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ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD (Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics)

Dear Student Welcome to Dip TEFL Programme, Course 5655. We are sure you have gone through the prospectus in detail while applying for this programme and you must be aware of the changes that have been brought about recently in the courses and their respective components including assignments, presentation etc. To recap, all the courses of Dip TEFL programme (5655-5662) have been reduced to 9 units instead of 18 giving 3 credit hours each. 3 credit hour courses in the system of AIOU carry 100 marks and require the students to write 2 assignments instead of 4 (the previous practice). Now, you would go through those 9 units that have been identified for you and attempt one written assignment of 100 marks that covers all 9 units, along with one project, likewise the previous practice. The project too carries 100 marks. It is a research based activity. For further details, go through the instructions given in Assignment No. 2 of each respective course. We hope you will enjoy the Programme, attend the classes and meet the target dates in order to avoid any uncomfortable situation. Good luck

Course Coordinator

ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD (Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics) WARNING

Course: Psycholinguistics and Language Teaching Methodology (5655) Level: Diploma TEFL Semester: Spring, 2013 Total Marks: 100

Q.1 What do you understand by Behaviourism and Mentalism? How would you differentiate between the two theories? Give relevant examples. (15) Q.2 Can you think of some examples of positive and negative reinforcement in learning? Which one do you think has proved more effective in learning? Justify your opinion. Do not copy the examples from the textbook. (15) Q.3 Discuss in detail the role of the following elements in foreign language learning: Motivation Personality Learning strategies Language aptitude (20)

Q.4 In the following statements write T for true and F for false. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)


In operant conditioning the learner is rewarded for every correct response to a given stimulus. By Behaviorism we mean something which involves the mind and the thought. By rules Chomsky means the unconscious rules in a childs mind. Chomsky thinks that a child learns first language through cognitive learning. According to Chomsky, language learning is a matter of trial and errors. Children learn to speak even though they do not need to do so in order to survive. Language is not learnt through imitation of haphazard sets of sounds. Operant conditioning is the result of repeated training. A child can make any number of new sentences once he understands the underlying sentence pattern. There is an area of the brain set aside for language development.

Q.5 Write an imaginary dialogue of approximately 10 sentences on any topic of your own choice. The dialogue should reflect the features peculiar to spoken form of language e.g, repetition, hesitation, contracted forms, incorrect grammar, unfinished sentences etc. (15) Q.6 Imagine that 3 students are learning English by three different methods i.e. grammartranslation, audio-lingual and direct method. What strengths and weaknesses would you expect each student to display in his/her competence in understanding spoken language, speaking, reading and writing? Discuss in detail. (15)

Q.7 Do you think first language acquisition and second language learning involve similar strategies? Discuss some of the differences between the two processes with relevant examples. (10)

Assignment no. 2 is based on a research-oriented activity. You are required to study the relevant area/ conduct research and prepare a brief report on your findings in the area given. You will then have to submit one copy of the report to the tutor within the scheduled period and at the same time present the report/project in one of the tutorials (the schedule/plan of the tutorials for the presentation will be intimated by the Tutor concerned or the Regional Director). The compulsory presentation carries 100 marks: 40 marks for the written report and 60 for the presentation. A few guidelines for the written report and the presentation: a) b) c) The written report should have an introduction, body and conclusion. It should be written in clear, concise and correct English. It should be 5-8 double spaced typed/handwritten pages. The presentation is to be assessed and evaluated mainly in the: Contents of the assignment/report Communication skills Language accuracy Language fluency Presentation style

You may use transparencies, charts or any other relevant material for impressive presentation with the permission of your Tutor.

Attempt one of the following activities

Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition usually refers to first-language acquisition, which studies infants acquisition of their native language. This is distinguished from second-language learning, which deals with the learning (in both children and adults) of additional languages. Consider at least two people who can understand and communicate in either two or more than two languages. Interview them asking questions relating to their language acquiring and learning strategies/dynamics. Compile a report based on your findings. Also discuss whether individual differences play any vital role in the two processes. OR It is believed that positive and negative reinforcement have a definite role in changing the behavior of an individual/learner. Positive reinforcement is often used as praise or a reward whereas negative reinforcement is often used for punishment. It was B.F. Skinner, the founder of Behaviourism, who first used it this way. Reinforcement theory is one of the motivation theories; it states that reinforced behavior will be repeated, and behavior that is not reinforced is less likely to be repeated. Children learn to speak because their parents give them positive reinforcement when they speak correctly and vice versa, similarly students respond more positively to praise than to punishment. In the light of the above, discuss the pros and cons of using positive and negative reinforcement in a language classroom. Conduct a mini research in one of the language classes and record the attitude of the teacher (positive or negative reinforcement) along with the resulting behavior of the learners and its impact on language learning. State your findings in the report.