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, Romania Florentin Smarandache – University of New Mexico, Gallup, NM, USA In [1] Dr. Florentin Smarandache generalized several properties of the nedians. Here, we will continue the series of these results and will establish certain connections with the triangles which have the same coefficient of deformation. Definition 1 The line segments that have their origin in the triangle’s vertex and divide the opposite side in n equal segments are called nedians. We call the nedian AAi being of order i ( i Î N * ), in the triangle ABC , if Ai divides the i i i side ( BC) in the rapport ( BAi = × BC or CAi = × CB , 1 £ i £ n - 1 ) n n n Observation 1 The medians of a triangle are nedians of order 1, in the case when n = 3 , these are called

tertian. We’ll recall from [1] the following: Proposition 1

Using the nedians of the same of a triangle, we can construct a triangle. Proposition 2 The sum of the squares of the lengths of the nedians of order i of a triangle ABC is given

by the following relation:

i 2 - in + n 2 2 2 2 AA + BB + CC = a +b +c n2 We’ll prove

2 i 2 i 2 i

(

)

(1)

Proposition3. The sum of the squares of the lengths of the sides of the triangle A0 B0C0 , determined by the intersection of the nedians of order i of the triangle ABC is given by the following relation: 2 n - 2i) ( 2 2 2 (2) A0 B0 + B0C0 + C0 A0 = 2 a 2 + b2 + c 2 i - in + n 2 A Ci A0

(

)

C0 Bi B0 B

1

C

Fig. 1

Ai We noted { A0} = CCi AAi , {B0} = AAi BBi , {C0} = BBi CCi . Proof We’ll apply the Menelaus ’theorem in the triangle AAC for the transversals B - B0 - Bi , i

see Fig. 1.

BAi BiC B0 A × × =1 BC Bi A B0 Ai ia ib ( n - i )b , from (3) it results that: Because BAi = , Bi C = , Bi A = n n n n( n - i ) B0 A = 2 AAi i - in + n 2 The Menelaus ’theorem applied in the triangle AAi B for the transversal C - C0 - Ci CAi Ci B A0 A × × =1 CB Ci A A0 Ai ( n - i )a ( n - i )c ic But CAi = , Ci B = , Ci A = , which substituted in (5), gives n n n in AA0 = 2 AAi i - in + n 2 It is observed that A0 B0 = AB0 - AA0 and using the relation (4) and (6) we find:

(3)

(4) gives (5)

(6)

A0 B0 =

Similarly, we obtain:

n (n - 2i) AAi i 2 - in + n 2

(7)

Using the relations (7), (8) and (9), after a couple of computations we obtain the relation (2). Observation 2.

n (n - 2i) BBi i 2 - in + n 2 n n - 2i) C0 A0 = 2 ( CCi i - in + n 2 B0C0 =

(8) (9)

The triangle formed by the nedians of order i as sides is similar with the triangle formed by the intersections of the nedians of order i . Indeed, the relations (7), (8) and (9) show that the sides A0 B0 , B0C0 , C0 A0 are proportional with AAi , BBi , CCi The Russian mathematician V. V. Lebedev introduces in [2] the notion of coefficient of deformation of a triangle. To define this notion we need a couple of definitions and observations. Definition 2 If ABC is a triangle and in its exterior on its sides are constructed the equilateral triangles BCA1 , CAB1 , ABC1 , then the equilateral triangle O1O2O3 formed by the centers of the

2

circumscribed circles to the equilateral triangles, described above, is called the exterior triangle of Napoleon. If the equilateral triangles BCA1 , CAB1 , ABC1 intersect in the interior of the triangle ABC then the equilateral triangle O1 ' O2 ' O3 ' formed by the centers of the circumscribed circles to these triangles is called the interior triangle of Napoleon. B1

A O2 C1 O3 B C O1

A1 Fig. 2 A1’ A O1’ O2’ B O3’ C1’ C

3

B1’ Fig. 3 Observation 3 In figure 2 is represented the external triangle of Napoleon and in figure 3 is represented the interior triangle of Napoleon. Definition 3 A coefficient of deformation of a triangle is the rapport between the side of the interior triangle of Napoleon and the side of the exterior triangle of Napoleon corresponding to the same triangle. Observation 4 The coefficient of deformation of the triangle ABC is O 'O ' k= 1 2 O1O2 Proposition 4 The coefficient of deformation k of triangle ABC ha the following formula:

a 2 + b2 + c 2 − 4 s 3 2 k = 2 2 2 a + b + c + 4s 3 where s is the aria of the triangle ABC .

1

(10)

Proof We’ll apply the cosine theorem in the triangle CO1 ' O2 ' (see Fig. 3), in which

CO1 ' =

We have

a 3 b 3 , CO2 ' = , and m ( O1CO2 ' ) = C − 60° . 3 3

O1 ' O2 ' 2 =

Because

ab 3a 2 3b2 + − 2 cos ( C − 60°) 9 9 3

we obtain

1 2 cos ( C − 60°) = cos C ⋅ cos 60° + sin 60° ⋅ sin C = cos C + sin C and 2 2 b2 + a 2 − c 2 cosC = , and 2ab ab sin C = 2s ,

O1 ' O2 ' 2 =

Similarly

a 2 + b2 + c 2 − 4 s 3 6

(11)

O1O2 2 =

a 2 + b2 + c 2 + 4 s 3 6

(12)

4

By dividing the relations (11) and (12) and resolving the square root we proved the proposition.

Observation 5 In an equilateral triangle the deformation coefficient is k = 0 . In general, for a triangle ABC , 0 ≤ k < 1 . Observation 6 From (11) it results that in a triangle is true the following inequality: a 2 + b2 + c 2 ≥ 4 s 3 which is the inequality Weitzeböck. Observation 7 In a triangle there following inequality – stronger than (13) – takes also place: 2 2 2 a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ³ 4 s 3 + (a - b) + (b - c) + (c - a ) which is the inequality of Finsher - Hadwiger.

(13)

(14)

Observation 8 It can be proved that in a triangle the coefficient of deformation can be defined by the AA ' k= 1 (15) AA1 Definition 4 We define the Brocard point in triangle ABC the point Ω from the triangle plane, with the property: ΩAB º ΩBC º ΩCA (16) The common measure of the angles from relation (16) is called the Brocard angle and is noted ΩAB = ω Observation 9 A triangle ABC has, in general, two points Brocard Ω and Ω' which are isogonal conjugated (see Fig. 4) Proposition 5 In a triangle ABC takes place the following relation: a 2 + b2 + c 2 ctgω = 4s A ω

(17)

Ω'

5

Ω

ω

B

ω

C Fig. 4

Proof We’ll show, firstly, that in a non-rectangle triangle ABC is true the following relation: (18) ctgω = ctgA + ctgB + ctgC Applying the sin theorem in triangle AΩB and AΩC , we obtain BΩ c AΩ b and = = sin ω sin BΩA sin ω sin AΩC Because m (BΩA) = 180°- m (B) and m (AΩC ) = 180°- m (A) from the precedent relations we retain that

AΩ b sin B (19) = BΩ c sin A On the other side also from the sin theorem in triangle AΩB , we obtain AΩ sin ( B - ω) = (20) BΩ sin ω b sin B Working out sin ( B - ω) , taking into account that = and that sin B = sin ( A + C ) , we c sin C obtain (18). a 2 + b2 + c 2 In a triangle ABC is true the relation ctgA = (19) and the analogues. 4s B

A B’

C

then

**Fig. 5 Indeed, if m (A) < 90° and B' is the orthogonal projection of B on AC (see Fig. 5),
**

ctgA =

AB' c × cos A = BB' BB' 2s 2bc cos A Because BB' = it results that ctgA = b 4s From the cosine theorem we get 2bc cos A = b 2 + c 2 - a 2 Replacing in (18) the ctgA, ctgB, ctgC , we obtain (17)

6

**Observation 10 The coefficient of deformation k of triangle ABC is given by
**

æ ctgω - 3 ö 2 ÷ k =ç ç ctgω + 3 ÷ è ø B

1

(21)

B’

A Fig. 6

C

Indeed, from (10) and (17), it results, without difficulties (21) Proposition 6 (V.V. Lebedev) The necessary and sufficient condition for two triangles to have the same coefficient of deformation is to have the same Brocard angle. Proof If the triangles ABC and A1B1C1 have equal coefficients of deformation k = k1 then from relation 21 it results ctgω - 3 ctgω1 - 3 = ctgω + 3 ctgω1 + 3 Which leads to ctgω = ctgω1 with the consequence that ω = ω1 . Reciprocal, if ω = ω1 , immediately results, using (21), that takes place k = k1 . Proposition 7 Two triangles ABC and A1B1C1 have the same coefficient of deformation if and only if

s1 a12 + b12 + c12 = (22) s a 2 + b2 + c 2 ( s1 being the aria of triangle A1B1C1 , with the sides a1 ,b1 ,c1 ) Proof If ω, ω1 are the Brocard angles of triangles ABC and A1B1C1 then, taking into consideration (17) and Proposition 6, we’ll obtain (22). Also from (22) taking into consideration of (17) and Proposition 6, we’ll get k = k1 .

Proposition 8 Triangle Ai BiCi formed by the legs of the nediands of order i of triangle ABC and triangle ABC have the same coefficient of deformation.

7

Proof We’ll use Proposition 7, applying the cosine theorem in triangle Ai BiCi , we’ll obtain

**BiCi 2 = ACi 2 + ABi 2 - 2 ACi ABi cos A
**

Because

ACi =

it results

n - i) b ic , ABi = ( n n

2 i 2 c 2 (n - i) b 2i (n - i) bc cos A BiCi = 2 + n n2 n2 2 2

A Ci

Bi B A1 Fig. 7 The cosin theorem in the triangle ABC gives 2bc cos A = b 2 + c 2 - a 2 which substituted above gives C

BiCi =

BiCi 2 =

2

i 2 c 2 + (n - i ) b 2 + i (n - i ) a 2 - b 2 - c 2

2

2

a in - i

2

2

(

2

) (

n + b n - 3in + 2i 2 + c 2 2i 2 - in

2 2

(

)

n

2

2

) (

)

But

Similarly we’ll compute Ci Ai and Ai Bi It results Ai Bi 2 + BiCi 2 + Ci Ai 2 n 2 - 2in + 3i 2 = a 2 + b2 + c 2 n2 If we note si = Aria Ai BiCi We obtain si = s - ( Aria ABiCi + Aria BAC i i + AriaCAi Bi )

Aria ABi Ci = 1 ACi × ABi sin A 2

(23)

(24)

8

Aria ABiCi =

Similarly, we find that

i n - i ×s 1 i (n - i ) b × c sin A = ( 2 ) 2 n n 2 i (n - i)× s n2

Aria BAC i i = AriaCA i Bi =

Revisiting (23) we get that sn 2 - 3in + 3i 2 si = n2 therefore, si n 2 - 3in + 3i 2 = s n2 The relations (23), (25) and Proposition 7 will imply the conclusion.

(25)

Proposition 9 The triangle formed by the medians of a given triangle, as sides, and the given triangle have the same coefficient of deformation. Proof The medians are nedians of order I. Using (1), it results 3 (26) AAi 2 + BBi 2 + CCi 2 = a 2 + b2 + c 2 4 The proposition will be proved if we’ll show that the rapport between the aria of the 3 formed triangle with the medians of the given triangle and the aria of the given triangle is . 4 A

(

)

G A1 B D Fig. 9 If in triangle ABC we prolong the median AA1 such that A1D = GA1 ( G being the center of gravity of the triangle ABC ), then the quadrilateral BGCD is a parallelogram (see Fig. 9). 2 2 Therefore CD = BG . It is known that BG = BB1 , CG = CC1 and from construction we have 3 3 2 2 that GD = AA1 . Triangle GDC has the sides equal to from the length of the medians of the 3 3 triangle ABC . Because the median of a triangle divides the triangle in two equivalent triangles and the gravity center of the triangle forms with the vertexes of the triangle three equivalent C

9

1 triangle, it results that AriaGDC = s . On the other side the rapport of the arias of two similar 3 triangles is equal with the squared of their similarity rapport, therefore, if we note s1 the aria of

2 AriaGDC æ 2 ö = ç ÷ the triangle formed by the medians, we have ç ÷ . s1 è3ø s 3 We find that 1 = , which proves the proposition. s 4

Proposition 10 The triangle formed by the intersections of the tertianes of a given triangle and the given triangle have the same coefficient of deformation. Proof If A0 B0C0 is the triangle formed by the intersections of the tertianes, from relation (2) we’ll find 2 2 2 A0 B0 + B0C0 + C0 A0 1 = 2 2 2 a +b +c 7 A C1 A0 C0 B1 B0 B A1 Fig 10

s0 1 = . s 7 From the formulae (6) and (7), it is observed that A0 = A0 B0 and CC0 = C0 A0 . Using the median’s theorem in a triangle to determine that in that triangle two triangle are equivalent, we have that: Aria AA0C0 = Aria AC0C = Aria A0 B0C0 =

C

We note s0 the aria of triangle A0 B0C0 , we’ll prove that

**= AriaCB0C0 = AriaCBB0 = Aria BB0 A0 = Aria ABA0
**

Because the sum of the aria of these triangles is s , it results that s0 = had to prove. Proposition 11 We made the observation that the triangle A0 B0C0 and the triangle formed by the tertianes AA1 ,BB1 ,CC1 as sides are similar. Two similar triangles have the same Brocard angle,

1 s , which shows what we 7

10

therefore the same coefficient of deformation. Taking into account Proposition 10, we obtain the proof of the statement Observation 11 From the precedent observations it results that being given a triangle, the triangles formed by the tertianes intersections with the triangle as sides, the intersections of the tertianes of the triangle have the same coefficient of deformation. References [1] [2] [3] [4] F. Smarandache – Generalisation et generalites – Edition Nouvelle, 1984, Fés, Maroc V. V. Lebedev - Nekatoroie svoistva trengolnikov Napoleone – Matematika v schole, no.6/1962 V. Gh. Vodă – Triunghiul – ringul cu trei colțuri – Editura Albatros, Bucureşti, 1979 R. A. Johnson – Advanced Euclidean Geometry – Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola, New York, 2007

11

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