Origami in Engineering and Architecture

An art spanning Mathematics, Engineering and Architecture

Dr Mark Schenk (ms652) October 25th 2012

Advanced Structures Group

Origami
Objective: introduction to Origami in mathematics, engineering and architecture. Examples from academic research and real life applications. Today - lecture (~1 hr) - workshop + presentations (~2 hrs)

Origami
origami
– from Japanese for ‘oru’ (fold) and ‘kami’ (paper) – earliest book to describe origami dates to 1682, with the classic crane dating to a 1797 book “The Secret of One Thousand Cranes Origami” – resurgence of interest in 20th century – rapid development over the last 2 decades.

com/photos/jasohill/118616905/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Origami Art Photo courtesy of Andreas Bauer From simple… .flickr.http://www.

Lang .Origami Art … to advanced Designed and folded by Robert J.

com/photos/origamijoel/3226036918/ Joel Cooper (2008) .Origami Art http://www.flickr.

flickr.com/photos/87477835@N00/5038642136/ ‘Star Tessellation’ by Eric Gjerde .Origami Art : tessellations http://www.

flickr.com/photos/9874847@N03/ .flickr.Origami Art : tessellations http://www.com/photos/origomi/290031886/ http://www.

Origami Art : tessellations http://www.com/photos/polyscene/2200937797/ http://www.flickr.flickr.com/photos/cambridgeuniversity-engineering/4706414628/ .

com/huffman/index.nytimes.html http://www.org/oexhibits/paper04.html .com/2004/06/22/science/22orig.theiff.graficaobscura.Origami Art : curved folding David Huffman (1925-1999) http://www.html http://www.

Lang . linear folding instructions – computer aided design of models – a more fundamental understanding of the underlying mathematics of origami Designed and folded by Robert J.Origami Art : developments increased model complexity – crease patterns vs.

Origami : Mathematics .

Origami Mathematics origami & mathematics are deeply intertwined • origami foldability i. can a crease pattern actually be folded? • surface geometry i.e.e. what shapes can you attain? .

Origami Mathematics : foldability Example : Miura-ori sheet flat and rigid foldable .

Origami Mathematics : flat foldability • flat foldability after folding all creases by ±180°. the final pattern lies in a plane Kawasaki-Justin theorem: θ1 − θ2 + θ3 − θ4 = 0 .

Origami Mathematics : flat foldability • flat foldability – counter example engineering : compact stowage .

Origami Mathematics : rigid foldability • rigid foldability if the pattern were made of rigid panels connected by hinges. it can be folded. Dureisseix (2011) engineering : deployable (or rigid) plate structures .

Balkcom (2004) .Origami Mathematics : rigid foldability • rigid foldability – counter example paper shopping bag only ‘exists’ in either the collapsed or upright position.

Origami Mathematics : rigid foldability a rigid-foldable shopping bag: Wu and You (2011) Further research: Huffman (1976). Tachi (2009) . Wu and You (2010). Stachel (2009.2010).

Origami Mathematics : foldability the ‘unfoldable’ hyperbolic paraboloid Demaine et al. (2009) .

Mahadevan.Origami Mathematics : foldability modelling the 'unfoldable' Dias. Santangelo (2012) . Dudte.

Origami Mathematics : surface geometry surface geometry (aka.assume no stretching deformations (i. developable) ? Sphere: positive Gaussian curvature . differential Geometry) Atlas: zero Gaussian curvature What kind of folded shapes can we attain? .e.

Origami Mathematics : surface geometry Atlas: zero Gaussian curvature Sphere: positive Gaussian curvature .

a sheet of paper) Gaussian curvature is invariant under bending .Origami Mathematics : surface geometry developable surface (i.e.

(2008) engineering : curved surfaces from flat sheets .Origami Mathematics : surface geometry Kilian et al.

Highsmith Frank Gehry (1999) Walt Disney Concert Hall (Los Angeles. USA) .Origami Mathematics : surface geometry Image courtesy of Carol M.

Summary
Origami Mathematics
be aware of certain concepts: - flat foldability - rigid foldability - surface geometry (Gaussian curvature) It is an active field of mathematics!

Origami : Engineering

Engineering Origami
Engineering Origami : application of origami to solve technical problems.

Examples from my current research (i.e. shameless self-promotion): i) Deployable Space Structures ii) Folded Meta-Materials

Engineering Origami : deployable i) Deployable Space Structures • inflatable satellite de-orbiting device • large sail structure (2x2m) • 3U CubeSat 3U CubeSat 2μm mylar membrane Inflatable booms .

1996) L'Garde & NASA JPL (1996) .Engineering Origami : deployable Inflatable Booms • Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE.

how do you fold an inflatable boom? .Engineering Origami : deployable So.

z-fold . NASA LaRC .Engineering Origami : deployable So. how do you fold an inflatable boom? • rolling/coiling • folding .origami patterns • conical stowage ILC Dover (ITSAT) Wang and Johnson (2003).

Engineering Origami : deployable Guest and Pellegrino (1994) origami booms (1/3) Barker and Guest (2004) Hoberman (1993) .

Engineering Origami : deployable origami booms (2/3) EADS Astrium Senda et al (2006) .

straightness of deployment Schenk.Engineering Origami : deployable origami booms (3/3) . Seffen and Guest (2012) .material deformation (rigid-foldable) .stowed volume (flat-foldable) . Viquerat.

concentric folds .Engineering Origami : deployable conical telescopic booms (1/2) . ISPSS (2005) .telescopic deployment Palisoc (2004) L'Garde.

Engineering Origami : deployable conical telescopic booms (2/2) experiments analysis .

A synthetic composite material engineered to display properties not usually found in natural materials.Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials ii) Folded Meta-Materials “Meta-Material .” • fold patterns introduce kinematic properties Schenk and Guest (2012) .

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials Basic component: Miura-ori sheet a) Folded Shell Structure b) Folded Cellular Meta-Material .

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials a) meta-material : Folded Shell Structures .

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials novel property : • doubly-curved surface .

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials novel property : • negative in-plane Poisson’s ratio .

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials novel property : • positive out-of-plane Poisson’s ratio .

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials application : morphing structures .change shape .maintain continuous surface Example: morphing wings .

stacking of folded layers .Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials b) Folded Cellular Meta-Material .maintains folding motion .

highly anisotropic material properties .omni-directional negative Poisson's ratio .Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials novel properties: .

McShane (2012) .blast impact mitigation bla im st pa ct Schenk. Guest.Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials Folded Sandwich Panel Core .

Engineering Origami : Meta-Materials folded sandwich panel core .core manufacture .numerical simulations .

i) deployability ii) increased stiffness iii) impact absorption iv) meta-materials v) energy-efficiency Miura-ori sheet .Engineering Origami : applications Engineering Origami : application of origami to solve technical problems.

Engineering Origami : deployable Lang (2003) i) deployable structures – space telescope – solar panels Miura and Natori (1989) .

(2002) JAXA IKAROS (2010) .Engineering Origami : deployable i) deployable structures – solar sails Guest (1992) Leipold et al.

Engineering Origami : deployable i) deployable structures – emergency shelters – medical stent – bio-mechanics Kuribayashi et al. (2006) de Temmerman (2007) Kobayashi (1999) .

Engineering Origami : deployable most common fold pattern: Miura-ori – flat-foldable – rigid-foldable .

tsg.Engineering Origami : deployable generalized Miura-ori: rigid-foldable and flat-foldable http://www.ne.jp/TT/software/ Tachi (2009–2011) .

Engineering Origami : deployable rigid-foldable hyperbola Tachi (2010) .

Engineering Origami : deployable i) deployable structures – programmable matter Hawkes et al. (2010) .

Engineering Origami : stiffness ii) increased stiffness – architecture : folded plates .

Engineering Origami : stiffness ii) increased stiffness – folded plates Engel (1968) .

Origami Engineering : stiffness ii) increased stiffness – sandwich panel cores Miura (1972) Heimbs (2007) Rapp (1960) .

Engineering Origami : impact resistance iii) impact resistance – sandwich panel cores Tessellated Group (2010) Elsayed and Basily (2004) .

Engineering Origami : impact resistance Miura (1969) iii) impact resistance – car crash boxes Wu (2010) Tarnai (1994) .

Engineering Origami : meta-materials iv) meta-materials – deployable cellular solids Miura and Tachi (2010). Tachi (2011) .

Engineering Origami : meta-materials iv) meta-materials – curved corrugated shell structures Norman (2009) Seffen (2012) .

curved folding Tachi and Epps (2011) .Engineering Origami : energy efficiency v) energy-efficient manufacturing .sheet metal bending .

Engineering Origami : curved folding • curved folding : RoboFold www.robofold.com Rhino3D with Grasshopper and Kangaroo .

Summary Origami Engineering used for a wide range of technical applications: i) deployable structures ii) increased stiffness iii) impact resistance iv) meta-materials v) sheet metal folding And more applications are being developed! .

Origami : Architecture .

Origami Architecture : Bauhaus Josef Albers (1927) .

approximation to curved surfaces 2) deployable architectural structures 3) transformable / kinematic architecture .Origami Architecture : applications 1) folded plate roofs / façades – – – – mechanical advantage visual appeal materiality : timber. glass. etc.

Origami Architecture : folded plates Milo Ketchum (1910-1999) .

Origami Architecture : folded plates Engel (1968) .

Origami Architecture : folded plates Engel (1968) .

Colorado Springs .Origami Architecture : folded plates Skidmore. Owings and Merill (1956) US Air Force Academy Cadet Chapel.

Origami Architecture : folded plates Miura (1969) Coppa (1970) Tonon (1993) .

Origami Architecture : folded plates Renzo Piano (1966) Mobile Sulphur Extraction Factory. Rome . Pomezia.

Origami Architecture : foldable dome Ron Resch (1939-2009) .

Origami Architecture : Ron Resch .

1967 .com "Made with Paper Show" Nov.ronresch.Origami Architecture : Ron Resch (1960-1963) http://www.

com/photos/72567727@N00/page2/ http://www.Origami Architecture : foldable dome http://flickr.com/photos/elelvis/ .flickr.

co.Origami Architecture : folded plates Foreign Office Architects (2002) Yokohama International Cruise Terminal http://www.richardsweeney.uk .

Bridget Church Gdańsk.Origami Architecture : folded plates St. Poland From “Heavenly vaults: from Romanesque to Gothic in European architecture” .

BLOB architecture) .Origami Architecture : folded plate Revival of interest in folded plate structures? Recent developments • timber / glass structures • computer design tools • free-form geometry (i.e.

(2009) .Origami Architecture : timber panels Buri et al.

Origami Architecture : timber panels computer design tools case study: temporary chapel of St. Loup Buri et al. (2009) .

Origami Architecture : timber panels case study: temporary chapel of St. Loup .

(2006) .Origami Architecture : glass panels Trometer et al.

Origami Architecture : glass panels Olafur Eliasson (2007) One-way Colour Tunnel http://flux.html .net/take-your-time-olafur-eliasson-new-york http://www.com/weblog/cat/10/view/1647/take-your-time-olafur-eliasson.designboom.

Origami Architecture : free-form Trautz et al. (2009) .

Origami Architecture : free-form Heinzelmann (2009) .

Origami Architecture : deployable De Temmerman (2007) .

inhabitat.Origami Architecture : deployable http://www.com/2008/10/22/origami-inspired-folding-bamboo-house-by-ming-trang/ .

inhabitat.Origami Architecture : deployable http://www.com/2008/09/03/matthew-malone-recovery-shelter/ accordeon reCover shelter Boler and Tandon (1967) .

Origami Architecture : deployable Tachi (2009) .

com/photos/wannesdeprez/466371180/ http://www.u.jpg .Origami Architecture : deployable Emilio Pérez Piñero (1935-1972) http://www.flickr.edu/~shunter/pinero.arizona.

com/ .Origami Architecture : deployable Daniel MacGibbon (2008) http://designstudio5.blogspot.

org/library/sites/one-site. Paris Jean Nouvel (1987) http://www.archnet.Origami Architecture : transformable L’institut du Monde Arabe.jsp?site_id=851 .

USA Chuck Hoberman .Origami Architecture : transformable Hoberman Arch (2002) Salt Lake City.

London.adaptivebuildings.com Chuck Hoberman Iris Dome.com Adaptable Sunshade. Hannover. 2006 Building Center Trust. UK .Origami Architecture : transformable http://www. Germany http://www.hoberman. 2000 Worlds Fair.

Origami Architecture : transformable Kiefer Technic Bad Gleichenberg Giselbrecht + Partner ZT GmbH (2007) .

org/ .Origami Architecture : transformable Hyposurface (concept) Hyposurface Corp (2000) http://hyposurface.

OrangeVoid http://www.Origami Architecture : transformable Robotic Membrane (concept).orangevoid.uk .org.

Origami Architecture : transformable

“Responsive Kinematics”, John Hobart-Culleton

Origami : Summary

Summary
Origami Art
recent developments due to computational tools and improved understanding of its mathematics

Origami Mathematics
– active field of mathematics – be aware of some of the concepts
• foldability (flat & rigid) • surface geometry (Gaussian curvature)

mainly for the design of deployable structures Origami Architecture – folded plate structures • visual appeal / strength / deployability / materiality – kinematic architecture • very much under-explored.Summary Origami Engineering used for a variety of applications. plenty of challenges .

Origami : Workshop .

Workshop Origami Engineering – 3 different assignments (limited copies of each) – groups of ~5 people – explore aspects of • inflatable foldable cylinders • curved folding • … .

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