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PROJECT REPORT

AT

AMTEK INDIA LTD.


RIICO INDUSTRIal area, phase-4, BHIWADI (RAJASTHAN)

WITH EFFECT FROM 15-07-2013 TO 15-12-20123

SUBMITTED BYNAME- GOUTAM KUMAR BRANCH- MECHANICAL ENGG ROLL NO- 102235 UNIV ROLL NO-100061127948
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ABOUT COMPANY
Amtek India Limited is a leading provider of iron cast automotive components in India. The Company's product portfolio consists of a range of components for 2/3 wheelers, cars, tractors, light commercial vehicles (LCV), heavy commercial vehicles (HCV) and stationary engines. The categories of components manufactured are connecting rod assemblies, cylinder blocks, flywheel assemblies and turbo charger housing. It is a fully integrated 30000 TPA Steel making Company with turnover of US$ 25-100 Million (or Rs. 100-400 Crore Approx.)

COMPANY PROFILE
Company Profile: HISTORY
Amtek India is the largest manufacturer of gear shifter forks and forks in the country. The company is primarily engaged in the manufacturing of machined and casting components for two wheelers, cars and tractors. They manufacture automotive components with a special focus on a variety of iron castings. The company has two manufacturing units located at Gurgaon in Haryana, Solan in Himachal Pradesh and Bhiwadi in Rajasthan. Amtek India Ltd was incorporated in the year 1983 and was promoted by the Amtek group. The company is the original equipment supplier to Maruti Udyog, JCB, New Holland Tractors, John Deere Tractors, Hundai Motors, ITL, Eicher Motor and also refrigeration industries like LG Electronics. The company commissioned their Gurgaon unit in the year 1995 which is engaged in the machining of a variety of large and medium sized automotive components like connecting-rods, spindles, transmission covers, gear shifter fork, yokes, bridge fork, bottom assembly, pivot arms, crank-cases and other machined castings. During the year 2001-02, the company has commissioned state of art foundry/ machining at Bhiwadi in Rajasthan with an installed capacity of 30000 TPA which has best the equipments imported from George Fischer Disa, Switzerland. The installed capacity of Auto Components has been increased from 7.5 million to 12.5 million pieces per annum during the year 2004-05 and they further increased to 17.5 million pieces per annum during the year 2005-06. During the year 2005-06, the company acquired 100% equity stake of UK based Sigmacast Group Ltd, which is one of the largest suppliers of turbocharger housing in the world. The company was acquired through their UK subsidiary Amtek Industries Ltd. This acquisition gave the overseas customers like General Motors, Ford and Land Rover to the company. During the year 2006-07, the company expanded their Casting capacity from 30000 TPA to 75000 TPA. In November 2007, the company signed a technical collaboration agreement with Teksid SpA, Italy which is a world leader in the production of iron castings for the automotive industry with operations spread out in Europe, North and South America and Asia. The company has approved the merger of the company with Amtek Auto Ltd.

Company Profile: Safety, Health &Environment


All its employees commit themselves to create and continuously maintain the work environment which is safe, healthy and pollution free. The safety of persons shall override all production targets. Company commits itself to: the Health and Safety of People the Environment the best SHE practices of global industry? SHE aspects as a CRITICAL business activity safety and healthy environment culture among all the employees

Company Profile: PRODUCTS


AMTEK India ltd is the one of the leading foundry company in Asia manufacturing following products for Maruti Udyog, JCB, New Holland Tractors, John Deere Tractors, Hundai Motors, ITL etc.

Cylinder Blocks Cylinder Head Design Connecting rod Flywheel Housing Miscellaneous Tooling etc.

INTRODUCTION TO FOUNDARY
DEFINITION:Foundry is noun and denotes a place or industry where a substance (especially metal) is melted and then molded into different shapes using molds. This skill of melting and pouring of the liquid metal or such an operation is also called foundry. Even, the things different shapes or the castings made this way are known as foundry. Some words that are synonymous to foundry are: branch, co-operative or firm, forge or laboratory andmachine shop. Manufactory or mill, mint or plant, shop or warehouse or workroom or works, workshop, agency,front office, room, building, bureau, Centre, department, factory or facility, suite or store or workstation, or apparatus or gear or machinery and yard are other nouns that one can use instead of foundry. A foundry is a factory that produces metal casting. Metals are cast into shapes by melting them into a liquid, pouring the metal in a mold, and removing the mold material or casting after the metal has solidified as it cools. The most common metals processed are aluminumand cast iron. However, other metals, such as bronze, steel, magnesium, copper, tin and Zinc is also used to produce castings foundries.

PROCESS:In metalworking,casting involves pouring liquid metal into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowing it to cool and solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.

Different Sections in Foundry:


1. Sand mixing & preparation 2. Core making 3. Core assembly & handling 4. Moulding 5. Mould assembly & handling 6. Melting 7. Pouring 8. Shaking out 9. Fettling & finishing 10. Heat treatment 11. Inspection & testing

SAND MIXING AND PREPARATION


Sand
DEFINITION:- Sand is defined as a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. The composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica(silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the form of quartz. In terms of particle size as used by geologists sand particles range in diameter from 0.0625mm (or16mm) to 2mm. An individual particle in this range size is termed a sand grain. Sand grains are between gravel (with particles ranging from 2mm up to 64mm).

Types of Sand:There are following types of sand: Silica Sand Quartz Sand Chromite Sand Olivine Sand Zircon Sand Cnamute Sand But the sand which are mainly used in DCM engineering product are:

Silica Sand Quartz Sand Chromite Sand Zircon Sand

Shapes of Sand:Different shapes of sand particles are: Angular

Sub angular

Round

Rounded(compound)

ADDITIVES FOR CORE SAND


There are following additives for Core Sand: Binder (Synthetic/Natural) Hardener Iron Oxide Cushioning Materials (Saw Dust/Peat/Straw) Reducing Agents (Coal Powder /Pitch/Fuel oil)

CLASSIFICATION OF CORE SAND


The Core Sand is classified into 3 types: Cold Box Sand Shell Box Sand Hot Box Sand
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COLD BOX SAND


The Cold Box Sand composition :Component Base Sand Part 1 (Binder) Part 2 (Hardener) Iron Oxide Quantity 150kg 1.30kg 1.36kg 400g

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SHELL SAND
The Shell Sand composition : Base Sand (Allahabad Sand) Resin (Phenolic) Mill Scale Iron Oxide Catalyst

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HOT BOX SAND


The Hot Box Sand composition :Component Base Sand Resin Catalyst Iron Oxide Mill Scale Quantity 150kg 7.5kg 1.6kg 3kg

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Comparison:
Cold Box Sand
Used for Bulky Cores Core making is Easy Operational cost is Minimum Surface Finish is Fine Core making is cheap

Hot Box Sand


Lesser Bulky cores Complicated Maximum Finner Costly

Shell Sand
Light cores Easy Minimum Finest Economic

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CORE MAKING
CORE
Definition:A core is a device used in casting and molding processes to produce internal cavities and reentrant angles. The core is normally a disposable item that is destroyed to get it out of the piece. They are most commonly used in sand casting, but are also used in injection molding. An intriguing example of the use of cores is in the casting of engine blocks. For example, one of the GM V-8 engines requires 5 dry-sand cores for every casting

Advantages and disadvantages:Cores are useful for features that cannot tolerate draft or to provide detail that cannot otherwise be integrated into a core-less casting or mold. The main disadvantage is the additional cost to incorporate cores

Requirements:

In the green condition there must be adequate strength for handling. In the hardened state it must be strong enough to handle the forces of casting; therefore the compression strength should be 100 to 300 psi (0.69 to 2.1 MPa). Permeability must be very high to allow for the escape of gases. As the casting or molding cools the core must be weak enough to break down as the material shrinks. Moreover, they must be easy to remove during shakeout. Good refractoriness is required as the core is usually surrounded by hot metal during casting or molding. A smooth surface finish. A minimum generation of gases during metal pouring.

Types:There are many types of cores available. The selection of the correct type of core depends on production quantity, production rate, required precision, required surface finish, and the type of metal being used. For example, certain metals are sensitive to gases that are given off by certain types of core sands; other metals have too low of a melting point to properly break down the binder for removal during the shakeout

Green-sand cores:-

Green-sand cores are not a typical type of core in that it is part of the cope and drag, but still form an internal feature. Their major disadvantage is their lack of strength, which makes casting long narrow features difficult or impossible for machining. Even for long features that can be cast it still leave much material to be machined. A typical application is a through hole in a casting.

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Green-sand cores

Dry-sand cores:Dry-sand cores overcome some of the disadvantages of the green-sand cores. They are formed independently of the mold and then inserted into the core prints in the mold, which hold the core in position. They are made by mixing sand with a binder in a wooden or metal core box, which contains a cavity in the shape of the desired core. The simplest way to make dry-sand cores is in a dump core box, in which sand is packed into the box and scraped level with the top. A wood or metal plate is then placed over the box, and then the two are flipped over and the core segment falls out of the core box. The core segment is then baked or hardened. Multiple core segments are then hot glued together or attached by some other means. Any rough spots are or sanded down. Finally, the core is lightly coated with graphite, silica, or to give a smoother surface finish and greater resistance to heat. Single-piece cores do not need to be assembled because they are made in a split core box. A split core box, like it sounds, is made of two halves and has at least one hole for sand to be introduced. For simple cores that have constant cross-sections they can be created on special core-producing extruders. The extrusions are then just cut to the proper length and hardened. More complex single-piece cores can be made in a manner similar to injection moldings and die castings

Binders:Special binders are introduced into core sands to add strength. The oldest binder was vegetable oil, however now synthetic oil is used, in conjunction with cereal or clay. The core is then baked in a between 200 and 250 C (392 and 482 F). The heat causes the binder to cross-linkpolymerize. While this process is simple, the dimensional accuracy is low. Another type of binder process is called the hot-box process, which uses a thermoset and catalyst for a binder. The sand with the binder is packed into a core box that is heated to approximately230 C (446F) (which is where the name originated from). The binder that touches the hot surface of the core box begins to cure within 10 to 30 seconds. Depending on the type of binder it may require further baking to fully cure. In a similar vein, the cold-box process uses a binder that is hardened through the use of special gases. The binder coated sand is packed into a core box and then sealed so that a curing gas can be introduced. These gases are often toxic (i.e. Amine gas) or odorous (i.e. SO2), so special handling systems must be used. However, because high temperatures are not required the core box can be made from metal, wood, or plastic. An added benefit is that hollow core can be formed if the gas is introduced via holes in the core surface which cause only the surface of the core to harden; the remaining sand is then just dumped out to be used again. For
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example, a cold-box sand casting core binder is which hardens on exposure to carbon dioxide. Special binders are used in air-set sands to produce core at room temperature. These sands do not require a gas catalyst because organic binders and a curing catalyst are mixed together in the sand which initiates the curing process. The only disadvantage with this is that after the catalyst is mixed in there is a short time to use the sand. A third way to produce room temperature cores is by shell molding. The term no-bake sands can refer to either the cold-box process or air-set process.

Chaplets:Cores are usually supported by two core prints in the mold. However, there are situations where a core only uses one core print so other means are required to support the cantilevered end. These are usually supplied in the form of chaplets. These are small metal supports that bridge the gap between the mold surface and the core, but because of this become part of the casting. As such, the chaplets must be of the same or similar material as the metal being cast. Moreover, their design must be optimized because if they are too small they will completely melt and allow the core to move, but if they are too big then their whole surface cannot melt and fuse with the poured metal. Their use should also be minimized because they can cause casting defects or create a weak spot in the casting. It is usually more critical to ensure the upper chaplets are stronger than the lower ones because the core will want to float up in the molten metal

Cheeks:When casting a reentrant angle instead of using a core a cheek can be used instead. This is a third segment in the flask, in addition to the cope and drag. This allows the entire mold to be made from green sand and from removable patterns. The disadvantage of this is more moldmaking operations are required, but it is usually advantageous when the quantities are low.

A cheek used to create a pulley

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PROCESS OF MAKING CORE:1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.) 7.)


Ramming of core sand in the box. Venting Reinforcing Removing of core from box Baking Pasting Sizing

Common Technologies in Core Making:


A.)Hot box process B.)Cold Box process C.)Shell Sand Process D.)No bake Sand Process

SAND CORE ENGINEERING:Core making can be challenging. Both sand and air flow, within the tooling, are essential for making a good core. Arena-flow is not just a process model, but rather a fundamental approach to computing the sand flow and air flow physics of core making. Thus, it is not applicable to only one process, but has been successfully applied to a variety of core making technologies.

COLD-BOX:If you're utilizing a cold-box process, you're probably very interested in productivity. Arenaflow has interfaces specifically designed to enable the cold-box foundry to optimize their processes resulting in minimal scrap, binder loadings, and amine or SO2 usage and cycle times. Cold-box sand core engineering physical models include:

air flow modeling transient amine curing transient SO2 curing core fill and miss-fill prediction core density variations tool wear prediction resin wipe-off prediction sand particle size distribution multiple sand types, and mixtures sand flow ability (binder effects) discrete vent models Cold box cores are prepared on Span Machines. Col box sand mix is prepared I the sand control and fed to the core shop. The sand mix is blown into the core box with

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air pressure of 3-6 kg/cm2 and TRIETHYLAMINE gas is passed to harden the core. The amount of TEA gas to be passed depends upon size of the core.

(SPAN MACHINE)

SHELL SAND:
If you're a shell foundry, then you probably have other concerns.Shelltooling is different than cold-box tooling.Venting may be limited, and the air flow in hot shell tooling is vital to ensuring complete and uniform core filling behavior before the sand begins to harden.Shell sand core engineering physical models include: transient air flow during core filling sand particle size distribution multiple sand species core fill and miss-fill core density variations tool wear prediction sand flow ability Discrete vent models including: circular vents, slit vents, parting line venting, vent clogging, etc.

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WARM-BOX, HOT-BOX:The Hot Box cores are prepared on SUTTER MACHINES. The basic process of core making is same as that of the shell process except that the hotbox sand is pushed in the core box along with the air with pressure.

Parameter for HOTBOX process of core making:


Blow pressure : 3-6 kg/cm2 Blow Time : 3-7 seconds

Core BoxTemperature : 250-3000C Curing Time : 120-240 seconds The core box is heated with the help of L.P.G burners. Larger core are formed in hot and cold box e.g. Barrel core, rear and front flywheel end, But thin core are formed in shell box up to a thickness of 10mm e.g. Water jacket.

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CORE MAKING MACHNE SUTTER MACHINE


Parts of Sutter Machine:

Hopper (for sand storage) Blow Chamber Blow Plate Lifter Lower Strips (for core ejection out core box) Trolley (for movement of core box) Drag Half of Core Box Cope Half of Core Box Upper Manifold Manifold Frame Prestrip Frame Actuators Hydraulics Cylinder Oil Container Air Pressure Pipes Oil Pipe Lower L.P.G Connection pipe Upper L.P.G Connection pipe Control panel Other parts Limit Switches, Water circulation pipes

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SUSHA (SUTTER MACHINE)

No Bake process:
This technology is the example of self-setting core sand mixes. Other self-setting mixtures prepared in the core shop are pep-set. The machine employed for No-Bake mix is Pave Master. Part A & B is fed from sand control. Part C is fed from core shop itself. Part A & B is mixed with Base sand & part C is mixed with base san in respective primary mixers. Then both are mixed together in the turbo mixer and final prepared sand is collected & ready for the manufacturing of cores.The mix is filled in aluminium alloy cores boxes with h and and ramming is done with hand. For achieving strength,reinforcement rods are placed in the core box. The cores are either taken out of core box by inverting the boxes or by unclamping then. The setting time varied from 6-10 minutes.

CORE WASH Core is deep in to a liquid for: 1.) for better surface finishing 2.) erosion 3.) inclusion 4.) metal penetrate
There are two types of solutions: water based
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alcohol based And viscosity of these solutions varies 14-18cpoise

CORE DRYING:Drying time can be as little as four minutes. This dramatically reduces the size of sand core drying storage areas and allows cores to move uninterrupted from the oven to the pouring floor. Core wash drying time is accelerated from hours to minutes and a higher degree of uniformity is achieved.Proper air circulation and exhaust sizing reduces drying time and allows the cores to dry with minimum absorption of heat into the sand core. Batch and Continuous ovens are available for core wash drying.

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