C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles C.

 Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles
Muscles of the arm
Anterior Posterior
(musculocutaneous nerve) (radial nerve)
triceps
brachii
anconeus
brachialis
coracobrachialis
biceps 
brachii
lateral head
long head
medial head
short head
long head
name meaning body part
layer / 
location
origin insertion nerve supply blood supply function
biceps brachii biceps of the arm arm
anterior, 
superficial
long head: supraglenoid 
tubercle of scapula 
(through sleeve of 
synovial tissue in 
intertubercular /bicipital 
groove of humerus, 
short head: coracoid 
process, joins long head 
midway down arm
via common tendon into 
the bicipical tuberosity 
of radius. Medial side: 
via bicipital 
aponeurosis into deep 
fascia of medial forearm 
and subcutaneous 
border of ulna
musculocutaneous brachial artery
supinator of forearm 
when elbow is flexed, 
flexes elbow in fully 
supinated position. 
Shoulder: stabilises and 
minor flexion
brachialis muscle of the arm arm
anterior, 
intermediat
e
distal half of anterior 
humeral shaft and 
medial intermuscular 
septum
via strong tendon into 
coronoid process of 
ulna
musculocutaneous
radial recurrent 
artery
flexor of elbow
coracobrachialis
muscle of the arm 
and coracoid process
arm
anterior, 
deep
tip of coracoid process 
of scapula (with short 
head of biceps)
medial aspect mid­shaft 
of humerus
musculocutaneous brachial artery
adducts shoulder (to 
hold things under arm), 
weak flexor of shoulder 
joint
triceps brachii
muscle of arm with 
three heads
arm
posterior, 
single 
muscle
long head: infraglenoid 
tubercle of scapula, 
lateral and medial head: 
posterior surface of 
humerus, medial head 
in lateral groove
tendon to olecranon 
process of ulna
radial nerve
deep brachial 
artery
extends elbow
anconeous
muscle attached to 
elbow
forearm / 
arm
posterior, 
superficial
posterior aspect of 
lateral epicondyle of 
humerus
lateral side of olecranon radial nerve
assists extension of 
elbow
C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles
Muscles of the forearm (anterior side)
Superficial and intermediate layer
(all median nerve but FCU which is ulnar nerve)
flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU)
flexor digitorum superficials (FDS)
ulnar
head
pronator teres
flexor carpi radialis (FCR)
brachioradials
(see post. forearm,
radial nerve)
head of ulna:
trochlear
notch
coracoid 
process of ulna
olecranon
name meaning body part
layer / 
location
origin insertion nerve supply blood supply function
pronator  teres cylindrical pronator forearm
anterior, 
superficial
CFO and distal part of 
the supradcondylar 
ridge of humerus, deep: 
medial aspect of 
coronoid process of 
ulna
maximum convexity of 
radius at midpoint of 
lateral aspect of bone 
(I.e. halfway along 
forearm, mid­shaft, 
roughening of lateral 
surface)
median nerve
ulnar and radial 
artery
pronates the forearm, 
(also flexes elbow)
flexor carpi radialis
flexor of carpal 
bones on radial side
forearm
anterior, 
superficial
CFO
bases of the 2nd and 
3rd metacarpals
median nerve ulnar artery
with FCU to flex wrist, 
with radial extensors to 
abduct the wrist, 
stabilises wrist
palmaris longus long palmar muscle forearm
anterior, 
superficial
CFO
palmar aponeurosis, 
superficial tendon 
adherent to flexor 
retinaculum
median nerve ulnar artery
tenses palmar fascia 
and flexes the wrist
flexor carpi ulnaris
flexor of carpal 
bones on ulnar side
forearm
anterior, 
superficial
CFO and medial margin 
of olecranon process of 
ulna
pisiform (=sesamoid 
bone in its tendon!) with 
extension to hook of 
hamate (pisohamate 
ligament) and base of 
5th metacarpal 
(pisometacarpal 
ligament), and aspect of 
flexor retinaculum
ulnar nerve ulnar artery
adducts and flexes the 
wrist
flexor digitorum 
superficialis
superficial flexor of 
fingers
forearm
anterior, 
intermediat
e
humeral head: ant aspect 
of medial epicondyle of 
humerus via CFO,               
ulnar head: coronoid 
process of ulna, also: 
extended origin from 
radius
4 tendons through carpal 
tunnel for fingers 2­5. 
Tendon inserts at base of 
middle phalanx. 
Decussation on lateral 
and medial aspects of 
proximal phalanges for 
FDP tendons to pass 
through
median nerve ulnar artery
strong flexor of wrist 
and fingers (not distal 
interphalangeal joint), 
weak flexor of elbow
(palmaris longus not drawn)
MED LAT
name meaning body part
layer /
location
origin insertion nerve supply blood supply function
flexor digitorum
profundus
deep Ilexor oI
Iingers
Iorearm
anterior,
deep
proximal 3/4 oI ulna,
IOM and deep Iascia oI
Iorearm
4 tendons through carpal
tunnel, through FDS
decussation to base of
terminal phalanges
anterior
interosseous
branch oI median
nerve (radial 2
Iingers), ulnar
nerve (ulnar 2
Iingers)
anterior
interosseous artery
flexion of distal
interphalangeal joints,
Ilexion oI proximal
interphalangeal joints,
metacarpocarpophalage
al joints, wrist
flexor pollicis longus long Ilexor oI thumb Iorearm
anterior,
deep
ant surIace oI distal
radius prox to pronator
quadratus
through carpal tunnel to
insert into base oI distal
phalanx of thumb
anterior
interosseous
branch oI median
nerve
anterior
interosseous artery
Ilexor oI thumb
pronator quadratus
quadratic pronator
(pronate ÷ bend
Iorwards)
Iorearm
anterior,
deep
ant surIace Irom distal
radius
ant surIace Irom distal
ulna
anterior
interosseous
branch oI median
nerve (terminal
motor branch)
anterior
interosseous artery
pronates Iorearm
C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles
Muscles of the forearm (anterior side ­ 2)
Deep layer
(all median nerve but FDP, which is 1/2 ulnar nerve)
pronator quadratus
flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)
flexor pollicis 
longus
MED LAT
(all me)
name meaning body part
layer /
location
origin insertion nerve supply blood supply function
extensor carpi radialis
longus
long extensor oI
carpal bones on
radial side
Iorearm
posterior,
superIicial
distal 1/3 oI lateral
supracondylar ridge oI
humerus and CEO
base oI 2nd metacarpal radial nerve radial artery
extensor oI the wrist,
with ECU: neutral
extension, with FCR:
radial deviation
extensor carpi radialis
brevis
long extensor oI
carpal bones on
radial side
Iorearm
posterior,
superIicial
distal 1/3 oI lateral
supracondylar ridge oI
humerus and CEO
base oI 3rd metacarpal
posterior
interosseous
branch oI radial
nerve
radial artery
extensor oI the wrist,
with ECU: neutral
extension, with FCR:
radial deviation
extensor digitorum
communis
extensor oI all
Iingers / common
extensor
Iorearm
posterior,
superIicial
CEO
4 tendons deep to ER
into distal phalanges +
joint, decussation Irom
proximal to middle
phalanx
posterior
interosseous
branch oI radial
nerve
posterior
interosseous artery
main extensor oI Iinger
joints, also contributes
to wrist extension
extensor digiti minimi
extensor oI little
Iinger
Iorearm
posterior,
superIicial
CEO
medial aspect oI dorsal
expansion oI little Iinger
(Irom prox phalanx
onwards)
posterior
interosseous
branch oI radial
nerve
posterior
interosseous artery
extends joints oI little
Iinger
extensor carpi ulnaris
extensor oI carpal
bones at radial side
Iorearm
posterior,
superIicial
CEO, subcutaneous
border oI ulna
base oI 5th metacarpal
posterior
interosseous
branch oI radial
nerve
ulnar artery
extends (with ECR) or
adducts (with FCR)
hand at wrist
brachioradialis
muscle between arm
and radius
Iorearm
anterior,
posterior,
superIicial
upper 2/3 oI lateral
supracondylar ridge oI
humerus
radial styloid process radial nerve
radial recurrent
artery
Ilexes elbow in position
midway between
pronation and
supination
C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles
Muscles of the forearm (posterior side)
Superficial layer
brachioradialis
MED LAT MED LAT
extensor carpi radialis
longus (ECRl)
extensor carpi radialis
brevis (ECRb)
(radial nerve)
(All post. interosseous branch of radial nerve, except brachioradialis which is radial nerve proper.)
Extensor carpi
ulnaris (ECU)
Extensor digiti
minimi (EDM)
Extensor digitorum
communis (EDC)
name meaning body part
layer /
location
origin insertion nerve supply blood supply function
supinator supinates Iorearm
posterior,
deep
supinator crest oI ulna ¹
area distal to radial
notch, post aspect oI
lateral epicondyle oI
humerus, lateral and
anular ligaments oI
elbow
lateral aspect oI
proximal shaIt oI radius
posterior
interosseous
branch oI radial
nerve
radial recurrent
artery
supinates the pronated
radius, strongest in
extended elbow, when
Ilexes less strong than
biceps brachii
abductor pollicis
longus
long abductor oI
thumb
Iorearm
posterior,
deep
proximal part oI dorsum
oI ulna, IOM and
dorsum oI mid-portion
oI radius
lateral aspect oI base of
thumb metacarpal
posterior
interosseous
branch oI radial
nerve
posterior
interosseous artery
abducts and extends
thumb metacarpal,
abducts the hand at
wrist when crossed
extensor pollicis longus
long extensor oI
thumb
Iorearm
posterior,
deep
dorsum oI ulna, IOM,
distal to APL
long dendon that winds
around Lister's tubercle
oI radius to reach
terminal phalanx of
thumb
posterior
interosseous
branch oI radial
nerve
posterior
interosseous artery
extends metacarpo-
phalangeal joint and
interphalangeal joint oI
thumb, weak extensor
oI crossed wrist
extensor pollicis brevis extensor oI thumb Iorearm
posterior,
deep
(near EPL) dorsum oI
ulna, IOM
base pI proximal
phalanx oI thumb
posterior
interosseous
branch oI radial
nerve
posterior
interosseous artery
extends
carpometacarpal joint
extensor indicis
extensor oI index
Iinger
Iorearm
posterior,
deep
posterior distal aspect oI
ulna, IOM
crosses EDC to insert
into ulnar (medial) side
oI proximal phalanx of
index finger (dorsal
expansion)
posterior
interosseous
branch oI radial
nerve
posterior
interosseous artery
extends index Iinger
Irom
metacarpophalangeal
joint
(all me)
C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles
Muscles of the forearm (posterior side ­ 2)
Deep layer
supinator
MED LAT
abductor pollicis longus
extensor indicis
(All post. interosseous branch of radial nerve)
extensor pollicis
longus
extensor pollicis brevis
name meaning body part
layer /
location
origin insertion nerve supply blood supply function
palmaris brevis short palmar muscle hand
palm,
superIicial
transverse carpal
ligament and palmar
aponeurosis
skin o ulnar border oI
palm oI hand
superIicial branch
oI ulnar nerve
pulls on skin over
hypothenar eminence,
deepening the cup oI
the palm and so
improving grip
4 lumbricals
worm-shaped
muscle
hand
palm,
deep
tendons oI Ilexor
digitorum proIundus
tendon passes around the
radial side to insert into
dorsal expansion
median nerve
(1st and second)
deep motor branch
oI ulnar nerve
(3rd and 4th)
superIicial palmar
arch, common
palmar digital
arteries, deep
palmar arch, dorsal
digital artery
Ilex
metacarpophalangeal
joints and extend
interphalangeal joints
4 palmar interosseis
muscle between
bones
hand
palm,
deep
shafts of metacarpals
(medial with respect to
middle Iinger)
proximal phalanges
ulnar nerve (deep
motor branch)
adduction
4 dorsal interosseis
muscle between
bones
hand
palm,
deep
shaIts oI two
metacarpals
proximal phalanges
(medial with respect to
middle Iinger)
ulnar nerve (deep
motor branch)
dorsal metacarpal
artery and palmar
metacarpal artery
abduction
(all me)
C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles
Muscles of the hand (palmar/anterior side)
dorsal expansion:
dorsal interossei (DAB = abduct, bipennate)
FDP tendon
lumbricals (ulnar one nearly always multipennate, 
others unipennate, depends on which nerve supplies them!
palmar interossei (PAD=adduct, unipennate)
EDC
(all me)
C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles C. Riedinger ­ An easy way to learn muscles
Muscles of the hand (palmar/anterior side, eminences)
Thenar eminence                                                               Hypothenar eminence:
(does not need adductor since it has interossei)
Abductor pollicis brevis (always median)
name meaning body part
layer / 
location
origin insertion nerve supply blood supply function
adductor pollicis  adductor of  thumb hand
thenar 
eminence, 
deep
transverse: anterior body 
of 3rd metacarpal, 
oblique: bases of 2nd 
and 3rd metacarpals 
and adjacent trapezoid 
and capitate bones
medial side of the base 
of the proximal phalanx 
of thumb 
ulnar nerve (deep 
motor branch)
depp palmar arch adducts thumb
abductor pollicis 
brevis
abductor of thumb hand
thenar 
eminence, 
lateral
transverse carpal 
ligament, scaphoid and 
trapezium
radial base of proximal 
phalanx of thumb and 
thumb extensors
median nerve
superficial palmar 
arch
abducts thumb
flexor pollicis brevis short thumb flexor hand
thenar 
eminence, 
medial
trapezoid, flexor 
retinaculum
thumb, proximal 
phalanx
median nerve
superficial palmar 
arch
flexes thumb
opponens pollicis
opposing muscle of 
thumb
hand
thenar 
eminence, 
deep
trapezium and 
transverse carpal 
ligament
metacarpal bone of 
thumb on its radial side
median nerve
superficial palmar 
arch
moves thumb against 
little finger
abductor digiti minimi
abductor of little 
finger
hand
hypo­
thenar 
eminence, 
superficial
pisiform
base of proximal 
phalanx of little finger
ulnar nerve (deep 
motor branch)
ulnar artery abducts little finger
flexor digiti minimi 
(brevis)
flexor of little finger hand
hypo­
thenar 
eminence
hamate bone
ulnar side of base of 
proximal phalanx of 
little finger
ulnar nerve (deep 
motor branch)
ulnar artery flexes little finger
opponens digiti minimi
opposing muscle of 
little finger (places 
against sth else)
hand
hypothenar 
eminence
hook of hamate and 
flexor retinaculum
medial border of 5th 
metacarpal
ulnar nerve (deep 
motor branch)
ulnar artery
moves little finger 
against thumb
Opponens digiti minimi Opponens pollicis
Flexor pollicis brevis
Adductor pollicis
Abductor digiti minimi
Flexor digiti minimi brevis
(whole muscles 
visible on hand:)