalent to 40.5
million m. Overall, this rep-
resents an increase of 7.7 per-
cent compared with 2011s total
installed capacity.
ESTIF concludes that the
European market continues
to suffer from the constraints
imposed by the financial and
economic crises affecting most
of the continent, resulting in
a sluggish construction sec-
tor and reduction of public sup-
port schemes for solar thermal.
The annual market has been
contracting since the peak year
of 2008. The 2.41 GWth sold in
2012 are well above the 2007
sales (2 GWth /2.88 million m)
but are a far cry from the 3.36
GWth (4.8 million m) reached
in 2008, the report states.
Over the past ten years,
ESTIFs analysis showed a con-
tinuous steep uptrend in the
growth rate up to 2008; followed
by a decline, steeper in the rst
two years (2009, 2010) and then
attening out (2011, 2012).
In spite of the
decrease recorded
over the last four
years, ESTIF said
that over the past
decade the annual
market size has
doubled with an
average annual
growth rate of
10 percent.
Residential
applications still
represent the bulk
of the market, but larger instal-
lations are increasing too. While
large systems above 35 kWth for
commercial heating and cooling
applications have shown pos-
itive development, ESTIF said
it is mainly in very large sys-
tems above 350 kWth (or 500
m of collector area) that the
market has been moving rap-
idly. Denmark, for example,
was conrmed as the land of
1309REW_28 28 9/11/13 2:35 PM
700
CY
Source: ESTIF 2013
Solar thermal capacity in operation
Per 1000 capita
kW
th
m
2
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
AT GR DE CH MT DK SI PT EU
27+
LU IE ES IT CZ SE BE
400
600
800
200
0
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 29
large solar district heating last
year, with a total of 71.4 MWth
(102,000 m) installed, bring-
ing total installed capacity to
196 MWth (280 000 m), solely
in large solar thermal plants.
According to ESTIF, Denmark
accounts for 65 percent of the
European total installed capac-
ity in large systems.

Siemens Completes HelWin1


HVDC Offshore Platform Install
EUROPEA key development
in linking the two offshore
wind farms Nordsee Ost and
Meerwind to the German main-
land has been completed accord-
ing to Siemens, which says it
has installed the HelWin1 off-
shore platform in the North Sea.
Using Siemens HVDC technol-
ogy, the HelWin1 will transform
the alternating current gener-
ated by the wind turbines into
direct current for transmission
onto land. The link is due to be
energised in 2014 and will enable
the power to be transferred to
the land-based station located
northwest of Hamburg in Bttel,
where electricity will be con-
verted back into AC for the grid.
Network operator TenneT con-
tracted a consortium consist-
ing of Siemens and the Italian
cable specialist Prysmian for
the HelWin1 connection in 2010.
The consortium is implement-
ing a total of four North Sea grid
connection projects for TenneT:
HelWin1 and 2 off of Helgoland,
BorWin2 off Borkum and
SylWin1 off of Sylt. Installation
of the platform for HelWin1 con-
stitutes reaching a key milestone
in our series of grid connec-
tion projects. The transmission
capacity of our projects involves
a total of 6.2 GW of electric
power from renewable sources,
remarked Lex Hartman, mem-
ber of TenneT management
board. The HelWin1 platform
was anchored at its final posi-
tion northwest of the island of
Helgoland in 23-metre-deep
waters. Ten steel pilings up to
3.2 meters in diameter and up to
100 meters long were anchored
in the seabed for attachment of
the structure. The platform is
installed 22 meters above sea
level to protect it against wave
impacts, having been designed
for decades of operation in the
North Sea.Fabricated by Nordic
Yards at Wismar under con-
tract by Siemens, at 12,000 tons
the HelWin1 platform has seven
decks with a total of 24 berths.
Up to 100 employees will be
active on the platform for the
subsequent project phase in the
North Sea, for example connect-
ing the two Prysmian subsea
cables, each with a length of 130
km. The cable route covers 85
km at sea and 45 km over land.
Transmission will take place
at 250 kV DC and the HelWin1
HVDC platform has a capacity
of 576 MW. Total transmission
losses are less than 4 percent,
Siemens says.Final commission-
ing of HelWin1 is scheduled for
the second half of 2014.

The HelWin1 HVDC station. Credit


Siemens.
1309REW_29 29 9/11/13 2:35 PM
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RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 31

Can Countries Reach 100


Percent Renewable Energy?
Several countries, including Scotland and the Philippines,
have recently announced impressive plans to obtain all of their
power from renewable energy. With many countries setting
their sights on much lower, incremental goals, these lofty
aspirations have jarred the industry and sparked a debate.
Renewable Energy World asked industry executives to
share their thoughts and insights on this controversial
question: What are the major barriers that countries
face in order to reach 100 percent renewable energy
is this goal always achievable or desirable?
GOALS SERVE AN IMPORTANT PURPOSE to ensure
effort achieves a larger objective. Yet theres
a difference between ambition and goals.
Ambition provides inspiration, a rationale for
why we want to achieve an objective. Ambition
is a stretch, transformational. Goals are practi-
cal, measureable actions necessary to achieve
the ambition.
Powering a country entirely with renewables
can be inspirational, and may be achievable where
the environment is blessed with abundant renew-
ables that can be utilized safely, reliably and cost
effectively such as Iceland. But we should exam-
ine why we want to achieve a 100 percent renewables goal. Is this the
best goal to achieve a larger ambition? Iceland isnt renewable-pow-
ered due to a specifc goal. Its their best option given local conditions.
Ambition should focus on countries doing their utmost to address
global warming for current and future generations with one (of
many) goals being the lowest carbon emission system possible while
ensuring reliability, safety, and cost effciency. Power supply diversity
that takes advantage of local resources and regional/cross-border
The Big Question
Key executives weigh in on worldwide renewable energy issues
Wind turbine with plug via
Shutterstock
Kevin Smith
Global Director,
Renewable
Energy,
DNV KEMA
For an in-depth
look at countries
going 100 percent
renewable, check
out our cover
story on page 36.
1309REW_31 31 9/11/13 2:35 PM
32 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

The Big Question


transmission grids is a proven method for ensuring system objectives are
met. 100 percent supply solutions fail to adequately acknowledge the techni-
cal, societal, and costs risks associated with an absolute goal regardless of
the generating technology.
Achieving the fnal incremental percentages of any goal (speed records,
altitude records) is usually diffcult, high risk, and impractical given alter-
natives. Plus, 100 percent renewable goals can quickly become politicized,
resulting in delays, distractions or fawed policy that impedes progress
toward our ultimate ambition.
As a dedicated, renewable energy professional, Id like as much zero car-
bon emitting, renewable generation brought online as possible while ensur-
ing a robust, secure, reliable, and cost effective system for society and our
economies. Thus, 100 percent renewable goals will not be the best solution.
But we should accept various goals that support the higher ambition.
As global segment director for renewable energy services, Mr. Smith develops and
implements the global renewable energy business strategy for DNV KEMA Energy &
Sustainability. He is a veteran of the wind industry with 14 years of service performing a
wide range of engineering, advisory and project management activities.
FOSSIL FUELS ARE EXHAUSTIBLE. Therefore, a transition to
an economy that runs on sustainable energy sources is
both necessary and inevitable. However, a near-term focus
on 100 percent renewables runs the risk of attracting
more criticism than support. An approach that focuses
on high penetration (greater than 50 percent) of renew-
ables will provide a more effective path to a sustainable
energy future.
Thanks to the technological progress and cost reduc-
tion that has occurred over the last decade, renewables are
now reaching grid parity in more and more areas around
the world. In tandem, on-going technology developments
in energy effciency pay for themselves and reduce the load
that must be carried by renewables.
Managing energy usage and large swings in sup-
ply through automated demand response will be essen-
tial particularly in buildings, which drive peak electric
demand. The advent of low-cost smart electronics in the last decade offers a
means of enabling the necessary energy management.
High penetration of renewables will also require investments in both grid
storage and transmission to re-distribute power across time zones and to
smooth out supply intermittency. Pumped-storage hydroelectricity remains the
Dr. Geoffrey
Kinsey
Director of
Photovoltaic
Technologies,
Fraunhofer Center
for Sustainable
Energy Systems
(CSE)
1309REW_32 32 9/11/13 2:35 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 33

The Big Question
most cost-effective storage method, though the arrival of low-cost electric vehi-
cles adds the potential for substantial storage via vehicle-to-grid architectures.
The remaining challenge is to create the regulatory framework, standards,
and incentives to enable economies to make dramatic shifts in their energy
mix and invest the capital that is required. While the necessary investment is
substantial, the benefts include economic development and job creation.
Dr. Geoffrey Kinsey is the director of photovoltaic technologies at the Boston-based
Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), a leading provider of contract
research and development services to the U.S. renewable energy industry.
WITHIN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY, energy sources such as
oil, gas, coal and nuclear are still the main players, and
while I doubt it would be feasible to replace these entirely
with renewable energy, there is certainly a place for this
type of natural resource.
The industrial-scale wind farms that are being installed
off the UK coast clearly indicate that renewables can be a
major power source. However, it is unlikely that they would
be able to replace the current enormous capacity coming
from fossil sources. Although wind farms particularly
offshore have their place as part of a healthy energy mix
and are a signifcant new development in the energy sector
(even after years of challenges, installation issues, insur-
ance claims and legal wrangling).
The wave and tidal sector, however, is lagging behind offshore wind. Many
projects are delayed as companies re-structure, re-design and struggle to fnd
the balance between design ideas and commercial reality. This sector is fac-
ing a tough time with just one or two serious designs coming to market that
offer decent potential. This issue, plus the associated power output costs, sug-
gests that we are many years from commercial wave-tidal plants that can
operate and produce sizeable power.
The main barriers to renewable energy are really cost and commercial scal-
ability, notwithstanding the legal ramifcations of objectors both political
and environmental. Wind power is advancing, but when you consider the EU
targets of 20 percent renewables by 2020, the 100 percent targets of countries
such as Scotland and the Philippines tend to look like well-meant pipedreams.
John has 23 years of sales experience, six of them specializing in renewable energy. During
his ten months at Trelleborg, John has grown and developed the companys renewables
offering in line with wind, wave and tidal opportunities in this growing sector.
John Deasey
Renewables
Sales Manager,
Trelleborg Offshore
and Construction
1309REW_33 33 9/11/13 2:35 PM
34 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
A DECADE AGO I doubt if any national leaders would have
considered it even a remote possibility that their country
could be powered 100 percent by renewables. The fact that
some countries have now publicly set near-term goals to do
just that is nothing short of amazing. It is truly an indica-
tion of how quickly solar, wind and other renewables have
advanced in the past several years.
Many countries have the renewable resources to meet
100 percent of their energy needs. Scotland has abundant
sources of hydro, wind and wave power. The Philippines
have excellent solar, geothermal, hydro and biomass poten-
tial. However, the barriers to attaining such large-scale utilization of renew-
ables remain daunting.
Getting to 100 percent renewables faces technical, economic and politi-
cal challenges. Technically the development of a truly smart grid and the
integration of storage and micro-grids into that smart grid are substantial
challenges. On the policy side, one must ask if getting to 100 percent renew-
ables quickly is the best use of the fnancial resources of a country like the
Philippines or Scotland. Also, the political will to accomplish such a challeng-
ing goal must exist.
Getting to 100 percent renewables is certainly a laudable goal, but political
leaders should plot a course that makes economic sense. Go for the low-hang-
ing fruit frst effciency and hydropower are great initial steps.
Target renewables into the most cost-effective locations frst, such as
those without an extensive grid, create micro-grids and utilize energy stor-
age. Build towards 100 percent renewables gradually, allowing for technical
advancements and cost reductions that will be driven by global markets.
Actually reaching 100 percent renewables is not really the point.
Renewables are a domestic energy source. Getting to 60 or 70 percent renew-
ables would have a dramatic economic effect not to mention signifcant
positive impact on the environment and global warming.
Since 2007 Tony Clifford has led Standard Solars rapid growth into a nationally known PV
developer/ EPC. He is an elected board member of the Solar Energy Industries Association
(SEIA), serves on SEIAs Executive Committee and also served asthe president of the
regional chapter of SEIA, MDV-SEIA, from 2009 to 2012.

To lend your voice to future discussions, email megc@pennwell.com for more details.

The Big Question


Tony Clifford
CEO, Standard
Solar
1309REW_34 34 9/11/13 2:35 PM

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36 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
BY ELISA WOOD, CONTRIBUTING EDITOR
After a monster tornado wiped out Greensburg, Kansas
in 2007, killing 11 people, the community decided to
rebuild with meaning. It set out to become one of the
worlds greenest communities.
Today the town is among a growing number of juris-
dictions that generates all of its electricity from renew-
able energy.
Greensburg achieved a goal that many see as pie-
in-the-sky. Former U.S. Vice President Al Gore several
years ago drew jeers from his political critics when he
proposed that the U.S. go all green within a decade.
The jury remains out about the plausibility of a U.S.-
size economy functioning with all renewables any-
time soon. But Greensburg, with a population of less
than 1,000 people, has demonstrated that it can work
on a small scale. Others have done the same, among
them Gssing, Austria; King Island, Australia; and
Naturstrom, Germany.
Its not just cities with the ambition. Eight nations
are 100 percent renewable or moving in that direc-
tion: Denmark, Iceland, Scotland, Costa Rica, Maldive
Islands, Cook Islands, Tuvalu, and Tokelau. Add 42 cit-
ies, 49 regions, 8 utilities and 21 organizations, and
going all green looks like a bona fde trend.
Going All In
with Renewable Energy
COVER STORY
Is the goal of using 100 percent renewable
energy crazy, idealistic or achievable?
1309REW_36 36 9/11/13 2:35 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 37
Scotlands Fallago Rig Wind
Farm. Credit: EDF Energy.
1309REW_37 37 9/11/13 2:35 PM
38 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Cover S tory
California Independent System Operator Corp.
If we want to fll our goal on a global scale it is important
that regions like California, like Germany or other regions unify
together in a movement to 100 renewable, said Harry Lehmann,
Director of the German Federal Environment Agency at the con-
ference. We have to share our experience.
Today, the Renewables 100 Policy Institute is actively support-
ing the trend and reports on global progress via the Go 100 per-
cent Renewable Energy project it created. An interactive map on
the site tracks those pursuing and achieving the all-renewables
goal. (The site is the source of the numbers above on how many
jurisdictions the movement encompasses.)
Early Achievers
No doubt, it is easier for certain regions over others to generate
all of their electricity from green energy. Early achievers often
have the advantage of signifcant natural renewable resources.
Iceland, which produces all stationery energy from renew-
ables, relies on its vast hydropower and geothermal resources.
Costa Rica already has achieved 95 percent to 98 percent
renewables, mostly from indigenous hydro. Similarly, New
Zealand, which is moving toward a 90 percent goal, gets 75
percent of its power from renewables, mostly hydro and geo-
thermal, and is now working on developing its wind power.
Scotland also relies on its strong winds and hydro, which pro-
duce the bulk of its 5.8 GW of renewable energy installed capac-
ity. The country hopes to reach the 100 percent target by 2020.
Times have changed
since the mid-2000s when a
group that included the late
Hermann Scheer, TIME mag-
azines Hero for the Green
Century, frst explored the
idea. The group formed
the Renewables 100 Policy
Institute, but in the early
years found that the concept
was too bleeding edge for
established non-profts, which
declined to sign on.
Now that is starting to
change, said Diane Moss, the
institutes founding director.
The Renewables 100 Policy
Institute held its frst inter-
national conference in April,
drawing a crowd of more
than 200 people. The present-
ers were not from the fringe
of the green world, but were
representatives of established
advocacy organizations,
elected offcials, corporate
executives and the head of the
Aerial view of Greenberg before (left) and and after the tornado (right.) Credit: City of Greensburg.
1309REW_38 38 9/11/13 2:35 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 39
Cover S tory
A Scottish parliament report found that to stay on track Scotland
had to be generating about 31 percent of its electricity from
renewables by 2011. It beat the target with 35 percent in 2011 and
about 39 percent in 2012, according to Scottish Renewables, an
industry organization.
While Scotland is ahead of its goal, its not necessarily clear
sailing from here.
There are three major challenges that we face in realizing
our ambitious targets; access to fnance, strengthening our grid
infrastructure and ensuring we have a good planning system
in place, said Rachelle Money, director of communications for
Scottish Renewables.
Then there are those
places with unusual circum-
stances that make renew-
ables almost the only real
choice. Rural villagers in
Bangladesh have achieved
all renewable electricity. But
they have no connection to a
power grid, leaving distrib-
uted solar energy as a logical
choice and their sole source
of power.
Top: A look at the newly rebuilt Greensburg, the first U.S. city with all-LED street lights and the first with a LEED-
certified town hall. Bottom left: Greensburg after the devastating tornado struck. Bottom right: The 12.5 MW
Greensburg wind farm developed and operated by NativeEnergy. Credit: City of Greensburg.
1309REW_39 39 9/11/13 2:35 PM
40 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Cover S tory
State of Mind
Bountiful hydro, wind and geothermal helps, but so does
the right attitude. Consider Germany, which Moss says
belies the oft-repeated phrase that renewables are great,
but will always be a small part of the mix.
Germany has 30 GW of solar, yet no more sun than
Juneau, Alaska. It is installing solar at this point for
half the installation cost of California which last time
I checked was very sunny, Moss said. Germany doesnt
have a lot of wind [or] sun or hydropower, and yet they
are on track to be at least 80 percent renewable in the
power sector by the middle of the century. And there are
plenty of people who think they will get to 100 percent.
Places like Germany succeed in part because of good gov-
ernment policy. But they also think a little bit more long term,
according to Moss. They recognize the local added value brought
by renewables not sending money elsewhere for fuel, creating
jobs, boosting the tax base, even attracting tourists, she said.
Greensburg, Kansas at frst glance seemed an unlikely candi-
date to go 100 percent renewable. Many of its citizens, those not
in farming, earn their living in the oil and gas industry. But the
towns mayor, Bob Dixson, says look deeper and the towns green
roots show.
Lets go clear back to my ancestors, he said. Before rural
electrifcation came to western Kansas, the frst electricity on
farms were what we called wind chargers. You can still drive
around western Kansas and see remnants of towers from 60, 70,
80 years ago.
The townspeople believe if you take care of the land, it takes
care of you. So that environmental stewardship has been one of
our base values through the decades and centuries, he said.
The core value showed itself quickly after the tornado. Amidst
the rubble, community members and offcials met in a tent to
brainstorm. Within the frst 24 hours the idea emerged that a
place called Greensburg should be 100 percent green.
It became a community-wide effort Greensburg compares
its reconstruction to an old-fashion barn-raising. Out of it came
a model town: highly effcient, using geothermal and solar, the
frst U.S. city with all LED street lights and the frst with a LEED-
certifed town hall.
But credit for its all-green status goes mostly to a 12.5-MW
wind farm developed by NativeEnergy. Because of the wind
farm, Greensburg has seen
no increase in electric rates
in six years, Dixson said.
But most of all, Greensburg
found a way to move for-
ward by pursuing 100 per-
cent renewables. Eleven lives
were lost in tornado. All of
us lost everything, no mat-
ter what your social eco-
nomic status was. The only
thing we had left was each
other, Dixson said. We did
not just want to be a surviv-
ing community. We wanted
to be a thriving community.
As our ancestors built a com-
munity for us we needed to
build a community for future
generations.
As goes Greensburg, so
goes the rest of the world?
That may be a big leap. But
whats clear is that 100 per-
cent green is no longer an
outliers pursuit, but a seri-
ous goal in many places, one
that could become a new ral-
lying cry for renewables in
the years to come.
Credit: City of Greensburg.
1309REW_40 40 9/11/13 2:35 PM
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42 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
OFFSHORE WI ND
Floating Offshore
Wind Power
Taking Hold
A series of developments supporting foating ofshore
wind power signals not just a maturing industrial sector.
It also, perhaps, suggests a deeper transformation.
DAVID APPLEYARD, Senior Editor
Acknowledged as the leading nation in terms of offshore wind
development, while it has failed to capitalize on opportunities
for leadership in turbines, the UK has made efforts to avoid the
same mistake when it comes to other aspects of offshore wind
power. One area attracting considerable attention is foating
offshore technology.
On 18 July, the Crown Estate, the body which controls sea-
bed licensing in UK territorial waters, called for expressions
of interest in offshore wind off-grid projects as part of an off-
shore wind test and demonstration leasing program launched
in June, including a leasing round for foating offshore wind.
Furthermore, the Estate also invited submissions for proj-
ect variations. It specifcally notes: Floating wind projects
embedded within, or adjacent to, an existing project may be
submitted as project variations.
In inviting industry to propose sites for the development
of foating wind farms, a process expected take to up nine
months, the Crown Estate said it hopes to facilitate early
deployment of projects, which may allow some projects to
commence construction as soon as 2017.
Successful projects will include arrays of up to ffteen
machines, utilizing foating foundations and with less than
100 MW of installed capacity. The technologies involved must
not have been previously deployed commercially and the proj-
ects must be used solely for test and demonstration purposes.
1309REW_42 42 9/11/13 2:51 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 43
Hywind on location.
Photo by Trude Refsahl.
Credit Statoil.
Commenting on the proposals, Martin Simpson, Head of New
Energy and Technology at the Crown Estate said: To unlock sus-
tained growth in offshore wind we have to demonstrate that
technological advancements can drive down costs.
He added: Floating wind is included for the frst time because
of its future potential.
Of course, its not just the UK that views the deep-water off-
shore sector as a notional gold mine of energy. While current
commercial substructures are economically limited to maximum
water depths of 40-50 meters, the European potential from rela-
tively near-shore deep-water sites in the Atlantic, Mediterranean
and deep North Sea waters is vast.
Indeed, a new report based on the work of the Deep offshore
and new foundation concepts Task Force, part of the European
Wind Energy Associations (EWEA) Offshore Wind Industry
Group, claims the energy produced from turbines in deep waters
in the North Sea alone could meet the EUs electricity consump-
tion four times over.
The document notes that deep offshore designs are compet-
itive in terms of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) with fxed
foundations in more than 5O meters of water depth. And, though
the technology is still at a very early stage of development if a
number of technical, economic and political challenges are over-
come; the frst deep offshore wind farms could be installed and
connected to the grid by 2017.
Floating Technology Development
According to EWEA, at the end of 2012 there were two full-scale
grid-connected offshore wind turbines on foating substructures,
Hywind and Windfoat, both in Europe. Hywind, developed by
Statoil and installed in the North Sea off Norway in 2009, fea-
tures a 2.3-MW Siemens turbine. Developed by Principle Power
and EDP, Windfoat was installed in the Atlantic off Portugal in
2011 and uses a 2-MW machine from Vestas.
In addition, the report continues, seven experimental foat-
ing substructures have been or are under test. Those include
SWAY, Blue H and Poseidon in Europe, Kabashima Island con-
cept and WindLens in Japan and DeepCwind foating turbine
in the U.S.
So far, deep-water offshore foundations have focused on
three main types, adapted from the offshore oil and gas indus-
try. The Spar Buoy, a cylindrical ballast-stabilized structure,
1309REW_43 43 9/11/13 2:51 PM
44 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
OffshOre Wi nd
Beyond European Seas
Despite the apparent disparity between Europe and those play-
ing catch-up, there are encouraging signs from both the United
States and Japan.
A consortium led by Marubeni Corporation, and including the
University of Tokyo, Mitsubishi Corporation, Mitsubishi Heavy
Industries, Japan Marine United Corporation and Hitachi, have
been participating in an experimental offshore foating wind
farm project sponsored by Japans Ministry of Economy, Trade
and Industry since March 2012.
Consisting of a 2-MW Hitachi-manufactured turbine and a
four column Semi-submersible support structure, delivery to
the Fukushima installation site located about 12 miles (20
km) offshore in 400 feet (120 meters) of water is underway,
along with the worlds frst 66 kV foating sub-station and asso-
ciated undersea cable.
The group is planning to install two more 7-MW turbines with
the trade ministry earmarking some of Y22 billion ($232 million)
for the fve-year project.
Scheduled to begin operation from October 2013, delivery of
the facility and its mooring operation in the testing area is due
any day, as is the laying and burying of the riser cable at the
testing area.
Further support for foating wind turbines seems likely in
Japan, in Januarys Budget Request some Y9.5 billion ($95 mil-
lion) of new money was requested to establish the technology
with a full-fedged demonstration project.
Meanwhile, in the U.S, mid-June saw the deployment of the
countrys frst ever grid-connected foating wind turbine off the
coast of Maine.
The VolturnUS 1:8 machine is the product of the DeepCwind
Consortium, led by the University of Maine and backed through
a research initiative funded by the U.S. Department of Energy,
the National Science Foundation, and others. The group respon-
sible for foating turbine design, material selection, and lab test-
ing includes organizations such as the Maine Maritime Academy,
Technic, National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Sandia
National Labs, among others.
Christopher Long, Manager of Offshore and Siting Policy for
the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) described the
development as another signal of steady progress toward devel-
opment of an American offshore wind industry.
as featured on Hywind
concept; the Tension Leg
Platform, in which a semi
submerged buoyant struc-
ture is anchored to the
seabed with tensioned
mooring lines; and the Semi-
submersible used on the
Wind-Float concept which
combines a semi-submerged
structure with tension leg-
type moorings.
One recent development in
this area came from Glosten
Associates, which completed
scale-model testing of the
PelaStar tension-leg platform
(TLP) in June 2013. The next
phase of the project will see
the building and installation
of a full-scale 6-MW foating
turbine, explained William
Hurley, PelaStar Director and
Glosten program lead.
Overall, EWEA notes that
in addition to the two full-
scale deep offshore turbines,
there are three grid-con-
nected experimental foating
substructures and thirty-fve
deep-water designs under
development worldwide.
Of these 40 deep water
wind projects identifed by
EWEA, more than 60 percent
are located in Europe, in nine
countries: Denmark, France,
Germany, the Netherlands,
Norway, Portugal, Spain,
Sweden and the UK. A further
four are in the U.S. and nine
are in Japan.
1309REW_44 44 9/11/13 2:51 PM
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1309REW_45 45 9/11/13 2:51 PM
46 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
OffshOre Wi nd
With the support of a $12
million Energy Department
investment over fve years,
at 65 feet (20 meters) the
VolturnUS prototype is a 1:8th
scale of the planned 6-MW
commercial version.
It features a semi-sub-
mersible platform using a
concrete foundation, claim-
ing lower costs, in addition
to a composite tower. As part
of the fve-year project, the
Maine Maritime Academy
helped test and conduct
analysis on the design while
Cianbro Corp. constructed
the system.
Late last year, the
Universitys Advanced
Structures and Composites
Center was also awarded $4
million by the DoE to sup-
port another deep-water foat-
ing offshore wind research
project. The program, known
as Aqua Ventus I, will be
a 12-MW demonstration
wind park using VolturnUS
machines.
The $4 million will cover
the frst phase of a potential
$93.2 million of DoE support
and the Composites Center
was one of seven projects
selected to complete the engi-
neering, design and permit-
ting phase.
Up to three of these
projects are expected to be
selected in 2014 for follow-on
phases that focus on siting,
construction and installation, with the aim of achieving commer-
cial operation by 2017. The projects will receive up to $47 million
each over four years, subject to Congressional appropriations.
Several foating turbine concepts are among the seven proj-
ects chosen for the frst phase of this six-year initiative. These
include a project from Statoil North America, which plans to
deploy four 3-MW wind turbines on foating spar buoy struc-
tures in the Gulf of Maine off Boothbay Harbor at a water depth
of approximately 460 feet (140 meters), although that project
was recently put on hold. On the Pacifc Coast, Principle Power
plans to install fve semi-submersible foating foundations out-
ftted with 6-MW direct-drive offshore wind turbines in deep
water 10 to 15 miles (16-23 km) from Coos Bay, Oregon. These
projects join DeepCWinds plans to install a pilot project with
two 6-MW direct-drive turbines on concrete semi-submersible
foundations near Monhegan Island in the 2015-2017 timeframe.
Setting the Standard
If any clearer indication were required that foating wind turbine
technology is rapidly maturing, DNV KEMA recently released its
new standard for such structures.
This follows the September 2011 launch of a Joint Industry
Project (JIP) focused on foater-specifc design issues, such as
station keeping, site conditions in relation to low frequency
motion, simulation periods, higher order responses and design
of structural components. DNV KEMA has been joined on
the project by the likes of Statoil, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo
Metal Corporation, Gamesa, Iberdrola, Alstom Wind, Glosten
Associates and Principle Power.
Commenting on the new standard and effectively summa-
rizing the evolution of deep water wind, Johan Sandberg, head
of renewable energy at DNV KEMA in Norway, remarked:
As demand for wind energy increases, we predict offshore
deployments will continue to move into deeper waters and,
consequently, theres a need to establish design standards that
will help ensure safety, reliability, and confdence in future
wind turbines.
Recent successful deployments of full-scale prototype confg-
urations have demonstrated that foating wind turbines can be a
viable alternative and the market is taking notice.
It is now time to take the next step: standardization, he
concluded.
1309REW_46 46 9/11/13 2:51 PM
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RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 49
WI ND TECHNOLOGY
The Air Up There:
Remote Sensing Gains Ground
Wind energy
developers
are increasingly
adopting remote
sensing technologies
for site assessments
and operations.
JAMES MONTGOMERY,
Associate Editor
Five years ago, First Winds
in-house meteorological team
zeroed in on a couple of new
potential wind farm areas in
Maine that were different: moderate-elevation plateaus instead
of the traditionally preferred high-elevation ridgetop locations.
At the time, those sites looked like a little bit of a gamble,
recalled Dave Fowler, First Winds director of development for
the New England region. But the company put up a few mete-
orological (MET) test towers at those sites, and after a couple
of years added newer remote-sensing technologies to broaden
the wind data collection and found there was really impres-
sive wind resource at those locations, added Matt Kearns, First
Winds VP of development for the Northeast region. One of those
sites became the companys 34-MW Bull Hill operation, which
came online in the fall of 2012. The other, offcially pitched to
Maine state offcials this summer, is the proposed 186-MW
Bingham Wind project in southern Aroostook County, which
will be the largest wind farm in New England upon completion.
Without the data provided by newer remote-sensing technol-
ogies, First Wind likely wouldnt have pursued proj-
ects on these new lower-height locations, which are
opening up whole new areas in Maine for potential
development, according to Fowler.
Becoming Bankable
MET towers and anemometers have been the work-
horse wind assessment technology for decades,
gathering wind data at relatively minor expense.
The MET tower approach is still highly reliable
and most stakeholders will accept a well-executed
MET tower-based campaign, according to Matthew
Filippelli, lead engineer at AWS Truepower. Now,
though, remote sensing technologies such as sodar
(SOnic Detection And Ranging) and lidar (laser
light plus radar) are expanding the scope of the
wind assessment data, and thus the confdence in a
sites wind energy resources.
Much of the increased adoption of remote sens-
ing is driven by the industrys shift toward bigger
A lattice wind meterological tower. Credit: DNV
Kema.
1309REW_49 49 9/11/13 2:52 PM
50 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Wi nd Technology
wind turbines, with taller hubs and longer rotors. By the end of
this decade, a third of wind turbine installations in Europe will
be IEC Class III lower-wind-speed turbines in the 80-100 meter
range, calculates Feng Zhao, managing consultant with Navigant
Research. In the U.S., developers including First Wind are mov-
ing into regions like New England that have untapped areas with
lower wind regimes, and deploying taller turbines to tap the
higher and more reliable winds that make these sites feasible.
At only 60-80 meters in height, traditional MET towers require
extrapolation to calculate wind resource data up at these new
wind turbine heights. More extrapolation means less certainty
about the sites potential production, and uncertainty means
increased risk and diffculty getting a project fnanced. Now, all
wind evaluation methods are being applied to bankable energy
investments, added Katy Briggs, head of DNV Kemas energy
analysis section: Some come with measuring campaigns and
accuracy of data, some maybe have more uncertainty in measur-
ing wind speed data, but the industry is accepting the data.
Comparing MET Options
As developers become savvier about wind resource mapping
beyond standard MET towers, here are their choices:
Taller MET towers have the advantage of being based on the
longstanding reliable low-cost technology, but they quickly lose
that edge, with a decked-out 100-meter MET tower
costing up to 10 times more than the standard
MET tower, Zhao points out. Extra-tall MET tow-
ers also run the risk of running into permitting
and approval problems from local authorities to
the FAA. However, taller MET towers are built for
a longer lifetime of on-site data collection, so they
can be cost-effective for a long-term wind resource
monitoring strategy, Briggs noted.
Tinkered with since the 1980s to characterize
wake effects behind wind turbines, sodar gradu-
ally has become part of up-front wind site assess-
ment campaigns. Relatively small, low-power
(usually provided by a solar PV panel), and por-
table, these units can be quickly installed for
early site assessment even before deploying a
MET tower and moved around to expand data
collection and the wind resource profle. Sodar
devices also are in a similar
cost range as MET towers,
according to Briggs. Sodar
isnt as accurate or as scal-
able as lidar, though, with
capabilities generally dete-
riorating above 120 meters,
Feng points out. And its data
capture and delivery can be
eroded by various environ-
mental conditions: obstruc-
tions (trees, buildings, steep
hillsides), precipitation, and
even high wind speeds that
generate their own acoustics.
Lidar was developed in
the early 1960s by combin-
ing lasers and radar to gener-
ate much higher-quality data
between long distances. Its
initial application was map-
ping the moons surface for
exploration, then quickly
adopted in aviation and
A sodar unit in the field, with protective cattle
fencing. Credit: DNV Kema.
1309REW_50 50 9/11/13 2:52 PM
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Wi nd Technology
meteorology, though wind energy assessment wasnt investigated
until the early 2000s. Lidar generally provides data with better
accuracy, especially at greater heights (up to 200 meters), and is
less susceptible to adverse site conditions. Advanced lidar devices
can obtain data from several kilometers away, vertically or hori-
zontally. However, lidar is signifcantly more expensive than sodar
and traditional MET towers. It also tends to require more power
(exceeding 100 W), which is problematic for sites that arent grid-
connected or in case of an outage; these units generally require
backup which adds even more cost.
Both sodar and lidar have faster setup and mobility vs. fxed
MET towers, but this needs to be used in moderation. Industry
consensus is that a one-year duration of measurements taken
in a fxed location provides the best reduction of uncertainty,
according to Robert Poore, senior advisor for renewable energy
services at DNV KEMA. That assumes synchronous use with
multiple onsite MET towers providing longer-term (2-4 years)
data, providing the fullest picture of a sites wind resource.
All MET options have some
degree of susceptibility to
environmental conditions, so
A lidar unit in the field. Credit:
Renewable NRG Systems.
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Wi nd Technology
the choice between them is very site-dependent. Sodar has trou-
ble with nearby tall structures or objects that can interfere with
sound signals. Lidar, being based on light, cant penetrate fog.
Cup anemometers on towers are susceptible to icing.
Operations and Beyond
The decision about what MET technology to deploy doesnt end
with site assessment and selection; its not as well-known that the
technology has value throughout a wind farms lifespan for power
forecasting and modeling, Filippelli points out. Sodar and lidar
get attention at construction, but MET towers provide a good, use-
ful data source throughout the entire project lifespan.
Remote sensing technologies, though, are getting a lot more
experience in operation now, Briggs offered. The kinks are get-
ting worked out. Side-scanning lidar, for example, likely will
gain favor in forecasting at operational wind plants, for early
identifcation and preparation of changes in approaching winds
that could change power output.
And investors are getting
on board as well. Poore indi-
cated that there are examples
where some smaller projects,
or portions of larger ones,
have been partially fnanced
based solely on remote sens-
ing measurements. The time
is coming, he predicted,
when entire larger utility-
scale projects will pursue and
obtain a fnancing decision
based solely on remote sens-
ing measurement technol-
ogy. In most cases, though, he
admits that there will always
be a MET tower involved in a
wind project.
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54 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
July 4, 2013 marked the inauguration of the worlds largest
offshore wind farm The London Array. With 175 Siemens
3.6-MW turbines and a total installed capacity of 630 MW,
the offshore wind farm is a historic milestone for the
United Kingdom and the development of renewable energy,
according to Dr. Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber, CEO of Masdar, one of
developers of the project.
The offshore wind farm is located about 20 km off the coasts
of Kent and Essex in the U.K. and the project covers an area of
100 square kilometers. Development partners of the project
include DONG energy with a 50 percent stake, E.ON with a 30
percent stake and Masdar with a 20 percent stake. In all, the
project took four years to construct.
Profling Stand-out Renewable
Energy Projects Worldwide
London Array Debuts to Great Fanfare
1.
2.
1309REW_54 54 9/11/13 2:52 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 55
1. One of the two
offshore substations
for The London
Array.
2. The London Array
offshore wind farm
includes 175 Siemens
wind turbines.
3. About 450 km
of export cables
transport the wind
energy from the
offshore wind farm
to the substations.
4. The Cleve Hill
Onshore Substation
was constructed first.
5. One of the 175
foundations on
which Siemens wind
turbines a built.
6. Close-up of one of
the 3.6 MW turbines.
Photos Courtesy
London Array Limited.
By the Numbers
175
450
630mw
100km
2
Number of
Turbines
Kilometers
of Cabling
(about 280 miles)
Area
(about 1.1 the size of Manhattan)
Rated Capacity, enough
power for nearly 500,000
UK homes
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1309REW_55 55 9/11/13 2:52 PM
56 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
WI ND TECHNOLOGY
The Promise
of the Ukrainian
Wind Market
For the last 20 years Ukraine has led the republics of
the former USSR in wind energy development. It is the
only country in the CIS community with an established wind
industry and a functioning green tarif mechanism.
GALINA SHMIDT, Ukranian Wind Energy Association
Last year (2012) was another successful year for wind power
in Ukraine, bringing the total installed capacity to around 300
MW, an impressive 98 percent increase in cumulative national
installations, which were just 151.1 MW at the end of 2011.
The frst phase of modern industrial wind development in
Ukraine dates back to 1997 when the Programme for Wind
Farm Construction was adopted in order to stimulate wind
sector development. The program was mainly focused on
converting military-industrial enterprises for into wind power
manufacturing sites. A rather ambitious goal of reaching
1,990 MW by 2010 was set at that time, but unfortunately the
goal was not met due to a severe lack of funding.
Although Ukraine is one of Europes leading coal -
producing countries and possesses some uranium, oil and
natural gas reserves, the nation relies heavily on imported
energy, primarily from Russia, leaving the economy vul-
nerable to bilateral disputes and external shocks. To reduce
its dependence on imported energy, and recognizing the
need for diversifcation of its energy supply, in April 2009
the Ukrainian government introduced attractive green tar-
iff rates for renewable energy sources that are fxed until
2030. The current rate for a 2+ MW wind turbine is 11.31
cents per kWh. In the future the tariff will be reduced by
10, 20 and 30 percent from
2013 levels for power plants
that generate electricity from
renewable energy sources
that are commissioned
from 2015, 2020 and 2025,
respectively.
Ukraine currently has
three main mechanisms for
stimulating renewable power
1309REW_56 56 9/11/13 2:53 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 57
Ochakovskaya Wind Park.
Credit UWEA.
generation: the green tariff, tax benefts and preferential condi-
tions for connecting to the grid.
Mr. Nikolay Pashkevich, head of the State Agency on Energy
Effciency and Energy Saving of Ukraine (SAEE), which is
responsible for renewable energy development in the country,
considers the adoption of the green tariff law on April 1, 2009
to be the major impetus for the development of renewable ener-
gies in Ukraine. It is this law that has allowed our country to
get such increase in renewable energies only for a few years,
he said. According to SAEE, 153 renewable energy projects are
currently operational in
Ukraine, totaling 874 MW of
installed capacity. In the last
six months 733 GWh of green
electricity have been gener-
ated. For comparison, in 2012
the total capacity of Ukraines
renewable energy indus-
try amounted to 146 MW
with an annual output of 242
GWh. This is vivid evidence
of the effciency of the law,
Pashkevich said. In fact, this
law is a guarantor of invest-
ments in renewable energies.
Domestically manufac-
tured small and MW-class
wind turbines represent
Ukraines current wind
energy market. Of the 84.75
MW of operating wind power
plants, 17 were constructed
under the State Programme
for Wind Farm Construction.
Since 2011, nearly all of the
new wind capacity has been
brought online through pri-
vate investment.
According to the Ukrainian
Wind Energy Association
(UWEA), 18.32 MW of new
wind capacity were added
during the frst six months of
2013, with total wind capacity
reaching 315.76 MW by June
30 out of which 290.76 MW
were fully grid-connected and
selling electricity at the green
tariff rate. In addition, con-
struction work has begun on
a number of sites located in
1309REW_57 57 9/11/13 2:53 PM
58 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
wi nd Technology
A recent tender victory by
Fuhrlaender Windtechnology
for the supply of 22 2-MW
wind turbines for a 45-MW
wind farm in the town of
Yereimentau in Kazakhstans
Akmola region is an indi-
cator of Ukrainian wind
turbines competitiveness
within the former Soviet
Union. This project is not
only the frst modern wind
farm to be constructed in
Kazakhstan, but also the frst
non-Ukrainian wind proj-
ect where modern MW-class
wind turbines of Ukrainian
origin are to be installed.
the Lugansk, Zaporozhye and Kherson regions as well as in the
Crimea. Total investment amounted to around 84 million.
UWEA expects a total installed capacity of about 500 MW by
the frst half of 2014 and believes that a national wind capacity of
1 GW by the end of 2015 is feasible.
Wind Parks of Ukraine is one of the leading companies in the
nations wind energy industry. By July 2013 the company had
installed and was operating 130 MW of wind power in several
Ukrainian regions. Approximately 70 MW of additional capacity
are scheduled to be completed this year. The company expects its
project portfolio to comprise 1,350 MW by 2020.
Development of an entire wind power supply chain has been
a priority for Ukraine. In September 2012, Ukrainian com-
pany Fuhrlaender Windtechnology inaugurated a factory in
Kramatorsk to produce licensed wind turbines. Fuhrlaender is
the frst company in Ukraine to produce MW-class turbines, and
its factory can be considered the start of Ukraines domestic pro-
duction of modern wind equipment.
Construction at the Novoazovskaya Wind Park. Credit UWEA.
1309REW_58 58 9/11/13 2:53 PM
Transformers. Switchgear. Substations.
Integrated solutions. Automation. Engineering Services.
With over 75 years of experience in the energy sector, CG is an established
manufacturer of three-phase distribution and power transformers, and a strong
competitor in the market of substations, integrated solutions, automation systems
and services. At CG we continually focus on providing smart solutions to our
customers challenges.
www.cgglobal.com
For more information, enter 19 at REW.hotims.com
1309REW_59 59 9/11/13 2:53 PM
60 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
wi nd Technology
The Fuhrlaender Windtechnology Factory. Credit UWEA.
The main barrier to the continued successful development
of renewable energy in Ukraine is grid connection. The
Ministry of Energy and Coal Industrys position is refected
in the draft Revised Energy Strategy of Ukraine till 2030,
a nuclear and coal power-oriented document. The main
arguments from those who are holding back renewable energy
development include the dependence of renewables on weather
conditions and the necessity of creating additional backup
capacity to ensure grid stability. Initially, the National Power
Company Ukrenergo [a national grid operator] claimed that
Ukraines technically achievable renewable energy potential
amounted to 7-8 MW. Nowadays, three years after the
introduction of the green tariff, the fgure of 1.5 MW has been
introduced into the draft Revised Energy Strategy, criticized
Andrey Konechenkov, UWEA chairman.
According to Vladislav Eremenko, general director of wind
farm developer, Wind Parks of Ukraine, the country has all of
the necessary ingredients to support a successful wind power
industry. Ukraine can
provide all the supply chain
from [the] production of
wind turbines to wind farm
construction, maintenance
and operation, Eremenko
said. The opening of the
plant in Ukraine to produce
licensed wind turbines,
trained installation and
maintenance personnel,
designers and builders
all of these are the
components of one big
process the process of
Ukraines transition to clean
and reliable electricity, he
concluded.
1309REW_60 60 9/11/13 2:53 PM
Proven high speed drivetrain provides easy route
to higher power levels offshore
Almost all offshore turbines use high speed (HS) drivetrains both induction and
doubly-fed and the majority rely on ABB generators. With the expansion of ABBs
HS permanent magnet generator (PMG) range up to 7 MW, turbine OEMs now have
an easy route to upgrade from doubly-fed to full converter solutions. The benets
include low maintenance, superior grid compliance and fast offshore introduction.
First launched in 2003, ABBs robust PMGs offer small size and low weight, combined
with efciencies as high as 98 %. Their patented rotor technology ensures proven
short circuit withstand without demagnetization. Leading turbine OEMs rely on ABB
technology, with over 30,000 generators delivered for all drivetrain types from direct
drive and hybrid to HS. Read more at: www.abb.com/motors&generators
Visit us at EWEA Offshore
Nov 19 21, in Frankfurt
Hall 3.1, ABB stand 31E90
For more information, enter 20 at REW.hotims.com
1309REW_61 61 9/11/13 2:53 PM
62 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
SHOW PREVI EW A SPECI AL ADVERTI SI NG SECTI ON
Offshore Wind Explored
News that plans for a huge new dockside development
on the UKs east coast designed to support
ofshore wind development have moved forward is
characteristic of the times. Ofshore wind is becoming
a big business and major investments in related
infrastructure are being brought to the table as a result.
The announcement that the government was minded to grant
approval places Able UK the company behind the 450 mil-
lion (US $675 million) Marine Energy Park on the South Bank
of the River Humber one step closer to realizing the 906
acre (366 ha) development. When completed, the Park will pro-
vide 1279 metres of quayside facilities purpose-built for the
manufacture, assembly and installation of offshore renewable
technologies, notably wind.
In 2012, some 290 offshore turbines across nine proj-
ects with a combined capacity of 1166 MW were commis-
sioned, bringing the total installed offshore capacity to 5 GW.
Installations were up a third on the previous year with the
trend towards larger projects expected to continue into the
future. But with recent fore-
casts from the European
Wind Energy Association
(EWEA) indicating that by
2020 Europes installed off-
shore wind capacity could be
as much as 40 GW, the sec-
tor is seen as a major growth
market. By 2030, EWEA
believes, offshore wind capac-
ity could total 150 GW, meet-
ing 14 percent of the EUs
total electricity consumption.
1309REW_62 62 9/11/13 2:55 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 63
Growing evidence that offshore development is gathering pace
and scale suggests that there are enormous opportunities for the
maritime sector in areas such as laying foundations and cables
and the installation and maintenance of turbines and trans-
former stations. The shipbuilding and oil and gas marine equip-
ment industries in particular are well placed to beneft from this
additional business, given their existing offshore expertise.
This close connection between these two sectors and the
development of related infrastructure as seen on the Humber
and elsewhere is one area that will be addressed in the forth-
coming EWEA OFFSHORE 2013 conference, which is scheduled
to take place in Frankfurt in November.
Indeed, one whole track of the conference is dedicated to this
theme, under the title: Industrializing the supply chain.
This track highlights the notion that learning from, and inte-
grating, maritime experience presents both opportunities and
challenges. With a panel of industry researchers exploring and
identifying the possible synergies and risks of integrating vari-
ous technologies, they will reveal how experiences from other
maritime industries can help overcome bottlenecks in the
offshore wind industry.
Among the many anticipated highlights is a pre-
sentation by Stefan Frber of Germanys Bremenports
GmbH & Co. KG in the Synergies with other maritime
technologies session.
This organization is currently implementing plans
for a new offshore terminal at the River Weser, close
www.ewea.org/offshore2013/
to both production sites and
with access to deep water,
and Frber is set to answer
key questions about this proj-
ect, known as the Offshore-
Terminal in Bremerhaven
(OTB). His insights will shed
light on another great exam-
ple of investment in port
infrastructure.
Indeed, despite the diff-
culties the offshore indus-
try may be experiencing in
Europe two areas also
extensively addressed by
the conference program are
issues such as fnancing and
policy stability industry
leaders are feeling positive
about the future. Conference
Chair Henrik Poulsen, the
CEO of Dong Energy, says
the best years are still
ahead of us. That said, there
is obviously no room for com-
placency. Its crucial that we
as an industry pick up the
challenge and join forces to
meet our common goal.
For more on the confer-
ence program and all of the
theme tracks and confer-
ence sessions, visit the EWEA
OFFSHORE 2013 website.
1309REW_63 63 9/11/13 2:55 PM
WHILE THE WORLD IS MAKING PROGRESS, IT ISNT MOVING FAST ENOUGH.
BUSINESS AS USUAL WONT GET US THERE.
WHAT WILL IT TAKE?
The sustainable energy for all initiative sets 3 global goals for 2030:
ENERGY ACCESS Providing universal access to modern energy
Global access to electricity
Pace needs to increase by 38% to reach goal by 2030
1990
20
40
60
80
100
2010 2030
During the last 20 years 1.7 billion
people gained access to electricity
Business as usual would leave
12-16% of the worlds population
without electricity
1.2 billion people have no access
to electricity today
2. Energy efficiency
3. Renewable energy
1. Energy access
2030 goal:
100% global
access to
electricity
& modern fuels
for cooking
Objective 1
FOR ALL
THE FIRST GLOBAL TRACKING FRAMEWORK LAYS OUT THE CHALLENGE AHEAD
64 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
p
o
i
n
t
s
d
a
t
a
1309REW_64 64 9/11/13 2:56 PM
Primary world energy consumption
Doubling the rate of improvement in global ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Doubling the share of worlds mix of RENEWABLE ENERGY
Pace needs to increase by 2.5 times historical growth rate to reach goal by 2030
WHAT CAN GOVERNMENTS DO?
Energy intensity
10.2
megajoules $/PPP
Consumption
367
exajoules
1990
Energy intensity
7.9
megajoules $/PPP
Consumption
534
exajoules
2010
Energy intensity
4.7
megajoules $/PPP
2030
1990 2010 2030
Countries with a high level of energy intensity use more energy to create a unit of GDP than countries with lower levels of energy
intensity. The World Bank measures energy intensity in primary energy terms and GDP at PPP [purchasing power parity].
(Courtesy World Bank Global Tracking Framework)
Increase financing Take bold policy steps, such as:
Phasing out untargeted fossil fuel subsidies
Using targeted subsidies to promote access
Establishing a price for carbon
Adopting strict standards for energy efficiency
Introducing policy incentives for renewable energy
Promoting a good investment climate for energy
Meeting the renewable energy
and energy efficiency goals can
help slow climate change.
Primary
world energy
consumption is
36% lower than
it would have
been without the
improvements
Renewable
energy
16%
18%
36%
$400 billion
annual spending
currently
$11.2 trillion
annual spending
needed to achieve
the goals
Objective 2
Objective 3
SOURCE: WorldBank.org WorldBank.org/se4all
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 65
1309REW_65 65 9/11/13 2:56 PM
October 2124
McCormick Place
Chicago, Illinois USA
Powered by:
66 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Show Previ ew A SPECI AL ADVERTI SI NG SECTI ON
Solar Power International (SPI) is where solar professionals convene each year
to stay up to date on solar trends, innovations, and the state of the industry. With nearly
600 exhibiting companies, 15,000+ attendees, the industrys most comprehensive
conference program, and daily networking events, you cant beat the return on
investment delivered by attending SPI.
And, this isnt your typical trade show! SPI takes attendees out of the ordinary with
engaging discussions, applicable best practices, exciting innovations, and idea-sharing
with business leaders. You will see the people and products and access the information
and ideas that prepare you and your company for the future of solar.
Overall Schedule-at-a-Glance
Preliminary schedule, subject to change. All events are located at McCormick Center unless otherwise specified.
Pre- and Post-Conference Workshops
Sunday, 10/20 ............... 8:00 a.m. 5:30 p.m.
Monday, 10/21 .............. 8:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
Friday, 10/25 ................. 8:00 a.m. 5:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall and Posters Open
Tuesday, 10/22 ............. 10:00 a.m. 6:00 p.m.
Wednesday, 10/23 ........ 10:00 a.m. 6:00 p.m.
Thursday, 10/24 ............ 10:00 a.m. 4:00 p.m.
Concurrent Sessions and Solar Idea Swaps
Tuesday, 10/22 ............. 10:30 a.m. 4:00 p.m.
Wednesday, 10/23 ........ 11:00 a.m. 4:00 p.m.
Thursday, 10/24 ............ 9:00 a.m. 3:00 p.m.
General Sessions
Monday, 10/21 .............. 5:00 p.m. 6:30 p.m.
Wednesday, 10/23 ........ 9:00 a.m. 10:30 a.m.
1309REW_66 66 9/11/13 2:57 PM
Resources at your
fingertips at Solar
Power International:
Exhibitorsandproductdisplaysin
morethan30productcategories
offeringsolutionswithresidential,
commercial,andutilityapplications.
Sixconferencetracks,workshops,
andSolarIdeaSwaps.
Neweducationalformatsand
opportunities,includingQuickTalks
andEducationalPosters.
Fourfeaturedshowfloorareas,
includingtwonewofferings
Start-UpAlleyandIndustryTrends
thatdelivercutting-edgetrainingand
accesstoup-and-comingcompanies.
Yourcolleagues!Whetheryoure
seekingpolicyinformation,
connectionswithprojectdevelopers,
educationonintegratingwithutilities,
oraccesstofinancingandfunding,
SPIhasitall.
Tackling Issues, Solving Problems,
Delivering Solutions
SPIConcurrentSessionsandSolarIdeaSwapsinvite
attendeestobemoreengaged.Thought-provoking
learningformatswillenableyoutoapplycontenttoyour
company,yourprojectandyourcareer.Tracksinclude:
BusinessGrowthandDevelopment
FinanceSolutions
IntegrationwithUtilities
PolicyandRegulations
MarketsandMarketingStrategies
Operations,Performance,andMaintenance
Bring Timely Topics into Focus
with SPIs New Quicktalks
25-minutesessionsthatpackapowerful
punchwithquickcontentontimelytopics
fromrecognizedindustryexperts.
Educational Posters Bring a New Presentation
and Format for Educational Content to SPI
Posterpresentations,featuredontheExpofloor,will
giveattendeesauniquelookatindustryresearch
results,innovations,ananalysisofapracticalproblem-
solvingeffort,orrecommendedbestpractices.
Special Events Schedule
Opening Reception
Monday,10/21.............. 6:30p.m.8:30p.m.
IncludedinFullConferenceRegistration.
Professional Women in Solar Breakfast
Tuesday,10/22............. 8:30a.m.10:00a.m.
Exhibit Hall Happy Hour
Tuesday,10/22............. 5:00p.m.6:00p.m.
SPI Block Party at the Museum
of Science and Industry
Tuesday,10/22............. 7:00p.m.10:00p.m.
IncludedinFullConferenceRegistration.
Poster Reception
Wednesday,10/23........ 4:30p.m.6p.m.
Special Performance by The Second City
Wednesday,10/23........ 5:00p.m.6:00p.m.
NEW
NEW
Full Expo, Education, Registration,
and Housing details available at
www.solarpowerinternational.com
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 67
1309REW_67 67 9/11/13 2:57 PM
68 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
SOL AR
The Sunniest States
for Solar Energy
in the US
Solar PV panels sparkle in the sun from coast
to coast in the US but as a new report shows,
the top 12 best US states for solar energy are not
necessarily those with the best solar resource.
JAMES MONTGOMERY, Associate Editor
This summer the Environment America Research & Policy
Center released a report that highlighted the top 12 U.S.
states for solar energy ranked by several criteria: from
new and cumulative installed capacity to actual electrical
generation to a variety of solar-friendly political support.
Most are unsurprising, but there are some worthy com-
parisons and criticisms to be made.
Nearly all of them share the same characteristics: clear
renewable electricity standards with carve-outs for solar,
strong statewide interconnection policies, strong net
metering policies, and accommodation for creative fnanc-
ing options including third-party ownership and property
assessed clean energy (PACE) fnancing.
These 12 states account for barely a quarter of the
nations population (28 percent), but almost all of its
installed solar energy (85 percent). The progress of these
states should give us the confdence that we can do much
more, stated Rob Sargent, energy program director with
Environment America. More than half of U.S. states have
the technical potential to generate at least 20 percent of
their electricity from rooftop solar PV, and that jumps to
30 percent for sun-drenched California, Arizona, Nevada
and Colorado.
Groups contributing to the
report included the Solar Energy
Industries Association (SEIA),
Institute for Local Self-Reliance,
Vote Solar, Clean Energy
States Alliance, Massachusetts
Department of Energy Resources,
Environment California Research
and Policy Center, Frontier Group,
the Tilia Fund, the John Merck
Fund and the Energy Foundation.
1309REW_68 68 9/11/13 2:58 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 69
12. Maryland
Residential and commercial
solar PV system prices
in Maryland fell by twice
the national rate in 2012,
according to SEIA. Building our states solar
market is a top priority, stated Governor
Martin OMalley. Today, we have more than
1,410 times more solar on our states grid
and 2,000 more solar installation jobs than
in 2007. Andthe states goals for its RPS(20
percent by 2022) and reduction in energy
consumption (15 percent per-capita reduced
electricity consumption by 2015) are among
the most aggressive in the country, he added.
2013 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
19
2013 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
109
2012 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
13
2012 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
74
1309REW_69 69 9/11/13 2:58 PM
70 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Sol ar
11. North Carolina
North Carolina owes its
presence on the list to
several large-scale solar
energy installations. Apple made a splash
bybuilding out a 20-MW solar project at its
data center in Maiden. Google, which has a
data center in Lenoir, has called for the state
toestablish a renewable energy tariff for large
business. Because much of its solar energy
adoption has been in larger projects, North
Carolina ranks well below the other states
on the top 12 list in adoption of net meter-
ing. North Carolina alsowas prominently
targetedby abroad effort to roll back RPS
levelsin two dozen states.
10. Massachusetts
Solar installations in
Massachusetts have been
among the highest in
the country, and resi-
dential solar installationshave quad rupled
over the past two years in a state bet-
ter known for long New England winters
than strong solar resources. Mass achusetts
is already approaching a goal of 250 MW
installed solar capacity by 2016; the state
has since proposed a new target of 1.6 GW of
cumulative installed solar capacity by 2020.
Massachusetts also has a 400-MW carve-out
in its RPS which also will likely max out well
ahead of its target (2014), so the state is try-
ing to fast-track an expansion of that.
9. Vermont
Vermont has won recognition for its
groundbreakingstreamlined solar
permit ting rules, emphasizing res-
idential and small solar installa-
tions, whichwere further expanded
in 2012. Vermont is also at the forefront of the
net metering debate; a report earlier this year
found that solar net meteringis a net-positive
for the state.
Unlike the other top 12 states, Vermont
does not have a formal RPS it has goals
of 20 percent of electricity retail sales from
renewable energy and combined heat/power
by 2017. There also are targets for providers
annual electricity of 55 percent of retail sales
in 2017, increasing to 75 percent by 2032.
2013 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
30
2013 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
198
2012 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
19
2012 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
129
2013 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
23
2013 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
229
2012 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
14
2012 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
135
2013 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
34
2013 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
21
2012 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
26
2012 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
16
1309REW_70 70 9/11/13 2:58 PM

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INNOVATION
JULY 22-25, 2014
Music City Center, Nashville, TN, USA
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72 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Sol ar
8. Colorado
Colorado is one state (California
another) that limits permitting
fees that local governments can
charge for solar installations. The state has tar-
geted1 million solar rooftops by 2030, roughly
3 GW of output from a calculated potential of 16
GW across every available rooftop in the state.
Public Service Company of Colorado
isexpanding program capacity for its
Solar*Rewards program, which had been fully
subscribed for the year and was in danger of
being suspended. It needs to source 30 per-
cent of electricity generation and 3 percent
of retail sales from distrib uted generation by
2020. Meanwhile, the federal Bureau of Land
Management is seeking RFPs for3,700 acres
for solar energy developmenton its lands.
7. Delaware
Delaware is one of several smaller east-
ern U.S. states where a comparative lack
of solar resource is offset by higher elec-
tricity prices and demand for local clean
energy sources. Delaware is aggres-
sively working toward a clean energy future
and demonstrating that we can have both a
strong economy and a healthy environment,
stated Governor Jack Markell.
Delaware has beenreevaluating its SREC
programafter a 2012 pilot program, switching
to a competitive bidding process. Thats caused
several newer projects entering the program to
start with far lower prices than they would have.
6. California
California is the granddaddy
of solar energy in the U.S.,
with more than a third of the
nations cumulative capac-
ity (2.9 GW). Two other states
have added 1 GW of cumula-
tive capacity California did it in 2012 alone.
Third-party-owned residential PV installa-
tions are surging, now surpassing non-resi-
dential solar PV. California also owns one of
the more robust RPS in the country, and stud-
ies indicateits RPS efforts havent broken the
bank. In fact California is set to achieving its
33 percent RPS well before its 2020 deadline,
and efforts are already underway to deter-
mine what should come next.
Some major utility territories in California
have achieved retail rate parity where a res-
idential solar PV system can compete with
retail electricity rates using just the 30 percent
2013 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
69
2013 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
44
2012 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
28
2012 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
18
2013 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
76
2013 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
2,901
2012 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
27
2012 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
1,033
2013 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
52
2013 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
270
2012 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
8
2012 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
40
1309REW_72 72 9/11/13 2:58 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 73
Sol ar
investment tax credits. And the communities
of Lancaster and Sebastopol require new or
renovated homes to incorporate solar energy.
But the proliferation of distributed solar PV
is causing concern among utilities and grid
operators who struggle tounderstand and
manage so much behind the meter power
generation if it cant be calculated, it cant be
applied to the states RPS goals. Smart invert-
ers and smart metering would help, which also
opens the door to the net-metering debate.
5. New Mexico
New Mexico is among the sunni-
est states, but its the only one that
does not compensate consumers, at
full retail rates, for excess solar elec-
tricity fed back into the grid. But that hasnt
stopped New Mexico from being at the fore-
front of the grid parity discussion with solar.
Earlier this year the state approved a long-term
power purchase agreement between First Solar
and El Paso Electric Power for a 50-MW proj-
ect witha rock-bottom rate of 5.79/kWh, far
below standard pricing for either other solar
projects and even new coal plants. (First Solar
also isbuilding 23 MW of solar capacityfor the
Public Service Co. of New Mexico.) Conergy,
meanwhile, is claiming it caninstall solar in
New Mexico at parity with the grid.
Another noteworthy solar milestone
in New Mexico: earlier this year the U.S.
Armydedi cated its largest solar PV system, a
4.1-MW ground-mount plus 375-kW carport, at
the White Sands Missile Range.
4. New Jersey
New Jersey is a rising star in U.S.
adoption of solar energy and its
doing it not with a high solar resource,
but with impressive legislative support
and customer demand. The state was an
early adopter of policies to support solar energy,
including an RPS with a solar carve-out that
was recently doubled to 4.1 percent by 2028.
More than 15,000 homes, 3,000 businesses, 300
schools, and 200 government facilities in New
Jersey now get at least part of their electricity
from the sun, says Environment America.
Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G)
recently got the green-light fora $447 mil-
lion expansion of solar energy projects, split
between smaller distributed generation ones
and larger-scale ones on landflls and brown-
feld sites. PSE&G also got approval foranother
97 MW of loansfor residential and non-residen-
tial solar projects, with an option topay them
off in SRECs.
3: Hawaii
Ultimately solar energy has to compete on a
level playing feld with conventional energy
2013 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
91
2013 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
190
2012 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
11
2012 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
24
2013 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
110
2013 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
971
2012 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
47
2012 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
415
1309REW_73 73 9/11/13 2:58 PM
74 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Sol ar
sources, without help from subsidies. (Though
defning level playing feld sparks plenty of
debate over what benefts other energy pro-
duction sources enjoy.) Part of that equa-
tion means gaining early adoption in areas
where energy prices are already steep. Few
places have higher energy prices than Hawaii,
and solar energy here is already proven to be
cheaper than electricity from the grid, without
incentives.
Hawaii does have an incentive program for
small-scale residential solar projects ($0.21/
kWh), and the states legislature has voted to
enact a Green Energy Market Securitization
(GEMS) program to support fnancing for clean
energy technologies including solar. Hawaii
also has perhaps the most robust renewable
portfolio standard of any state: 40 percent by
2030, anda greater target of 70 percentinclud-
ing energy effciency measures.
2. Nevada
Nevada is another sun-soaked state
in the U.S. Southwest where solar
energys share of electricity gen-
eration could exceed 30 percent.
Earlier this spring Nevadas major
public utility, NV Energy,committed to replac-
ing 553 MW worth of coal plants with a mix of
renewable energy and natural gas, including
solar, wind, and geothermal. More recently,
the Moapa Band of Paiute Indians proposed to
build out 1.5-GW of renewable energy projects
on its land in Nevada, starting with a 250-MW
solar farm.
1. Arizona
Arizonas 167 W of solar electricity
capacity per resident is nearly seven
times the national average, demon-
strating the states early and solid
commitment to solar energy.
Being at the forefront of solar energy
deployment has put Arizona at the head of
several key debates about the future of solar
energy. The Arizona Corporation Commission
(ACC) has voted to eliminate incentives for
both residents and businesses, and Arizona
is one of a number of states that has begun to
considerchallenges to its renewable portfo-
lio standard. Furthermore, Arizona is ground-
zero in one of the most contentious debates in
all of energy: what to do about net metering.
The fght against net metering and to what
extent the ACC is orchestrating it has even
drawncomparisons to the John Kerry/Swift
Boat controversy.
2013 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
167
2013 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
1097
2012 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
108
2012 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
710
2013 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
146
2013 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
403
2012 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
72
2012 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
198
2013 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
137
2013 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
191
2012 Cumulative Solar Watts Per Person
78
2012 Cumulative Solar Electricity Installations (MW)
109
1309REW_74 74 9/11/13 2:58 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 75
SOL AR
PV Module Quality Concerns
Still Exist for Developing Word
According to some experts, lower quality PV
modules are entering emerging solar markets.
Solar panel against a blue
sky via Shutterstock.
JENNIFER RUNYON, Chief Editor
For the global solar photo-
voltaic industry, it is not a
question of whether poor-
quality or lesser-quality PV
modules are making their
way into the marketplace. They are. The more relevant question
is when will the industry begin to see the effects of these lesser
quality modules, and where will the impacts will be felt?
Conversations with solar industry executives from across the
value chain reveal concerns about low-quality materials being
used in the manufacturing of solar modules, and indicate which
global solar markets are likely to be affected.
Materials Are the Issue
Unlike pretty much
any other industry, PV
manufacturers have
to make a product that
is expected to last for
25 years or more in
harsh environments.
And the technology is
proven, according to
Jenya Meydbray, CEO
of PV Evolution Labs.
Next year is the 60th
anniversary of crys-
talline silicon PV. The
frst PV panel is kept
in an AT&T museum
and it still works.
Fundamentally the
technology is quite
mature, he said. What
it comes down to today
is quality control and
materials.
Built correctly, a
1309REW_75 75 9/11/13 2:58 PM
76 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
sol ar
module can easily last for 25 years, said Meydbray. Built
incorrectly or with unproven materials and they can last 5
years, 2 years, or less than that, he said.
For a long time, that build quality was the great unknown.
Ian Gregory, Managing Partner of SolarBuyer, explained that it
was only recently that people realized that due to severe shrink-
ing margins manufacturers had started using cheaper materials
and were trying to fgure out how to use them quickly. EPCs and
developers then started asking to get a look inside the factory,
and once inside they discovered uncertifed and unproven mate-
rials were being used in modules.
DuPont is a material supplier to the solar industry with a
proven track record. It has been supplying materials to PV
manufacturers ever since the frst module was made. But new
companies are cropping up trying to deliver similar materials
at a lower price. DuPonts Conrad Burke explained that these
new entrants have really unproven durability data and test
grounds. He wonders how a com-
pany that has only existed for two
years can offer a 25-year warranty.
Durability and reliability are
the keys to long-term module per-
formance, said Dr. Govindasamy
TamizhMani, (Mani), President
of TUV Rheinlands Photovoltaic
Testing Lab (PTL). He suggested
that the industry is going to con-
tinue introducing new materials.
We have no choice, he said,
speaking of the race to bring
down the cost per watt of the
panel, which the industry
must do. Mani said that the
accelerated testing offered
by TUVs PTL weeds out poor
performing modules. With
accelerated testing, mod-
ules are put into chambers
and subjected to very high
heat and humidity for up to
4 months. This test, said
Mani, helps identify if and
when modules will fail.
But the problem with
accelerated testing, accord-
ing to solar consultant K.V.
Ravi, always has been how
well they represent real life.
Assumptions and projec-
tions are possible but since
you cant test every sin-
gle module, how can you be
sure that accelerated testing
will really show failures in
fve, 10, 15 years down the
line, he asks.
With a PhD in Materials
Science, Ravi has been
involved in the manufactur-
ing world for decades, hav-
ing worked for major players
including Intel and Applied
Materials and most recently
as Chief Technology Offcer of
start-up Crystal Solar. The
fear is a lot of product is get-
ting out there which looks
pretty, looks beautiful, and
works great when you put
them up, he said. Then over
This article
speaks!
Play the videos to
hear executives
discuss this issue.
1309REW_76 76 9/11/13 2:58 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 77
sol ar
time you dont know whats going to happen.
Ravi fears that within the next fve years regions that
dont focus on PV module quality will begin to experi-
ence major module failures in some of the solar farms
that have been built.
When you are making millions of modules, there
is no way you can test these modules for reliability.
You can test them for instantaneous performance
which they all do and then its up to the customer
to worry about whether the thing will last a long
time, he said.
Ravi surmised that certain regions are better
off than others in terms of procuring quality PV
modules. He pointed to Japan as an example of
a country that puts quality frst, because it is
in their nature to be conscious of quality.
On the other hand, if you are going to
get large amounts of deployment in places
like Africa or India or even China, he said, there
you have real concerns because there the customers are not as
knowledgeable, not as exposed to this kind of thing, he said.
Of-spec Technology in Developing Regions
Many experts pointed out that there are no manufacturing
standards. None, said SolarBuyers Gregory. So it is pretty
much up to each individual manufacturer to defne qual-
ity standards, he said. However, when it comes to PV mod-
ules themselves, there are lots of material and product
certifcations and
standards. UL,
TUV, ISO, MCS and
others all exist to
ensure that a prod-
uct meets a certain
quality and perfor-
mance specifcation
right from the start.
Yet, said TUVs
Mani, customers dont
always know about the
standards, and unless
they ask for certifed mod-
ules manufacturers may
not deliver them. He said
that if manufactures dont
have to spend, they will not
spend. So it is up to the buy-
ers to be sure that they are
getting what they are sup-
posed to get. Mani explained
that sometimes a certifca-
tion gets updated or modifed
and unless the module buyer
knows about it and specif-
cally asks if the module is
certifed for the updated
standard, they may not be
getting it.
Nevertheless, off-spec
technology is making it into
the marketplace. PVELs
Meydbray said that manufac-
turers have communicated
Trina Solars
new dual glass
panel. Courtesy
Trina Solar.
1309REW_77 77 9/11/13 2:58 PM
78 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
sol ar
marketplace to demand it. Know what materials are going into
your modules. Remain educated on the latest PV module stan-
dards. If you can afford it, enlist the services of a third-party
verifcation company.
Maybe, just maybe, dont put such a premium on getting the
lowest price. Thats the advice of Ian Miller, VP and General
Manager for project developer Mainstream. Price is only one
factor, he said. Whether you are talking about the total sys-
tem at the end of the day or the module at the end of the day, we
would be remiss to only focus on price, he explained.
Miller, who works on residential up through utility-scale proj-
ects, said there are many other factors that industry developers
should think about. Whether it be the customer experience on
the residential spacethe quality, the workmanship, the O&M,
the longevity of that system, he said. So if I [were to] chose,
pricing actually would not be
number one on my list, but it
would be up there closely tied.
Finally, pay very little atten-
tion to your warranty. According
to Solarbuyers Gregory: The
best thing that a buyer or devel-
oper should do today is to look at
a warranty and say I shouldnt
have to rely on this. I shouldnt
need this. This shouldnt be my
sole main means of protecting
quality.
to him that they ship higher-
grade modules to the U.S.
and Europe and lower-grade
modules to Southeast Asia,
Latin America and parts of
Africa, and that worries him.
Thailand is a very big solar
market, China is a much big-
ger solar market. India is a
big solar market, he said.
If those investors do not get
the returns they are expect-
ing, thats not good for the
overall industry, he said.
Those institutional inves-
tors have IRR expectations
and return expectations, and
if the underlying asset gen-
erating the cash fow doesnt
perform, then the cash fow
is adversely impacted and
the investment is adversely
impacted.
Customers, Its up to You
The theme replayed again
and again during these con-
versations about qual-
ity was that it is up to the
1309REW_78 78 9/11/13 2:58 PM
Tonga trench
Kermadec trench
Bougainville trench
Marianas trench
Izu Ogasawara trench
Kurile trench
Japan trench
Middle America trench
Equator
Peru-Chile trench
Puerto Rico trench
South Sandwich
trench
Philippine trench
Aleutian trench
Ryuku trench
Java (Sunda)
trench
Krakatoa
Mt. Mayon
Mt. Pinatubo
Mt. Garibaldi
Mt. St. Helens
R
I
N
G



O F



F
I
R
E
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 79
GEOTHERMAL
An Open Frontier:
The Untapped Potential of
South American Geothermal
South America holds great potential for
geothermal energy, but barriers to development
leaves it largely underdeveloped. However some
private investors and development banks are on the
cusp of unlocking the abundant energy source.
MEG CICHON, Associate Editor
The ring of fre is a geologic region that extends in a horse-
shoe shape from the bottom tip of South America, up along the
Pacifc coast through North America, and looping back through
Asia and down to New Zealand. Its lined with more than 400
volcanoes, and as the Johnny Cash song goes, it burns, burns,
burns, which also means its a
geothermal dream zone.
Some areas on the ring have
taken advantage of the immense
resources; New Zealand, for
example, has developed more
than 800 megawatts (MW)
A map of the Ring of
Fire, an area of high
volcanic activity. Credit:
CIA World DataBank.
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80 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
geothermal
of geothermal capacity that accounts for about 19 percent of
its energy supply, according to the New Zealand Ministry of
Economic Development. But on the other end of the horseshoe in
South America, geothermal energy remains largely untapped,
leaving what Pierre Audinet, clean energy program team leader
ofthe World BanksEnergy Sector Management Assistance
Program (ESMAP), calls an open frontier.
South America has an enormous perceived potential. And
there is a nascent desire of many governments to actually get that
potential to become a reality, explained Audinet. But it is still
not completely straightforward for a variety of reasons.
Barriers to Development
While many countries to the north, such as Mexico, are slowly
putting geothermal projects online, South American regions are
lagging behind for a variety of reasons some easily recognize-
able, some not.
It is widely known that a major barrier to geothermal devel-
opment, no matter the location, is the cost of test drilling. This
is by far the most expensive step in the development process,
and many projects struggle to secure fnancing due to its high
risk. Approximately 50 percent of test drilling produces negative
results zero geothermal activity so many commercial banks
are very unlikely to fnance these projects. Therefore, much of
the development in Latin America, and even countries in eastern
Africa where development is blossoming, has been led by the pri-
vate sector, according to Audinet.
While governments have already handed over geothermal
concessions to those private developers to move ahead, its not
as if you have a million private sectors with deep pockets able to
shell out initial important capital expenditure to do the test drill-
ing, said Audinet. There are very few developers that are able to
take on these costs, so many are now simply sitting on conces-
sions, bringing the industry to a stand-still. And in some cases,
explained Audient, the cost of test drilling is even more expen-
sive because the equipment mobilization costs, such as bringing
drilling rigs to those areas, are very high.
You end up having hefty capital expenditure just to drill a
couple of wells and verify your geothermal source, he said. It is
a tough world nowadays for fnancing. There are talks, appetite,
desire, and competent players, but it will take time.
Slowly governments are increasingly realizing that they need
to step in, but so far they
havent been able to fgure
out how. It is still very much
in the open, said Audinet.
There are countries where it
is still a blank slate.
In Chile, for example, the
government is trying to fg-
ure out how to channel some
type of subsidy or support to
private developers. It recently
announced a new renewable
energy target of 20 percent
by 2025 (excluding hydro-
power), up from the previous
5 percent goal. However there
are legal and budgetary con-
straints in the way of achiev-
ing the target. Everything
is left to the private sector,
from generation to transmis-
sion, which makes it diffcult
for the government to step
in, said Audinet. They have
straightjacketed themselves
into private sector devel-
opment, which can be very
good, but in other ways can
be a limitation when dealing
with a massive fnancial hur-
dle, he explained.
South America has
enormous perceived
potential...and desire
of many governments
to get that potential to
become a reality.
Pierre Audinet,
World Bank
1309REW_80 80 9/11/13 2:59 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 81
geothermal
Unfortunately, there is no silver bullet policy for geother-
mal development. We wish you could put in a FIT [feed-in tar-
iff] and everything would move along, but unfortunately it
doesnt work like that for this technology, said Audinet.
Adding to the fnancial pressure, there are also some
environmental concerns for geothermal development. Some of
the projects that are being planned, and even some existing
plants planned for expansion, are located in national parks. Other
viable areas for development may exist on lands where there are
indigenous people. This creates additional developmental hurdles
and longer lead-times. According to Audinet, these constraints
could change as regulations evolve, but it is more work now.
Project Front-runners
In 2012, Alterra Power Corp., a geothermal developer based in
Canada, announced a partnership with Energy Development
Corporation (EDC), a Philippines-based geothermal developer, to
pursue six of Alterras geothermal concessions in South America.
One of which, its Mariposa project in Chile, is moving along and
could be online by 2017.
This transaction represents a signifcant step forward for our
geothermal assets inChileand Peru, said John Carson, Alterras
CEO. EDC is a strong partner with deep expertise, and were
pleased to be making this next step together. Indeed, EDC has
signifcant geothermal development experience on the other side
of the ring of fre, with several plants online in the Philippines.
The Alterra-EDC partnership will provide the necessary cashfow
for test drilling at the Mariposa site. EDC will contribute $58.3
million for a 70 percent stake in the project. Alterra has already
identifed geothermal potential of more than 300 MW at the site,
but further drilling is required to test for plant permeability.
Enel Green Power Latin America also has its sights set on
Chile, and formed a partnership with Empresa Nacional de
Petrleo(ENAP), the National Petroleum Corporation in Chile, to
develop its geothermal assets. In August, it signed a $100 million
loan with Chiles Banco de Credito e Inversiones to be disbursed
before 2014 in order to develop its renewable energy investments
in the area.
Broadening Financial Reach
In early 2013, the World Bank announced that it would estab-
lish a $500 million fund to help develop geothermal concessions
around the world. According
to Audinet, the program has
started to allocate money
to help identify test-drilling
projects, and is zeroing in on
Latin America more than
other regions, he said.
We are helping to iden-
tify a pipeline of test drilling
projects and helping to lobby
and call upon all development
banks and donors interested
in geothermal to prioritize
more money towards test
drilling, said Audinet. That
is where the money needs to
go if we want to unleash that
geothermal potential.
Since geothermal projects
have long lead times and can
take up to a decade to com-
plete, Audinet doesnt expect
many megawatts to come
online in the next few years.
However, he does expect a
spike in activity.
All I can say is that you
have a gradual positioning
of players, including fnan-
cial institutions like the
World Bank, InterAmerican
Development Bank, and CAF
(a Latin American develop-
ment bank), that are con-
versing on ways to approach
projects and move forward,
explained Audinet. These
are conversations that started
in the past 10 months so from
that I would imagine that
some things would eventually
emerge.
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82 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
BI OENERGY
A New Win-Win? CO2-eating
Microalgae As A Biofuel Feedstock
While researchers remain skeptical about turning any form of microalgae
into proftable biomass, an Australian company thinks it can do just that.
BRUCE DORMINEY, Contributor
Successful microalgae-to-bio-
diesel conversion has been the
goal of some renewable energy
researchers for more than two
decades. But after years of
research on how to best grow
these Carbon Dioxide (CO2)-
loving plants in open ponds, a
commercially viable solution has remained elusive.
Now, Algae.Tec Ltd., a six year-old Australian-based
advanced renewable oil from algae start up, claims to
have a potentially revolutionary solution. That is, growing
and harvesting the microalgae in enclosed used sea-land
shipping containers which often seem almost as plenti-
ful as microalgae itself.
These enclosed microalgae farms would in part feed off
The 2640-MW Bayswater Power
Station will feed waste CO2
into an enclosed algae growth
system. Credit Algae.Tec.
1309REW_82 82 9/11/13 3:10 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 83
the serendipitous production of carbon dioxide from coal-fred
power plants and eventually waste CO2 from other manufac-
turing facilities.
To that end, Algae.Tec has signed a deal withMacquarie
Generation, Australias largest electricity generator, to put
analgaecarbon capture and biofuelsproductionfacility
next to a coal-fred power station in Australias Hunter Valley.
Macquarie Generation, which operates the Sydney-area 2640
MW Bayswater Power Station, will feed waste CO2 into an
enclosed algae growth system.
Algae converts CO2 into triacylglycerol (tags) oils that can
then be chemically converted into biodiesel.
The company says it will use enclosed sea containers to grow
freshwater microalgae; importing light, CO2, and phosphorous-
and nitrogen-rich fertilizers, into the containers themselves in
order to maximize the algaes growth.
Algaes are made up of oils that are not dissimilar to those
found in soybeans or canola, said Algae.Tec executive chairman
Roger Stroud.
That oil can be separated out and converted into biodiesel,
said Stroud. By getting rid of the oxygen, you can hydrogenate
that oil and turn it into Grade A biojet fuel.
Even though Stroud said the company has yet to choose the
species of algae it will cultivate, the plan is to start algae produc-
tion by the end of 2014.
Projections are for the frst year of production to hit 100,000
tons of algae biomass; half of which would be converted to an
estimated 60 million liters of biodiesel. One sea-land container
would generate 250 tons of biomass per annum, said the com-
pany, which would be harvested on a continuous basis.
Stroud said the other 50 percent will be pelletized stock feed
either for Australias dairy industry or for export to Asia.
Stroud projects that some 75 percent of his companys income
will come from biodiesel. The remaining 25 percent of Algae.Tecs
income will hinge on the sale of the microalgaes leftover biomass
for animal feed.
What do power providers like Macquarie Generation get out of
the deal?
In Australia, Stroud said theres a carbon tax of $24 a ton
which is real money as far as power plant emitters are con-
cerned. The Bayswater plant emits 20 million tons of CO2 a
year, so any reduction in emissions would be welcomed by
Macquarie Generation.
However, as Stroud pointed
out, the costs and profts will
all be Algae.Tecs; noting that
his company will techni-
cally be one of the Bayswater
plants customers since the
enclosed system will need
electricity to run their pump-
ing systems.
Reducing our carbon
emissions and carbon liabil-
ity combined with additional
revenue from a new customer
makes this project good
business sense, Macquarie
Generation CEO and manag-
ing director Russell Skelton
commented to Renewable
Energy World.
Understanding the Process
Stroud wouldnt give many
details about how the
Aerial view of the Bayswater
Power Station, which will feed
its waste CO2 into an enclosed
algae growth system. Credit
Algae.Tec.
1309REW_83 83 9/11/13 3:10 PM
84 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Bi oenergy
algae-to-biofuel conversion takes place due to pro-
prietary concerns, but he did say that a piping
system will redirect the power plants stack gas
through water to reduce the hot gas from temper-
atures well over 100C down to some 25C. He said
that saturated CO2 water would then be fed into
the enclosed algae system.
Algae.Tec sees a future in using other poten-
tial stack gas sources with high CO2 concentra-
tions to enhance algae production. This would
include power plants and energy-intensive
manufacturing facilities.
But many in the research community still
remain dubious about microalgae as a viable
pathway to plentiful biofuel whether the algae
is grown outside in open ponds or in an enclosed
container system.
Microalgae is a crop and if youre not a
farmer, you just dont get it, said Michael Cooney,
a chemical engineer at the Hawaii Natural
Energy Institute. Ive equated this microalgae
craze to the [California] Gold Rush, where there
was a sense of easy money. But the only people
who made money off the gold rush were people
selling supplies.
Despite such skepticism, Algae.Tec said it has proven its tech-
nology via hundreds of laboratory, pilot-scale and product tests.
Although Stroud refused to divulge the technical details of
how an enclosed system would be able to recover enough outside
light to actually grow algae inside a shipping container, he said
in part the process involves reaping photons from solar collect-
ing disks located not far from the enclosed containers. This col-
lected light would then be fed via an undisclosed form of optical
fber into the containers themselves.
We also have an innovative and low-cost way of periodically
getting light into the system via electrical means, said Stroud.
Suffce it to say, it works.
Why A Closed System?
In contrast to Algae.Tecs closed containers to grow algae, open
pond microalgae systems have inherent challenges.
As Cooney noted, microalgae operations are subject to the
vagaries of the elements and
tend to grow strains of micro-
algae not intended for culti-
vation. They are also subject
to contamination by pred-
ator micro-organisms and
macro-organisms that feed
on the algae.
With an enclosed system,
said Stroud, we can keep the
bacteria diminished, control
Rendering of Algae.Tecs
proposed microalgae-to-biodiesel
conversion facility, which will
grow algae in enclosed shipping
containers. Credit Algae.Tec.
1309REW_84 84 9/11/13 3:10 PM











the temperature, and avoid
weather. As a result, our
yields should be a lot higher.
As for Algae.Tecs expan-
sion beyond Australia, Stroud
noted that the company has
an unannounced open joint
venture agreement with a
Chinese oil and gas equip-
ment manufacturer in Chinas
Yellow River basin. He said
Algae.Tec has also been in
discussions with a major
Japanese waste manage-
ment company about poten-
tial biodiesel production in
Japan, with possible related
operations in South Korea
and Thailand.
Stroud also said recent
signals from the Obama
Administration concern-
ing the need to reduce U.S.
power companys CO2 emis-
sions were encouraging for
Algae.Tecs potential future
growth in the U.S.
He noted Algae.Tec has a
fve-year target goal for its
Bayswater facility to produce
300 million liters of biodiesel
a year. The company has
already invested $20 million
into the project with the aim
of bringing the company to
proftability by mid 2015.
In the 20th century, said
Stroud, any interest in
microalgae [for energy]
tended to be academic. But
were in the business of mak-
ing a proft.
For more information, enter 22 at REW.hotims.com
1309REW_85 85 9/11/13 3:10 PM
86 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
HYDROPOWER
Ocean Energy
Technologies
Speeding Towards
Commercialization
What many thought would take decades
may only be a few years away ocean
energy technologies are fnally turning some
heads on their way to large-scale development.
MEG CICHON, Associate Editor
The ocean energy sector has been steadily creeping towards
commercial reality year after year, with technology test deploy-
ments taking place worldwide. After all, the ocean energy
market is not an easy place to do business, just building a tech-
nology prototype can cost up to $30 million. This year, how-
ever, some major project announcements indicate that the
industry could be moving to the next level much faster than
anyone had previously predicted.
People are interested in [ocean energy] and they are in
[the energy] industry, said Greg Leatherman of Environment
Coastal & Offshore during the opening session at Energy
Ocean International. You have Lockheed Martin in China
building the biggest OTEC [ocean thermal energy conversion]
facility. In Scotland, you have the biggest wave project offshore
farm [Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon] in history. You have con-
struction beginning at Cape Wind. All happening right now,
this summer.
At the Energy Ocean International Conference 2013 that
took place in Providence, R.I., several technologies that made it
to the coveted prototype stage
were highlighted during the
keynote. These gentleman
are here because the tech-
nology is more viable, said
Leatherman.
Small Turbine, Big Potential
The tidal team at Schottel
is on a mission to produce
1309REW_86 86 9/11/13 3:10 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 87
Flumill is a twin-
helical tidal device.
Credit: Flumill.
a turbine that uses the least amount of material with an ideal
ratio of power. To achieve this goal, Schottel invested in a
UK-based company called Tidal Supreme to have the most
energy produced in one installation, according to Martin
Baldus, product manager of renewable energy at Schottel Tidal.
A lot of devices have 1 megawatt (MW) of installed power.
We were wondering if this was the right direction to go into,
said Baldus. Is the scale of the turbine itself important, or
should we focus on more installed turbines with less mass and
less cost per turbine?
According to Baldus, if a
turbine is scaled down to
somewhere in the range of
50 kilowatts (kW), which is
about four meters in diam-
eter, and 20 are lined up in
one installation, then there
would be about 16 tons of
material used per MW. Other
turbine systems typically use
1309REW_87 87 9/11/13 3:10 PM
Smart sealing system
No pitch mechanism
Robust drive train
with two-stage
planetary
gearbox
Asynchronous
generator
cooled by
ambient water
Effciency-optimized
rotor blades
88 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
hydropower
trial, where a series of tur-
bines were mounted on a
tugboat that could raise
the structure in and out of
the water.
The technology will now
move to the UK, where
Marine Energy will deploy
two turbines later this year.
This will achieve more work-
ing hours for the turbine, and
will be our next step to move
forward with the technology,
said Baldus.
Strange Shape,
Practical Design
In Norway, a company that
had focused on building
composite materials for the
fossil fuel industry came
to realize that it needed to
switch gears. A few years
ago, we decided we have to
do something after oil when
it is not around, and wed
also like to do something
for the environment, said
John Inge Brattekas, CTO of
Flumill. So how can we use
our technology in the renew-
able environment?
Brattekas and partners
went on to develop Flumill,
twin helical devices that use
a design based on fow valves
in gas distribution systems
from the companys fossil
fuel expertise. The device is
made of glass-reinforced plas-
tic, making it buoyant. Two
30- to 40-meter turbines are
about 100 tons. Our approach is to simplify as much as possi-
ble, he explained.
The turbines can be arranged according to different site
resources, said Baldus, such as jetty installations in a river or
channel and up to different installations offshore a series of
turbines can be merged on foating platforms connected to sea-
bed. According to Baldus, the turbines are easy to maintain
because the platform allows for swift access to them, even when
in operating position. Each turbine has a separate control sys-
tem, which is collected and then taken from the inverter to be fed
into the grid.
Schottel has put the technology through a long series of testing
that started with a basic turbine design in its factory. Engineers
developed back-to-back confgurations with simulated tidal
waves where they could test all main components such as bear-
ings, motors, etc. The team then moved on to a full-scale sea
The Schottel Tidal Generator focuses on high efficiency and low-cost
design. Credit: Schottel.
1309REW_88 88 9/11/13 3:10 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 89
hydropower
mounted to the seabed and turn in opposite directions, which
stabilizes the entire system. As the current moves through the
system, it turns the screws, which turn a gearless permanent
magnet generator.
Because it is small in diameter, the entire system moves very
slowly at about 5-10 rotations per minute (rpm), which is good
for the marine environment, said Brattekas. This also allows
for many devices to be placed fairly closely, without sacrifcing
energy output.
Flumill deployed its 600-kW device at the European Marine
Energy Centre (EMEC) test site off the coast of Eday, an Orkney
Island off of Scotland. After several months of successful testing,
Flumill is ready to scale up its technology. In late 2012, Flumill
was awarded NOK 57.5 million (US $9.8 million) to partially fund
a full-scale testing project on Rystraumen, Norway. According to
a release, this will be the next step towards a fully commercial
tidal park, which is to be installed in the UK in 2014 or 2015.
Paddling the Waves
Based in Boston, Mass. Resolute Marine Energy (RME) has devel-
oped a technology, called SurgeWEC, which can not only create
energy from waves, but also transport seawater to a desalination
plant. The 2- to 3-meter device itself is like a paddle with a buoy-
ancy tube that is mounted to the seabed. It moves back in forth
with the waves, which creates energy or can pressurize seawa-
ter, and then electricity and/or seawater moves to shore. Since
Resolute Marine Energys SurgeWEC wave energy paddle device.
Credit: FERC.
the system is deployed close
to shore, it can also lower
energy transmission costs.
The technology has been
tested at a simulation cen-
ter and in the ocean where it
scored 30 percent effciencies
and Resolute Marine Energy
is now ready to deploy a 750-
kW commercial-scale proj-
ect at a Yakutat, Alaska site.
It received permitting earlier
this year.
With this FERC approval
we can begin the studies and
the planning that are neces-
sary to design the project and
to prepare the needed appli-
cation for a FERC license to
operate, said RME Senior
Engineer and project man-
ager Clifford Goudey. We
need to characterize the
wave resource in detail and
engineer a system that will
provide the most beneft to
the community by alleviat-
ing its current dependence
upon its diesel-powered
generating plant.
These are just three tech-
nologies currently approach-
ing commercialization,
and industry advocates are
excited about the possibilities.
These companies are putting
in the time to make the tech-
nical investment to commer-
cial application in the near
term, no longer talking about
decades down the road, said
Leatherman.
1309REW_89 89 9/11/13 3:10 PM
90 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
DI STRI BUTED ENERGY
Virtual Power Plants:
A New Model for
Renewables Integration
With distributed
energy generation
growing and increasing
amounts of renewable power
coming onto the grid, new
technologies and business
models are helping to balance
loads, smooth variability and
integrate diverse resources.
TILDY BAYAR, Associate Editor
Todays global energy market is in the midst of a
paradigm shift, from a model dominated by large cen-
tralized power plants owned by big utilities to a mixed
bag of so-called distributed energy generation facil-
ities smaller residential, commercial and indus-
trial power generation systems many of which use
renewable resources.
The boom in smaller installations, which are
beneftting from new technological developments
and business models, is undermining the traditional
advantages associated with building large central-
ized power generation, such as economies of scale.
For example, self-consumption, where
consumers become producers of their own
power (or prosumers), has caused major
utilities to respond with new business
models designed to keep those consumers
as customers.
Virtual Power Plants
One distributed generation technology
with signifcant growth potential is
the virtual power plant (VPP). In the
VPP model an energy aggregator gath-
ers a portfolio of smaller generators and
operates them as a unifed and fexible
resource on the energy market or sells
their power as system reserve.
VPPs are designed to maximize asset
owners profts while also balancing the
grid. They can match load fuctuations
through forecasting, advance metering and
A VPP relies
on software
systems and a
single, secure
web-connected
system to
operate.
Credit Siemens.
1309REW_90 90 9/11/13 3:11 PM
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 91
computerized control, and can perform real-time optimization of
energy resources.
Virtual power plants essentially represent an Internet of
Energy, tapping existing grid networks to tailor electricity supply
and demand services for a customer, said Navigant senior ana-
lyst Peter Asmus in a market report. The VPP market will grow
from less than US $1 billion per year in 2013 to $3.6 billion per
year by 2020, according to Navigants research and one rea-
son is that with more variable renewables on the grid fexibility
and demand response are becoming more crucial.
Asmus called VPPs an ideal optimization platform for the
coming transformation of the power grid, adding that both sup-
ply and demand fexibility will be increasingly necessary to
accommodate fast ramping periods and address corresponding
supply forecast errors.
German utility RWE began a VPP in 2012 that now has
around 80 MW of capacity. According to Jon-Erik Mantz, com-
mercial director of RWE Energy Services in Germany, in the
near future fexibility will become a commodity. Virtual power
plants generate additional value from the fexibility they can
offer the grid, he saidso, for RWE, this is why we concen-
trate on building VPPs. As large utilities market share falls in
response to growing self-consumption, he said, utilities can still
be part of a VPP and proft.
Dr. Thomas Werner, senior key expert in product lifecycle
management at Siemens, said that in order to integrate diverse
smaller energy sources, You need an energy management sys-
tem with good data models which represents energy resources
on the one hand and, on the other, the energy market environ-
ment. Werner believes VPPs fulfll these conditions and are the
best way to integrate a growing number of power sources into
the grid and the market.
VPPs can be handled like other conventional generation, he
said. They can target different energy markets and regulatory
environments. They can play as important a role as conventional
concentrated generation.
No Real Competition
From my point of view, there is no real competition for the VPP
concept, Werner said, pointing to VPPs use of cheap and ubiq-
uitous information and communication technologies, while other
technology trends like building energy storage systems incur
comparatively heavy costs.
VPPs can also avoid expen-
sive installation costs in, for
example, a home system,
he notes. Self-consumption
for home or industrial use is
hampered by having to pro-
duce the right amount of
power at the right time.
VPPs can deliver needed
energy at peak usage times,
and can store any surplus
power, giving the energy
aggregator more options
than would exist in a single
power plant. Other advan-
tages include improved power
network effciency and secu-
rity, cost and risk savings
in transmission systems,
increased value from exist-
ing infrastructure assets
and reduced emissions from
peaking power plants. And,
importantly, VPPs can also
enable more effcient inte-
gration of renewable energy
sources into the grid by bal-
ancing their variability.
For example, explains
Werner, if one wind power
source generates a bit more
energy than predicted and
another generates a bit less,
they will compensate for each
other, resulting in a more
accurate forecast and making
it easier to sell the capacity
in the market or to use it in
power systems operation.
A VPP can also combine
variable renewable power
1309REW_91 91 9/11/13 3:11 PM

Wind / PV
CHP / Backup
diesel
Network operations
Contract management
Billing
Energy trading
Weather forecasting
DEMS
Decentralized energy
management system
Biomass
Modeling
Forecasting
Scheduling
Real-time
optimization
Storage
Load and generation
Connected external processes
Industry Commercial
Current
Effectivity
Optimized
92 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Di s tri buteD energy
sources with stable, controllable sources such as biomass plants,
using the fexibility of the biomass source to smooth out any dis-
crepancy between planned and actual production.
How a VPP Works
A VPP relies on software systems to remotely and automati-
cally dispatch and optimize generation, demand-side or storage
resources (including plug-in electric vehicles and bi-direc-
tional inverters) in a single, secure web-connected system,
explains Werner.
In order to bring diverse, independent resources into a unifed
network, complex planning and scheduling are required. The
key ingredient that makes it all work, said Werner, is software.
There is a server system installed in a control room, with com-
munication channels like mobile phone or DSL connections to
connect to the energy management system, he explained.
You have several advanced applications in the energy man-
agement system like forecasting applications, scheduling appli-
cations and an automatic generation control, he continues.
The VPP uses weather forecasts for calculating the electrical and
thermal loads which have to be supplied, as well as for forecast-
ing the generation of renewable units. These forecasts are used
in the scheduling application, which is similar to a short-term
unit commitment and economic dispatch in large power systems.
It calculates the schedule for the entire VPP and all the distrib-
uted energy resources. The operator of the VPP uses the schedule
to market the energy and
the power on the energy
exchange, or as tertiary or
secondary control reserve.
Looking to the Future
There is currently no stan-
dard interface for the com-
munication between the VPP
control systems and the dis-
tributed energy resources,
Werner said. Today you
need to know what the dif-
ferent communication inter-
faces can provide which
makes the connection a bit
more complicated. Sometimes
the cost for the interface is
big. If you have a new energy
resource, you need to fgure
out the best way to make the
connection between the unit
and the VPP. In the future,
with a standard interface, you
will not have this problem.
A standard interface is in
Dems-Graphic: Schematic of a sample virtual power plant. Credit Siemens.
1309REW_92 92 9/11/13 3:11 PM
Virtual
power plant
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 93
Di s tri buteD energy
the works, he said, with an initial version in development. Some
of these interfaces are already up and running, Werner said,
but the majority of the distributed energy resources which are
already installed do not support this communication protocol.
The lack of a standard interface is the only technical problem
with VPPs, according to Werner. But there is the non-technical
problem of differing market conditions, and different regulatory
conditions in different energy markets. There is not a general
concept of operating a VPP Germany is different from the UK,
which is different from the U.S., he explained.
You have to defne a VPP solution for each energy market.
In the European grids you will see similar market conditions
and similar regulation conditions, but you may have to adapt a
German system if you want to use it in Canada or the U.S.
And energy markets are often moving targets, he continued.
We had a project started, a VPP for a particular energy exchange
with renewable energy. The regulatory authority in Germany
told us that there were some aspects which did not ft with the
regulation conditions, so we
changed the model to partic-
ipate in the market for con-
trol reserve. Two years later
the regulations changed, and
we could integrate renewable
energy into the energy mar-
ket for direct marketing. We
adapted the business concept
within a running project, he
said, something VPPs are par-
ticularly suited for due to their
low costs.
In Germany a VPP can
participate in the market for
control reserve and second-
ary control reserve, but there
are other energy markets in
the world where thats not
allowed: you need concen-
trated conventional units for
those markets. I think this
has to be changed as we see
more and more distributed
renewable energy sources in
energy systems, Werner said.
But this change is hap-
pening. The VPP concept
will be increasingly typical
in energy markets, Werner
believes. What we see is
that, in countries such as the
UK and France, the concept
is discussed more and more.
New operational concepts are
needed for renewable energy
to participate in the mar-
ket, Werner said: Otherwise
the restrictions of the electri-
cal grids will limit the fur-
ther increase of renewable
generation.
A Virtual Power Plant aggregates different types of energy generation
and controls it as if it was one source. Credit Siemens.
1309REW_93 93 9/11/13 3:11 PM
94 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Renewabl e Energy Wor l d Cal endar September and October 2013
Adver t i ser s I ndex Scan the QR code for information on the products and services found in this issue.
GulfSol 2013
Dubai, UAE
3-5 September 2013
E. des@gattacaltd.com
W: www.gulfsol.com
RETECH 2013
Washington, DC, US
9-11 September 2013
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Asia Pacific Clean Energy
Summit and Expo
Honalulu, Hawaii
9-11 September 2013
E: wenning@techconnect.org
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events/APCE2013/
The Renewables Event
Birmingham, UK
10-11 September 2013
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Renewable Energy India Expo
Greater Noida, India
12-14 September 2013
UBM India Pvt. Ltd
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SR Marine Conference,
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Powering MENA
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17-18 September 2013
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Solar Asia Expo
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17-19 September 2013
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Intersolar South America
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9-11 October 2013
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22nd World Energy Congress
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13-17 October 2013
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Renex Eurasia
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Solar Power International
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Turkey-MENA Renewable
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events.com/
ABB OY61
American Wind Energy
Association47
Bechtel Advertising1
CG Power Systems Belgium NV59
Dresser Rand11
Everglades University6
Exxon Mobil45
Hamburg Messe51
Hempel A/S52
Hytorc, Division of Unex Corp5
Ingeteam SA53
MTS Sensor Technologie
GmbH & Co. KG23
Multi-Contact AG85
Nexans9
Power Generation Week41
Hydrovision International 201471
Hydrovision Russia 2014CV3
Hydrovision Brasil 201335
REW Asia 201330
REWNA 2013CV4
PVSYST SA95
Renewable World21
Schneider Electric2
Siemens AG48
Solar Energy Trade Shows, LLC66-67
Solar Promotion International
GmbH15
Sputnik Engineering19
UniracCV2
Wind Parks of Ukraine27
The Adveritsers Index is published as a service. The publisher does not assume any liability for errors or omissions.
Selected multi-day conferences, expos and events for the Renewable Energy Industry
1309REW_94 94 9/11/13 3:11 PM
PVSYST SA | 107 route du Bois-de-Bay - 1242 Satigny - Switzerland | admin@pvsyst.com
available on www.pvsyst.com aavailaable o on www w om .co yst. vsy w.pv w
Designed for engineers, architects, researchers, education
Renewabl e Energy Trai ni ng Event s
The Green Power Mini-MBA
Green Power Academy
Dubai, UAE
22-26 September 2013
MREA PV 205.02
Intermediate Photovoltaics
Midwest Renewable
Energy Association
Custer, Wisconsin, USA
23-24 September 2013
GRC Pre-Annual
Meeting Workshop -
Geothermal Exploration
in the 21st Century
Geothermal Resources Council
Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
27-28 September 2013
Geothermal Energy
3-Day MBA
Green Power Academy
Santiago, Chile
7-9 October 2013
Solar Training - Solar Electric
Lab Week (Grid-Direct)
Solar Energy International
Paonia, Colorado, USA
7-11 October 2013
Commercial Solar:
Commissioning from A to Z
Heatspring Learning Institute
21 Oct-15 Nov 2013
Online
Biomass One-Day Course
The European Energy Centre
Coventry University, UK and
Edinburgh Napier University,
Scotland and Online
Offered Year Round
Wind Power Finance School
Green Power Academy
London, UK
28 Oct-1 Nov 2013
Solar PV Installer Boot
Camp Training + NABCEP
Entry Level Exam Prep
Heatspring Learning Institute
Various Locations,
USA and Online
October and November 2013
Renewable Energy for
the Developing World
Solar Energy International
4 Nov-15 De 2013
Online
Hydro Plant Maintenance
and Reliability
Marcus Evans
Denver, Colorado, USA
5-7 November 2013
Deep-cycle Battery
Manufacturing Webcast
Trojan Battery Company
6 Nov 2013
Online
Here we offer a sampling of short renewable energy educational events and certificate programs throughout the world.
If you would like your training event to considered for inclusion in this listing, please email REWNews@Pennwell.com subject line: Education and Training.
For more information, enter 23 at REW.hotims.com
1309REW_95 95 9/11/13 3:11 PM
Last
the
96 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE
Anders Jansson
is co-founder and
CEO of Minesto, an
energy technology
company in the field
of marine energy,
with a patented and
proven technology
(Deep Green) to
harvest energy from
low-velocity tidal
and ocean currents.
He has eight years of
experience developing
and commercializing
marine energy
technology, both as
an entrepreneur and
business leader. He has
a background from
Chalmers University of
Technology.
Marine Renewables Deliver Security
Those who remember the oil cri-
ses in the 70s, when OPEC stran-
gled oil supply to the West drastically
raising the price of oil, do so with a
shiver. Price controls, rationing, long
petrol queues, cold buildings, and
dark streetlights are some memen-
tos. Many economists blame the oil
embargo for the near decade-long
recession in the 70s.
Most countries in the world are
still net importers of energy. The U.S.,
Japan and Europe are hugely depen-
dent on imported energy. Out of the
27 EU countries, 26 are net import-
ers. And the dependency is increasing
in many countries. The EUs import
dependency was 54 percent in 2010
compared to 40percent in the 1980s.
A disturbingly large number of
nations are almost completely depen-
dent on energy imports. In this motley
group we find Luxemburg, Cyprus,
Malta, Morocco, Singapore, Taiwan,
Hong Kong, Puerto Rico, the Maldives,
Ireland, South Korea, and many
Pacific Islands. Many of these nations
are isolated (e.g. island nations) and
also poor, adding insult to injury.
The good news is that renewables
have the potential to partially or com-
pletely replace imports. Access to
inexpensive and secure local energy
can be a growth enabler in develop-
ing countries, creating local jobs.
Some nations are well positioned
to use multiple energy sources
like solar, wind, biogas and marine
energy to achieve a clean, safe and
reliable power supply. Some tropical
island nations have an abundance of
sun as well as tidal and ocean cur-
rents from which energy can be har-
vested. Tidal and ocean currents are
highly rich in energy; a water current
of 1.5m/s contains as much kinetic
energy as a wind blowing 40m/s.
For example South Korea has
a vulnerable energy system and
imports 85 percent of its energy.
Events this summer resulted in elec-
tricity shortages during a period of
extreme heat. But South Korea has a
long coastline with energy-rich ocean
and tidal currents. Estimates show
that it could potentially but realis-
tically harvest half of the energy it
needs from the surrounding oceans.
South Korea has a strong political
will to increase the local renewable
energy supply, and programs are in
place to support this development.
Opponents of renewable energy
often state that it isnt reliable since it
is dependent on weather. This is not
true for tidal and ocean energy, which
has higly predictable, stable currents.
Many nations can move away from
unsustainable energy import depen-
dency to a healthy and secure supply
of clean energy good not only for
them but for the entire planet.
1309REW_96 96 9/11/13 3:16 PM

Conference & Exhibition


4 - 6 March 2014 | Expocentre, Moscow, Russia
For queries relating to the
conference, please contact:
Mathilde Sueur
Conference Manager
T: +44 1992 656 634
F: +44 1992 656 700
E: Mathildes@pennwell.com
For information on exhibiting
and sponsorship at HydroVision
Russia, please visit
www.hydrovision-russia.com
or contact:
Worldwide:
Amanda Kevan
T: +44 (0) 1992 656 645
F: +44 (0) 1992 656 700
E: amandak@pennwell.com
Tom Marler
T: +44 (0) 1992 656 608
F: +44 (0) 1992 656 700
E: tomm@pennwell.com
Russia and CIS:
Natalia Gaisenok
T: +7 495 258 31 36
F: +7 495 258 31 36
E: nataliag@pennwell.com

Svetlana Strukova
T: +7 495 258 31 36
F: +7 495 258 31 36
E: svetlanas@pennwell.com
HydroVision Russia, co-located with Russia Power, provides an ideal setting to explore business
opportunities, meet new partners, suppliers and the industrys most infuential decision-makers.
The 2013 event combined with Russia Power attracted over 5,500 attendees from 64 countries.
The three day event, comprises a busy exhibition foor featuring major Russian and international
hydropower companies accompanied by a thought provoking conference programme.
Owned and Produced by: Presented by: Supported by:
Promoting Modernization Effciency and Innovation
RESERVE YOUR SPACE AT RUSSIAS LEADING
INTERNATIONAL HYDRO EVENT
Join us at HydroVision Russia and be part of an established event that
continues to infuence the hydropower industry.
Co-located with:
www.hydrovision-russia.com
Why should you be at HydroVision Russia 2014
Be part of the largest hydro event in Russia
Discover new products and the latest technology
Learn about helpful services and new solutions
Connect with leading decision makers and luminaries in the hydro power market
Interact with hydro experts from Europe, Latin America, North America,
and the Middle East
Network and meet high profle professionals and peers gathered in one place
Gain knowledge, market updates and insight from speakers throughout the world, including
Austria, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Georgia, Pakistan, Russia,
Spain, Switzerland, and USA
Gain insight and key updates about potential hydro resources that can be developed
Gain the knowledge and tools needed for designing, operating, controlling, and
refurbishing power plants
Find ways to save money and work better
1309REW_C3 3 9/11/13 2:25 PM
Progressive
Changes
for the future
Owned & Produced By: Co-located With: Presented By: Supported By: Media Sponsor:
REGISTER
TODAY!
Nov. 12-14, 2013
Orange County
Convention Center
Orlando, FL
Focusing on the latest
technologies and policies in
wind, solar, biomass, hydro,
geothermal and more, you simply cant afford to miss
this unique opportunity.
And now co-located with POWER-GEN International,
Renewable Energy World Conference & Expo North America
is THE platform for renewables to grow into the mainstream!
Visit RenewableEnergyWorld-events.com to view the full conference program.
1309REW_C4 4 9/11/13 2:25 PM