This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Additive Options for Mold and Die Tooling
In As socIAtIon wIth
design today… …build tomorrow
Unlock the potential of Additive Manufacturing
Renishaw’s laser melting system is a pioneering process capable of producing fully dense metal parts direct from 3D CAD. From tooling inserts featuring conformal cooling, to lightweight structures for aerospace and high technology applications, laser melting gives designers more freedom, resulting in structures and shapes that would otherwise be constrained by conventional processes or the tooling requirements of volume production. It is also complementary to conventional machining technologies, and directly contributes to reduced lead times, tooling costs and material waste.
Shorten development time—be frst to market Reduce waste and cost—build only what you need Increase design freedom—create complex structures and hidden features
Scan here to ﬁnd out more
Renishaw Inc Hoffman Estates, IL www.renishaw.com/additive
By Michael Siemer Interview: GE Aviation and the Morris Technologies Acquisition AM talks to Randy Kappesser of GE Aviation. By Peter Zelinski Kate Hand firstname.lastname@example.org ADVERTISING MANAGER William Caldwell email@example.com ABOUT ThE cOvER: Fabrisonic provided this image of a die made through ultrasonic additive manufacturing.com ASSISTANT EDITOR 08 El McKenzie emckenzie@gardnerweb. The ﬁrm is preparing for production work in metal.com EDITORS 04 “Adding” to Your Tooling Options Understand the additive choices for making molds and dies. Read more about this additive process at mmsonline.com MANAGING EDITOR 10 What If Metal Follows the Same Path as Plastic? It will. says Directed Manufacturing.com Christina Fuges firstname.lastname@example.org/articles/high-frequency-production. By Peter Zelinski Peter Zelinski email@example.com ART DIRECTOR 14 15 Product News News from AMT—The Association for Manufacturing Technology Laurie Dugan ldugan@gardnerweb. February 2013 — 1 February 2013 — 1 .Contents FEBRUARY 2013 04 02 Something to Add Nature Triumphant 10 PUBLISHER F E AT U R E S Travis Egan tegan@gardnerweb.
An elaborate form can be 3D printed just as easily as a simple one. When I stand up. a machine component that moves a weight upright—then this part most likely would be solid and straight. Additive manufacturing opens the door to a dramatically different solution. Its strength-to-weight ratio is lower. a bone is curved. If a manufacturer produced a comparable structural member—say. square housings and solid supports in favor of more organic shapes. our expectations about how manmade parts should look and feel might have to give way. Yet this acceptance comes at a cost. In other words. Instead. Imagine how different our manufactured world might soon start to look. Compare that to a manufactured component. the more natural form is better. as engineers increasingly exercise the freedom to move away from straight shafts. We accept straight lines and high material density as two deﬁning traits of engineered objects. none of the leg bones that support my weight is a straight. Its channels would be drilled. the mating ducts curve together for better ﬂuid ﬂow than straight holes that intersect at a corner. As a result. In light of this. Inside the part. Given an additive approach to production. The part represents a simple component—a weight-bearing manifold—reimagined for additive production. complexity is cheap. one that is more efﬁcient in multiple ways. and a close view of the bone reveals that the material is not solid but a porous lattice. The part seen here was designed using software from Within Technologies (a maker of tools for engineering complex forms) and produced through laser sintering on a machine from EOS. . Using those established methods to make a part as complex as a bone would be so expensive that we don’t think much about this option. subtle curves and lattice structures become design options that are accessible and easy to employ. suggesting that the man-made part is heavier and costlier than it needs to be. solid shaft. How would this same part be made traditionally? Likely it would begin as a solid block.Something to Add Nature Triumphant The freedom to tailor a part’s shape to its engineering needs—particularly when the result is a complex organic form—might be the most transformative beneft of additive manufacturing. and less wasteful of stock. A form such as this is what our established manufacturing methods are suited to produce. That makes the part lighter than the solid block would be. Compared to that leg bone. this form that was designed speciﬁcally to bear the part’s intended load uses only the amount of material necessary for this purpose. Peter Zelinski Editor 2— AM Supplement The photo above illustrates what that promise might mean. Enter additive manufacturing. it has a varying cross section. the machine component is a poor performer. In addition.
com/topshops to benchmark your business and vie for an Honors Program award. February 2013 — 3 .The 2013 Top Shops Survey is now online.mmsonline. Visit survey.
Courtesy of Met-L-Flo. you may be left behind. the conventional approach to toolmaking. the technology has seen an ofﬁcial name change from the old term “rapid prototyping. IMDS “Adding” to Your Tooling Options Understand the beneﬁts and applications of processes for making tooling through additive manufacturing.. The second category is a direct approach in which the AM machine builds the actual tool or tooling insert. CNC machining is not subject to the material. One involves indirect approaches that use a master pattern to create a mold or die. If you are watching AM but not yet working with it.E. ProMetal from ExOne and LENS from Optomec or POM are examples of processes that can directly produce metal tooling. and the announcement that the pilot institute for the new National Network for Manufacturing Innovation will focus on additive manufacturing. According to ASTM F2792-12a. P. is an established and well-understood technology that is currently the worldwide standard for producing prototype and production injection-mold tooling.F E AT U R E Pattern-based tooling (RTV molding and urethane casting). Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) from EOS.” the creation of an ASTM International committee on standards. but a few survived. P.E. In recent years. such as a silicone rubber mold made from a master. By Michael Siemer. rapid tooling (RT) is deﬁned as the use of additive manufacturing to make tools or tooling quickly. Most of these processes faced material and process limitations. QuickCast and others were created. A There are two broad categories of tooling from AM. Rapid tooling went through a push in the ’90s when processes such as Direct AIM. Recently. CNC machining. Whether the machining is entirely milling or includes EDM. size and accu- 4— AM Supplement . Additive vs. dditive manufacturing (AM) has come far since ﬁrst gaining traction in the 1990s. By Michael Siemer. Subtractive in Tooling In contrast to these additive approaches. there has been a resurgence in attention to AM tooling thanks to both material and process improvements. 3D Keltool.
Direct Tooling Direct approaches to tooling using AM do not require a pattern.0005-0. • Labor is low for AM in terms of both the amount required and needed skill level. CNC’s geometric limitations include deep slots. and numerous additive options exist for making metal or plastic components. Plus.) One of the most popular forms of direct tooling from the ’90s. Some manufacturers have been using AM to produce metal inserts for injection mold tooling.moldmakingtechnology. • Speed. 3D printers also should not be overlooked. which is capable of building tooling larger than 12 × 6 × 3 feet. possibly preventing the need for holedrilling. 3D-printed tool for silicone casting.005 to 0. Michigan. AM offers tolerances of +/-0. Here are some general differences between AM and CNC machining: • Surface fnish. A system with layers at 0. a small rebirth has occurred in recent years thanks to tougher SL materials such as ceramicﬁlled Nanotool from DSM Somos. including Linear Mold of Livonia. 24 × 36 × 24 inches is typical for AM.001 inch might produce an Ra ﬁnish of 100-600.racy limitations inherent to most unconventional toolmaking processes. including Voxeljet’s VX4000.005 inch. operator attendance at the machine and the requisite skill level are higher for CNC. CNC can produce surfaces that are smoother. Courtesy of Mydea Technologies. (Editor’s note: See our article on Linear Mold at short. The porous nature of tooling produced this way enables air to pass through.com/linmld. complex parts. • Geometry/complexity. Direct tooling isn’t necessarily limited to small components. the leanest mold suppliers are discovering that machining molds does not need to take months. deep holes and undercuts. AM handles geometric complexity easily. • Part size. FDM tools are also being used for more demanding direct applications such as stamping and hydroforming tools. It was developed for small runs of injection molded parts off of a relatively cheap tool. Courtesy of Objet and Mydea Technologies. either. which has been successfully producing injection mold components off of DMLS inserts for several years. . Though this process had been in decline. Examples include internal features and trapped geometries. • Accuracy. 3D Systems and Stratasys can be effective rapid tooling machines. AM typically is better for part features in special situations where CNC cannot make the geometry. though larger systems exist from such manufacturers as Materialise. less-complex parts. AM is faster for small. February 2013 — 5 Component made by pattern-based plaster casting (rubber plaster mold). AM is rough without secondary operations. Stratasys and Voxeljet. saving cost and time. 3D printers from Objet. The comparable tolerance range for CNC is +/-0. Stratasys fused deposition modeling (FDM) prints have also been successfully used for thermo/ vacuum-forming direct molds. ExOne and Voxeljet both have large systems that can produce direct tooling. Setup time. used stereolithography (SL) parts as molds.0005 to 0. while CNC wins for large. especially when casting thermoset plastics and rubbers. • Feature detail. These can reduce the number of steps in the toolmaking process.020 inch. Direct AIM.
with varying costs. Another method of thermal management is the use of functionally graded materials. epoxy tooling is an attractive option. When higher quantities are needed than an RTV mold can accommodate with its average life of 25-50 units. epoxy tooling can be a cost-effective method to produce bridge tooling. many companies that need to produce a relatively small run of plastic parts employ silicone rubber tooling made from 6— AM Supplement . Tests suggest that conformal cooling can reduce cycle time by 30 percent or more and improve part quality. This can include basic room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) molds poured onto an AM pattern or rotocasting (spincasting) of urethane. Few areas of manufacturing have been impacted as much by AM as investment casting. any process—whether additive. In general. High-Performance Tooling With high-performance tools. Used for reaction injection molding (RIM) or standard injection molding. Companies now make casting patterns via QuickCast (a stereolithography build style). The result can have a signiﬁcant impact on part costs and production rates. and FDM technology has been used successfully for wash-out mandrels in the composites arena. molding cycle time is more important than the time it takes to produce the actual tool. PHAST. The idea Metal casting tool made with Sandform. V-Process and rubber plaster molding (plaster casting). Helisys’s laminated object manufacturing (LOM) system used layered paper for casting patterns because of the low ash content. removing heat from the mold or die faster and more evenly than straight-line channels. in large part. and creating conformal cooling channels within the tool using AM can help speed the molding cycle. These channels conform to the shape of the mold cavity and enable coolant to pass through. lead times and process capabilities. In the plastics ﬁeld. jetted wax and resin systems such as PolyJet and Multi-Jet Modeling (MJM). 3D Keltool. subtractive or formative—can be used for indirect tooling. Other pattern-based RT processes include cast kirksite tooling (epoxy tooling with ﬁller). on the accuracy of the method used to create the pattern. Courtesy of Voxeljet. Early on in the development of AM. Indirect Tooling Several pattern-based processes have been developed for creating a tool rapidly through AM.F E AT U R E an AM pattern. MetalCopy. and with selective laser sintering (SLS) for polystyrene and FDM for ABS. Sacriﬁcial (one-time) molds also can be useful in AM. The accuracy of these processes depends.
also have demonstrated signiﬁcant tool life improvements with functionally graded materials. investment casting and vacuum forming.is to use a hard. An engineer may need to tweak a shape or geometric feature. The feasibility of conformal cooling is an example of this change. Because of their thermoplastic material outputs. For quantities between 100 and 500 units (depending on size and complexity). AM can provide signiﬁcant beneﬁts. Now that the new constraints have been deﬁned and awareness of the change is advancing. Design limits have not been removed by AM. Other tooling suitable to be made this way includes conformal press tools. a company that is already knowledgeable and efﬁcient in its current methods will typically be reluctant to change. competitors often follow. an advance is needed in the area low-volume production. will likely make an impact in this area. is now being promoted for rapid tooling by Fabrisonic under the name ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM). Even as effective rapid tooling methods evolve. value-added change takes a long time to implement. templates. One reason for this is that requirements change daily in the shop. When a few trailblazers prove the value of an emerging process. commercialized by Solidica. Spray metal technologies. Optomec and POM—both using LENS technology from Sandia Labs—have successfully used additive manufacturing to directly produce molds and dies with copper cores. The most effective driver for change can be competition. but they have changed.. Future Opportunities Although many niche solutions exist. FDM and SLS. Shapes are digitally and accurately produced to match for registration. he founded Mydea Technologies. Ultrasonic Consolidation. after producing the ﬁrst iteration of a tool. drill guides and other devices. coupled with post-processing innovations. metal AM companies like EOS and ExOne can improve machine tools and processes to deliver fast. February 2013 — 7 . which he coauthored. Where this tooling involves complex shapes or multi-axis hole patterns. The process can produce molds out of aluminum. accurate and smooth parts directly from the machine. it can be difﬁcult to determine the best AM or tooling-based process. resistant material such as H13 tool steel for the surface of the mold and a highly conductive material such as a copper alloy for most of the remainder of the mold. such as those from RSP Tooling and Ford Motor Co. copper and steel that can be used for die casting. UAM can produce complicated conformal cooling passages and also bond dissimilar metals. product development and AM experience. In 2003. ﬁxtures. increasingly innovative thermal management solutions are likely to be developed. successive versions can be produced quickly as needed. The number of copies of ﬁxtures or jigs required on an assembly line often is quite low. wire harness check gages and holding tools for quality control inspection. including jigs. Courtesy of EOS. followed by 50 of a different design permutation. An important consideration in assessing why AM hasn’t made a bigger impact to date on tool making is that real. drilling and trimming guides. or a customer may need 10 units one day and 100 the next. but Conformal and conventional cooling channels in a mold for cups. a Kinkos-like AM service bureau later acquired by IMDS. Also. Contributor: Michael Siemer of IMDS has 17 years of Jigs and Fixtures AM has also been used for several other types of tooling. Some of this article is excerpted from the rapid tooling section of Wohlers Report 2012. allowing for molds with multiple materials.
There is not currently enough capacity in North America. Not long after that article appeared. There has been plenty of time to get to know both Morris and RQM. In the photo above. to accommodate the demand that GE Aviation by itself expects to have for this mode of production. the move was a fairly natural step for the company. Randy Kappesser. in GE Aviation’s preferred method of additive metal manufacturing. though. At the same time. Rapid Quality Manufacturing (RQM). The LEAP engine will incorporate components made through additive manufacturing. In order to secure this company’s capacity for its own use. engineers with GE Aviation were candid about not only the promise of additive manufacturing technology. GE Aviation has worked closely with Morris Technologies for more than a decade. He recently responded to questions about the acquisition and what it signiﬁes. . and to recognize the worth of these ﬁrms.F E AT U R E By Peter Zelinski InTERvIEw: GE Aviation and the Morris Technologies Acquisition The aircraft engine maker recently purchased two sister companies dedicated to additive manufacturing. GE announced a move aimed at addressing this very challenge. Technology leader Randy Kappesser discusses the reasons for this move and what it means to GE. Ohio headquarters is a leading supplier of contract additive manufacturing services—Morris Technologies. Located in the Cincinnati area near GE Aviation’s Evendale. I n an article that appeared in Additive Manufacturing last year. GE Aviation acquired Morris Technologies and a sister company. 8— AM Supplement The move is a clear indication that additive manufacturing is destined to become an established option for discrete-parts production at GE. One of the challenges they described relates to the size of the supplier base. but also its challenges. the engine is being evaluated at GE Aviation’s Peebles Test Operation. was involved in the Morris/RQM acquisition and will continue to be involved as these companies are integrated into GE. composites technology leader with GE Aviation.
the names will remain. Morris and RQM are already committed to providing components within the combustion system of the LEAP jet engine currently under development by CFM International (a 50/50 joint company of GE and Snecma of France). February 2013 — 9 . Pratt & Whitney. a competitive advantage. It is comparable to other capabilities GE is keeping in-house. The additive manufacturing acquisition is another example. The companies will meet their obligations to their non-GE customers. Jet propulsion represents one of the most attractive sectors of the aerospace industry. By 2020. for example.000 LEAP engines. as well as for other GE engines under development.Peter Zelinski: Describe how Morris and RQM will now change. However. Will all of the companies’ additive manufacturing capacity be dedicated to GE Aviation production? If so. GE Aviation: Morris and RQM will be fully dedicated to GE Aviation and other GE businesses. has recently announced that it is moving its geared technology capability in-house. work on identifying and developing GE’s other additive applications can be accelerated. well over 100. and the main suppliers will continue to build upon their internal capability.000 end-use parts in GE/CFM engines will be produced through additive manufacturing. At least for the short-term. As manufacturing technologies and materials progress within the aerospace industry. PZ: Characterize the importance of additive manufacturing to GE Aviation. for its part. PZ: Component-making processes are often outsourced. As for the equipment. GE. we believe. highly sophisticated manufacturing processes that will be retained in-house. RQM and Morris have done a great job working with many leading companies. with GE Aviation leading the jet propulsion industry in the production of composite components. has made strides in producing non-metallic parts. how quickly will this occur? Randy Kappesser. assuming all parties are in agreement. PZ: Will the Morris and RQM names remain? Will the equipment relocate to the Evendale campus? RK: That is to be decided. producing large and small engine parts with these materials increasingly requires proprietary. are being explored for additive production. Morris and RQM will be fully focused on GE work.mmsonline. jet engine suppliers are increasingly moving capability in-house. Is additive manufacturing an excep- tion that argues in favor of having the production in-house? RK: Additive manufacturing is a signiﬁcant technology GE wants to keep in-house. With the acquisition. Meanwhile. RK: GE clearly views additive manufacturing as a game-changing technology. which could mean the continuation of certain opportunities. Give a sense of the amount of production to be done in this way in the years to come. After they are met.000 pounds less weight Read our article on GE Aviation’s view of additive manufacturing. A Supplement to Modern Machine Shop & MoldMaking Technology What will Additive Mean for Aircraft Engines? Hint: 1. The transition to a fully GE-dedicated operation will take about a year. the acquisition will allow all GE businesses the opportunity to better understand the breadth and potential of new additive manufacturing applications. and watch a video interview with Morris Technologies CEO Greg Morris that was recorded before the acquisition. Find links to both resources at short.com/geaviation. at this point there does not appear to be reason to disrupt the operations and move to the Evendale campus. CFM has received orders for more than 4. Additional components for the LEAP engine. PZ: How does this acquisition ﬁt within the context of what GE Aviation sees looking forward? Why does this move make sense? RK: Additive manufacturing gives GE Aviation opportunities for both cost and weight reduction on jet engines. As more advanced materials are developed for the jet propulsion and aerospace industry. That’s a huge change and. such as the production of carbon ﬁber composite and ceramic matrix composite components.
Now. perhaps even decades. Materials and processes had to be proven. In the past. Seeing additive manufacturing accepted for plastic part production took years.F E AT U R E By Peter Zelinski What if Metal Follows the Same Path as Plastic? It will. enclosures. These selective-laser-sintered products are all complex. Texas-based additive manufacturing contractor uses 3D printing processes to make metal parts as well. says Directed Manufacturing. 99 percent of the time on Directed Manufacturing’s ﬁve plastic additive manufacturing machines is committed to making production parts. additive processes were associated with prototyping. Those parts include fuel tanks. In metal. this acceptance 10— AM AM Supplement Supplement 10— T . winglets and other components for unmanned aircraft. high-value and low-volume—perfect for additive manufacturing. It expects to buy more metal additive machines in anticipation of the work that’s coming. This company sees metal additive manufacturing becoming as much of an established technology for ﬁnal part production as plastic additive manufacturing is now. oday. The Austin. except for that remaining 1 percent of machine time. this is no longer the way that Directed’s customers view this capability. But that’s plastic. and designs and designers had to adapt to the geometric freedom that additive manufacturing makes possible. They also include various specialized surgical instruments and surgical alignment guides. the company says.
but some of those developed products have now been committed to ﬁnal manufacturing on the same additive machines. Cost Savings Alex Fima and James Hockey are part of the technical and business development and sales staff at Directed. commercial user of this machine. was a major factor in their decision to choose the machine. Directed became the ﬁrst U. which allows users such as Directed to develop and customize machine parameters for new materials speciﬁed by their customers.is coming faster than it did for plastics. Renishaw’s additive manufacturing system is open architecture. One is through reduced material use and part weight. Parts produced through additive manufacturing can be highly intricate. Three other additive metal machines at Directed all have a maximum build height of 10 inches. They say that not only is metal additive manufacturing moving from prototyping to production in the same way that plastics did.S. Aircraft engines are an example. making the Texas company the ﬁrst U. The potential for cost improvements within the engines’ traditional production processes has largely been explored. Potentially. but metal additive technology is making this transition faster. Renishaw provided the images on the facing page of representative components that this machine is able to additively produce. but it has not yet been won. To date. The company expects to buy more additive metal equipment to meet the growing demand. they say that another valuable feature proved to be the machine’s 12-inch build height. the intricacy and the option for hollowness provide opportunities for removing any and all material that is not needed for the part’s performance. The fact that plastics blazed the trail is just one of the reasons for this. additive manufacturing can provide these savings in multiple ways. They also do not have to be solid. The 2-inch difference might not seem like much. once they had it. but the work envelope on these machines often proves to be the crucial factor that determines whether a part can be additively produced. Directed Manufacturing’s fourth and newest additive metal manufacturing machine came from Renishaw. and Alex Ramirez manages the production ﬂoor. Together.S. Last year. In the right applications. Hockey says. Those additive machines will probably come from Renishaw. The tipping point might come this year. Engine makers are therefore looking to non-traditional methods in the hope of signiﬁcant cost savings. Then. most of the company’s additive metal capacity has been devoted to product development. and Renishaw’s promise of assistance in developing parameters for new materials as needed. commercial user of the selective laser melting machine now offered by this company (which is known for technology that relates to CNC machining). The low-hanging fruit has been picked. Another is that the buyers of metal parts are more likely to be making an established product that faces strong pressures for cost reduction. similar advantage is the chance to optimize the part’s ﬁt and effectiveness without having to worry about how the resulting shape February 2013 — 11 . Another. additive manufacturing delivers these needed savings. Much of the product development that Directed performs involves reﬁning and redesigning parts to try to make them as material-efﬁcient as possible. Directed’s managers say that this feature.
Machine Advantages In certain ways. Many high-value production parts are needed in quantities of only 1. this machine’s interface 12— AM Supplement . But he says that the greatest cost savings from additive manufacturing arguably come from reducing or eliminating assembly. Directed also succeeds in additive production of plastic parts. On the shop’s other additive metal machines. On the Renishaw machine. But another advantage of this machine design relates to the force of the blade that passes across the material with every layer of the build process. While this approach is not inexpensive. additive manufacturing often can deliver dramatic cost reduction while it reduces the overall part count. Directed’s Ramirez says the extra clearance in Z already has been important for various parts the company otherwise couldn’t have produced additively. The company expects to serve production needs in metal comparable to those it is already serving in plastic. neither is the labor and potential for error involved in assembling a critical component. A complex subassembly of 10 or more pieces fastened or welded together could be redesigned to be made as a single. manufacturing beneﬁts. The machine’s build size is one aspect of this. without having to make any geometric compromises because of the needs of traditional manufacturing. For example. engine makers can modify components to optimize the ﬂow of fuel or air. There is still room for improvement. The lower force of the ﬂexible blade has allowed Directed to make parts with thinner walls and more delicate forms than it otherwise might. Plus.000 or so per year. the parts’ supports have to be removed through a subsequent machining setup. When assembly-related costs can be avoided.F E AT U R E will be cast or machined. Parts produced additively sometimes are made with temporary supports that are removed when the part is complete. This makes it economical for low volumes. He says the primary area where he expects to see the new machine get better is in the control interface. That detail might seem like a minor change from the harder blades of the shop’s current machines. Hockey says. It can make more delicate supports. too. Unlike competing machines. solid metal piece through additive manufacturing. this blade is ﬂexible. On the Renishaw machine. Ramirez can make these supports slender enough to be broken off by hand. This alignment tool used for knee surgery is tailored to CAT scan measurements of the patient. additive manufacturing requires no tooling or ﬁxturing. but Ramirez says this change expands the range of part designs that can be additively produced. the design of the Renishaw machine extends the reach of these additive DirectedÕs Erling LaSalle prepares an additive metal manufacturing machine for its next build cycle.
Stopping the cycle to correct the error and begin again wastes time. the technology is not necessarily rapid. Directed’s examples of parts using this capability are conﬁdential. According to Fima. Meanwhile. For right now. The Renishaw machine’s ﬂexible blade permits delicate part forms to be made.does not make it possible to graphically validate the build cycle on the control screen before the cycle begins. “In metal. New customers are often surprised to learn how long it takes to build such a part. in metal. the same limitations are not so limiting. Occasionally. about prototyping. as well as much faster. Given the limitations of size and speed.” he says. Directed’s plastics machines are much larger. It was built vertically on the Renishaw machine. even this will fall short of the level of potential opportunity the company sees for this method of production. However. the Texas company faces a dilemma. just like this. the operator will spot a simple error in programming only by watching through the machine window as the build cycle starts. the sweet spot for us is producing a part with about the volume of a softball. Size and Speed But temporary shortcomings such as this are acceptable. February 2013 — 13 . though. the main factor limiting these machines in general is not just build size. The company expects additive metal machines to improve in both of these respects as well. in part by learning from Directed’s feedback. That’s why the company expects to add several such machines. Renishaw is working to reﬁne the machine. adding one additive metal machine does not add a large amount of production capacity. either. In additive manufacturing of plastic parts. Additive production manufacturing in metal is so new that all of the machines that do this work are still improving rapidly. expanding its machine count dramatically. Certain limitations are common across most or all of the machines that do this work. including parts with thin walls. he says. This blade enables the machine to build delicate structures. but their slow speed within that size. Directed and other companies are proving that this technology is not just James Hockey shows the replaceable portion of the soft blade. The typical additive manufacturing cycle time for a metal part this size is 18 to 20 hours. but this screw helps make the point. Part of the reason for the customers’ surprise is that additive technology is still often associated with speed. 3D-printing-style technology still carries the label “rapid prototyping”—a term that is doubly questionable.
as well as high-end service bureaus that need to create industrial-size.com / stratasys. the Objet1000 is suited for automotive. form and functional prototyping. It offers a choice of more than 100 materials. featuring a 1. accelerated cycle times. a Seoul. A shell-coreimaging process includes two different laser beam proﬁles that can be used independently. layer by layer. 1:1 scale prototypes. Texas. Together with fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology from Stratasys Inc. and is able to print as many as 14 different material properties within a single model.. making the printer suited for all-around ﬁt. Geomagic’s founder and CEO. and it now is being used to help aerospace OEMs produce small-volume parts quickly and cost-effectively. Terms were not disclosed. to create specialty parts in hours rather weeks. lightweight and ﬂame-retardant. (SABIC) is formulated to be strong. In October. The Statasys FDM process creates 3D parts directly from computer-aided design ﬁles. According to SABIC. based in Dallas. South Korea-based provider of 3D scan-to-CAD and inspection software.com 14— AM Supplement . enabling designers and engineers to simulate both standard and ABS-grade plastics. cost-effective low-production runs. sabic-ip.000 × 800 × 500-mm wide-format build envelope. Ping Fu. sculpting and scanning software tools used to create 3D content and inspect products throughout the design and manufacturing process.com / geomagic. auditing and quality control. The SLM system also includes Magic AutoFab rapid prototyping software that can process CAD/STL data ﬁles and has modules for monitoring..’s largest 3D printer to date.Product News Large-Format 3D Printer Creates Industrial-Scale Prototypes The Objet1000 is Objet Ltd. and compliance with Federal Aviation Administration ﬂame. slm-solutions. Because the lasers can melt powder in multiple layers.com / rapidform. this combination of resin and FDM offers enhanced design ﬂexibility. The acquisition is subject to customary closing conditions and is expected to close during the ﬁrst quarter of this year. 3D Systems acquired Rapidform. 3dsystems. a provider of 3D authoring solutions. This large build platform is combined with inkjet 3D printing and the company’s Connex multi-material capability.com FDM Technology Uses Resin to Produce Small-Volume Aerospace Parts Ultem 9085 resin from the Innovative Plastics business of Saudi Basic Industries Corp. the resin is enabling companies like Taylor-Deal Aviation LLC.com Double-Beam SLM Achieves High Build Rates SLM Solutions GmbH’s SLM 500 HL selective laser melting machine features a 500 × 280 × 325-mm build chamber and double-beam system of two ﬁber lasers that operate on the powder bed by means of a 3D scanning unit. defense and aerospace. the company says. objet. or in parallel and simultaneously (dual-spot scanning) to increase productivity. industrial machinery. Designed to save manufacturers from having to assemble prototypes from smaller-sized pieces. smoke and toxicity regulations. the SLM 500 HL can achieve higher build rates over other additive metal systems.com 3D Systems to Acquire Geomagic 3D Systems has signed a deﬁnitive agreement to acquire Geomagic Inc. including design. consumer goods and household appliance sectors. will serve as the company’s chief strategy ofﬁcer.
manufacturing sector and increase domestic manufacturing competitiveness. Te government wants to increase American manufacturing competitiveness. member lifecycle) to ensure initial and subsequent member interests are accommodated. February 2013 — 15 . John Russell (Program Manager. 31). contact AMT’s technical director.org or 703-827-5243. Defense-Wide Manufacturing Science and Technology) from the Oﬃce of the Secretary of Defense/Air Force Research Laboratory. at tshinbara@AMTonline. and for more on NAMII (including project proposal and membership processes). It will be a litmus test for the Operating Plan and stakeholder coordination. university and the private sector to bridge a gap that has been identiﬁed from a readiness/transition perspective (see chart). here is a quick summary. For more on NNMI. NAMII has a set Executive Committee being led by Dr. please visit www. We are looking forward to what proposers deliver and what NAMII selects. For more information about NAMII or additive technologies. Here is an update on NAMII’s progress: technologies (including ensuring a proper workforce is available to improve productivity and product oﬀerings).html. manufacturing. Tim Shinbara.S. but more importantly. One of the key elements is a partnership among government. NAMII’s singular focus is to accelerate additive manufacturing technologies to the U. NAMII has evolved toward a more stakeholdercentric model to support an optimal approach to ﬁlling the “gap” and to ensuring appropriate developments occur at the institute. please visit namii. Updates NAMII is working toward an integrated approach to better serve the additive technology community. Te Executive Committee continues its eﬀorts to ﬁnalize the Operating Plan (how Background For those asking what “NAMII” is and why it is an initiative. universities and other educational institutions want to conduct beneﬁcial research and develop/sustain a workforce.gov/nnmi.National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute (NAMII) Updates We start 2013 anew. and the private sector wants to improve the level of readiness for transition and insertion of developed NAMII is run) and the Membership Agreement (deﬁnes eligibility. responsibility. NAMII has its next challenge ahead when it reviews proposals and selects its ﬁrst projects to fund. we are looking forward to further enabling an already exciting ﬁeld such as additive manufacturing.org. Stakeholders interested in ﬁlling this gap have multiple needs. NAMII is the pilot initiative of National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI) institutes that are meant to foster manufacturing advancements (from technology to workforce) necessary to improve American manufacturing competitiveness. with less than a month before the ﬁrst NAMII project proposals are due (Jan.
it can adopt properties midway between a gas and a liquid. For powder-based processes. renewable.” Te “dense” state is just below critical and still maintains the lower viscosity and surfaces tension for improved residual removal capabilities. I will discuss the liquid CO2 process here. Wikipedia deﬁnes “supercritical” CO2 in this way: “Carbon dioxide usually behaves as a gas in air at standard temperature and pressure (STP). and drying using liquid CO2. While immersed. intricate cleaning of highly complex components (like many additive parts). For more information about advanced cleaning technologies or additive manufacturing. aqueousbased ultrasound and liquid carbon dioxide (CO2). Te bottom line is. [Tis] supercritical ﬂuid [expands] to ﬁll its container like a gas but with a density like that of a liquid. its relative surface tension and viscosity attributes are not suﬃcient enough for many applications. as it allows for the combination of cleaning using environmentally friendly solvents with the particle removal. distillation and ﬁltration processes. or as a solid called dry ice when frozen. ﬂuidic action provided by the liquid CO2 and ultrasonic excitations. However. readily available and aﬀordable. an immersion process that employs a dense-phase CO2 for cleaning and removal may be a more eﬀective and economical approach over other pure compound options and approaches. that support structure is the non-sintered or non-melted materials themselves. While water also is environmentally sound. an immersion system is most eﬀective. Tere are several ways to remove residuals from additive parts. that you would not otherwise be able to eﬃciently remove with a supercritical ﬂuid. including media extrusion. If the temperature and pressure are both increased from STP to be at or above the critical point for carbon dioxide. you reduce processing time. Technical Director. Any additive process that uses either polymers or metals and requires a support structure must subsequently employ a means to remove that unwanted support structure. which must be removed post-processing. AMT—Te Association For Manufacturing Technology While additive manufacturing provides improvements in realizing a designer’s functional intent. etc. which then ﬂow to ﬁltration. distillation occurs by manipulating the temperature and pressure. Why centrifugal? Te ﬂuid shear force produced by centrifugal action is a promoter that advances the material separation and removal eﬀort augmenting the chemical. some additive processes are still limited due to the required removal of residual materials. use an aqueousbased solution. As the dense-phase CO2 completes the cleaning/removal/ drying process. green attributes (uses industrial byproduct CO2 that is recyclable in a closed-loop system with negligible waste and no industrial volatile organic compound or greenhouse gas emissions). but with an increased density to better remove oils. recovering approximately 99 percent of the original pure liquid CO2. an ultrasonic frequency is applied to excite particles. improve the eﬃciency and lower required pressures to remove unwanted materials.. for low-to-medium-volume. . if you require high-volume. contact Tim at tshinbara@AMTonline.Advanced Cleaning for AM: When Subtractive Applies to Additive By Tim Shinbara. Terefore. which forces the gaseous dense state of CO2 into a pure liquid state. particles. org or 703-827-5243. For cleaning of additive manufactured parts. liquid CO2 diﬀerentiators are most relevant when you consider cost of phase management (temperature and pressure manipulation to maneuver between liquid and gas states). Te centrifugal. gross cleaning of simple features. and eﬀective material 16— AM Supplement removal (accommodates high geometric complexity and full-feature penetration).
sell and ser vice the continuously evolving technology that lies at the heart of manufacturing. Experienced staff offers customized.The Association For Manufacturing Technology represents and promotes U. Owns & manages The International Manufacturing Technology Show.AMT . Tech Centers & Representative & Mexico provide assistance to AMT members.AMTonline. Network with your members & customers & learn from industry experts at AMT events.those who design.org/membership . in-depth advisory services for members around the world. the premier manufacturing technology event in North America.S. Actively engages the federal government in support of public policy consistent with AMT’s Manufacturing Mandate priorities. build. An easy-to-use online tool with novel business intelligence dashboards that synthesize numerous data resources. www.-based manufacturing technology and its members -.
Connect with your peers. international markets. March 5 . Find out what lies ahead for the industry. Discuss topics like innovation. It all happens at The MFG Meeting 2013.G old S p ons ors Play VIDEO Registration is open for MFG. 2013 · Wa ik oloa . H awa ii .8. and more. technology. economics.