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Hallmark Findings

Albumino-Cytologic • Guillain-Barre (markedly increased protein in CSF with only modest

Dissociation increase in cell count)
Antiplatelet Antibodies • idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Arachnodactyly • Marfan’s
Aschoff Bodies • rheumatic fever
Auer Rods • acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML type M3)
Autosplenectomy • sickle cell anemia
Babinski • UMN lesion
Basophilic Stippling of RBCs • lead poisoning
Bence Jones Protein • multiple myeloma free light chains (either kappa or lambda)

• Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia
Birbeck Granules • histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
Blue Bloater • Chronic Bronchitis
Boot-Shaped Heart • Tetralogy of Fallot
Bouchard’s Nodes • osteoarthritis (PIP)
Boutonniere’s Deformity • rheumatoid arthritis
Brown Tumor • hyperparathyroidism
Brushfield Spots • Down’s
Call-Exner Bodies • granulosa cell tumor
Cardiomegaly with Apical • Chagas’ Disease
Chancre • 1 ° Syphilis
Chancroid • Haemophilus ducreyi
Charcot Triad • multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech)
Charcot-Leyden Crystals • bronchial asthma
Cheyne-Stokes Breathing • cerebral lesion
Chocolate Cysts • endometriosis
Chvostek’s Sign • Hypocalcemia facial spasm in tetany
Clue Cells • Gardnerella vaginitis
Codman’s Triangle • osteosarcoma
Cold Agglutinins • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
• infectious mononucleosis
Condyloma Lata • 2 ° Syphilis

Cotton Wool Spots • HTN

Councilman Bodies • dying hepatocytes
Crescents In Bowman’s • rapidly progressive (crescentic glomerulonephritis)
Currant-Jelly Sputum • Klebsiella
Curschmann’s Spirals • bronchial asthma
Depigmentation Of • Parkinson’s
Substantia Nigra
Donovan Bodies • granuloma inguinale (STD)
Eburnation • osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)
Ectopia Lentis • Marfan’s
Erythema Chronicum • Lyme Disease
Fatty Liver • Alcoholism
Ferruginous Bodies • asbestosis
Ghon Focus / Complex • Tuberculosis (1 ° & 2 ° , respectively)
Gower’s Maneuver • Duchenne’s MD use of arms to stand
Heberden’s Nodes • Osteoarthritis (DIP)
Heinz Bodies • G6PDH Deficiency
Hemorrhagic Urticaria • Henoch-Schonlein
Heterophil Antibodies • infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
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• infectious mononucleosis
Hirano Bodies • Alzheimer’s
Hypersegmented PMNs • Megaloblastic anemia
Hypochromic Microcytic • iron-deficiency anemia
Jarisch-Herxheimer • Syphilis over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt. that
Reaction causes symptoms 2° to rapid lysis
Joint Mice • osteoarthritis (fractured osteophytes)
Kaussmaul Breathing • acidosis
Keratin Pearls • SCCA
Keyser-Fleischer Ring • Wilson’s
Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules • diabetic nephropathy
Koilocytes • HPV
Koplik Spots • measles
Lewy Bodies • Parkinson’s (eosinophilic inclusions in damaged substantia nigra
Lines of Zahn • arterial thrombus
Lisch Nodules • neurofibromatosis (von Recklinhausen’s disease)
Lumpy-Bumpy IF Glomeruli • poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
McBurney’s Sign • appendicitis (McBurney’s Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus
to anterior superior iliac spine)
Michealis-Gutmann Bodies • Malakoplakia
Monoclonal Antibody Spike • multiple myeloma this is called the M protein (usually IgG or IgA)
Myxedema • hypothyroidism
Negri Bodies • rabies
Neuritic Plaques • Alzheimer’s
Neurofibrillary Tangles • Alzheimer’s
Non-pitting Edema • Myxedema
• Anthrax Toxin
Notching of Ribs • Coarctation of Aorta
Nutmeg Liver • CHF
Painless Jaundice • pancreatic CA (head)
Pannus • rheumatoid arthritis
Pautrier’s Microabscesses • mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
Philadelphia Chromosome • CML
Pick Bodies • Pick’s Disease
Pink Puffer • Emphysema Centroacinar – smoking Panacinar - α1-antitrypsin
Podagra • gout (MP joint of hallux)
Port-Wine Stain • Hemangioma
Posterior Anterior Drawer
Posterior Anterior Drawer • tearing of the ACL
Psammoma Bodies • Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid
Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary



Pseudohypertrophy • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Punched-Out Bone Lesions • multiple myeloma
Rash on Palms & Soles • 2° Syphilis
Red Morning Urine • paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Reed-Sternberg Cells • Hodgkin’s Disease
Reid Index Increased • chronic bronchitis
Reinke Crystals • Leydig cell tumor
Rouleaux Formation • multiple myeloma RBC’s stacked as poker chips
S3 Heart Sound • L→R Shunt (VSD, PDA)
• Mitral Regurg
• LV Failure
S4 Heart Sound • Pulmonary Stenosis
• Pulmonary HTN
Schwartzman Reaction • Neisseria meningitidis impressive rash with bugs
Simian Crease • Down’s
Smith Antigen • SLE (also anti-dsDNA)
Soap Bubble on X-Ray • giant cell tumor of bone
Spike & Dome Glomeruli • membranous glomerulonephritis
String Sign on X-ray • Crohn’s bowel wall thickening
Target Cells • Thalassemia
Tendinous Xanthomas • Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Thyroidization of Kidney • chronic pyelonephritis
Tophi • gout
Tram-Track Glomeruli • membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Trousseau’s Sign • visceral ca, classically pancreatic (migratory thrombophlebitis)
• hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)

These are two entirely different disease processes and different signs,
but they unfortunately have the same name.
Virchow’s Node • supraclavicular node enlargement by metastatic carcinoma of the
Warthin-Finkeldey Giant • Measles
WBC Casts • pyelonephritis
Wire Loop Glomeruli • lupus nephropathy, type IV
AFP in amniotic fluid or • Spina Bifida
mother’s serum • Anencephaly
Uric Acid • Gout
• Lesch Nyhan
• Myeloproliferative Disorders
• Diuretics (Loop & Thiazides)