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Subject : gas Dynamic and Turbine Machine Weekly Hours : Theoretical:2 UNITS:5 Tutorial : 1 Experimental : 1 week 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Contents Principles of thermodynamics Introduction to compressible flow Isentropic flow Choked Isentropic flow Operation of nozzles at variable pressure ratios Normal shock wave Equations of Normal shock wave Oblique shock wave Flow in constant area duct with friction Performance of long ducts at variable pressure ratios Isothermal flow in long ducts Flow ducts with heating or cooling = = shock wave with change in stagnation temperature Aerothermodynamics of turbomachinery Physical principle a. equation of motion b. continuity equation c. momentous equation Turbine momentum notation Efficiencies Flow in rotating blades Axial flow turbine Velocity triangles Impulse turbine Reaction turbine = Axial flow compressor Radial turbine Centrifugal compressor

: 5: 2 : : 1 : 1: = = : . . . =

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 .10 .11 .12 .13

.14 .15 .16 .17

18 19. 20 21. 22. 23. 24 25. 26 27 28.

18 19 20 .21 .22 .23 .24 .25 .25 .27 .28

Chapter One

Fundamentalof Ftuid Dynamics Introduction:

Gas dynamics is a branch of fluid mechanics which describethe flow of compressible fluid. Fluidsrvhichshow appreciable variation in density as a resurts of the flow - such as gases-are called_ compressible The variation in density is due fluids. mainlyto variation in pressure andtemperature. The flow of a compressibre flu.idis govemedby the first rawof thermodynamics, which relatesto energy balance,and by the secondlaw of thermodynamics, which relates heat interaction,andineversibirity ro entropy. The flow is also a-ffected by both kinetic anJ dynamiceffects,which aredescribed by Newton,slawsof motion.An inertial frame of referencethat is, a frame in *'hich NeMon's laws of motion areappricabre- genera is y used.In addition, the flow furfilsthe requirement ofconservation oimass. These laws are not dependent on the properties of particular fluid, thereforein order to relatethe motion to a particurar fluid it-is necessary to usesubsidiary laws in additionto thesefundamental principles , suchas the equation ofstatefor perfecigas.

p - p R r . . . . . . .l ( )

Ahhough the mostobvious application of compressible fluid flow theoryare in thedesignofhigh speedaircraft, andthisremains animportant application to the subject, acknowledges ofcompressible fluid flow theoryis requirldin thedisignandoperatioiof manydevicescommonry encountered in engineering practice. Amongtheseapplication are: 1- GasTurbine: theflow in thebalding andnozzle is compressible. 2- Steam turbine. Here, too,theflow in thenozzles andbiades mustbe treated as compressible. 3- Reciprocating engines, flow of gasesthroughthe valvesand intake and exhaust.
4- Naturalgastransmission line.

Combustion chambers 6- Explosive.

I.1 Conserv ation of Mass: Theprincipleofconservation of mass, whenreferred ro a system offixed identity, simplestates that the mass of the systemis constanlconsiier an arbitrarycontr6i volume through whichfluidstreams Fig,l. we wishto derive theform of the law of conservation ofmassasit applied to this controlvolume. However, in orderto apply the law, we mustbeginwith a system of fixed identity, andsowe i"nn"a our ryitl"ri asthe fluid whichsome instant t occupies thecontrol volume. Next, we considerwhat happens during the succeeding time interval dt. By definition, the control volume remains fixed in space, butthesystem movesin the general direction ofthe stream.line. Thetwo position of rhesystem areshownin fig.1 by dashed lines.For convenience in analyiis, we considei threeregionof spice deooted bt I,II,III in fig.r. At time r the system occupies spaces 1 andIiI, and atitme /+d/ it occupies space l and.1L Thus,since the masiof rhesystem is conserved, we write-

tntr + nJr t = fr t na, I fr u,*a,...........-......2

where m11 means the mass of ttre fluid in spacet at time t, and so on. A simple rearrangement then gives.
fr/ t+dt - frt t fru!, fru,*a

dt dt dt The first term representthe time rate of change of masswithin space.L But as d/ goes to zerospace.Icoincide with the contrclvolume, andso in the limit.
ffit,*at-frtt ' dt A. at \"'c u l

wheremn denotedthe instantaneous mass within the control volume. The third rermmay be wrinen. * l* A* ," ldt - /2q:I kdr =l.u,r'tt-,-a _ fa.^., ________-S a t a t d t ) ' where6m1,*4l representthe amount of masscrossing the elementarysurfacedlo4 during the time dr. The ratio \mp*4/dt is calledthe out going flux of masscrossthe areadAol, Or the massrate of flow and is denoted for convenience by dmoul . similarreasoning yieldsfor inlet. m,,,, .:, = ldn,. _______________6

and so the conservation law may now be expressed as

wheredv is an element ofcontrol volume, p is the local massdensityofthat element and the integralis to be taken over the entirecontrolvolume.

[a,.., !o".t=!a^,.for detailedcomputationwe note that ajtany instant ^,.= Ja.""= Loo,
dn"" 0r r0o. - = , 4Iv Pav = r|, :-4v dt
dt dl

with the help of fig.1 we may express themass rateof flow in the form. fur,*u, p(dA-)(V"dt) dmo, _Myt-a _ = pyd4",, -------- 10 dt dt where p is the local instantaneous massdensityin the neighbourhood of dA.,r and y, is the conespondinglocal instantaneous component of velocity normal to dAo",.,with the forgoingexpression equation 7 may nowwriften.

Lp'= [cv.a't,.!nv.a*


a form which is usuallycalledthe equation ofcontinuitv. When the flow is steady,ihe identityof the fluid within the control;volume changes continuously, but the total mass remains constant or mathematical\api6tis zero for each elementof contror vorume . Then equationr r state that the incoming and outgoing massrate of flow are identical.

= lor/"ae". jov"ae,,
= prvrA, P,v,A,


For one dimensionalsteadystate flow equation12 for rhe inlet and outlet condition become.


fi5.(1) Flow through a contol volume(conrinuieequation)

f 9.2 One dimensional f ow

through control yolumewith obstacle(momentum .fig..1.flov, equation)

Example: l Ten kglsecof air enters a tank of r 0m3in volumewhire 2 kg/secis discharge from the tank as show in fig. Ifthe temperature ofthe air inside thetankremains "onrtu-nt at 300Ko. Find the rateofpressure riseinside rhetank. Solution: Appling continuityequation
n An

r| , 8 r


lpv"dA'- lpy-d,




but p= pRT

SO -1


= .(1

--6o --1

= 287*300**:68880 pysec * OI

A tank I ml in volume contains air at an initial pressureof6 atrrr(606.95 kpa) and an initial temperatureof25"c. Air is discharged isothermallyFom the tank at the rate of0.l m3ls. Assuming that the dischargedair has the samedensity astbat ofthe air in the tanlg find aa expressionfor the time rate of change of density of the air in tl'e tank what would be tle rate of pressuredrop i_n the tank a.fter5 seconds? solution:

9k, = lpr/"A,.- lpV-d-A^ Appling conrinuiry equation . t|r ' o t

dp 1.0;: or dp -0. 10

Separating variables and integrating gives: p:


/ " . \ p , 2 _ 0 . 1 r :[ _ - t _ l e _ o . r ,
\ ^ 1 1 /

where subscript I refers to initial conditions in the tank pressure change may be expressed in terms of density cha-nge according to the relation P: so that: dp PRT


RrA: xz(-0.lp)


-n 1 p, "'" " y -!)--


o-0 tr

-0.1p ' ,s-o't values gives: numerical Substituting


- O.tX 606.95 = -102.3 kpa/s X e-o.r(s)

1.2M omentum conse n ation th eorem.

The fundamental principle of dynamics is Newton's law of motion,and according to this law the resultant offorceapplied to a particlewhich may be at rest or in motion is equal to the rate of chargeof momentumof the particle in the direction of the resultant force. Newton's second law is vector relation. Considerthe x-direction we write for the system.



Wherethe left handside represent the algebraic sumofthe X-force actingon the system duringthe time interval d/,andtherighthandsiderepresent the time of change of the totalmomentum of thesystem see fig.3. -* (, m v , ) , ,- ( m v , ) , r , d,.,,,,, (^v,),,.0,+(nv,)n,

(mv,) ' ,., - (mV,), , --dl



as dl goes to zero this term represent the time rate of

change of theX-momentum withinthe controlvolume.= 9f^r,1"" ot so that : a .

fr, =fit*v,t,.+ Jv.a^.,!v,a.,.



- !nv,v,a,, ---------t7 fi, =fa'!t+ !",,

Example:3 Air flowing isentropicarlyin a nozzrestrikesa stationarybladervhen it leaves the nozzle x shownin fig. Derermine : l- The magnitude of the reactionin the x-directionand in the y-directionneeded to holdthe bladein place. 2- The magnitude ofthe reactionin the x-directionand in the y-direction of the brade movestowed the nozz.leat g0m/sec. Solution:
/ p, \tr-t|t, / ./r.4 :308 { ,I r \r0 / -214.3K


The eas vlocity at this scction is obtained from the enerEy equalion: v2 t / r 22 , -f , -l' 1 - , , -t*


n2 +

rr2 tr|


aP\tt -


: IOOO(3O8 -rroa*$
from which V2: 266.46 m/s. The mass rate of flow is:

.i-ptArrr-(rrL\n,n, : x l . o r 3x l o j \ / 1.5 | _______;\1_;;;_

\ 28...---


l(25 x r0-.X60)

: 0.258kr,/s Applying the nroalenturn equation to the control volume shown giees: &- i(Vt, - Y2) : O.258(V3cos30 + ,'2) : 0.258(266.a6 cos 30 + 266.46): 128.28 N and \ - ,i'(Vt, - V7): O.25a(n sin 30 - 0) - 0.258(266.46 sin 30) - 34.3?N


(b) When ti.l1e blade 6oves toward the nozzle, the relative velocity is 26646+3A :296.46 m/s. The mass sttikinB the blade per ullit time now becomes:


| ... ^. l= 0.281kE/s

/ 296.46 \

From the velocirydiagram shown: V1,: 256.' ar,d Vr:

The momeatum equatioo then gives:



: 149'7 N i(Vz. - Vu\ -0281(256 t4 + 266'46)

- 0) : 42.54 42 54N vzlr: 0.287(148.23 0.287(148.23 ;(v3r - vzlr: Rr : ;(v3r

Example:4 inlet at ihejetengjne's of200 m/s. Air enters An airplaneis traveling at a constantspeed at an erit velocityof the rate of40 kg/s while tlle combustionproductsare discharged 0 6 nP' The the exit area m2 is and area 0.3 600 m/s relative to the airplane.The intake thenet calculate is 0.72 am,at the exit pressure is 0.? atm, ald the pressure ambient at the inlet and exit :hrust developedby the engine.Assume uniform steadyconditions lh sameas thoseof to be products of combustion planes and the properties of the air. Solution:considerthe jet engineas a control volume as in fig. the air enters the engine with a speedof 200m,/s.assuming horizontal flight and neglectingthe momentum of the fuel, the net force opposite to thrust is: Appling momentumequation:

rddv I-, = L -;;*

J V , d m . ,J ,V,dm,"



since the case is steady state thus mean that 6pl&:0 thereforethe momentum equation become t mVt) + ; V z , - ( p L A .+ F: (pzAz - 2O . ? ) l . o lx : l(O.'1 3 ldx0.6+40x6001-(0+40x 20o)
: N 17,215.6

Vz- 2Oonls

V: - 600 m/s

A: ' 0'6 mr P2 - O-72attn

1.3TheFirst La


Energy is conveyed a cross the boundaryof control volume in he form of heat and work. Considerthe flow through the controlvolumewith of fig., with the system definedas the material occcupingthe controlvolumeat time t. we consideiwhat happensduring the time interval dt. passing throughthe control surfaceare a stationarystrut and a rotating shaftattached to a turbo-machine, perhaps a compressor or turbine.The energyequation in a simple formcanbewrittenasfollowing. Q _dE +5W dt dt dt Rate of changeof total energyE:


( E r , * a ,t E n , * a , )- ( E t , + E n tt )


dE _Et,*a,-Er,.* lrpr__ 116l_ d t d t J d t J d t 6 dE ,aE, | , - t , J e a m o uJ ,eamn a=\ a)-+

dE 1 depdv s,


I * ) e d m . " 'ledm.

Rate of work done. Omitting from our considerationcapiliary,magnetic,and electrical force, the work done during the processesis the result of normal and shearstressesat the movingboundaries ofthe system. A- Work Done by Normal Stresses. Taking the normal stressat the boundary of the system asthe hydrostaticpressure. the work done by the system owing to normalforce at an elementof areadAoulis pdA""dx, where d: is the componentof distance movednormalto dAo,,.BuI dAodx is the volume of the mass elementdr27,17, *.hich volumemay be writeenas v6m11,*4,The total rate of work done by normal stresses during the processmay now be set down,with the aid of the foregoing, as


_ Jpvdmtt, ._ Jpvbm,,,*o,
dt dt


B- work Done bv Shearstresses: This workmaybeconveniently dividedinto two (i) the work doneby the part of tle shaftinside categories the system on the part outside the systemtowing to the torque in therotating shaftresulting from the shear stresses. (ii) the shear work doneat theboundaries ofthe system on adjacent fluid whichis in motion.Therefore theratechange of rvork canbewrittenasfoilow.

= r,* +W"0",, + ! n vd^.,, + [ n rd^,,

Thetotalfluidenergy permass flow e is

Total fluid energ)': internal energy+ kineticenergy + potentialenergy

yz e=u+-+gz u=h-pv=h-P p Substitute rhese equations intothe energy equation results " r t 2 tt2 Q=rr .r*. 1 ,o e d v , .){h+V+g4am.,,. ,e a r , . . . s h* @ , L dt dt fh+L+gz1dm,"

resultof intemction with theenvironment in which thereis heattransfer.

I .4Ihe rqe4d Law of Thermodynamics: In a fixed-mass system entropy change occurJas a result of irreversibre events or asa t d Q- , a s , | , 1,7=t;l- * J'd,,,*I'd,,"

4 *,

| 4!!+d .tr spvd.t

-one dimension for steady flow . rln -s,)2{ } rn(s, for adiabatic flow dO=0therefore -s, )0 s, or ds>0 for isentropic flow ds=0 and flow adiabaticirreversible flow ds>0

For most problem in gasdynamics, theassumption of perfect gaslaw is sufficiently in accord withtheproperties ofreal gases asto bea acciptable. we shalrtherefore set downhere thespecial thermodynamics relations whichaiply to perfect gas. 1- Eauation qf state:
pv - = Kl =-1 =o J { --------------

Where.T is theabsolute temperarure (K1, R is rhegasconstant(ykg.mol.Ko), S is the univenal gasconsrant and is equalto g134.3J&g.mol.d",La ful i, tt "

molecularweight kgkg.mol. For atmosphericair berw,--.een 0 and i00 km, therefore i\.{:28.966, theair gasconstant is 287.04Jikg.K' \!hen a perfect gas undergoes a thermodynamic processbetweento equilibrium state.


ana -h,=f'cn.dr k- . f,.




, 6 u. = d u ana =\. A h . = d h o = li), cP gas lor perlect dT *) e 7 _ d u _ d ( u +p v ) _ d u - d T r ) C 'p_Cu=41 dTdT dt dT dT Cp-Cv=R R, y is 7= 94 11.r.1or. Thespecific heat ratio Cp=-fR - andCu= Cv y-l 7-1 Changes of Entropy: Applying the special relationof a perfect gasto the general
relation betweentz,y we get . du pdv ^ dT -dv ds=-+-=Cv-+RT T T v and,uponintegration

r.,,u s, -.9,= cv lnA +.R Inh = cvtn( ' !21.1' Tr''vr'

T, ,,

Altematively, we mayeliminate either Zor v fromthis express the aidof pv=RT,and soobtain P: + Cph!! = Crln(P' S, -S, = 6'v1n )(" ),
P t V t A V t

S.-S, = Cpln2tt

Rln4= Pr

C v l n ( t z l r1 P z ; t ' t lr Pt

The Isentropic. Often the isentropic process is taken as a model or as a Iimit for real adiabatic processes. If entropyis constant at each step of the processes, it follows from equation tha* Tand v,p andv, and T andp are connectedwith eachother during theprucesses by the followinglaws: /
+ ,-t = C O n S I . lv pv P =L=COnStT'-) -=COnSt.


For isentropic flow process the enthalpy change is important.It is calculated in terms of theinitialtemperature andthepressure ratioas follows:

- r,)= Cp I,l (;) - t |=Cpr,l lLh) " =Cp(r. t "]1, - t I

Lrr ) lh l





the fieldof flou. through variation in density flo$,implies Thetermcompressible from changes of pressure the resultprincipalll, are,in many cases, r.ariatlons These IS' to pressurg The rate of changeof densitl'\\'ith respect one point to anolher. ue and, as florv' compressible of in-theanal;'sis parameter an importanr therefore. of snrallpressure velocitl,of propagation uith the is ciosely.connected yf sound. s i t h t h ev e l o c i t o i .e e.. disturbanc

florv in Compressible WavePropagation ?.1Lntroduction:

\4edia: in Elastic 2.2\\'ale Propagation

*hen a solid elasticobjectsuchas steelbar is happens ler us er.mlne rr.hat at one end.In appl!ed conrpressive stress unjformdistribuled ro a sudden subjeci' d compressecj. is point applicaticn to the of ne.rt of rinte.a thin Jal,er rhe firsi insranr to is ihentransmitted This compression ofthe bar is unaffected. uhile the remainder at the left sideis created rhenesrlaler.and so on dorin the bar.Thusa disturbance at the left sjde $aYeinitialed end.The contpression at theopposite er,entuallr.sensel of rhe bar rakesa finite time to trarel to rhe right side.rhe rrare relociir beinS of the media' densiil' ancl on theelasticiq' depenienr \\'a\e can be and longitudinal substance elastic are also liquid and Gas:s s-olid' rhrough propasated in thesa:rerral'that\\'aves media these through propagated gir erl is piston The at the left hand. L.,'u g., becorlinedin a longtubeu ith a piston a layerof gaspilesup nert to thepls1on push to tlrerighr.In the firstinstant a sudcien rrare The compresslon is unaffected the remirderof the -sas and is compressed. to gas able is all the the gasuntil eventually rhenmo'esthrough pisron creared b;,tire given to the gasis infinitesimall;' If the impulse s.ns. rh. *o,,.irrentof rhe pisron. \\ave mo\e compression small.the uare is calieda sounds'aveand the resultant of sound. to thevelocity equal thegasat velocity rhrough densityand u dp andJetthe corresponding ave be the across change Let the pressure $'ave is $hich the into gas The ,.rp.rrrur. changebe dp and dT respectively. to be at rest.The *'ave *,ill then inducea gas t'e)ocit; dl'. propagared is assrlmed as acrossthe '.'are are,therefore tenirrJ it as it move rhroughthe gas.The changes to deternline the florv throughthe uave andthus sboru in fig.2.2.In orderto analyze lo the $ave. i.e, is s)slemthat is anached coordinated to usea (a).ii is co-nr.enient be at rest $'ill ofcourse rvave the s)'stem, In this coordinate movingNirh the $'aYe. and r'ave of the ahead it *lih the'elocit,,.a. through *i1l effecri'ely,florv andrhJgas a .'elocil'. a-til/, behind the rvare ln this coordinatesystem.lhen, the changes change' anddensity temperature areshortnin fig 2 3. Thepressure. tie \\ar.e through used systeln ofthe coordinate independent ofcourse.
i---+' ,-a:= D::t

ll lh'



Thecontinuitl' and mqm-enfum equation are applied to a controlvolumeof un;t area :crossrhe \\,a\:e as indicatedln fig. For steadystatethe conrinuityequarion for the control volume is: nt' - Sn :(p + dp)(a - dV) ------------------2. 1 r'here m is ihe mass lo*' rateperunit area through the u,a'e.Since thecase of a 'e11 *eak is beingconsider. the second orderterm.dpdll ihat arises in equation can be neg)ected andrhisequation rhen. eires:
dp ='

;1' -"'--------------'------ll

Cons:nai:;.: of ;tro;,.rentum is nert considei-ed. The onJl, for.ce aclirg orrihe co;ttroi 'oiume ar: ihe pressure force.The mor)tentur)t eqrarionfor sreaciv statebecorne: p . .* 1( p + d t 1 . 1 = , , , ' l @ - d t , ) - o ] - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 . j u hlchleaci :o: ,4dp= n1'r11to, dp = padl' --------2.1 Subsri:u et q e u a i i o2 n. 2i n t oe q u a r i o2 n. 4s i v e s : ;G. \dp In orcerto e'aluare a usingrbeaboreequaiion. it is necessary 1o kno*' rhe process lhatrhe sasundergoes in passing through the *,a'e. Because a 'erv *eak *are is beinsconsidered. the ternperarure and'elocity chanees rhrough the *,a'e are 'er' small andti:esradient of iemperature and'e)ocit1,*irhin the u,averemain small.For ihisreason. heattransfer and'iscouseffectfor florvrhroush rheu,ave areassunred to b e n e e ) i g i b lH ee . n c ei.s p a s s i nr g hroueh r h er r a r e . r h es a i i s a s s u m e1 d0u n d e r s o an isentropic p;ocess. Theflot' through rheu'are is.therefore. assumed to satisf_\,:
L t

T = o . o ,, = . : + _ _ - . - _ _ _ t . 5 ap

= co tis!. --------------- - - --2.6

puuine thisinroiogarirhlnic form.anddifferenriating ihe equarion; )np-;rlnp=66p51. lp do du .D -', ..L

= --L

t h i si r t o e " ' r : ' i n nr 7 : n d e n " : r j o n1 . 5 . /t,, =./;1R o=* r __--__________2.8 dp

p p d p p notinslhatihe flujd is compressible andis perfect gas,therefore p=pRf substituring


by a Moving PointDisrurbance: Field Created 2.3 Pressure of to the speed

*le "ifeJt of the velJcity of rhebodi' relarive In order to illustrare of a point sou.rce bodl',i e, essentially soundon the flow R"tc, consio.,rhe small the the gas and.let through to be movlns ar a uniforrnliner velocity' disturbance, emitted*are essenriallv is be a Althoughthe bodv ;p:;;?"til";";;";;t Sincethe t $ill be consider. at iime inten'al or *,are emitred a serres '"" contlnuously, *a'es *'ill be continiJall-r' -;;f "g rhroughttt" gut' the ori-eirof .these U"it ihe First'consider ar tirie 0 t'2t' anJit u ill be considered .hrnoino \\ravesenerated

of sound'.The rothespeed compared :#ii;:;. ;; 'pi.i "i,r," u"iv is i'ei1smat) of all the superposition bl iound is then utinf in'i"nt ;;;;';;;;;;"'-irhich exjsts pulse pressure Fig shorrssereral ernjtted'

pulsesrrllich ttt'" p"tiousll pressure nattelnfoidifferentr'a|ueofrhespeedo|thesourcecomparedrritht]respeeJof d in rhefl uid. -.oun


moring at ofdislurbance by a pointsource fieldproduced Fie (2.3). Pressure leftuards' uniform sPeed
(a) IncomPressiblefluid (I//c : 0)'

moriot (V /c = rr57iui Subsodic motion(7/c : l) icj Traosooic flow f;i S;;eff";'i-"";ot]on', iti*ttt'tiog Karman's three rules of supersonic : (v /c 2).

(fig 2 3a) or rrhenthe is incompressib)e *- Incompressible Florv:\\ihenthe mediurn ofsound'rhe rriththespeed ofrhe movingpointai'i'ilunt" is smallcompared speed uniforrnliin all direction' pulsespread pressure


*- Subsonic Flo*: \\ihenthesource mo'e at subsonic speeds. Fig.2.3b. rhepressure disturbance is t'eJr in all direcrion andar allpointsin spaie, but thi pressure parrem is no gersl mmeirical. )on *- Supersonic Floiv:For supersonic speed Fig.2.3d indicates lhal thephenomena are entirel-v different from thoseat subsonic speed. All the pressure djsturLance are included in a cone *hich hasrhepointsource ofdisturbance. Theconer'ithin r'irichthe dislurbances areconfined is called theMach cone. Fig.2.3c shoq,s thepressure Denem at the boundar-r' benr eensubsonic andsupersonic. thatis-for the case rrlLere rhesi.eam r eJocirl rvirhrhesonjcve)ocity: is ideniical heretheu,ave frontis a plane. Karman'sRuJes ofSupersonic Fro* : Fig 2.3 iilusrrates therhree rules ofsupersonic iiorv proposed lr \r2n Karrlan's . 1- TheRules ofForbiddenSignars. The effeclofpressure chanse produced by a rodr rtror ins ar a speed faster rhansound cannol pointarread reach of rheboir,. 2.-Thezone o f A c t i o na n d t h eZ o n eo f s i l e n c e s . s l a r i o n ap A ry oinr source in a supersoiic produces srream eflectoni'on J:oint thatlie on or inside the \4ach cone er:ending doNnsiream flor:rthepoir'rt source. converselr'. tbepressure anc.l relocitrara:rarbitrarv pointofthe slream canbe influenced o,.rlv b'disrurbun." :crineai pointrhatlieson or inside a coneertending upsrrearn fioni rhepoinr consideied andhavine the sante verrex angle asthe \,Jach cone. , t - T h eR u l eo f C o n c e n t r a t eA dc t j o n . T h ep r e s s u rd ei s r u r b a n jcse lareelv concenlrated in theneighbourhood ofrhe -\4ach conethatfor:ns rhe-ourer li;rir of ihezone of action. 2..1 Tbe\lach Number and the i\lach Angle: Ii *as sho*nthatthenature ofthe florvpaltern depends on rhecomparari'e nrasnirudes ofrheslreanr 'elocir1, andrhesonic'elocitl,. The ratiooftiiese .,o r elocitl, is celled rhe\4ach,.-umber. Thus.


Tliesemi-angle of rhe,\4ach coneis relared ro their4ach nunrber b,r, . i ------2-10 s::ld=.\.! N o i e t h a tr h em a c h a n s l e i s imaginarv for subson ic fou,.

An obsener on theground finds thatan airplane ffying borizontally at an altitude of 5000 m has traveled l2 km from rheoverhead positionbeforethe soundof rhe airp)ane is firstheard.Estimate rhespeed ar u,hichrhe airplane is flying.

1 t

Solution proCuced b y t h e a i r c r a f ti s w e a k , i . e . . t h a t , r h a t t h e n e td i s t u r b a n c e It is assumed q u e s t i o n . * ' h a t i s b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e id s basicaily t h e w o r d i n go f t h e asindicated b-v p o s i t i o nu ' h e nt h e s o u n d from theoverhead h o w f a r r h e a i i c r a f t* i l l h a v et r a v e l e d wavesemitted by the aircraft are first heard by the obsen'er.If the discussionof it tt'ill be seenlhat, as indicated in Fig. lvlach s'avesgiven above is considered, E3.9, rhe aircraft rvill first be heard by the obsen'erwhen the Mach \r'aveemanaish e o b s e n e r . i n s f r o m t h e n o s eo f t h e a i r c r a f t r e a c h e t
\'aries throlgh the a',nospheie, lhe spccd of Now, sincc thc lamperulure sounC |arjes as the sou;rd\r'ales p!ss lsun through lhe almcsphererhich me!ns that tbe \{ach 'eres irom lhc aitcrafl arc aclua:l! cur\:d. This ef;':ctis, al th. avetala temhere,th. sounCsPaed ho\1c!ar,anall and r\ill f'a neglectcd p3ratrre bai\rc.n :hc gio,Jid and lhe sirciafi bcitg used lo d:icrrbe the \'lach in Erimple i.l, for allituC.s, H. cf f:on 0m (se"- ;91; No* as discuss3,j :s giren b1 I = l . \ e l ) L o l l 0 1 9n I h e i c m l e r a i u t c i : l ! : a a l m o s p h c r e t h : t e : r p e : . : t - : :t s : ( ( l 6 - l ' 0 / A ( r / s L 1! : l : . c F e r : r i : l i : u i : c f l j i l : : . ofscrr,dis gir:n b1: : 3 3 . 1 6- 0 0 0 6 5x l i l : { = l i l . 9 K . H e n . e ,t h e n c a r s p e 3 d

o = jlnr

= \,Tlll$

or " r,-rg = 330.6m;s


i h a t i f o i s t h e l r l a c ha n g l eb a s e d on lhe i t * i i 1 b es e e n F r o m r h ea b o r ef i g u r e then of sound speeC r.:]ean 0 0 0= 0 . 1 1 7 t a no = 5 0 C O / i 2 s i i r o= l / - V , i t But since f o i l o * st h a t" v n s = 1 / v $ l z i ( l / ' 0 . {I i ) r HeDce. it fol)o$ s lhat:


r l 6 ' l j O 6 . 8 5 96 m . ' s | c l o c i t yo f a i r c r a f =

Problem: l.I


Air at a temperalure of 25"C is flouing nith a velocityof 180mis. A projectile rvitha velocity of 800m/s in the opposite directionto is firedinto theair stream theangle that the Mach wavesfrom the projectile that of theair ffow.Calculate make to the direction of motion. leveldoesnot hearan aircraftthat is fl;'ing al an altitudeof al sea An obsen'er of 13km from the observer. Estimatethe Mach ?000m until it is a distance that the assume numberat whichtheaircraftis ffying.In arrivingat theanswer, sealeveland 7000m is - l0'C. of the air betrveen temperature average fl)ing horizontallyat an on the groundfindsthat an airplane An obsener position beforethe 6km fromthe overhead altitude of2500mhastraveled Assuming rhat,overall, the aircraftcreates is firstheard. of theairplane sound the speed at u'hichthe airplaneis fl;ing. The estimalc a smalldisrurbance, the groundand the altitudeat $hjch the between avcrage air lemprature you havemadein arriving thc assumptions is I0"C. Explain airplane is ffying at the answcr.



forceandttjth frictionneg)igib1e. the only forceacting In rheabsent of electromagnetic pressurep-dp/2 pressure force.,Assume that a actson the side are the control suriace on rolume. surfaceofrhe control dp. + (p + z)d,4 - (p + dp)(A+ dA) = QA V )( + d t/ - V ), p.-1

ingI ields. Simpliff d p = p l ' d v= 0


andno tr ork. for stadyones ith no extemal heatiransfer equation The energl, flol' beconre. d imensional

, r) = 0 --------------l(h + ;)( nt/d'a)

r J_or dh+d_=0 l is siven: las'of thermodl'nanric lor thesecond An expression clp .. Jp flou ds=0 .thereforedh = -::n,.i ,'oriseniiopic Tds = dh - z p p t e o b l a j n : hesequation C o n r b i n i ntg
d " tr) I = -d - p J


tn q J 3 1 ir(t . d p - p l d l = 0 r rh i c h i s t h e s a n t e a s l l t e I r t o r t t e t r : ue

a \/ar1 ing AreaCharurel. flou'Tluou-eh 3.3 Isentropic

momenium equation for isentropic flou'resultin. rhecontinuiil'and Combining
uu -1- pt

.. t dp.

But Y



= at

florr' for isentrop:c fherefore.

)^ /lJ Il "P. - lit ' = 0 rnd -il = p2: a .1

dp- pl't ('

,1 of \4achnumber theinfluence on thatflorv.For V< i , Equation 3.3demonstrates an increase is positive. Therefore, in arearesultin an subsonjc flou,.rheterrn./--1./ velocity. in 3.2a decrease in a decrease andfromequation Likerlise. increase in pressure in veiocity. flou',the andan increase For supersonic area in pressure results in decrease andopposite variation illustrate occur. The:-esult rermI -1t42 in equation 3.3is negatile, than flo*'cannot be accelerated to a velocity'greater in fig har,e ramifications. Subsonic nozzle. This is trueirrespective oflhe pressure tlrevelocity in a converging ofsound thenozzle.If it js desired a strearr to accelerate difference imposed on rheflon,through lelocitl'.A convergenl-diversent nrustbe velocitl,to channel fronrnegligib)e supersonic usedas shou,in fi e.

pp'= dp(t-\1' )= + --------------------3.3



of rher.ariation Fig 3.2Shorv andr elocitfin thepressures chanee of area differentshape ic andsuPersonlc for subson florv.




x< <lll l (x

d 6 .. .. rr1 .otcr

srrgsoNlc- - -


ortFusER -144aQrJar&
l: o-t: + :F -: D incr.ot.r


*ai ///{"

v t?.,,.k, ,44' ,,rlrg}j,.


rl',>,) /<r'

' jli"" z1'7 ' .


.t n-


e*d Propenies' Staenation .1.-1

in tlrat areuseful propenies Stagnaiion jn florr is defined ai at appoint or totalenthalpl'. enihalpl ilorr.Siasnation compressib-le adiabatjc For to restai thatpo:nt. rheflori'adiabaticalll b) bringing anained rheenihaJpl jon equal b.con]e process enerqJ

-; ;:,1.'iF. Jt--= .;):.4 j',.-l.l\ - - \.- ,--. lJ i'ort slaie a referen'ce rhel'define

' 1



stasnation Like*'ise' perunitmass. or toralenthalpy \\'here ft,is thestagnation bv measured temperature as the defined can be To re Tpr or totaltemperatu ternperature specific * gas ith constant a perfect to reit at a point.For a flo*, adiabatiially bririging becomes: equation heats theenerqv
't, |; ?

c,T" + |

= c,T +;
! !

s i n c eV o - 4 . t h e r e f o r e

=JL ,,,--r=+ * ?=,,',"!i si,c*."

Therefore. ' *=tr-'*iT 'T r


...': v -- .lyRf ' andtr4=- The:'efore' uhereas a I a

^ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - r J . 4 ,

v-l = (\l' : - . \ 1 t )

, ,-\


gas ofperfect anddensity pressure.iemperature bet\\'een relation 1'lo*'rhe For isenrropic are: P - (2\' 'p,,' P. and ' = t' ll T" p" relation anddensity thepressure Therefore


l' =(1 t+M,)r

b =X +
1 _

-------- -------------3.s Alf!,


19e,1., (i'

( on,Lz

t't:)/-r --------------------'----3.6


3.5 Florvper Unit Area.

relation betueen theflorvper unitarea. stag-nation a useful Ne\t \\e uill derive u,irh rheequarion of pressure and \4ach numberlor perlectgas.Staning temperature. , . r e a r r a r r c e r n e n l s : t h e f o l l o r irn g continuity make pl' nt' .. D .. t '/ iT, l
- - - - . - r j - :



.,7Rf \ ,t I I \j4

florv equation 3.4 for adiabatic Substitute _ : L= . : : , _ L . \ 1 . : ' t _ , ' . \ l l I' |" R I ' a ' la r

r; "



in terrlsof \1. u e To find a c.rnr entional formulafor themassflos' perunil area os f t h e i s e n t r o plia cn ' r e l : t i o.n bore b1'nrean or su'ostitute elinrinat pei n t h ee q u a t i oa rr e qu a t i o n3 . 5 .
Dl t'! r lr D l) -t

r-l ,t






of marinrunr lorr per i.6 \4axi;rrunr Flot' per Unit Area: To findthecondition t r i t h r e s l e ctto \ { a n ds e t h i sd e r i r r re c o u l d a t i re q u a t i o-n 1.S ur:it alea d i f i e r e n t i ae te " -\ \ e u.e u o u l dl l n dt h a t\ 1 - 1 . T h e r e f b t ro e f i n dt r r . i r , . io l z e l o .. l t t h i sc o n d i i i o n r r e .8. thus find. need o n l l s e t\ 1 = l i n e q u a t i oin

- Er ,''' (-l | . ,, , . ) . . ,= - . ; = r , _ .l .+ \K 7+)



-----------------3.9 t= .,= .,1o

thenraximu;:r flo*,peru;ritarea depends only on the For a givengas.therefore. pressure andstagnation and p.AT". For a gir en valueofthe stagnation temperature rztto rlith minimumarea. 3.9shou's tbatmaximum Equation flo*'uhich canbe for a passage weisht passed ofhigh molecular andrelativeJl'srnall for gases is reJativel,v )arge for gases thepressure leveldoubles *'eight.Doubling themarinum flou'. of lou'molecular \hereas ee r e lr e d u cte h er r a r i m u m flo$ b1,a b o u t2 9 d c u b ) i nr gh ea b s o l u tl e n l p e r a t ui r r h et n a r i m u m p e rc e n t . al n dR = 1 8 7 J kg.Ko mass f l o r rp e ru n i ta r e a i:: F o r a l rr r i t h ; ' = 1 . -

= 0.0.10-12
pressure valueof thetemperature. anddensity The panicular ratios at thecritical state ( the rrinimu;narea) by sefiing M=l in equations arefound ].4. 3.5.i.6, We u,ill (*). asterisk rei'er ro the critical properties by superscript
') T' = (-l


"/ +1'

lOr alI = U.dJ-)

t1 -/ L = 1- \ \t-t .) p. t 7+

lnr 2ir=0 itSj


f o ra i r= 0 . 6 3 3 9 y + ;r) ' - '


1 t

c:'t'.1(l 5u - ' b
3 . 7 T h ea r e aR a t i o .
p/poelc' to uork rrithrhedimensionlessratjo Justas \\'ehavefoundjr convenient itisconl'enienttointroduceadimension]essarearatio'obr'iousll,theapproprtate i 8 andl 9 theformula' fro:nequaiion is l'. and so \\e compute ;;;";"";t.^
A _"r,1
A ltlt.1

r ) z -:I - - , . .l - ' r - ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 . 1 0 17-rr _ _ , l 1 - _ 1 1 1- ' r / l . , , 1

:t1 L // |

l'l "1:-::

- ' l

lalue of A'/A' lhere thanuiritl'.andfor an;',eiven The arearationis a)rralsgrater ic ic flo*' andthe oiherfor superson tu'o r alueof-V. onefor subson avscorrespond a)rr florr. \-

to rhusfaederired lead the formulas Since o f a o f r h e . cla l c u l a t i o n t e d i o un sumerica :re putalion cont rror na:ural.pracrical t rial-e b1 u oikingchartand facilitated great)1'

i.8 \\iorkingChartsandTables FIou' for isentroPic

: T


p \


formthe in graphical Fig. represent ratiofoe isentropic various dimensionless I'arilble'Since as independent ll ith \'{ flsu,' in of fluid propenies isentropic changes in broughta bout througbchange tlorv-are the key cun'eon this aiea. cross-sectional ofchange chadis rhatof A/A' . The effects be ma1'ea.qily on otherpropenies in area keepi:e l'1', '{ e of cun the foundby tracin-s' in mindthat.1'.po -etc.areall constant For valuefor a givenproblem' referertce subsonic at in area an increase exaniple. an in velocitl'' decrease a produces speed in p. f, P. increase

FIo*. for IsentroPic Chart

4 .\
. ; * \ --

i I f


ih z






\ r'
t l I I

.t -|j




0.5 r.o





liststhevarious is available. tables calculation or extensive For accurate argumeni as independent funcrionfor y= I .4 s ith \4achnumber isentropic M p/P. TiTo
p/po -4"4

0.5 2.0

0 813 0.95238 0.8893 1.3398 0.t 2i8 0.55s56 0-2300 1.6875

11295 0'2I567


Nozzle: Flou'in Convergent 3.9Isentropic

througha converging is to be discharge in a largeresen,oir Coniidera fluid stored of a valve.For a b1'means Pais controllable thebackpressure to region nozzle in back of the variations to studytireeffecrs Poit is desired constant resenoirpressure the along distribution the pressure the nozzle. pressure on the rat of massflorvthrough effectareportraled graphicallfin Fig, pressure P. . These passage andon the exit-plane anrb. andc. respectivel). Ps (vorioble)
F tow

Vo= o i Po' const To= c o n s t


Vo lve (i iL(iii)p po


Regime I Regime II

Dislonce Along Nozz le


tr Regime
gimeu --J.- negime I-'] [*-R e

(v) (iv)i PE
( i ii ) (ii)

fi r: -,,


P B/ P o

Pa/Po (c)

backpressure' at various nozzle ofconverging Fig. operation


(i) in fig.. The pressure l, shou'nascondition tharPb/Po= To beginu,ith.suppose to a value is thenconstant throughthe nozzle,andthereis no floiv. If P6 is now reduced (ii), theretvill be florv *'ith a constantly by condition slightlylessthanPo as shorvn Because the exit flow is subsonic, the exit-pJan pressure throughrhe nozzle. decreasing pressure reduction as rhe Pl, A funher in Pt 1o pressure back Pe mustbe the same thepressure the flow rateandto change djstribution actsto increase condition(iii) , but Similar consjderation applyuntilcondition in performance. rhere is no qualitative change c)$' equalthe criticalpressure ratioand the valueof lvle (v) is reach at u,hichpoinrPb/Po (v). cannot to condition produce lunher ln PbiPo.sa1' reductjon equal unity. Further for thevalueof Pe/Po cannot than u iihinthe nozzle. be madeless chanee in condition ( there is a throalupstream ofthe exit section it is thecrrtjcal pressure ratiounless thepassage). at condition(r'). thepressure fi1ls ConsequentJy assumed here thatthe strea:n u lih n ithinrhenozzle. thev alue of PetPo.anddreflo\\ rateareall identical distribution (iv). \\/hen theflorvreach thecondiiion the quantiljes for condition ihe corresponding flou'is called to be chocked. discussion. thetrvodifferent tl pe of florr r. iil l.c theproceedirte To summarize asfolloris. reginres rray be compared denoted asregime I andregiireII. These Reeime I PblPo > P*iPo PelPo=Pb/Po t\.{< 1
til.,Jlo, , Ae.f o
, , independ ent on Pb/Po Ae-Po

Resime II

Pb/Po<P*iPo PbiPo=P*/Po

... u r \ t;^ lu

Nozzles: 3-i 0 Convergent-Divergent to theonedescribe, thata similar except Consider an experirnent -diverging converging nozzleis to be used.Fig. With Pb lessthanPo by a a venture passage. and it smallamount,the flow is similarto that through asincompressible. approximately The corresponding may be treated pressure distribution is shorvn by curve(i)and(ii) in fig. \\4renPb/Pois to curve(iii). Thel\4ach Nunber at the to ihe valuecorresponding reduced possible in Pt/Poare if the stream throatis unity,andno furtherreduction when passage. the operation the flow We consider next is entirely fills the corresponding to curve(iv). The valueof Pb/Pofor curve(ir') supersonic, Ae/Al,asgivenby conesponds exactly to the alearatioofthe nozzle. the in this case At=A*, since Mt=1).Thisis oftencalled isentropic table( pressureralio of lhe nozz[e. desigrt



tr-, o

'Noflowpa|temfulfillingtheconditionofisentropicandone-dimensional those of Pb/Pobet*,een to values ho* "* u. found which-will correspond foe these of findingsolutions oi"u.,r., 1iiil and (iv) in fig. one merhod involving discontinuity that irreversible is to sr-fipose .o,"tairion Uour]a^,y within thepassage' occursomeu'here increase entroDv

ro F low




ps Volve



Disionce Along Nozzle

backpressure' at various nozzle of convergine-diverging Fig. Operation Flo*'' of Isentropic i-1 1 SomeApplication of tlvo parts' consist Molor. Rocketmotoris generally Thrustof Rocket wherethefuel is bum andthe u'hich is a container chamber the combustion almost a thrustunit wherethe thrustis develop'Thetbrustunit is gasses is generate chamber The combustion no777e. convergent-divergent of To and temperature pr.rru,t of Po andsta*snation steadilyat a stagnation in thethrustunit asshowin fig' ;;;,h'" **, i, J"puna.d isentopically of At andexitr'ea area nozzlebasa th-roat conveiging-diverging Th*e of Pa' at pressure gase,i,Jutg" to theatmosphere ' of Ae. The generaied with atmospheres in and operate iOOOpu about at gases Most rocketengine is only in pressure sucha reduction therefore, pr"rr"* "f l0i3kP; or less, on the rocket Thenet thrustacting nazzle' iossible by converging-diverging



-1 :.r 1\ <-=-..--\/2\E

- -:tt1

Prodr,.ces whcre p.,po Posilive ihrL'sl iP,ore 'Produces

- prassur6 r >fol|c lDtst.jbutioo

Sur loc

Fieisentopic flon in rocket moror. engurenleY non'be obtained b)'appll ing ihe r.Ironrentum equation olr free bociv diagrarlsof ihe controllo jurtre.
3 = ntl'e - . r , e ( P-e P o ) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - i-.- i I

u biclris thenput intodinrensionless for through division bt,poAt.

) I nr ,.


._ _ ( _

.4e Pc


.1r Po



_ _ _ _ _ -1 t r


rolll c rO
D^ ,4a

7' C 2 lR '7=l

C f lo\ o ! ed tl


and from the energvequalior) :

j^^,. k ,f , , =' v e- , J t L p ( l o - I e ) . = r : ? . C p T o , ; 1 - ;= , l Z . C p T o r j()+ ) t, ---=-.-



Subsisting rhese intothe thrust equation andreananurns, there results.

Since the pressure ratioPe/Podepends onll,onthearea ratioequation i.l3 , indicates thal_lhe trust lor a nozzleofgiven sizeandgeometry depends only, on po and rheratio Pe,Po and is independent of the temperature fo.

Effectof AreaRation
\\,'eno*' ask,for ei'en 'alue of At- po andpa ri hate_xit area should be used in orderto obrain manimum rhrust?. 81,app)ing rhecarcurus to equarion 3.r 3 it mav be shor'naftera laborious carcuration thats is a maxinrum rrhenthearea ratiois clrosen in such a *ay to makethepressure in theexitprane exactJ'equar to pa. Therfore equation 3 . 1 3b e c o m e .


Perfonlanceof RealNozzle:

by isentropic of real nozzlediffersslightly from that computed The performance' are florv from-isentropic no* o":ing io the frictioneffect.Sincedepanure florv function u'hich rhen on rhe use of isentropic is based tha usual iesigl procedure ,,,oOil;.aby'empiricall;"determinedcoefficient'Thesecoefficientarethenozzle cient coeffi e discharge effi ciencl'andthe nozzl as the rateof the erir kjnet;cenergyto the T1\ma},defined The nozzleefficiencl' kineticenergl,rrhichmalbeobiainedbl.erpandingthegasiseniropically'tothesame finalpressure.


------------------------i. I 5


as Cd is defined coefilcient discharge The nozzle the r)r lo rale llo\\ nlass theraleofthe actual \\hichrrouldbe //r,rc florrrale iscnrroFic:rass io thegasisentropicallf b1 erpanding obrained finalPressure the same "' ------'3 16 Ld =


___ Tc

the The figure at the righthandsidesho\\'s through expansion real andthe Process isentropic thermodl'namic of ihe nozzle.\\rhenthefirst larv andthereal process. for bothisentropic process at theexpansion app);.'ing
I t 7

and h=cr.T, therefore .


process andfor isenrropic


/ therefore , ,,--r.t

exit theactual between process isenrropic theimaginary onernighiconsider similarly oe. state stateand its slagnalion

=2,0.r.1 l-(;)' r';.,' t '-

p r]l


- --------------3.17

= h.-+ h,,"


and h= cr.T, therefore process ^ofor isentropic * = ,hr: ' rherefore

v"' -- 2.",.r*1t -



u irhin rhenozzle Theprocess is adiabatic rhis meanthatTo,= To" equation 3.i 8 , substitute a n d3 . 1 7i n t oe q u a t l o3 n. 1 6 a n ds i m p l i f l , i n g .

=zc-.r,-lt-rt,, v,' l
'p '



P", L

9-r'1 = l l - n . ( )- {'P.'



Themass perunitarea for isentropic llos,canbe evaiuated asa function ofpressure ratio jfone jnroequatjon instated c:n substjtute of\Jach\umber. equation -1.5 3.7. -^ ; ^ : . '^ r-r "'',


-!T t-t lrLt; - r = 'p" \ R 'P l - t,f, ' : - - - - - - - - - - - - - j . : 0 \I . / - t l ' P , ' '

Similarlv theactual mass ilur nrar be obtain.

' t : a . ) , r , , : -

, -:*.r r , , ; i ---------------i.: l l I ' r ,?r i,..-r]'tl r"" 1. L . S u b s t i t u t ie nq gu :ito n3 . 1 l .i . 20 i r i i o e q u a l lo n J . I o : o f i n dt 5 eg i s c h a r s ce oefficicn r in :' '
- ', : , t ; t e r ; n n f n r p c c r ' r , .r r r i ^
/ ' r , l


i'-\p 'Cd= "' , :: p t:: tl p t1 ( - - r ) ' l tl - t - 1 ) / f," I r",

\p )

1 1 / _ . \ '

P :--)

Substiture equation 3.l9 intotheabove equation to findrhedischaree coefficient in term ofisotropicpressure ratio andnozzleefficienc;,.

p r i l r)' I 1 - 'r ' .| I l - ( p i

\ L l



PROBLEMS . , 3 . 1 ] . - d i r l l o r r s a t t h e r a t e o f I k g , l s t h r o u g h a c o n v e r g e n td -i v e r g e n t n o z z l e - T h e entrance a-rea is 2 X 10-3 m2 ard the inlet temperature ard pressure a-re438 K a l d 5 8 0 k P a . I f t h e e x i t p r e s s u r ei s l 4 O k P a a n d t h e e x p a n s i o n i s i s e n t r o p i c , fin cl: (a) The velocityat entrance.




pressure(b) The stagnation lemperaturear|d stagnation (c) The throat a.nd exit areas' .- -. (d) The exit velocity' a r e a6 ' 5 X l O - a m ? ' A i r e n t e r s t h e n o z z l e a t 3 .2) a .onu"rgent nozzle has an exit -tt : K' If the flow is isentropic' determine the mass rate of oo : ito iPa, l"o 370 fltt*' fot back Pressureof:

(a) 359 kPa (b) s4O kPa (c) 2OO kPa.


590 K \r'ith "i ilo tp. The inlet concitions are I MPa and ;il;il" and )osses' flo*" i e ' no AssumeiCeal ".gfigiUf.velocity.
-: u .- \ . 4 )

has a-.l exit area of 3'2X A convergent-divergent sleam nozzle


m2 and a:r


Finci: (a) Tbe mass rate of floq for this nozzle (b) The throat area. (c) The sonic \'elocit.v al the throat 5 2 p a s s a g ew i t h i n l e i a - r e a Air flo\.'s isentropically through a corvergent-divergenl

( a ) T h e m a s s r a t e o f f l o w t h r o u g ht h e n o z z l e sectioniui rr,. N{ach number at the minimum-area section' t h e e x i t a t p.ressute i.j fft" relocity and the l-"I-1""*.t"," within the nozzle the -} nozzie'At a Part'cY J . 5 . ' Air is flo*ing in a convergent l<'.and the veiocitv is I5O m/s' is^3-45 tpa, tbe steam temPerature is Z-aO ;;.r;" al r e a a t t h i s l o c a t i o ni s 9 ' 2 9 X l 0 - 3 m 2 ' f i D d : Ifthe cross-sectiona i"i ir," Mach number at this tocatio:l' and pressu;'e' iui rn" stagnation temprature I o' at the exit where M: ur"-i pr"rtut"'' "nd temPerature l;i il; the nozzle-' for ial rr'" mass rate sf flew the you ma-rr -nale anOlhe source ol data used in a s s u m p t i o n s a n y Indicate I f/) sotution. convergenta s u D e r s o D i t h r o u g h k g l s 5 r a t e o i 0 t h e a t Air flo*'s isentroPically K'-^nci is 6-80kPa".thetemf",|i*J9i ),1-:"/ divergenrnozzle. At the inlet, the pr"ssure J e .s cmz' If the exit area is 13 cm2' calculate: irr"li". (a) The stag!ation Pressureand temperature' (b) The exit Mach r,ru1qr. , -.1. y,) r^ a'I " (c) The exit pressure and tempeiature' ,,. , -.-? a! rhi thr-o+'velocity the and area rr," ------^-,,-^ --,, lu^., iai raie of'Gw and the corresponding exit Mach (e) What *'ill be tn:e -"irn"t the no-zzle? number if the flow is completelysubsonicin I'D' pipe at a strean pressureor il;Ll*n i l, 3,7. A stream of carbon dioxide is flowinc A 7 5 cm X 5 cm venturi'neter off$' kPa and a stream itrnp"'"t"t 680 ) ) d r l ' e r e n r i a lr e a d i n g o f 1 ' 6 8 m m H g in-irti, plp" shows a Pressure t;il; p'\ .-r ^L^. -L.-:-^, ir,ha Assuming ideal flow, determ -C-O'l Compareyour alswer $ith that obtained if thr of oinot" rate mass (a) The ' i. considered incomPressib!igit

air velocitfis "i" ^-l ind exita'e" 3 87 cm2'At the inletthe il!,'-t"t-"jne: 345 K' Determ is 680 kPa' andtemperature pressute ;ob';;,


(it t"r'i\
what would be the oew (b) If the mass rate of flow of CO2 were to be doubled' pressure differential reading for the lenturimeter? .. . b e i n g t h e s a r n ea s o f C O 2 ' o t h e rc o n d i t i o n s instead ( ' c) ifri,e fluid were hydrogen of flow? rate mass given in the problem statement'\r'hat *'ould be the o t her condjticns K ' t h e C O 2 w e r e4 4 0 K i n s t e a do f 3 6 5 o ( d' ll " ii f h,e p"e ag tu e 'r rtg nt"e sm "* ars i tre nfi n r h e p r o b l e m s t a t e m e n t ' $ ' h a t \ r ' o u l d b e t h e m a s s r a t e of flow for the CO2? through a 2 2 cm diameter air iischa'rges I R A 0.14 m3 tank of compressed the mass flow coefTicientofrhe tank' If "."i ".gj.g "ot.le located in the side ofthe rhc lar:k on isentropic flou' through it is 0 95 and thc gas v'ithin ".lt:"-Uri"a t a n k versus t h e p r e s s u r e i n p l o t the f:-on I MPa to 350 kPa, "*punat isothermal)y t a n k is 295 ofrhe A s s u m et b e t e m p e r a t u r e dec:eases elipsea tlne as rhepressure is l0l'3 kPa' t j r e s u r r o u n d i n gp : e s s u r e K a.rtd ' h r o u g ha o f 2 l r { P a a r d 7 5 0 K l l o $ s i s e n t r o p i c a i l lr conditions Air at sragnatjon -3,.19,t detemrne: flo\r' rate rs 5 4 kg/s' con. ergilldiu:ergra g nozr-l!. If the ma-ximurn
p r e s s u r e , a n d t e m P e r a t u r ea t t h e n o z z l e e x i t i f r L e e x i t a r e a i s iimes as lerge as the throal area. nozzle handllngair ar the ru "d - t h e t h r o a t a ' r d e x i r a r e a si n m ! f o r a c r i t i c a l - l l o r v 3.10 in t ' . . ''F e x r r l e l o c i t l i s I I o O m ' l s \ r ' i t h t h e strealTt el *'hen rhe desired

( b ) T h e lelocitl'.

"li l kgls p-: )iO kPa and I:

l o r va n d ' l : i s e n t r o p ifc -rlOK 'Assume

t 4'



(i; ,/>

n a n o z z l e .A t s e c t i o n I o f r h e n o z z l e t h e a n d a d i 4 b a t j c a l l iy air flous rev-ersibly a n d z r e aa r e 1 6 5 r s ' - 1 5 0k P a ' 4 6 0 K ' a n d r ' e l o c j t ] . p r e s s u r e r, . - p l i ' i u t t , a is 26x lO*1 m? Fin& the a-'e l O - i m : - A t s e c t i o n2 i n n o z z l e ltt t h e n o z z l e ' (a) The mass ilow rate i! (b) V2, M2, Pa, t2 and '7' | ;"'r arsu'ers for this condition' Calculete both i,ltl".' 1it,.t" are t*'o in*pendent cases. If there is a 1fuoat' determineits area ) \ \ J \r' o ^. a7a \a --r-." " - rn 'p o ir rg o -i n g cao vr e 33 K entersa ei 8 - 2 . , A i r a t a p r e s s u r eo i 6 8 0 k P a a n d a t e r n p e r a t u ro f-1 .-. ,.t dir,.rging nozz le through a line of 4-6 X lO-3.m2 area and expands to a deliverya n d a m a s sr a t e o i f l o w expansion isentropic , * g i o i p i " r r u r . o f 3 3 k P a -A s s u m i n g of I kg/s, finc ( a ) T b e s t a g t a t i o n e n l ha l P l ' ar discharge' and enthalpy (b) The temPerature v e l o c i t yo f t h e a i r s t r e a ma t d i s c h a r g e ' / i4 Tne Mach numberand p rate erunjt ara l/. Ldl The ma;iimum nass flo* the f l o * ' s i s e n t r o p i c a l l ya t r l r er a t e o f I l g / s t h r o u g ha d u c t - A t o n e s e c t i o no f t ' ti'; , i " /\,) a i s 2 O Ok P a ' : l d r ' \ n arle ai s - 9 1 Y i 0 - 3 m 2 ' s t a t j cp r e s s u r e O r a a t ' l t "c r o s s - s e c t j o r .a nn d l b e t h e ' e l o c i t y o f r h e s t r e - a - ra -:-,-r*r,-n t e m p e r a r u r ei s 5 i O K . D e r e r m i n e rate cf m a s s i n r h e r e d u c i i c n r h a t c a u s e s n o r h e d u c l o f mi,iimum area at the exit flR*. >: nozzl-elAt the inlet of the nozzle the A i6nverging through isentropically Air llows I 1 i s 5 5 - 0K , t h e v e ) o c i t y Z 1 i s 2 0 0 m ' u s ' tpa, thetempirature p ' .r t".rrr"pr::ab i s 9 . 3 X l 0 - 3 m 2 ' C o n s i d e ra i r t o b e a n i d e a l g a s d ,h" .ror=-r"ctionalarea,41 \! ith y : I .4 and find: a n dp r e s s u r e ' temperelure (a) The stagnation M a c h n u m b e ta t t h e i o l e L t h e a n d iUi fh" sonic velocity : I at exit' a ,n d ! e ) o c i t y a t t h e e x i t i f ' L | ( c ) T h e a r e a , P r e s s u r el,e m p e r a t u r e :.ttl) ,''

o' \t


i.',rl; '
't \ '.1,

(d) Draw graphs of G, M, 4 aad./ vcrsusprcssurc,indicating the values at the inlet and exit of thc nozzlc. 3.15, Superheated stcam expards isentropicallyin a.convcrgcut{iverge_lrtnozzle from a-ninitial state in which the pressurc is 2.OMpa and thc superhcdt is 37g K to a pre5sure.of680 kPa The rate of flow is 0.5 kgls. (a) Find the velocity ofthe steam and the crosesectiooa!aJeaofthe nozzlc at the sectionswhere thc pressures are 1.0 Mpa and 1.2 Mpa (b) Determine the pressure, velocity,and crosssectional ares at the tbjoat. (c) Determine the vclocity ard cross-sectional area at discharge. Po 3.16. A convergentnozzlereceives stcamat a pressure of3.4 Mpa and a temperature of 640 K with negligiblevelocity.The nozzle dischargcs into a chamberar which the pressure is maintained a t 1 . 3 6M P a . I f t h e t h r o a a t r e ao f t h e n o z z l ei s 2 . 3 X l 0 - 1 m2 and the dischargecharnbcra-rea is 0.056 nt', find (a) The velocity at the throat. (b) Thc mass rate of flow. ^', Assumc a : 0.55 and the flo*, is isentrooicPo 3.17. Air flows isenrropicallyrkough rhe convergent-divcrgenr nozzle shown in Fig 3.24 The inlet pressureis 80 kPa, the inlcr temperature 295 K, and the back

4 : o.rr. Assume

cm 4. 1.0


F I G U R E3 J 1 pressure l.0l 3 kPa. What should be the exjt diameter of tie nozzle which correspondsto the maximum obtainable valueof Mach numberat the exit? What aJe the mass rate of flow, the exit Mach number, a:rd the exit temperature? 3.18. A rocket motor is fitted with a convertenr-divergent nozzle having a throat diameter 2.5 cm, If the chamberprcssure is I MPa and thc chambertemperature is 22OO K, determine: (a) The mass flow rate throughthe nozzle. (b) The Mach number at the exit (ps..1: 101.3kPa). (c) The thrust developedat sea level. Assume that the products of combustion bchavelike a perfect gas (7:1.4, .R: 540-J/kg K) and the expansion through tbe nozzleis isentropic. a 3. I 9. Air is flowing through sectionof a straiglt codvergent nozzle.At tlte entranceto the nozzle section the area is 4 X lO-3 n?, the velocity is 100 m./s, the air pressure is 680 kPa, and the air temperature is 365 K. At the exit of the section the area is 2 X l0-3 r#. Assume reversible adiabatic flow. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the force exenedby the fluid upon the gjven nozzle section.




ChapterFour Normal ShockWaves Introduction:




in which finite change in fluid properties, an abrupt represent The shockprocess to comparable thickness a occur over shock anddensity temperature variationin pressure flow that supersonic Ir hasbeenestablished the mean frie path of the gas molecules. flow can *'hereas wave, subsonic shock ofsuch mean adjustto the prissureofa through the flow in alsooccur Shockimay adjust by gradualchangein florv properries. these flqw. effect on a decisive and have nozzleor duct

bAry ' "' ^. \"'' 1^:)

Considera piston in a tube and its given a steadl velociry to the right of the mediumin the tube. throuSh ofthe piston a head dv. A soundwavetravels magnitude wave dv, incrernent ofvelocity casinga second Sufposethe piston is now givena second of the wave and the The location thefirst rvave. gasbehind to .ou. into the compressed wavetravelat the Each in figure. are sho*tt time t pressure distributionin the tubeaftera wave is sincethe second to thegasintowhichiS moving, velocity of soundwith respect wave is dv. The second to therighrwith velociry' moving moving into a gasthat is already the therefore temperature, gas havinga slightlyelevated moving into a compressed over velocity thanthe firstwave and gradually absolute ,..ond *,uu" travelwith a greater produce a shock will each other take *ave after its over of this induced take ir. A series prope(ies andother in pressure \\aveor a sudden change

How ShockWaveTakePlace:


therefore a3>a2>a I

wavepropagate Fig showsone andtwo, threeandtheovertakeofthe sound a headof the niston



Waves Normal Shock


occurover anddensity temperature variationin pressure

in nl'1.00':f;"*.;rt:;g;:$ilt:: change anabrupt represent process a shc

*:r"#,'l:L::[$f''3*I'"iffi :tl$Ult'1"*it'T*"'f n o* ",. :"; ;;,r' il"l';'. :li..l1T; iJ:i :1 i:)::


*ugnt,iJJule*i:11:i:::i1""'';:"XTi"'.:"'l::iT!If j;:: l*f;:TfiiJ;:XT*:?: " iit'f a",,r, :J'J;;: i.". i"r*"..

*"i,'"ir'"' take itsover after rvave ffi:ii-l';;[i:"1,'liin'ioTi.o properties' andother pressure
ln change waveor a sudden

it'. una 'i*l "'.::1*nh'il#oll,"'1i T"""",ToY?;,Il5"':':'t"uu. ;:iili

i:iti+i{l *j ;:ttf U" :Tl tr'.ff qist1$::;*:;*":::*;ru ffi iil";t*.:l,:":n'."^'ffi l':*:f il"f i;;-"=;."::"..1t,i#J;:',.ffi ":",T"T#?Ji:'"'fi ,''i:",ff lirlJ a.shock *ili priduce


therefore a3>a2>a l

propagate and theovertakeofthe soundwave Fig showsone andtw<i,three a headof the Piston


t"'t'l:?,#,H:[]::,I.fffi ughastationarvr:i,1t,1,"i,],lJi;,"."""
' We rvill referto the ProPenles "Y"' bY downstream 2i =p,V,A,=P:ViAl l':'{'' is very smalltherefore The shock*'avethickness
- r/ c^. r vr

rm*ll$**:*:t*:m::r,ii'"Ti+:liiilff*;;1 "'"*a momert:?,i:1:TtJ,f"l* mass, of """,.*",i"" i?liiili;;iv,"t,.,ipi


^ L/
o - -1 _l \



^a.P .t fi!' r!-.



pressure volumein the flor'vdirectionarethe control the on acting the onll'force Since ls' of momentum force,consenation -V') P,A, - P,-A!= m'(V, rvherem' = p'V'A- = P'V'A' equation' 4'1 into the above of equation Combine -------4'3 P, + P,V,2 = P, + PrVrt For perfectgas P= P R'-T P , + p , V , 2= P , ( 1 + 7 M , ' ) P,+ p,V,2= P,(l+lM,' ) ----'--'----4'4 P,(l + rM,' ) = P"(1+ /vI t' ) become' and the energyequation thecontrolvolumeis adiabatic The florv through

' this meanthat To*=Tov .hung" ulros the shockwave

^/. into the continuity equation 5 and momentum equation 4'4 Substituteenergyequation4

' ,r, *l

--' ,r, *vi

nit does temperature flowthestagnation =co+ r' Foradiabatic

r. ' (r+ |

v'=, = T,(t+ *

M,r' ----------------4'5


flow -Equation area in p'opttti"' in constant ;i;i;i;;;;il-c' 4'6 canbe solve shock' tinotrnut " '"' tn" i*"*t;Uf andthatis not of interest
to yield Mrin termof M''

M'=M'Thissolution tr'uto; ';r*ion +'oisthetrivialone' io "uia"nt ltow to isentroptc conesoonding



= -# l{.' ' z/




y-l ratio after and beforethe shock,substituteequation4.7 into Norv to find the pressure 4.4 . equation

2 / . V --'0 - D

v+ l equation the shock,one may substitute ratio aller andbefore alio to find thetemperature 4.5 4.7intoequation

f, _Eryi_ o:t:y:!v)
-v _



(y +1)M,'

4'l we can find the densityandthe 4.7 into equation equation andif *e substitute velocityratio.
- . ' " t t 2 y. p, t r + L ) t utt _ ---:-=:=---'-=


2+(y-1)M,It in the shockprocess. ofthe irreversibility is a measure pressure Theratioofstagnation that: maybe foundbY observing P P P - y ' o v P "
, = p 1
y . r . a x



Eq' Using by Eq.4.8, ind P"/Prand!/P."anaybefoundlromEq'3'5' Nowf/e isgiven simplification' we getafteralgebraic of ,41, 4.7foriheval-ue
P f t . t s l |

r t .

P^ lr+t

/^l L

- --.1r f -l | 'tl

(y +t)M,'
2+(y +l)M,'

,L f-l


the entropychangeacrossthe shock,we employ the perfectgas formula' To evaluate

=c, nl-nnL s,-s,


Eq.4.8and4.9intoEq.4' 12then' substitute

" " = ; ^^l#51 #). %-! #"1h,

Shock of a Rerefaction Impossibility rvith that for gases Carfut studyof Eq'4 12 indicate when Mx is is ahi ayspositive change l<t<1.67the enrropy whenivl'tis.less nr*ut..thrn un;ty,ina is aluaysnegative It in F,ig' fom of Eq 4 12 is shorvn The general itrununi,V. from that for perfectgasonly theshock ir or*"".ig-""sly process theshock Since is possible ,ui"*oni" 6 subsonic thermodlnamic larvof to second i, lAiuUuti.and according positive be must change theentropy andEq4'll change for entropy io*puring Eq. '1.12 the ration'one canconclude pressure for stagnation correlation: following
c - e P

ll :V


.i, e* 'l-

i'J, f


oi P., is Posirive of entropY therateofchange lalv of thermodl'namic 'itrO Accordingto the second thanP" P'r'is less , u""areferringto Eq.4.l3 this meanthat R Theshockrvavetakeplacein.ordertokeeptheflorvconlinuationthismeanthattheflow theshock' across i, ,t*dy and the massflolv doesnot change

ratecanbe fl-olv mass thatthemarimum chapter lromtheprevious seen we have propertres stagnation of in term flowrare ani rhemass ,.ii.r"a at thechokediondition is. area andthecritical
P A -'conslant
lf !j o'

m t=n1 .,

tl \- oY

thereforeIo'=I', the florv through the shock is adiabatic

A *r : P o , A ' , o r Po, )

P* Po,-<

this meanthat


Normal ShockTable:
TableisavailablewhichlisttheratioofthevariousflorvvariablesuchaspressureJ Mach waveandthe downstream temperature , and density u"'o" th" no'tul shock Mach Number' Number as a function of the upstream






P'r/P"' or A"/A'Y


Nozzle: Convergent-Divergent weretumnowtotheproblemoftheoperatingcharacteristicsofconverging-diverging two' Frg' show the in chapter previouslv discussed ;;;;;;;;.;rru."'ru,io, to pressure of converglntdivergentnozzlewith various back ;;;;;,;;il;;rfo.mun.. the supplY Pressure. and ' In regimeI the flow is entirelysubsonic' arepossible regrmes Four different thepassagebehavelikeaconventionalventuretube.Theflowrateissensitivetochange 1 and 1l the 2, whichformsthedividingline between At condrtlon in backpressure. appears shock normal a 11isentered' is unity'As regime inr.J NirtU", at thethroat subsonic aft ofthe shockcomprises andtheprocess a"",, ,t*", ofthe throat, nozzleuntil' at dorvn the move the shock is lowered' As thebackpressure ;;.d*;,i;;. 1' the exit in regime as In regime11' ofthe nozzle' in theexitplane """ajii"i + it' appears the hand' P6' on the other with thebackpressure F; is virtuallvidentical ;;;; ;t;r;" This is in accord by the backpressure' andis unaffected florv ratein regime11is constani
I Po{ConsL) To(Const.)




eu/ro (b)

-\. Loctls of / Stotes Down9tr6om of Normol Shock 0islonca Along Noz2l8 3

7 6 5 4


(a) {a) iu) (c) iil Curves of pressure versus djstsoce along nozzle axis' Edt-p)ene Pressure verstls bsck preseur' Tbroat pressur versus b&cx pltl3ure' frl"t" A,j* pBrsrDet. versus ratio of back prdeuroto supPly

\. ln9ao
gtfgo (d)

regime/1 all streamproperties at the throat section with the fact that tfuoughout areconstant' As for condition5, the flow within the t:ntire nozzle is supersonic' In regime.11L which the back pressure'The compression "na tfr. pr.ti".. in the exit planeis lower-than


6 is termedthe designconditionP-t t" Condition grounds' on one-dimensional treated with the is then identical theexi'planepressure .'#i" ,"i"r'r"p."""r" *niition, since 6 condition to corresponding below.ihat in thebackpressure ;ffi'!..",;;;". i reduction the nozzle ln regime I/ the on the flow patte-rn has no effect whatsoever .wi-thin occursoutsidethenozzlein to'thebackp-rbssure ,h. "*it-pl*" pressure ;##;;

be wavewhichcannot shock oblique involve ""*fai, thefiozzle


waves which also cannotbe studiedby one-dimensional the form of obliqueexpansion analysis. - ' of independent In both regimesIII andIV the florv pattemwithin the nozzle is condition'Adjustment bu"k pr"ssur",ani con"rponds to the flow panem for the design aremadeoutsidethe nozzle' to the backpressure distance possiblepressure. . For subsonicflow, there are an infinite number of au.uar.portt..up".roni"t"gionofflorv,holvever,thepressure-distancecuryeisunique' ratio doesnot dependsolely on the i" p", it differenily,in subsonicflorv the pressure solelyon the arearatio' . . ratiodoesdepend flow the pressure in supersonic ur"u'rutio; the rangecoveredb'v namely' ratio, Only over a narrow range of back pressure For regimeII' iil' M' the floir ,.ni." 1, doesthe florv rate dependon the backpressure' form i at the throat'may be computed since'11= t"i. if i"a.o."a-nr-of th. back'pressure' florv equation' choked Diverging SupersonicDiffuser' Convergingof a gasto risewhile the gasis the staticpressure is a dlvice that cause ; di"ffuser that can be attained the maximumpressure is isentropic, a.".t.ruting. Whendeceleration or supersonlc: subsonic is the iseitropic stagnationpressure.Diffusers are ei!her stream.In a subsonicdiffuserthe i.p""ai"g "^ it," t,tuJn Number of the approaching diffuserthe in the directlonof flow, while in a supersonic .ror.-r".iionul areaincreases andthen increases' areafirst decrease cross - "-- sectional the as, engines diffuser is locatedat the inlet to such air-breathing t sup"rronic supersonicturbojetandtheramjet,.Thehighvelocityairisdeceleratedbythediffuser of the turbojet or belore it under-eoes in the axlal florv compressor U.?o." it is compiessed of a convergent-divergent diffuserconsists supersonic in tireramjet.An ide'al combustion of the flow to Deceleration in which ih" flo* is shoik-freeand isentropic. ;;;;;*",

and off-designinterfere however,startingtransients _in ,; ih.";. In real application, the in achieved can be that pressure maximum The pattem. flow .ri"urirni"g thedesir'i ( or stagration energy pressure. Any lossin available stagnation diffuseris ihe isentropic as a engine the of o..rru,"l in the diffuserwiil havea harmfuleffecton the operation to provideshockfree ;;il. i;; u sup"ooni"diftuserit would be highlydesirable --To. flow. isentropic '--' diffuser,therearetwo values of the converging-diverging any configuration subsonic thiswilt called compressed, of Machnu*b", in *Ihi.h th" flow is isentropically following Mach number(M2*o)'The design supersonic Mp*6 )and, number( a"rif ft4u.f-, to the designflying the starting-up from eitablished ."r.i * r showhow the flow is Mach ' --- number. the acrual i_ wt.n the flying Mach Numberis belowMp*6 value, this meanthat the flow at the throatis throatareais graterthan the critical area,therefore partasshowin at the divergent to compressed andthi flow is continue subsonic
{ic r


of downstream speed to subsonic deceleration ii ioiio*.d by a further

that the actual ,- Wil; the flying Mach number reachthe MDeb value' this mean rhereforethe throat areais equal to the critical areaofthe flying Mach number' at the flow at the throat is sonic M=l and the flow is continue to comPressed fig'b' divergentpart and the exit Mach numberwill be subsoqic


-'-\. -)- When the flying Mach number is grater than Mp*6 vdlue,this mean that the

actualthroat area is lessthan the critical areathis meanthatthethroatareais too at the increased is iristantaneously the flow. The pressure small to accommodate of cowl rhe inlet over divert or spill fld4v is throat areaand part of the incoming increase the diffuser as show in fig.c This meanthat as the flying Machnumber and hence the different betweenthe throat area and the required areaincrease massspill over is increase. the flying Mach number is graterthan one but is lessthan the Mo',, , in Wl-ren this casethe throat area is lessthan the critical areaor the requiredareato pressure built up at the the instantaneously the florv. Therefore accommodate of the diffuser in the front shock is appears or normal throat area.A curved spilledover the ofthe shock is partially florv downstream inlet. The subsonic diffuser inlet, reducingthe mass flow throughthe inlet, this rvill lower the pressure anda lossin thrust. combustion

value,in this casethe When the flying Mach number is equal to the Mp"uo pressure loss.The critical of stagnation existingof the shockrvavewill caused and this meantiat the criticalarea areabehindthe existingshockis increased stream of the dou"n but the area to the throat area is equal the shock of upstream is still shock shock is still grater than the throat area.Therefore the normal asshowin fig. d. existingandthe flow spill overis continue over the design the engine have to speed o - To over come the existing shock supersonicMach numbqr until the shock located at the diffuser inlet. At this casethe Mach number down streamof the shockwave is equalto the M2-6 so in speed that the mach number at the throat is equalto sonic. A little increase part of the will make the shock wave to swallowedand stand at the divergent fig. e. diffuserasshow in n To retum back to the design condition the engine have to slow down to the desigr supersonicflying Mach number, in this case the shockwave is drawn back toward the throat and it strengthwill reducegraduallyuntil it vanishedat the throatwhen rhe flying Mach numberis equalto the Mp* asshow in fig.f

",.^'l *-l

\ _.

^ -f

/ Mdr




/t-_;;\ . / ^ . ' > ^ n \




4.1. and 330 K passesthrough. a Air with initial stagnation conditions of ?0o kPa areaof the nozzle the convergent-diverge* ""J" ttii" t"" of t fgl"' At *t" exit 50O kPa- Tbe nozzle is ,t"gnrion pr"*uie is 550 kPa and the streamPressureis of a shocL the "t:g:".n* insulated and there is no irreversibility excpt fcir


(a) 'what -What is the nozzle throat area? -


Macl:ybj' aivlJiilgnoSrre (r: t.+i"o*o " "onuersinq ltfr-a ,,-q.2. I'pealstcqs and 280 K' kPa of 28O values pressure and temPerature

point ic) Wfrat is rhe nozzleareaat the ia; Wt"t is the streamdensitytit the'exit?


'" :6 i"i.* a"q4t $e s,|9-c5i:: of shoekand at the exrtj

. '



of 0.5O and.local m2 and the nozzle exit area is iespectively. The nottl" rhio"t area is 6'5 X lO-a is l?0 kPa' 26x 10-a m2. The nozzleexit pressure temperature at the (a) What ale the values of the Mach number and the stream exit?

(b) At what areadoesthe shock occur? flow chart' iho* you, methodof solutionon a skeleton I '6 timesthethroatarea-If a normalshockoccurs .. 4.3,. An air nozzlehas an exit area pressure' where the area is i'2 times the throat area' find the ;;;oi;;" and temprature i"*p"Lt,r.", and Mach number at the exit' The stagnation pr"rrur" beforethe shockare 310 K and 700 kPa' : 6'5 X l0-4 rrP' n627ls with inlet conditions 4 Air nters a suPersonic .t4.4. 'ii :'1-.e, pt : is kPa, and Tt : 260 K' A normal shock occursin t}re nozzle at the tn entropyof As : I l3 J/kg K' If the Mach number resultingin an increase
exit jl{z : 0.3, find: (a) The area of the normal shock l" ' ifter the shock M*' Mr' iti frt" Mach numbers before and (c) The pressure at the exitp2. (d) The mass rate of flow Per unit area at exr!' plot' (e) Show the process on a schematic {low chart and a FanneRayleigh shock' Assurne isentropic flow except for the normal reads 186 kPa' If the local An impact (stagnation) tube in an air stream the local Mach number is 0'8' determine i"tnp"o,"t" L zbS r'-a



(a) The local Pressure. (b) The mass rite of flow per unit.area' measuremeotspertaining to air A Pitot tube and a thermocouPlegive the lollowing flow in a duct: - l5'1 kPa' Io : 1250 K : i80 kPa' P Po

^-.. la

ShockWave: -\4oving -Previous sectionhavedealt rvith the fixed normal shock wave. However, many a is moving.when an explosiveoccurs, shock a normal arisein rvhich physicalsituation 'ihock from the point of .the explosion. As a blunt though the atmosphere propagates a shocktravelsa short distancea headof the from space, Uoay..-"nt"is the atmo;phere booy.rvnenavalveina-easlineissuddenlyclosed;ashockpropagatesbackthroughthe alreadydevelopfor the the procedures to extend is necessary gas.To ireat thbsecases,-it wave. shock ficednormal . velocityinto still air as show in fig. movingat constant considera normalshock behind the wave' both of the gases shockvelocityand V5 velocity Let Vs= absolute the florv is For a fixed observer' to a fixedobserver' \Yithrespect aremeasured velocities notSteady,sinceconditionatapointaredependentonwhetherornottheshockhas passed overthat Point. moving at the shockwith an observer situation physical the same Norv consider "sittingon the shockwave".The for instint,with theobserver r.vave velocity.a situation, as shownin fig But this the samecase to the obsen'er shockis now fixed rvithrespect Relationhave been derived and result alreadycoveredin the normalshocksection. tabulaied for the fixed normal shock.To apply theseresult to the moving shock' velocityon static and stagnation must be givento the effectof observer consideration DroDerties.




v,=V)-v', v,-v;- v:

{s} ltlovirg,*are

{b} Statiorrary rvar e

of the observer velocitY, the Since static pioperties are independent hasno effecton static prope(ies. Stagnation system of the coordinate transformation are velocity and consequentlY propertieson the other hand dependon the observer a fixed in properties Table 4.1 show system' attectea Uy the choice of the coordinate system' coordinate andi a moving system coordinate


S/6ic prdperli$i o-- p'- -







Mt." ^ =---.* ,, .t

, ,

- f

, -

l r

r{',:; =--:Sragn4li{a /ro?ei;.ti

Vi . Y,

ri Mi';-

t', - vt "

/ r-r ,\ ro,=r,\r* 2 lr)

r o . , -r:r


I t-t -\ lt' , Mi'l
( , ,'-'.r',





ul I ,""-* . o" - \I t +J-i :

| --l

pb|= P; Pdr- Pi


\t"'-" z "' J



n o , - o " l t + -t ; : u ] tl




the shockwave and thegasbetween \\hen a normal shoik wavetravelsin a closed-end. at a velocity moves however' the closedend remainsat rcst' The gasbehinedtheshock, and vy' as shoo,nin fig. The incidentshockis reflecledat the closedend ofthe tube wave the with the moving piop"gut., back throughthe incominggas.For an observer wave, the reflected decres across i,.iJ"liy upp"", us shoin in fig. Sincethe gasvelocit-r' rtave' a rube as shock the of end at tbe the incide;t shockwaveis reflected




' 1

{.} Va}ecili6 rehriv! to r firgd cooaciirste tyl8!.rl

{bl Velocitils .dsiv! tg r Syrttrr rngying Itith th. rEr



ranno r rcw
7-1 T-17

9."1 INTRODUCTION At thestan of Ch3prer rhatarea I lvementioned changes, friction,andheartrans [er are the most imponmt factors affecting the propenies in a flow system. Up to this point we hal e considered oniy one of these factors, that of variations in area.However, we havealsodiscussed thevarious mechanisms by which a flow adjusts to meetimposed boundaryconditions ol eitherflow directionor pressure equalization. We now wish to take a look a! the subjectof friction losses. To study onll the effects of fricrion, we analyze flow in a constant-area duct without heat transferThis conespondsto many practical flow situadonsthat involve reasonablyshon ducs- We considerfirst the flow of ar arbitrary fluid and discover pattemwhichis dependent thatits behavior followsa defioite on whether theflow is in the subsonicor supersonic regime.Working equationsare developedfor the caseofa perfect gas,andrheintroductionof a reference point allows a lable to be constructed. As before, the tablepemits rapid solutionsto many problems of this type, which are called Fanno flov.



you shouldbe ableto: After complering chis chapter successfully, 1. List theNsumptions madeio fte analysis of Fannoffow. (Optional) geoeral 2. equationsofcontinuity, energy,and momenSimplify the tum to obtain basicrelationsvalid for any Ruid in Fanno flow. 3. Sketcha Fanno line in the ft-u and the lr-s planes. Identify the sonic rroint and regionsof subsonicand sugrersonic flow. variation 4. Describelhe ofstatic and stagnationpressure, slatic and stagnation temperarure, satic density,and velociry as flow progresses along aFanno line. Do for both subsonicand supersonicflow,

of continuity'energ) and t:loiren5. (OptionalySlrrting with basicprinciptes for propeny ratiossuch as T: /Tr ' p:lpr' an'i so on tuor, deriueexpressions c hearratio ( Z) for Fannoii"\\ N ith ) and specifi in rermsof lvlachnumber(rVl a perfectgas. 'rith the is developed T-s diagram)horv lhe FannorabLe 6. Describe(incLude ' locattonuseof a relerence i/ieJt ' nrir<'/ 1 . Dei,nefriction factor, equit'olentdianteler' absolu!e and re[cnite to ho$ and kntl\i uiscosi4,and R4nolclsnLunber' absolute and kinematic determineeach Fannotlorvandnomrli shccks' bet\reen anddifferences 8. Comparesimilarilies $ iLh: non]ral line tDgether Fanno ing a t,v-pical sho$ Stetch an '-s diagram velocitl" shock fbr lhe samemass 9. Explain what is meantby/rictiotr chokitg' of addingduct in a;hoked consequences somepossible 10. (Optionall Describe flo$ )' and supersonic (for both subsonic Fanno florvsituation bl useoi the problems flo$ Fanno typical the abitily to solve 11. Demonstrale tablesandequations. appropriate 9.3 ANALYSIS FOR A GENERAL FLUIO

of of an arbitraq'Suid To isolatethe efrects \\t first considerfte generalbehavior friction,we make the following assumptions: flow Steadyone-dimensional Adiabatic No shafr work Neglectpotential Constantarea

6q=0,ds"=0 6u,', = I d::0 dA:0

of continuity'enetgy'and momentum by applyingthe basicconcepts \!'e proceed

rn: p,-lV = consI

to this reduces but siflcethe flow areais conslant, pY : consl


V)' which is refered to as \!'e assigna nerv symbol G to lhis constant(the quantity p the rnass valociry, and thus




wha! are the typicalunitsof C?

Energy \\'estaftwith h,1+ y' = 7,' -' u Foradiabatic andno work, thisbecomes
h ' 1= h , , = h r = c o n j t If rveneglectlhe potential term,this means that V7 /7.=lt+2gc = const Substitute (9.2) andslror'rhat for the velocityfrom equetion (9 . 4 )


/lr :,

= const + --:P- zEc


Now for any given flow, the constant l, and G are known.Thus equation(9.5) esiablishes a uniquerelationship ll andp. Fisure between 9.1is a plot of thisequarion in the .4-u plane for variousvaluesof G (but all for the same,r). Each curve is called a Fanno line and rcpresents 8ow at a panicular massvlociqt Note carefully that this is constant G and not constant zi. Ductsof various sizescouldpassthe samemass flow rate bu! would havedifferent massvelocities-


u= Up figure 9.1 Fanno lines in h-r'pla-ne.

the /r-t' plot linesof con\tilntelltrop) L)n :rl:o t'1 o"" knorvn' is fluicl the Once lines in the ligure' It 'ht"' n iis cl:Nhetl Typicll curresof ''' ] cttlltt'nttre cliacrunt. Suclra littesin the fanriliar/r--r plene to p*iftttt Fa'rnc' is nruchrrore instructlve quite clear' f;rctbeconles a signihcetlt point' Ut't it ''t Figure in showll rlitgratni-s orrir' * it)' th"lt no heet trlrttstertr/'s.' 0)' the i' there th:rt rssttmetl rve have Since (lsi)' Thus tltc' fltttt' t'un otrh' 't int"t*n irret'ersit'ilities entropycan be generatetl oI \Vh'r? ClrLn !otl locate the points t'"tny;r'l t't t:t'i"tt' r((tsi'"3 ittL tt)\t(tr(l /)/{).grr.tJ 9'l l linein Figr-rre ltt;ii;.';"t entropyfot eactiFanno 9'i sho$'sa givetrFirnno tttttit' Fi-strre Let us esrntineo"t Et"no'ii'nl i" -"tttti ii'*t' lrr point\ t)n this line represent-s-:::::^"]:ft line togethenvith typical G;;; en(tnass\eiocit)) 'lnd'tlte sirtrtestl-qnlttlon lrel '*tu" p"""'ir ,"t" flo$' ntuss silttte tlie can onl) Proot the frictional ettects' rhe florv iibt" thrlpy. Dtte to the irrevers an upper and i: divided into t\r'oclistinctparLs' .*.iio th. right' Thus the Fanntrline entropy' L'r'alimiting poirltof tllxitrtttnl rvhicharesepxrated n |:rver branch. ducr'l \Ve norubouraiiabatic florf in a constallt-arel What cloesintuititln tell u-s ntaltyfeelthatfrictionaletlects\\'illsholr'tlpasallinlern l l s e n e r r trate iotlo f"heaC'with ($'ith the flLrictTo prstihe snnteflorv t''f i'i""iti recluctiott a correspondirrg tlt:::llll1"^tlt'

to increase'This mt"lo't*t theVelo.'ily constantarea)'continuilv conremalns enthalpy lhe.stagnation since in enthalpv' a decrease ruustcaltse energy hrunchof *'ith.fiowalongthe uppe'r tl"t agrees i' Fi;;;;-i' stant.As canbe seen pressure boththestaticandstagnotion inarin thisc-ase theFannoline.It is atsoctear aredecreasing' : points on the lower brunch'!Mtrl* tr,r,o Btrt what about flow alPngthe /t)r|er

afonq^t!3-f1n1i":^,Yill movement proPer dra*'an"'oo i-' i'nAit"te ancl branch

ensitv d iothe tt'orpvi n ffi: ; ;;;;;;t d," tr.'. l."-' ::l"l':J,[? JilT# :][ -' happentng is rvhat fisure' the !q*,i* (9.2)ll From
i.* rirr l^ i'iit!' pressure'l slagnation

constult' rentalns decrease'or Lttith irrcrenstl'

f lgure 9J

Two bmnctL5 of a FrnrKr line

Trble 9.1

-\|lJl] 5ii ('f Fr]ltlo Flort firr Fiqure 9 -3

I B Up1'u r ri r n c

Ll])$cr B[trieh

tntl.r pv DcrisiLl \!'1,)cit) P l c r \ u r ,{iJ t l l ! i ( }

Plcssltlc (rlu.t tt.tli 'nr

r | l r r c h .p l o p e n i e si J o t t t : tI h r . r i-n t h e n t a n n e rp r e d i t - t e d N o r i : e t h l r tt r n l t . r :l r ) r v e b i | i t h " r ' h i c hw l r r e r r ( r lr e n f l n r i l i l r r ' h . \ . i t t i l t ; t i i t ]T . h - r :r h i sI l u \ l h e a f l t t r i ' r e g i n t e theset*'o flo'r'regiittes. let us sePifiltei ,,r.e the Iirriitirr.lI'oint that irrre.ti5.rte Beibrc Recall the srxgnilhon presstlre llote thet theie drri!i Co hll\e OItething io ct-rtttlttot. energv eqtlttion.

e. .It_ on the plil-sicalsYstetnsh'trvnin Figrrt ccnsider the t$.o selrio.rlocatiotrs 11'c are dealing * itir an ze.'!',. :rrcatillniapproa--h bet\' *i 1., ,r. disrence
ininitesimal c!rr)!ml !olult)e t ith the tlrenlrodi'namLc states difierentially separated'


brlon. Also sh,:ll'nate the corre;po[dil)gstagnaliollslittesibr these as sho*,:rin Fi_rLrre tn r locirions. .,rrite the follow.ingpropert) ielation betrvien po'rnts I and 2: \\ie rna-v


I I I I t



stntess('1-cnatlon slxte!\lilh associate'l rin:rlly :e paritedstatic Innnite


(.{ l)

Note thar even tbougltthe strgnalioostatesdo not acttlnllyexist, they rePresent states,aDd rhrrsany valid property relation or equation narniulegitimate themrody equation(A'l) between miy be appliedto ihesepoints.Thus u'e mry also appLy l, and2,: states T, ds, : dh, - rt,dP,


' l

Ho',r-c'r t'r.

|. \ . 1 )


(.{ -l )

I hil\ \t

lttil! \\llld

f i i ( / - s .+ d 5 ' j :

dlt' -


r - \ . i)

Rr'c;rlI th.' .-l)r'l-;) ('qurtioll l"rirt.rt in th.'Iorur

6q:3n':*dltr - q . 5 )i n t o 1 ' { 6 ) ' * c t ' b t ' r i n orr l r! - q t t i r t i o(n ir B l s u b s t . i t u t i n g . ' r[l r : 'J11', ,,\r7 * Ir(r/.r. * dstl + Lt d!" NLr\r f,lslr r(-c ll thal

r- { . 6 l

r . \ . 7)


{ . \ .g )

: I lP,l and (.4'-8) ilrto (A-7) and note tiat t1 Stbs nue equotion stagntrtiort the called P rtssurc.-tlErg)' equation. you shor.rld obtain the tbllor';ing eqrtttion:

i!-! y als jTl - T ) + Trdsi * ,5 u, = 0



For Fanno flos'. d.r" : d u', : 0. in the total orstagnltion pressure! . Thus any fri ctionaleffect mustcausea clecreltse t'r:lches of the Figrrre 9.3 r'enlies this lbr ffow alon,sboth the upper and lorver F a n n ol i n e .

LimitingPoint we had developed. equation Fromtheenerty

l'/ '




\\'eobtain Di f'lerentiating, t'dl/ =0 t l h '= d i t + 3' $ e h i i dt b u n d thrt F r o mc o n t i n u i t r

pl'= Diiferentiitins this. !\e Qbtain Q : c0n51xn1
/q -71


q hich can be solred lbr
d t = - y

/ Ol \

"d - D

(9.8 )

(9.8)into(9.6) and s/tor'thar equatioo Introduce v 2d p .. dh = _______:

8cp Norv recall the property relation Tds:dh-vdp which can be wnttenas p (9.9)yields for dh from equation Substituting



v1 do

dp p

(9. 11 )

is valid for afr,!fluid and belween We hasrento point our that this exPression points anyp[ace along the Fanno line- Norv let's apply sepa.ated two differenfially poinls the Iimitingpoint of ma.rimum (9.11) that sunound to two adjacent equation = (9.I I ) becomes = thus ds 0, and const; s entropy. At this location V2dp --: = dp at lrrrutpornt
rrQ l?\


v'r = g.

: ''(H), (#)",,,,.,,,",", =.""'


( 9 .l i )

that fte &l and ue.recognize [dp/dp=J ) ,] This shouldbe a familiarexpression ii{ upper brancht"" ":",ltJ*" :1.::li.!vetoci^. is soricat rtv lintitingpoini. sttpersorttc the lower branchis seento be the and u'o"i'' i,o"i' t; ffi;;-";. '-ulll predicrbeha!ior for rhe failure of our inruirionro. " " beginto seea reason thll it From our privous studies sho\!s orr lhe lower branchof rhe Fannoltne This e<pectations to our ttor" rr-ir.qu.nrty contrary fluid beharior in supersonic "subsonicalLi""' our in facr' and *" live most of'our lives ,^tt"t ible ;;t;,r";;: ;i. i"., mpress inco with*ainly from experiences knovledge of fluid ptt"no*"n" tott' at whrl miShtbe guess thatwe ;;nnot useoLirintuition to fluids.It shouldbe aPparenl to 3et religious learn flow regime \\" must ln tnesupersonic happeningpaflicularly relrtions' and'putfairhin our crrcfullyderi\ed

tnt onlytheconrinuitl',unO usiog was maoe aoalysis 1:t^:i'. l"t"ttont Theforegoing 4 9 Figure in sho*n torntntu* "o*ipi' o tht "ont'oluolume toappty nowproceed is flow one-dimensional for st"ady' ei'u"tion ortnemomenrum The,t-comPonent
i,., l r, =



r ' 'r n !\. /

suflxratuonls From Figure 9.4 we seethat he force


t r A - P 2 A -F s

(9.t 4)
sectionsI and

the fluid between the total wall frictional force on where F/ represents direction of flow becomes z- Thus ihe momentumequationin the




voLume Control

for Fannoffow analysis Figure9.4 Momentum

\t) - r:tf

Ft =

ti g.

( l :-


oAV { l :.{.



s , r L r r t' h a t c q u J t i o n' L L 5) c J n b c r r r rt t e n r s
rI P'\-DLv'-

(9. r6)

/ rrvr\ lp +|
\ -!. ,/

p:l,l F; . =i:+,.1 E.


In this fonn theequationis not panicularlyusefulexceptto bringout one signilicant facl. For the steady,one-dirne siondl, constcnt-area fote of an'"fuid, lhe value of pV1/g, forces are present. This fact will be p + can ot be constantif frictional when with Fannoflow is compared normalshocks. recalled laterin the chapter rve might say a ferv words about Beforeleavingthis sectionon fluidsin general, Fannoflorv at low ivlach numbers.A glanceat Figure 9.3 showsthat the upper branch $e horizontal line of constant toralenthalpy. Thus the is asymrotically approaching This indicates that Eowat left endof the Fannoline rvill be nearlyhorizontal. extreme velocitywill havealmostconstant very low Nlachnumbers This checksour previous gases work, which indicated that we could treat as incornpressible fluids if the lvlach-* erc very small. numbers

9 . 4 W O R K I N G E O U A T I O N SF O R P E R F E C T G A S E S \\'e havediscoveredthe generaltrend ofproperty variationsthat occur in Fanno flou flow regime.Now we wish to developsome both in the subsonicand supersonic perfect gas.Recallthatthese working the caseofa arerelations equations for specific wrinen a florv in terms of N1ach propeaties at arbitral sections of sy5lgrn betweefl ]. numbers andthe speci6cheal ratio.

\lt startwith the energyequation developed in Section 9-3 sincehis leadsimmediratio: atelyto a lemPerature

only. Therefore, But for a prfectgcs, enthalpy is a function of temperature
l tl = tt2


heats' specitic No* for a perfectgaswith constant

(r- rEpl'\ ,' r - ,. I I l

/ llo* can be wr !eqas Hence rhe energy equalion for-Eaano .\ I :' -1.,' \ , v-l r , ( ' * ' . ' n ' , ' ) = r : ( r+ / I " r r ' : )


Tz T1



From Section9.3 we have




pg1 = p1V2 o[ If we introduce the perfecl gas equation state

(9 21)

p=pRT the definitionof NIachnumber V : irlo gas and sonic velocity for a perfect
r r - \ ' q _

^ _ ,Tn:Fr

equalion(9.21)can be solvedfor


ut ( Tr\t/t


a: M1\T)
ntio from(9 20) and theEmperature Now introduce Canvou obtainthisexpression? for staticPressure: workingrelation ii'irin i"t. ,n. followlng

p.- ltllll'1, p1 rvz\t+[,.,

rlll/,r1r': - Lt 2]u,)/

a ar l r

The densit;relation (n 9.20), ( 9 . 1 1 ) .a n d r h e c a n e a s i l yb e o b t a r : : : : r . r n t eqrLario perl'ect gas la$':


l: _ Nlt pr lvlz

: - lr ll.!/L

(9 . 1 1 )

E n t r o p yC h an ge \\? startu ith anexpression for entropy ci.r-.jirhar is validbetween anyt'\ o poinri:

1. Pl


Equalion(4. l5) can be usedto substitute rci c-.andrvenondimensionalize rheequation to

.t. -Jl v T. D1 ____: ln __: _ ln j_: y-l p l T1


If we now utilizethe expressionsjust dereloped for rhetemperature ratio (9.20)and the pressureratio (9.23), the entropychalr!r bicomes sr-sr| R = y y-t -lt'/ - l)/2)Mt' \ h(l _t)/2).vr!) \t-[r

- Mt l1-[,v- l)/2],1/ \r: - ,"'n \t-rt:lttr,'trl


Slolr,that rhisentropychange tro lsints in Fannoflo* can be written a: benveen .'2*sr , M2 lI+[\/ - l)/2]rvlr?\(/+rri?(r-r)

Mt \l+[,r'- ]t/21'v,:/


Now recall that in Section4.5 we integrdt.dd. stagnation pressure-nergy equation for adiabatic no-work flow of a perfectsa-i.\r ith the result

U = ,-u a


and equalionl9.lLrrbtionl.s

t.y:_!C_ = \,\t.y) r f " ' T- t'r - l)/llt1r T


t l a b l eg i v i n g \ a l u e so i \ \ , e s e er h a tT i T ' - . i t . i l . y ) a n d\ \ e c a ne a s i l l c o n s t r u ca (9 23 t canbe lreatedin a sirrlilarfashion' y. EclLt:ttion t/ ii u.rru, ,rt tir : grrticular I n t h i sc a s e p: =) p

t1t ::? D'

,|1: = ,1
.!/1 .=: I

(an) vaLue)

(9.11 ;'e.ooles and equation 0+ttll ( i, .\,,= _t l \ Y - t\tll\l-/ Jt \l f t,.,1.r, (9.12)

number and )/ f'om The densitl rli:o .ln be obtainedas a iunction ol N1ach a relocity r3tio usefulsince iI also represents eqJon i9.:ir. Thi: is particularly

- : = - = - l -




| (r-!,_tt,l!_\'
t7+t)12 /

= rr,rz,yt


Apply thisame techriques!o equation (9 28) and s'toruthr't

f ,. .. \/,rrIr:\rY-l'/:t/-ll " ,, /tt,vtt + l { y _ |D = \ = - v \ (t ( Y + t t l 2 l a


(9 40)i that is' let \\t nolv perform the sametype of transformarionon equation .rl+r
'11 $ 'Y

' vl, :+ L

( a n yv a l u e )

with the followingr.sutt: i'r-r')

= | -

/ Y l - l \ ' / l___--=:-:--lYI ln I



\2Y /



/| (e.45)


(r. - r) wilt alwaysbe But a glanceat rhePh\sicaldiagramin Figure9 5 showsthat (9 45) quanriq:dluslt rs moreconve;ientto changeall signsin equation a negalive and simplify it rc



I nr -

/ - _ , I n ( t- ' n , , ) = t nc n n s r a'

(9.3 2)

andthen difterentiitring, we obtain

dr , d(t+l{1', t)/21,v2) =" 7-t-tr./lt2lJlr


w h i c hc a r r b e u s e dt o s u b s t i t u tfe ordl/f in (9.30). (9.2)] put in termso[ a perfectgcs becomes The continuityrelation[equation





( tn ake B ) ' l o s a r i t h m id ci f f e r e n t i a t i o t h en r r u r l l l o g a r i t h m o n , J r h e n d i f t e et e ) . r l l o l r tra that dp d.\l _ _ _+ __ p tvt L dT 2T o rgt5r

l\t can int{oduce (9.33)to eliminated7/ f, wirh the resulrrhar equation dp _ | d(t + [(Y - D/2)tv2) _d,v _ p t"I 2 l+lQ-t)/2) 12 .q ?6\


which can be usedto substitute for dp / p in (9.301. N'{ake the indicated substitutions for dp/ p anddT /T in fte momentum equcrion, neglect (9.30)canbe put into the following thepotential term,andsrav thatequarion form: .dt D, d(l + lO - t) /2ltd1) | + lty - l)12l,rl: div2 llJ z dM y iIIt
\2 r'l



I d(t + l\y - t)/:l,u:)

y't41 | -[(y - l)/2],r/:

Thelastte|mcanbesimplified for integrarion b,v noring thar

r d(r + t(r - 1)/4M2)

,, M M2 2

(y - t) dtr2
2y M2

| + l(y - I)/21M2

- r) d(t + tu - D/?ltvrz) (1, (9.38) 2y r+l(y -r)/7)tv2

The momentumequationcan now be wriften as


clil /+ldM? l . + l d ( 1 + [ ( ] , - l ) i ' l i . t / r-) t 1 M .I + [ ( ] ,- l i i l l . t l : + tl= 7y

( 9 . l 9)

with no flowof a perfect-gas' to one-dinlensionaL Equation(9.i9) is restricted can now \\'e potential changes' area.anrlneqii-sible heat o. wark tr nsfsr.const3nt bet\!een t\\ o pointsin the il!]!\ andoblain this eqtration integrate

-rr) , f( r : D,


L;lrr-1r,llJ/,: - tr':livl'l 1--117



., -:- 1 ' ,


i t' lj, :

i t. : J




$e hare held the friction faclo( constalt Note that in performingthe inte-sration Somecommentsrvillbemadeonthisinalrtersecrion'lfyouhaveforgotrenthe Seclion3 8 diameter, .vouml,v \! ant ro reriew the lastpan of conceprof eqLtivalenl (3.61). a n de q u a t i o n



the properThe equationsdereloped in Section9.4 govide the meansof computing to problem key The locatio-n' lt other given some ties at one location in termsof tlose of equathe use tkough ne* location af.lhe solution is predicting the lvlach number task' a messy M: 'he unlnown for Presents cion (9.40). The solution of this equation used to thal similar a technique we to tum u, no "^pii"i, relalion is possible.Thus with isentropic flow in ChaPter. manner as We introduce anorher' tefetencestate,*hich is definedin the same 'that a Mach reached fluid if the \'rould exist which thermodynamicstate before (i.e., we continue that we imagine thiscase procesr") l"rr numbeiofunity bl a partictiar N{achl Figure9'5 reaches unrilthevelocity by Fanno fow ii.e.,moreduct is added) Fanno flow' a subsonic for diagram with its f-s shows a physical system togelher 1&'ekrrowthatifwecontinuealongtheFannoline(rememberthatwealwaysmove reachthe limitins pointwheresonicvelocityexists' to the righ0, we will eventually the flo!\' to The dasied lines show a hypotheticalduct of sufiicientlength to enable Thisis point limit the reach and brarch traversethe remaining portion of the uPPer ' referencepointfor Fannofow. the * diagram to The isentrojic referencepoints have alsobeenincludedoII the I-s * referenceis a totatly different thermodynamic emphasize the fact that the Finno between state.One other fact should be mentioned.Ifdrere is any entroPydifference are not conditions reference two points (such as points 1 and 2), their isentropic' 2'' and as l' separately them great ro label care the same and we havi always talien





I I I I l

( r l
,rl I tll t

,,1-' tl'

Figure 9.5 The' referencefor Fanno frow.

Howerer. proceedjngfrom either point I or point 2 by Fanno fow will ultimatelv readto rhessmeprace uhcn i\Iach I is reached. Thus we do no,i"".,o,"tt oi-il-2' but merel.v' in the caseof Fanno flow. Incidenrally. *t y _. ull ,t rJ" " ..f"."n"" points sho*n on the samehorizontal line in Figure l.:: iVou ","y na"o to review Section 4.6.) lt'e. nolv rewriri the working equationsin terms of the Fanno flow - rlerence conditionConsider firsr

T : = tr

I +[(y - 1)/2 - ]& .!,2 l+tQ - D/zlVzl


L"., p:iA2 b an arbirrarypoint in the flow system and let its Fanno . condition be point l. Then



(any value)


and equltion(9.20)becomes T


(y + I)/2 = f (Nr,y) l)/2]/!11 l+llr-

(9.-lI l

gi\ing laiues Qf We seethaf T lT' = f( l.y) and \\'e can easilyconstructa table lashion a simiLar in treated be (9'23) can Equation ;i i: r;r;;t i'l fo, o poni"ui", 7. In thiscase p1 .-> p P t = +P " (9.?l) becomes and equation &1: '+ M i/l +l (any value)


L , !' / ( =

/: \l +[(y - t\/2).\t


- ' , ' , / l ^ , , t, = , )7 ',,".r'


number and y from The densityratio can be obtainedas a function of N{ach a velocitl ratio' represents also it since .qu"tion {9.zil. This is panicularly useful lVhv?

= ""' ie+;#Y)"' #=+:

.r2 =+ r 11:i, r' M2 =+ /v/ Mt+l (anYvalue)


that Apply the sametechniquesto equation (9 28) and slzarv

= # * (+t#ffi

(Y+r)r2o'-r) =r@'v)


(9 40); that is' lel \!'e now perform the same type of transformadonon equation

with the followingresuit:

(9.45) be (r' - x ) will always th,at in Figure9 5 shows diagram at thephysical But a glance (9 45) equation in all signs to change ^ ""g;,i"" q*"ti,y; thusit is moreconvenient andsimplifyit to

/rr'-.{) lv.t1,1 l t y- t 1 / ) l \ t : \ _ D, \ 2 v / " \ t r t r y t ) t l l , tJr :


t t I


(9.15 i

The quan!it) (-!' - .r) represents the amounr of duct thatwould hr\e to be added to causethe flow to reachthe Fanno* reference conclition. ft can alternltilelr be vierved as the ma\imum duct lengththatmay be addedwithoutchan-qinS somelit),.r condition.Thus theexpression "f ft' - r) D" ir .",.d 4:\ D"

and is f istedjn rablealongwirh theotherFannoflow parameters: T / T.. p,,p-. V/ V' , and p, / p," . ln the nextsecrion w e shallseehow this table-srearl\. simpliries the solutionoI Fannoflorvproblcm\.But first,someuords aboutih: deierminlrion of friction frcroo. Dimensional analysis of the Ruidflorvproblemshowsthat the frictionfactorcan be expressed as J: where Re is the Reynoldsnumber, f (Re./D) (9.17)


tfD = relative roughness


Typicat valuesof e, the absolne roughnessor averageheight of wall inegularities. are shownin Table9.2. The relationship among/, Re, ands/D is determined experimenr3lly andploued on a chart similar ro Figure 9.6, rvhich ts calleda fuIood.y diagram If rhe flow rate is known togetherrvith the duct size and

Table9.2 Absolute Roughness of Commonr\Iaterials Material Glass, brass, copper, Iead wrought Steel, iron Calvanized iron Casthon Riveted steel

smooth < 0.0000 L 0.00015 0.0005 0.00035 0.03

+ flow regjr.le TLlrbulent

Log Re ducls' in circular for frictionf:rctor Figure 9.6 ivloodydiagram and can easilybe calculated material,the Reynoldsnumberand relativeroughness the laminar The cune in ih" uulu" of theiriction factoris rakenfrom the diagram bY flow regioncan be rePresented

64 , -Re
For noncircular cross sectionslhe eqlrivalent diameter as can be used. 4A r

in Section3 8 described


and of reladveroughness This equivalent diameter may b used in the determination work !o taken be must n"ynoiO, nr.U"r, und hence rhe friction factoc However' care hasshownlhat the Experience all computations' velocity in average *iii ,t " ot*f zone',lnthe laminar "ra oi un aq"i"^l"nc d'iameterworks quite well in the turbulent be given to the ,f.rft*ncept is not sufficient and considerationmust also i"*l"gl* aspect 'In ralio of the duct solution some problems the flow rate is not known and thus a rial-and-error an excellent too difficult; r"sults.As long as the duct sizeis given,the problemis not the valueconesponding taking by made can be factor the friclion ^ppr*fi",i"*" rapidly to the final answer' to wfrere ttre e/D curve beginsto lelel ofl This converges as most engineering problems are *elL into the turbulent range'

problem-solringtechnique: The following stepsare recommendedto devetopgood

'reference poinr), i. Skercbrhe ph_vsical (including siruarion rhehyporherical 2. Label sectio ns w hereconditions arekn.rLr n or desired_ L L i . La l l g i . c n i n f o r m r t i o n *irh unrr.. 4. Computethe equivaient diameter. relxti!. roughness, and Reynolds number 5. Find the fricrionfacrorfrom rhe lilood.,dLesram. 6. Determine the unkno$n Mach numbe:. 7. Calculate the additional propenies d;sired. The procedLrre abovemay havero be alrercd depending on rvhattype of infonna tion is given,andoccasionaliy, you shouldhave trial-and-enor solu:ions arerequired. no difficult,v incorporating these features on!-irhebasicstraightforward solurionhas beenmastered. In complicated flow sy5gs6115 rhrr inr.olve more thanjust Fannofforr,.. a 7-s diagranr is frequent)y helpfulin solrinu problems. For the folloivingexamples we aredeaiing \,,irh the steady one-dimensional ffo* of air (y : 1,4).lvhichcanbeEeated asa pedect gas,Assume that O = 14 = 0 and negligible potentiaI changes. The cross-secrional areaof the duct remainsconsranr. FigureE9.I is commonto Examples 9.1 rhrough 9.3.

Figure E9. I Example 9,1 GirenM1 = l.80,pr =40psia-and.y:: 1.20. findp2andJ Lx/ D. Since bothIlach numbers areknown, we cansolvi immediately for p)p' | .^ p: = - - pt = (0.80!r ( Check Figure E9.I ro see thar f 3.r _ JL|M _ !L-_,. ---'=0lJlg-00136:0108 D D I \ = 67.9p"ia f.lOr 93_ J

Example 9.2 GiventI: = 0.94,fl = 400K. andl: : 350K, find Mr andp./ pt. To detemjneconditions at section I in Figure 89.1,we mustestablish th9ratio


r =\r:


- i + o o ) , 1 . s 1 et 5 ; -; : to
= 0 9-l Fanno lable at rV1

1 - l r'om |
Given Look up ?'/f' I hui =

: t.i65'i in the Fanno !3ble add d!'te'minr thal ''1l


p : _ o :p ' = ( i o 7 . r ( .f .r r)
P P' Pt

\-: duro/

-o lsr

sliltlcpressure concernlog confirrnpre! iausslalemenls examples Noticethatthese flow in supersonic whereas decreases' .fl""g".. f" subsonicflor" lhe staticp;essure the that sholv and ratio pressure the stagnation ih. ri",i" p..rrur. increasesComprrre case each ln causepr:/pr t lo decrease friction losses 9 l: For ExamPle (p1 l p,1 = 0.1 t6)

9.2: ForExample (P':lP't=061l)


iron duct-lnitialconditions galvanized insulated' Example 9-3 Air flows in a 6-in -diameter, 70 ft' deermine the final Mach = Afrer 406 ft'/sec V1 = and 70'F : psia, T1 ZO *" oi temprltureand pressure number. diameter' From Table Since the duct is circulaJ we do noi have to compute an equivalent roughness 9.2 the absoluieroughnesse is 0.0O05 Thus the telative



e D

0 0005 0,5

: '+ t)l

(Figure E9 l) since this is lhe only location \!'e compure the Reynolds number al section I \ahereinformJtionil known

table) l Air prop'rties /rr : 3.8 x t0-r ttf-secrtil Thus
RF, : :-:---i-


/ ) O \f l l j r

o , V 'D r ltr8,

(0.t02)({06)(0.5) = 1.69 x 106 ( 1 . 8x l 0 - 7 ) ( 3 2 . 2 )

tLn /yr,"

= 00O1,we From the lvloodydiagram ar Re = 1.69x 106and e/D Fannotable(or equa[ons)'we the : To use 0.0198. is factor friction / the that determine oo Mach numberg needinfo.mation

(,1iA -" ^ "5 ,<. _ \

..4t z ?.eX,'y'
+ ^ )1,"] ,-/ " '' 1 =z''4*2 -

a t = Q g , . R T t ) t i= . t ( l . . 1 ) ( 1 2 . 2 ) ( 5 1 . t ) 1 5 3= 01 r y,,". g t1 1r 21 3

,vrr=\=i!1 =" n - ". , ^ cr

lllS Fion the Fannotible at rtlt = 0.15,,re hnd,ra.

.rosr 4 =u= = r , r o , 3 '':=r7 P =.r.00 - .I

""T0j.,,:g theproblem is in esrablishin-s the}lach numbef at rheourje(. ]1:_l?.j: riJ rhir rs oonethroughthefrictionlen2th:

(0.0193)(70) / A , r = --;--


Looking at rhe phljicalskerch ir is appaienr (srnce I and D a.e constaors) rhat

f!1 D

.c _ / 1 i " , , _ ' -r-J= IlsOl D

-1771 =0103

\!'e ente.the Fannorablewilh thiJ

frictiontengthand find rhit



,.= T z T ' -

/ )| \ , ,or"* V T , ' = ( r . t r 3{6 . . G r / r r r o=

tentialeror is involvedin the estimation of theduci ;;G;;r;,;il significant effecron thefrictionfactor

T*,T"ii'"i:T"T",H,T;hH 1l::r"T"Thil;;;;;;#"ilil::ffi wherethe friction factoris relatively inseositive to Reynolds numte..

.+ gleu,.a ponasa more

remperaturevariationsare required,!o changethe viscosityofa gasirgnilicantly, and thus variations in the Reynoldi

9.3-and compare ir wirhthatartheinf.t f y, = iie fJ*. l* u, joOZ ,r*. ,t Burdon'tdespair. From conrinuiry weLow that *.;;J,;#;.is aJ*ays a theontyvariable in Reynolds numbe r is ,fr" "i*rii,y E\rremely :"Tr-"::-11.:h^ rarge

change quite,^prdiy ;;;;;;;;;r:nil# ffJ'I.ll:,i;:i'li. nl::,:"J..*.rl:

Reynolds numbers, which in tum dr

in the Fanno,"ur.. r,tr,i,...","""';i:";i:i;i::1....rff11?"f,;11,;lil:li,"i],li

In the example above, the friction factor was assumedconstant.In tact, as_ sumptronwas made when equation (9.39)was inregrated to oiojn (S.OO), ana *i,n * the introduction of the reference

Io an u-l!nozlh { ith rn alea'atio o[ i 4] connects Exatuple9.1 A converging-diver-qing cro\s sr'ctirn x 4 io in is 8 duct (see The E9'J) Fi,:ui: duct rectangular long;onstanl-aiea feedingthe pfessure anihcs a iriction factor of / = 0 01 \\'h:t ir lhe ninimum s(agnatioo psia? ro l4-7 lie entiii ductand i! exhausls throughoul nozzleit the florvis supersonic


t /

- "

j r , " . =L a T p s i a

i /--'l---'-.-

E9..1 Figure
4A t:r -j:l

C 6


P 1 : ( 0 . 0r:S r r l l l
= i.JJ+ ln, = u.Jo

D and hl P' = 0 1901' with ArlA: =: 5.42'[lt = 316'pil po = O'Olg5' Tobe supefsonic = fLt^""/ D 0.5582, Jr-'n

7,-1,.. : --ry

/ !r = 0.jj3t _ 0.36 = 0.l9Sl

Thus Mr= t613 and {=051+3

ano t t , t l \ p) P - t u tp t t -o ll ( t 1 . 7 )= ? 2 S p s i . r Lo.rg .= ( t ; { : - ,o, .' , p , t p , p . p , ,D '\0.5t1J./ \ 0 . 0 1 3 /5

butwilh expansion asspecified 288 psiawill mainnir theffo$system above Any pressure what would you envision Can 0ozzle wavesoutsidethe duct. (Recallan undere\Pn-aded ) of ao over(Recall operation the psia? 133 belou pressur. fell happen if fie inletstagnltion nozzle.) erpanded

WITH SHOCKS 9.7 COFFTELATION somesimilarities noticed youmayhave thischapter through As you haveprogressed b"t*eenra,rno-flowandnormalShocks.Lelussummarizesomepeninentin|or. malion,

P +; i-:g.

> 1

Fisure9.7 \'arixrionot p L pV: ig, in Fannollor,,.

The points just bei.-rre andaftera normalshockrepresent q ith the samemass states llow per unir area.rhesame lllue of p + p vrg". il;; ,;; ,*_"n",ion .n,t utpy. Thesefacisaretheresutr of rireb"ri" ;"*;;;;;;;"ii"",r,-.".n..,"., *o ener-qy to anyarbirrenIiuid.This anal_vsis resulted in equarions ana fO.Zj, ii.:1, fg.Sl. A Fannoline represenrj states with thesamemassn;!v per u;i;;J; anq rne same stagnation enrhalp_v. This is conErmed bI equations <s.) ;"di;.;;.;. moyeatono a Fannoline requires fricrion. At tb

""."',,,":,r;iJ::ilt:ry"f p"-*J ;;;;;; ; ; il .'*?;ffi :",j;f :'llr::i;

shock andcouldbecoonected Uyir"i " ,n*f Now we canimaeine a supersonic Fanno flow leading . inl i no.malsnocf f f rf,is is followed by additional duct, subsonic Fanno flow,,vould occur. Sucha sltuation is sholvn in Figure 9.So. Notethatrheshock merely causes tle noru.tluirp from ttre supersonic branch to rhe subsonic branch of theso.,a" nr""" frn".fi"Jiigure

p + pv!/se .-thu, trl*" t*"-pj"',,,"i,"rf"u ,r,r?. l"',.ofor "o"0,,,o", L':,lJl::T" ror theendpoints s normal

Tie variarion of rhequanritvo +,pV2/g."along a Fanno line is quite interesting. Such a plot iy shoqn in i,gu,e'e.z. you *iii no,o"'tiut f* ";;;;"1;; ;" the supersonicbranch gi the Fannoline there s a coc.espondin-q point on the subsonic branch

-11>I Farnoflow

Fanno flow

Figure 9,8a Coobinarion of Fannq flow andnormalshock(physical sysrem).

S l : o c k-

\' /

Figure 9.8,

Combinrtionoi Fannoflow shock.

Example 9.5 A largechambefcontainsair ar a tempefature of 100 K and r p.essure of g bar abs(FigureE9.5).The air enrers a con!erging-diverging nozzle\r.irhan arearatio of 2.4. A constant,area duct is attached to the nozzle and a normal shock stlnds ai the exi! plane. Receiver prcssure is 3 bar abs.Assumethe entiresyJtemto be adiabatic and neglect iriction in Ihe nozzle.Computethe / A.(/D for the oucr.

Figure E9.5

Fof a shock !D occu. aj specilied, the duc! flo!! rnust be supersonic. Nhich mians rhrr the nozzleis opcrating ar ili rhird criricul point The inler condi(ionrand nozzleareurlriir .lhen fix conditions ar locrrionJ. \\t can then find p. at rhe tip of the Fannoline_ rhe .iriic pjlp' cnnbe computed and rhei\'{ach numbe.afrerlhe shockis foundfrom thaFannotxbla. This solution probabll.would not ha\.e occured to uj had we not dia*.n the I_s uragram ano reco-gnized that point 5 is on the ssmeFunnoline as J.4. and'_ For Al/At - 1..1, ,l1r = I.l and pj,/p,r = 0.063-10. \\t proceed immediarelr to conrlure


= f : ) , , f _ : , ) ( o l r L r= r ? o j o i: =+ rp + p . : \4 pi4 p' \ s./ \u.rbil/

From the F:rnno trbl. \re nnd ther rtlr - 0 619. anLl rher from the shcck t3ble..f1r= l.lS9 Retumingto the Fannolable,/Lra,!,/D = 0.-1099 anC/Zr,r*/D = 0.2_tSl. Thuj

D 9.8

= 0 . 1 0 9-9 0 l i s t = 0 . 1 ; l


In Chapter 5 rvediscussed theoperation of nozzles thatwerefed by consranr sragna(seeFigures tion inletcanditions 5.6 and5.8).\Ve foundthatas the receivcr pressure was lowered, the flow through the nozzie increased.When the operating pressLtre yaLue, rcrio reached a certain thesection of minimumarea developed a ivlach number of unity.The nozzlewas then said to be choked.Furtherreductionin the pressure ratio did not increasethe flow fate. This was an exampleof area choking.

Tl pr l/)

Figure 9.9 Co{erginB nozzle andconsrlnt-arca ductcombinarion.

4 = constant

combinalion Figure 9.10 T-s diagramfor nozzle-doc!

is quitesimilar'Figure9'9 showsa givenlength Fannoflow situation The subsqnic is belo$ pressure of duct fed by a large tank and convergingnozzle lf the receiver in l-2-3 path as the tank pressure,flow rvill occur, producing a ?-s diagram shown \re and $eo duct fig"." 9iO. W*. Oat we have isentropic Row at $e entrance!othe is lowered still more' tie flow rate mive along a Fanno line. As the receiverpressure lines of number continue to increasewhile the systemmovesto Faffro and exii lvl-ach the $at rccognize to higher mass velocities (shown as path 1-2'-3')' It is imponant the controlling is receiver pressure(or more Properly, the operaringpressureralio) of that equal must no* rnis is becausein subionic floru the iressure at the ducr exit the receiver. numbe' at the duct Eventually, when a certain pressureratio is reached'the Mach choking aj.d af.y exit will be unity (shown as path l-2"-3") This is called/naion conditionsinsidethe funher reduction in receiverpressurewould not affect the flow a regionoi reduced at.i"^. *tr" *""rd occur as the ffow leares theducrand enters pressure? Letusconsiderlhislastcaseo|chokedflowwithrheexi!pressureequaltothe maintoinedat this vslue ,a".it"t ptatt"r". N ow supposethat the receiverpressureis preventus from doing but more duct is added to the system (l"lothingcin physically the Fanno line' yet ,ttrir.) W't u,t happens?We know that we cannot move aro''nd ,orn.t'o*wemustreflecttheaddedfrictionlosses.Thisisdonebymovingtoanew Fannolineatar/ecreosedflowrate.TheT-sdiagramforthisisshownaspathl-2,',mainlainedat the exit bul 3"'- + in Figure 9.1 l. Note that pressureequilibrium is srill

=I Original ductchok3d.,l/l t
Supply air Il = constlrl Pt = constant l't - o

,I. r 4 t
p,e- held constent

--'-t_\*1,lie w Fannoline at lo,*er flow rarc

Fanno line fo. o.iginalduct



G , ,< , G"

Figure9.11 Addition ofmoreduct when choked.

the sysremis no longerchoked, although the florvl3te hasCecreased. Whet rvould occur if the receiver pressure werenorvlowered? In summary, when a sulsoaic Fanno flo* has become/n-clioachoked.and more duct is added ro rhe system.fre florv raie musr decrease. Just ho',vmuch it decreases and whetheror not the exit velocityremainssonicdepends on how much duct is added and the receiver pressure imposedon the system. Now suppose rhat we are dealing with supersonicFanno flow that is fiction choked,ln this casethe additionof more duct causes a normal shock to form inside the duct. The resulting subsonicflow can accomrnodate the increased duct length at the same flow rate. For example,Figure 9.12 showsa Mach 2.18 flow that has an JL^ / D value of 0.356. If a normal shock were ro occur ar lhis point, the Mach number after the shock would be-*iout 0.550, which cocresponds to an /|.*/D


, V= 1 . 0 L_.,



Figure 9.12

duct length oi shocl on r:1.]\imum [nfluence

of the shockpermilsover twice the the appearance valueof0-728.Thus,in this case, ashigherNIach evengreater becomes ductlengthto the chokepoinl. This difference numbersare reached. The shock location is determined by lhe amount of duct added As more duct is added,the shock moves upstream and occurs at a higher Mach number Eventually' the shock will move inlo that portion of the system thal precedesthe constant-area ducr.(lvlostlikely, a converging-diverging nozzle was usedto Producethe supersonic flow.)lf sufficient friction length is added,the entire systemwill becomesubsonicand wili then the flow late will decrease.Whether or not ihe exit velocity remains sonic againdependon the receiver pressure.


As hdicared earlier, the Fanno flow table is for 7 : i 4 The behavior of /, the friction function'is given in Figure9.13 for 7 = 1 13, l 4 and 1 67 on / ls rather uPto M :5. Here we can seethat the dependence forltfach numbers fanno labl in tabulation the number Mach for rll : 1 4. Thus, below this nodceable most where flows' that for subsonic means mal be usedwith Iittle error for any 7. This gases' The various the berween difference Farno flow problems occur, there is little aPproximation this carry you want to govern how far desiredaccuracyof results will region into the supersonic where / vanatrons for cases Suictly speaking,thesecurvesare only represenlalive what as to hinls offer 44gnitude of Ne negligiite witiin the fow. However, they

Uore duct added

Il = constanl = cOnstant

Fanno line fo. originalducr

Figure 9,11 Additionof moreducr whenchoked.

the systemis no longerchoked.althoughthe flow rate has decreased. What w,ould pere now lowered? occurif the receiver pressure In summaw, when a sabsanic Fanno flow has become/noioa cloted and more duct is addedto thesyslem,the ffow ratemustdecrease. Justhow,much tt clecreases andwhethr or not theexit velocityremains sonicdepends on how muchductis added and the receiverpressureimposedon the system. Now suppose that we are dealing with supersonic Fanno flow that is fiction choked.In this caserhe addition of more duct causesa normal shock to form inside the duct. The resulting subsonic flow can accommodate the increasedduct lensth at the same flow rate. For example, Figure 9.lZ shows a Mach 2.lg flow that hL an fL,n",/D value of 0.356. If a normal shock were to occur at this point, the lvlach number after the shock would be abott 0.550, which conesponds to an fLftax/ D

in:L'-i;:: ?.ogrrmrhal yotl tlsein lhe compuler Listadbelo\\ irrethe p.ecise

t > q : = - . . . : I : = i : :

[' | L

- - : - ;r i E - : } - \ \ ' 2 ) / 2 J / t l Y := {;r - \J/12'; : : ( ' 2 ) - l ) r : ; ' ' e : , ' x - 2 ) ! = j rsDrrTi:.l

y is 3 1801 \\e cun pro;c-ed lo find lh. \::-'i )ienberat stalion 2. The new value of below' Note as sho*fl (9 fo. Ml 46) but solve 2.772 = 0.103.\o!v \r'euseth. !-::.qul(ion -fsolve ' Let (hrt sincer!1 is i plicil in lh. ei::li:. \: ar. going to ulilize -g= /. a parlriis: L_.t r:tio of specificheats)

1il:r'rl. ($'hichin thii caseis rtll) .X = the depe; l = lhe ind.ler'l.l:1:ixble (lvhich in thiscaseis /L."*/D) inlr-s r:,J irogram that you use in lhe compuler' Listedbelorvarethe precise l> f> Y2 :=! 92 := I.4: '-' )2 t / 1 7 + . 2 ' s 2 )l ' 1 o g ( ( ( q 2 + 1 ) i ( x 2 ^ 2 / fsclve(Y2 = l(q2 -


' )IL /J 2t: - .'-/q2)' ((L/X2^2 ,nt - r\" lri2^2 cta97415

X2, A..I) i

with thsl obtained ir Example 9 3 \\'e can now The answer of Lll = 0.6?21 is .!1nsis!ent but this will be left as an exercise for the proceed to calculate lhe requit.d irfi; ProPenies' reader T

duct with friction but without heat transfer' We have analyzedflow in a manner dependenton the flow regime as The fluid propertieschangein a predictable Eriations in subsonicFanno flow follow an intuitive sho*'n in Table9.3. The ProPerr,! pattern but r.r'e nore that the super:onicflorv behavior is iomplerely different' The
Ftuid Propen}- l-ariltion for Fanno Flow

Table 9.3

Prope nt!tloLity Nlachnumber Entialpf Si!gnation enftalp)' Pre5suae Density Stagnationpressure

' Also temperaN.! ifl:

Subsonic Increases lncreases Decreases Constant Decreass Decreases Decteases

i'rid iJ a p.rfec! 8as.

Supersonic Decreases Decaeases Incleases Constant Increases Increases Decreases

onll contnton occurrence is the decrease in stagniltion pressure, which is indicative o f t h ei o s s . Perhaps rhenlojt si,gnificant equations are thosetharapplr ro all fluids: pl':C=


(9.2) (9.5 )



!,,irh rltese Alon-s equations you shouldkeepin mind theappearance oI Fannolinesin thel;-r and f,-r diagrams (seeFigures 9.I and 9.2). Remember thateachFannoIine rep.esentj gfinrs r.irh the samemassvelociry(6) and sra-snarjon enrhalpy(h.), anct a no.m3lshockcanconnect tlvo pointson oppositebranches ofa Fannoline $hich hare d13 valueoi p + pV. /g". Fanilles ofFanno linescould represenr: 5xfl16 L Diderenrvelues of G for the samell, (suchas rhosein Figure9.10),or The sanre G for different values of h, (seeproblem 10.I 7). Deteiled rrorkingequations *,eredeveloped for perfectgases, and the introduction of a reference poinr enabledthe constcuction ol a Fanno table which simplifies problemsolution. The * condicion for Fanno flow has no relation to the one used previousl,v in isenrropic flow (exceptin generaldefiniiion).All Fannoflows Droceed towarda limiringpoint of lv{achl. Frictionchoking of a flow passage is poisible in fanno flow just as areachoUng occurs in Iarying-area isentropic flow. An ft_s (or T-s) diagramis of grearhelp in the analysisof a complicated fl-orvsystem. Cer rnro rle habir of drawing rhesediagrams.

In !h9problems tharfollowyou may assume thatall systems arecompletely adiabatic. AIso,all ducE a.9 of constantareaunlessother*ise indicated. you may neglect friction in the va.?ingarea sections.You may also assumethat the f.ictibn factor shor,,.nin chans applies to noncircul3i crosssections when the equivalent dianeter conceptis used and the flo* is turbl]lenr. to a duct are ltl1 = 3.g un6 pt = 8 x l0r N/m:. Af!e. a f 9.yconditions at theentrance '.J cenainlengrhthe ffow has.eached M: = 1.5.Determine p: andf A.r/ D if y :1.4. of nitrogen is discharged from a duc wirh t1: = 0.85-,I: = 500"R, and p: = {9.?7lA-flo" \J ?3 psia. The rempe.arure at the inlet is S6O"R_ Com-pmth-ipressure ar rhe inlet and the-rnass velociry (G) 93. Air enrersa circular duct with a Mach number of 3.0_The friction factor is 0.01. (a) How long a duct (measuredin diameters) is required to reduce the Mach numbe, to 2.0?

) ; :, >'aL>
L--. : 1,.,_ a,

7v\ l-"-ei .',


/ : 1

I rr

' ) - \- i - \

- t

pressure andden i(t' \, chansein temperature, lb) what is the percentlge C l,'r, (c) Dete.minethe enl.opyincaseof lhe air (d) Assume the same lengthof duct as computedin pan (a). but the rrrti:l \llch pre!!ui: dentit)' changein remperatufe. numberis 0.5. Computethe percentage duct in the rxmelength thechanges forthis caseCompare andthe enlropyincrease llow' and supersonic for subsonic duct wilh n. = 600"R' Pr = 50 psir. rnJ li = 600 9.4, Oxygeoeniersa 6-in.-diameter = 0.02. ftlsec. The tiiction facto. is / 3n! ol the (a) What is the maximum lengthof duct pen-oilled thxt \!ill not chan!:e conditions at the inlet? (b) Deiermine 7r, p2. and V2 for the merim um duc( length found in piril I I I -^. *ith a }Isch pipethat is 4 m lo0g.The ai. enteis diameter ,/ 9.s.)l;r Ro*s in an 8-cm-inside of 300 K t-,-/ number of 0.45 and a temperature (a) What friction factot lvould causesonic velocity a! lhe exit? (b) If the pipe is made of cast iron, estimatethe inlel pressu.e ,

i \


! ,/


the }lach is 66 8 pjia l]I1d duc! lhe stagnationpressu.e 9.6. At one sectionin a constant-area number is 0.80. At anothersectionthe pressureis 60 psia and the lemper:tureis l]0"F' (a) Compute the temperatureat the first seclion and the Mach numbcr 3( lhe second section if the ffuid is air. {b) which way is the air flowing? (c) What is the friction length (/ A.r/D) of the duct? = 3.0 and lea\es at Ml =

at theenttance. conditions {a) Find the staticandstagnation t tb) whar is thefrictionficto( of fte ducl? steel andis 500ft long Air enters of riveted section is made 9.8. A ductof 2 fr x I ft cross = = psia, p| and Ir 100'F. 50 with a velocityof 174ftlsec, at |heexit. andvelociry (a) Determine thetemperature, Pressure, L;s' rheenthe flow to be incompressible. (b) Compute dropassuming the pressure (3.61) caflr3silybeinte(3.29). Notethatequation andequation teringconditions gru(ed to evaluirte | - ' .ar Vl

dis: Did you expec! (c) How do theresults of pans(a)and(b) compare? at Tr : 520'Randpr : 20psia' flow rateof35 lbrn/sec a ductwith a mass 9.9. Air entecs of0 6t fi:. The outletl{ach Nmber is uniry' andhasan area The ductis square at theoul]et. (a) Compure alldpressu.e the temPe.ature of steel. (b) Flnd thelengthof theductif it is made a! lhe ' gasalonga Fannoline.Showth.t thepressure rheflow of a pedect 9.10. Coosider is Siven by therelatioo state reference

r - : ' 'A|

:nr' '':
L v - ? , i )-, l ; j

9 , 1 1 ,A l 0 f r d u c r l l i n . i n d i a m e r tont"illt o\l:i'n dolring ai lhe rate of s0 lbm/sec. Nleasurenrcnrs ar rhe inlet erte nir:t pl = J0 Pril an'l rl = 800'R The pressure al the *u", i,'o, ="tr'or*.rr'Ilr (a) Calcularr,l/l, tVy 12. Ta, andpa. (b) Determlne rhe f.iction frct or ano estrn:reth: ab\olute roughness of the duct m4_ reflal. 49.12. /! rheoutle(of a 2j_cm-diamerer ducL air ij t_r!iling 3t sonicvelocitv$.irh a rempef_ a.ufeof l6.C anda p.essurc of lba...flet..ri:.en--sm-o-o,n*ir,ii,","^r.rn*" \ -_,/,/ irre!lvo pojsibleconditionS Ihat

(b) Assuming rhesunounding air ro b" "r.t .,,", pr.srur", tr_.u.i i*."oorr., ,ll necessar).to getambient a tntolh' duc{for eaihcase? (Youmay assume no losses in theworkproiarr-r"

(a) Find rhe sraric and,,"*"",,"ffi.'.i.1,i'J, ;::il:J;l!1"llio"n"".ono,uon.


It U.)U. -\eqlecr.lJ

,r:0.0+. (a) Detcnriiire theMach numberar theduc! .n";;' (b) lvhat are the temperatu.e and p.essurein de sqrjaresec|ion? k) How much 8 x g in. squareduct could be added before the tjow chokest 1,l,ssume that / = 0.04 in this ducr also.) . divergino s!.e,s,xg ruzre n6721q havingan aJea navlng arearatio ratio of 1.0. The nozzle discharges srrpenoni..uuy lnto a constanl-area ducr that has a fdcttDnlenerh _ 0.35S. /.\r/n len_sth A.(/O = / Derermine til lemperatuae and pressureat the exit of the ducl

r)0.50. \eglecr fri..i^""' -F,-^, . -.-3llfricrionsl efiicrs ercept r" ,:Jffi,*idi;

o,i"*.",:r!tri.ijenlropicariy into a r2-jn.-diamererduct. lilf iffi..:,:111",:.1],1;] Afrer^l0O fr rhe jnrorn g x ducr rransirions
6 in
!rhefethei\ lach nurnbea


africionress convergrng_ ;"1: ll,)1".:.1{1.=^ryKeoreN

are '{, =

,, such rhar rhe s)5rem i' .;;r.Jli""r,;ilil:"",iljiJjtl'#;'] I-1.;T;:.n*t" 1.1.7 psia.

: 5.p,, = 67P psia, and =/ u 'o'c r r u4r rrr= 7006R. u'K-lh is rhrs i s?lilf:*t::"-::"X:focj followedbyarengthofFannoffowa,rd c:nreryrng nozzle asshownin Figu.ep9.15. .r The are;r chrno" i. ",,


6 6""-,
tlr - 2.5 Irr = 700'R



.(a) Dra\\ a f-J diagrlm fo. thesystem (b) Fiod .!1r xnd,l1r. (c) \\'hr! ij .l f.I i D ib. the duc(? Ttii) L----l (FigureP9 l6) hasan arearatio of 3 0 The stagnation A .ont"rging-ili\ergingnozzle ducl wilh a lcnglh !50 plia and 550"R A conslani-aiea oi lhe inlei air tu-e conclitions the duct is 0 02-5' in factor The triclion outlct. lhe nozzle to is allached of l2 di3iretefs ther:Jel!er pre\'ur. lhlt !!oLr[lplr--cr shocL l9.l conrPu(e



thro ,. rir in rh.nozzre

, t ' , r r t h en ! ' z z l e \ t r ; (iii) al rheducle\!t.

& -_ !]

" >


)2 .!

the duc! with no flo* throLlghout would cause supersonic (b) \\'hr! raiei!cr pressu.e (or du.t exit)? the * aftef sho.ks irhinthe syrtem dislribulionfof thevanous ing thepressure (c) i\laker s\etch 6.3show similarto Figure (b). lo) an,i poinrjoj'pirns operrtin-r


p, = r:oe,i"





I l

A (.


/ ;

1 urp

^ l'e ( $

(j.n)io, ,---1

to 9 16, the nozzleis designed similarlo thatof Problem system u nozzle-duct arepr| = t0barand withi' =l.4 Theinletcondirions a lllach numberolzJ Dtoduce in length, buttheductfrictionfactoris unkno'''n' is d diahretec ?".r= 370K Thedr-rct shockhasformedat ttrelill eiii a-normal fixed at 3 bcurqd is it. ,"".i';;;;.;;" (a) Sketch for thesystem. a I-s diagram (b) Determine of theduct. thefliction factor
-(c) What is the toral changein entropy fo. ihe system?

( )


througha and400 K. The air passes air at 65 barpressure I largechamixrcontains duct.The friction lengft of the nozzle andtheriiritoa constaiit-area con"eiging'only at theductxit is 0,6' number andthelvlach ducr is / .(/D = 1.067
(a) Dra* a I-s diagram iot the system. (b) Detemine conditions at theduc!enfance. (c) What is tie pressuiein the receiver?(,ryintrHow is lhis related to the duct exrt -: -rf@tt, '9 PressuEl) ,tt" t.ns.h of the duc( is doubledand the chamberand receiver co'tditions remain un.h-n"--d. *hat are tire new Macb numbeir ai the enttance ana exit of the-duct?

, _:- . \rq, asshownin FigureP9'19'The ( nozzle ductis fedby a convergidg-only 9,19. "onttant-arca "'--*---lnozzle The = psiaandG = 1000"R' 100 a laryejlS!99r-4J from oxygen receives PL pressure ls receiver The ar the eK;t' choked anit it is of 53 length has a friction duct at theductexit. asthePressure -. exactlythesame




- t

tL' I


-( at




: '' i, \, ,";f '^"(: . ,i,i...t

Y '

\\\I P t = 1 0 0p r i t r f. = loo0"R

t ^ .

i ( r )


M't. ') L--

(a) $ hatis th.-pressu.e a! the end of lhe ductl (b) Four-fifiht (The end of rhe duct is norvat 3.) The chamber of the ducr is removed. p.essure, receiver paessure. and iriction factorrenrin unchanged. Nolv * hat is the pr:ssure ar the exit of the ducr? (c) Sketchboth of the casesabole on the sitme I-J diagram. 9.20. (a) Plor a Fannoline to scalein the ?-s planefor air enrering a duct with a Nlach numberof 0-20,a staticpressure of 100 psir, and o staticrempe.ature of 5-+0.R. Indicatethe Nlach number at vaaiouspoints along lhe cua1e. (b) On rhe same diagram, plo( another Fanno lioe for a flow with the same total entltalpy,the sameentering entropy, but double rhe massvelocity. 9.21. \rhich, if any, ol the rariosrabulaled in rhe Fanno rabte(I/I., p/p., pt/p:..rc.) could also be listed in the lsentropic table lvith the same numedcal values? 9.22. A contrdctoris to coonectan air supply comp.essorto testapparatus 2l ft away. The exir diamte. of the compresso. is 2 in. and the entranceto the test equipment has a l-in--diameter pipe. The contracto. has the choice of putting a reducer a! the compressor followed by l-in. tubing orusing 2-in. tubing and putting the reducerat rhe eotl-ince to the test equipment.Since smaller tubing is cheaperand lessobtrusive,the conrractor is leaningtoward the 6rst possibility, butjusr tobe sure,he sends the problem rc rheeogineeringpersonnel. The air coming out of Ihe compressoris at 520"R and rhe prcssure is 40 psia.The flow rate is 0.7 lbnL/sec. Considerthat each sizeoftubing hasan effective/ = 0.02- \rtat would be the condilions a! the entranceto the testequipment for eachtubing size? (You may assumeisentropic ffo*. everywherebut in the 2l fr of tubing.) (Optlonat) (a) Ioroducethe' reference 9.2,3. conditioninto equation an {9.27)anddevelop expfeision fo. (.t'- J),/R. (b) Wrile a computerprogram for the expressiondevelopdin part (a) and compurea tabieof (J' - s)/R versusNlach number. Also include other eotriesof the Fanno tat'le.

You shouldbe able ro complete-4 s tesr without referenceto mate.ial in the chapte.



asnecessary additiontlinfocm:tion 9.1. Sketcha Fannotine in thei-L planc.lncludeenough flo\!' iuPersonic anJ of subsonic regions the to locatethe sonicpoini and then identiry' i:'r':;se decreaseo( 9.2. Fitl in theblanksinTableCTg 2 toindicatewhethe.the quantilics re |{rin consta itr lb,ecaseof Fanno flow

TableCT9.2 Analysis oi Fanno Florv P.operI) \tlocity Pressure Thrustlunction (p+pv2/g,.)

of lhedui{r' r \r,/D-= 1110 9.J, in the systemshorvnin FigureCT9 I' the frictionlen-qth = A1 = I0 in: \\t3t is the air inl rnd Aj l 5 is o S at the exit number luach and lhe is al l5 psia? pr.ssurein the tank if the receive. Regime Subsonic Supeii..rl.Reginie

= 15 psia

('z ,,8 /u,

l"\ ..
within the occu' someplace will normalshocks pressures 9.4, Over what rangeof receiver = 1'l0l.tnd6e is "{3,r'{; CT9.4?The atearalio of theoozzle syst.m sho*'nin Figr.rre ductfAr,/D=0.30.

kt'. ("'

L-erge r cha.rnb


Pr = 100Psia Tr = 600'R


Figure c"tg.1

f i,'

9.5. Thereis no frictionin thesysterisho!!nin Fijuai CT9.5except in theconstantareaducts from I to l and tiom 6 to 7. Skerch the f-i Jrrsarmfor theentiresvstem.


,\ t l

t l )


i i -A

I { 7 )

( 6 )

Figure CT9.5 9.6. Star1ing \!ith thebasicpnnciples ofcontiiru:tr. energt. andso on, de.ivean expre|jsion fbt the pfopertyretio p|/p1in iermj oftrlach:lrinbe.s and rhe specific heat ratio for Faitno fforv with a pedectges. 9.7. \!brk Problem9.1S.