A cyborg, short for "cybernetic organism", is a being with both organic and artificial parts.

See for example biomaterials andbioelectronics. The term was coined in 1960 when Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline used it in an article about the advantages of self-regulating human[1] machine systems in outer space. D. S. Halacy's Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction which spoke of a "new frontier" that was "not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship between 'inner space' to 'outer space' – a bridge...between mind and [2] matter." The beginning of Cyborg creation began when HCI (human-computer interaction) began. There is a clear distinction between the human and computerized technology in HCI, which differs from cyborgs in that cyborgs act out human functions. The term cyborg is often applied to an organism that has enhanced abilities due to [3] technology, though this perhaps oversimplifies the necessity of feedback for regulating the subsystem. The more strict definition of Cyborg is almost always considered as increasing or enhancing normal capabilities. While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, they might also conceivably be any kind oforganism and the term "Cybernetic organism" has been applied to networks, such as road systems, corporations and governments, which have been classed as such. The term can also apply to micro-organisms which are modified to perform at higher levels than their unmodified counterparts. It is hypothesized that cyborg technology will form a part of the future human evolution. Fictional cyborgs are portrayed as a synthesis of organic and synthetic parts, and frequently pose the question of difference between human and machine as one concerned with morality, free will, and empathy. Fictional cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g. the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star Trek); or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g. the Terminators from the Terminator films, the "Human" Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica etc.) The 1970s television series The Six Million Dollar Man featured one of the most famous fictional cyborgs, referred to as a bionic man; the series was based upon a novel by Martin Caidinentitled Cyborg. Cyborgs in fiction often play up a human contempt for overdependence on technology, particularly when used for war, and when used in ways that seem to threaten free will. Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things).

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1 Overview 2 Origins 3 Cyborg tissues in engineering

the Internet. buildings. electrical plants. the metaphysical and physical attachments humanity has [4] with even the most basic technologies have already made them cyborgs. Augmented with these technologies. computers. The term is also used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract.4 Artists as cyborgs 6. which gain power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. pipes. that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are more accurately cyborg enhancements.6 In popular culture 6.   4 Individual cyborgs 5 Social cyborgs 6 Cyborg proliferation in society o o o o o o o o     6. these modifications are as cybernetic as a pen or a wooden leg.3 In art 6. This includes not only commonly used pieces of technology such as phones. Cybernetic technologies include highways.2 In the military 6. Implants. since these mechanical parts enhance the body's "natural" mechanisms through synthetic feedback mechanisms.5 In body modification 6. hearing aids. but also artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology. or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities. This is like computers. a person becomes capable of much more than they were before.8 Cyborg Foundation 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links Overview[edit] According to some definitions of the term. Some theorists cite such modifications as contact lenses. . pen and paper.1 In medicine 6. especially cochlear implants. a human fitted with a heart pacemaker or an insulin pump (if the person has diabetes) might be considered a cyborg. electrical wiring. for example. etc. and connected in communication with people in other times and places. and speech and language. In a typical example. however.7 Cyborgization in critical deaf studies 6.

L. . "After a Judgment Day." to describe the "mechanical analogs" called "Charlies. Jean de la Hire introduced Nyctalope (perhaps the first true superhero was also the first literary cyborg) in the novel L'Homme Qui Peut Vivre Dans L'eau (The Man Who Can Live in the Water). Simon Wright. whose body was burned completely and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body. Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York.cybernetic organisms. a dancer.Manfred E. Unlike human cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally." In the short story "No Woman Born" in 1944.libraries. and other infrastructure that we hardly notice.g. Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster. Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928. floating around in a transparent case. ” A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable computer was [8] published by Doubleday in 2001. Origins[edit] The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. Moore wrote of Deirdre. The term first appears in print five months earlier when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper. He uses the term explicitly in the 1962 short story. but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within. He later featured the talking. but by using an external shell [5] (e. living brain of an old scientist. Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story "The Man That Was Used Up". Some of the ideas in the book were incorporated into the 35mm motion picture film Cyberman. Clynes [6] and Nathan S. where "Omar" is a Russian translation of the word "Lobster" (since the Omar are of Russian origin in the game). a Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems." explaining that "[c]yborgs.. The computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar. a Powered Exoskeleton). we propose the term 'Cyborg' . Cyborg tissues in engineering[edit] . in all the adventures of his famous hero. which is made not by using internal implants. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments: “ For the exogenously extended organizational complex functioning as an integrated homeostatic system unconsciously. Captain Future. they had been called from the first one in the 1960s. The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline ” Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to take place. C. In 1908. “ A cyborg is essentially a man-machine system in which the control mechanisms of the human portion are modified externally by drugs or regulatory devices so that the being [7] can live in an environment different from the normal one.. As early as 1843.

jpg Neil Harbisson cyborg activist and president of the Cyborg Foundation. the sensation of seeing light. 3rd. A single-array BCI containing 68 electrodes was implanted onto Jerry's visual cortex and succeeded in producing phosphenes. the term "cyborg" is used to refer to a human with bionic. talk number [9] SS4. or robotic. Additionally cochlear implants and magnetic implants which provide people with a sense that they would not otherwise have had can additionally be thought of as creating cyborgs. in 1978. It can also be shaped in desired forms. The work was presented by Di Giacomo and Maresca at MRS 2013 Spring conference on Apr. Dobelle's first prototype was implanted into "Jerry". When observed by optical microscopy the material resembled an artificial “tissue” composed of highly packed cells.Cyborgs tissues structured with carbon nanotubes and plant or fungal cells have been used in artificial tissue engineering to produce new materials for mechanical and electrical uses. In particular using Candida albicans cells cyborg tissue [10] materials with temperature sensing properties have been reported. direct brain implants have been used to treat non-congenital (acquired) blindness. a man with acquired blindness. Cells combined with MWCNTs co-precipitated as a specific aggregate of cells and nanotubes that formed a viscous material. a man blinded in adulthood. as it [12] would be prior to amputation. light and has unique mechanical properties. Individual cyborgs[edit] File:Neil Harbisson Cyborg. In current prosthetic applications.[11] Jens Naumann. implants. This novel material can be used in a wide range of electronic applications from heating to sensing and has the potential to open important new avenues to be exploited in electromagnetic shielding for radio frequency electronics and aerospace technology. The effect of cell drying is manifested by their “ghost cell” appearance. The use of sensors in the artificial C-Leg aids in walking significantly by attempting to replicate the user's natural gait. In vision science. being interviewed about his vision BCI on CBS's The Early Show Generally. Prostheses like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some to be the first real steps towards the next generation of real-world cyborg applications. Likewise. The system included . The cyborg obtained is inexpensive. A rather specific physical interaction between MWCNTs and cells was observed by electron microscopy suggesting that the cell wall (the most outer part of fungal and plant cells) may play a major active role in establishing a CNTs network and its stabilization. the C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human leg that has been amputated because of injury or illness.04. One of the first scientists to come up with a working brain interface to restore sight was private researcher William Dobelle. dried cells still acted as a stable matrix for the MWCNT network.

A corporation can be considered as an artificial intelligence that makes use of replaceable human components to function. Immediately after his implant. Initially. networks of roads. corporations. Ray was a Vietnam veteran in Georgia who suffered a stroke. Harbisson explained that he did not feel like a cyborg when he started to use the eyeborg. the implant allowed Jerry to see shades of grey in a limited field of vision at a low frame-rate. Phosphenes are spread out across the visual field in what researchers call the starry-night effect. The second generation device used a more sophisticated implant enabling better mapping of phosphenes into coherent vision. His prosthetic device was included within his 2004 passport photograph which has been [19] [20] claimed to confirm his cyborg status. a British scientist. Social cyborgs[edit] More broadly. the full term "cybernetic organism" is used to describe larger networks of communication and control. networks of software. became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle's second generation implant.cameras mounted on glasses to send signals to the implant. With this in place he successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the Internet to control a robotic hand. under the heading Bridging the Island of the Colourblind Project. The surgery went successfully. but shrinking electronics and faster computers made his artificial eye more [13] portable and now enable him to perform simple tasks unassisted. Philip Kennedy. For example. In 2002. where V is value and N is number of connected people. Ray's body. People at all ranks can be considered replaceable agents of their functionally intelligent government institutions. he started to feel like a cyborg when he noticed [20] that the software and his brain had united and given him an extra sense. Kevin Warwick. a loudspeaker and amplifier. as doctor's called it. This is a form of extended sensory input and the first direct electronic communication between the nervous systems of two [16][17] humans. This also required him to be hooked up to a two-ton mainframe. cities. Canadian Jens Naumann. but in 2002. markets. and the collection of these things together. a scientist and physician designed the world's first human cyborg named Johnny Ray. was "locked in". In 1997. Unfortunately. had an array of 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the Internet. The example above is reminiscent of the "organic paradigm" popular in the late 19th century due to the era's breakthroughs in understanding of cellular biology. marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. In 2002. started wearing an eyeborg on his head in order to hear [18] colors. Jaap van Till tries to quantify this effect with his Synthecracy Network Law: V ~ N !. whether such a view is desirable or not. Cyborg proliferation in society[edit] . In 2004. This factorial growth is what he claims leads to a herd or hive like thinking between large. also blinded in adulthood. Neil Harbisson. a British and completely color-blind artist. [14] Johnny Ray passed away. Ray wanted his old life back so he agreed to Kennedy's experiment. In 2012 at TEDGlobal. Kennedy embedded a Neurotrophic Electrode near the part of Ray's brain so that Ray would be able to have some movement back in his body. governments. under the heading Project Cyborg. Jens was able to use his [15] imperfectly restored vision to drive slowly around the parking area of the research institute. electronically connected groups.

[24] enabling him a complex range of motions beyond that of previous prosthetics. or [23] bionic ear. through anesthesia. as well as other. and it is the principle of optimal performance: maximising output (the information or modifications obtained) and minimising input (the [22] energy expended in the process)". or BCI. Deep brain stimulation is a neurological surgical procedure used for therapeutic purposes. endurance. such as limitations on speed. titled "Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human. there are two important and different types of cyborgs: the restorative and the enhanced. normative limitations such as aging and disease. By 2004. a fully [25] functioning artificial heart was developed. in favor of definition in terms of upgrades. bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely. . most notably those with severe cases. Thus. The continued technological development of bionic and nanotechnologies begins to raise the question of enhancement. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. strength.This section possibly contains original research. Like all invasive procedures. On the contrary. and of the future possibilities for cyborgs which surpass the original functionality of the biological model." Jesse Sullivan became one of the first people to operate a fully robotic limb through a nerve-muscle graft. Tourette syndrome. (November 2007) In medicine[edit] In medicine. Research of Invasive BCIs. It is possible that this technology will also eventually be [27] used with healthy people. [21] Restorative technologies "restore lost function. After the patient is unconscious. and [26] utility. effectively creating a cyborg. the enhanced cyborg "follows a principle. There is no enhancement to the original faculties and processes that were lost. Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice. A brain-computer interface. are implanted into the region of the brain where the cause of the disease is present. The region of the brain is then stimulated by bursts of electrical current to disrupt the oncoming surge of seizures. namely. and limbs". The ethics and desirability of "enhancement prosthetics" have been debated. with its belief that new technologies can assist the human race in developing beyond its present. The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is the repair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function. epilepsy. This technology could enable people who are missing a limb or are in a wheelchair the power to control the devices that aide them through neural signals sent from the brain implants directly to computers or the devices. the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present. organs. more general incapacities. their proponents include the transhumanist movement. has focused on restoring damaged eyesight in the blind and providing functionality to paralyzed people. This process has aided in treating patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. Opponents of the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such technologies. and mental disorders. chronic headaches. versions. such as Locked-In syndrome. which utilize electrodes implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. brain pacemakers or electrodes.Alzheimer's disease. and intelligence. a bias towards functionality and efficiency that may compel assent to a view of human people which de-emphasizes as defining characteristics actual manifestations of humanity and personhood. Michael Chorost wrote a memoir of his experience with cochlear implants. provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device.

A similar process has been created to aide people who have lost their vocal cords. The initial success of the techniques has resulted in increased research and the creation of a program called Hybrid-Insect-MEMS. Professor of Chemistry. such as on the frames of their glasses. The transmission of sound would start with a surgery to redirect the nerve that controls the voice and sound production to a muscle in the neck. The signals would then move to a processor which would control the timing and pitch of a voice simulator. the Mark Hyman Jr. which converts the image into a pattern of electrical stimulation. The insect's motion would be controlled from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) and could conceivably [31] survey an environment or detect explosives and gas. according to DARPA's Microsystems Technology Office. there have been more [28] improvements in recent years with deep brain stimulation than any available drug treatment. The results. The first insect cyborgs. A specialized camera is worn by the subject. Its goal.) While work to perfect this technology is still being done. Lieber. researchers at Cornell University invented a new surgical procedure to implant artificial [34][35] structures into insects during their metamorphic development. That simulator would then vibrate producing a multitonal sound which could be shaped into words by [29] the mouth. a Harvard Medical [30] School Anesthesiology Professor at Boston Children's Hospital. In the military[edit] Military organizations' research has recently focused on the utilisation of cyborg animals for the purposes of a supposed tactical advantage. on roaches. 2012 article from Harvard University's homepage. If technological advances proceed as planned this technology may be used by thousands of blind people and restore vision to most of them. moths with integrated electronics in their thorax. In 2006. with possible medical implications done by Charles M. HI-MEMS. proceeds to discuss three dimensional cyborg tissue research. published in the journal Nature Materials. Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization in medicine. and Daniel Kohane. although [33] . A chip located in the user's eye would then electrically stimulate the retina with this pattern by exciting certain nerve endings which transmit the image to the optic centers of the brain and the image would then appear to the user. The use of neural implants has recently been attempted. by Peter Reuell of the Harvard Gazette. is to develop "tightly coupled machine-insect interfaces [38] by placing micro-mechanical systems inside the insects during the early stages of metamorphosis". there have already been major advances in the use of electronic stimulation of the retina to allow the eye to sense patterns of light. where a nearby sensor would be able to pick up its electrical signals. Surgically applied electrodes were put on the insect. This experimental device would do away with previously used robotic sounding voice simulators. with success. The theory behind retinal stimulation to restore vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss due to aging (conditions in which people have an abnormally low amount of ganglion cells) is that the retinal implant and electrical stimulation would act as a substitute for the missing ganglion cells (cells which connect the eye to the brain. However. Similarly. were demonstrated by the same [36][37] researchers. DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks.deep brain stimulation may put the patient at a higher risk. which were remotely controlled by a human. DARPA has announced its interest in developing "cyborg insects" to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. An August 26. The shark's unique senses would then be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy ship movement or underwater [32] explosives.

Between 1976 –1988 he completed 25 body suspension performances with hooks into the skin. funded by the DARPA HI-MEMS Program. This was followed later that year by the demonstration of wireless control of a "lift[42] assisted" moth-cyborg. Hawkinson's [47] piece Emoter presented how society is now dependent on technology. Wafaa Bilal is an Iraqi-American performance artist who had a small 10 megapixel digital camera [48] surgically implanted into the back of his head. Engineers at the University of California at Berkeley have pioneered the design of a "remote controlled beetle". He has made three films of the inside of his body and has performed with a third hand and a virtual arm. beginning 15 December 2010. Composers such as Brian Eno have developed and utilized software which can build entire musical scores from a few basic mathematical [50] parameters. The site also displays Bilal's location via GPS. rats and pigeons. For the HI-MEMS cybernetic bug to be considered a success. it must fly 100 metres (330 ft) from a starting point. Machines are becoming more ubiquitous in the artistic process itself. part of a project entitled 3rd I. This is perhaps most notable in generative art and music. However. these can range from paintings to installations.sometimes different. DARPA is now funding this research because of its obvious beneficial [39] applications to the military and other areas In 2009 at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) conference in Italy. making it a publicly accessible [45] acoustical organ for people in other places.R. Eventually researchers plan to develop HI-MEMS for dragonflies. Lee Bul. with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper. an image is captured once per minute 24 hours a day and streamed live to www. basically showed that the roach could be controlled by the impulses it received through the electrodes. H. and so Bilal has been asked to ensure that his camera does not [49] take photographs in NYU buildings. and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. virtual reality systems. many artists have tried to create public awareness of cybernetic organisms. ." As a professor at NYU. Filmed evidence of this can be [41] viewed here. Tim Hawkinson andStelarc. researchers demonstrated the first "wireless" flying-beetle [40] cyborg. For one year. bees. Giger. this project has raised privacy issues. guided via computer into a controlled landing within 5 metres (16 ft) of a specific end point. Steve Mann. Patricia Piccinini. where human features are combined with technology to create the Cyborg. Tim Hawkinson promotes the idea that bodies and machines are coming together as one. Orlan. Stelarc is a performance artist who has visually probed and acoustically amplified his body. intimate and involuntary interfaces with the body. Some artists who create such works are Neil Harbisson. [43] Once landed. prosthetics. Wafaa Bilal. He uses medical instruments. the Internet and biotechnology to explore alternate.me and the Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art. [43][44] In art[edit] The concept of the cyborg is often associated with science fiction. For 'Third Ear' he surgically constructed an extra ear within his arm that was internet enabled. the cybernetic bug must remain in place. He is presently performing as his avatar from [46] his second life site.3rdi. Bilal says that the reason why he put the camera in the back of the head was to make an [49] "allegorical statement about the things we don't see and leave behind. robotics.

Hypothetical [59][60] technologies such as digital tattoo interfaces would blend body modification aesthetics with interactivity and functionality. While not yet cyborgs in the strict definition of Manfred Clynes and [56] Nathan Kline. The Six Million Dollar Man. His Electric Sheep project generates abstract art by combining the work of many computers and people over the [51] internet. This may range from technological instruments being external. In body modification[edit] As medical technology becomes more advanced. and Cylons from the 2004 Battlestar Galactica series. Nonetheless. describes "cyborgization" as an attempt to codify "normalization" through cochlear implantation in young deaf children. would likely argue that most cyborg artists do not qualify to be considered [52] cyborgs. it can be expected for them to [55] incorporate the cyborg idea rather than a strict. and removable to being fully integrated and [54] permanent. In popular culture[edit] Main article: Cyborgs in fiction See also: List of fictional cyborgs Cyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literature and other media. Artists that seek to make cyborg-based fantasies a reality often call themselves cyborg artists. Although many of these characters may be technically androids. from sculptures and drawings to digital renderings. Daleks andCybermen from Doctor Who. augmented [57] [58] reality and QR codes are bridging the disconnect between technology and the body. Kamen Rider. temporary. Being so. technological developments like implantable silicon silk electronics. How an artist or their work may be considered cyborg will vary depending upon the interpreter's flexibility with the term. From manga and anime are characters such as 8 Man (the inspiration for RoboCop). Scholars considering a more flexible description of cyborgs may argue it incorporates [53] more than cybernetics. Terminators. Drawing from Paddy Ladd's work on Deaf epistemology and Donna Haraway's Cyborg ontology. or specialized cyborg types. Well-known examples from film and television include RoboCop. technical description of cyborg. seeing how [52] their work will sometimes revolve around other purposes outside of cyborgism. the Borg from Star Trek. Clynes and Nathan S. . some techniques and innovations are adopted by the body modification community. Kline's first use of the term. as does the Syndicate series. technical representation of the term. Ghost in the Shell's Motoko Kusanagi. or may consider their artwork "cyborg". Cyborgization in critical deaf studies[edit] Joseph Michael Valente. that qualify different levels of cyborg at which technology influences an individual. The Deus Ex videogame series deals extensively with the near-future rise of cyborgs and their corporate ownership. often going by Norbert Weiner's cybernetic theory and Manfred E. as well as characters from western comic books like Tony Stark (after his Extremis and Bleeding Edge armor) and Victor "Cyborg" Stone. they are often referred to as cyborgs. cyborg artists are artists. Darth Vader and General Grievous from Star Wars. Inspector Gadget. Evangelion. Some work to make an abstract idea of technological and human-bodily union apparent to reality in an art form utilizing varying mediums. Artists as cyborgs[edit] Artists have explored the term cyborg from a perspective involving imagination. bringing a transhumanist way of life into present day reality. Valente "use[s] the concept of the cyborg as a way of agitating constructions of cyborg perfection (for the deaf child that would be to become fully hearing)". Replicants from Blade Runner. Scholars that rely upon a strict. Others may speak of defining subcategories.Scott Draves is a generative artist whose work is explicitly described as a "cyborg mind".

and Figueroa-Sarriera. Spanish film director Rafel Duran Torrent. (1960) "Cyborgs and space. Clynes. The Cyborg Handbook. Kincheloe discusses the representation of the cochlear implant in media and popular culture as a case study for present and future responses to human alteration and [62] enhancement. September. 8." in Astronautics (September 1960). 2013. Cyborg Foundation[edit] In 2010. Clynes and Nathan S. pp. paperback: ISBN 0-415-90849-3) 7. Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman (New York: Harper and Row Publishers. Bruce. Jump up^ OED On-line [dead link] Jump up^ "Cyborg:Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer". and Nathan S. (hardback: ISBN 0-415-90848-5. 1985. New York: Routledge. The foundation's main aims are to extend human senses [65] and abilities by creating and applying cybernetic extensions to the body. organized by Tecnocampus [67] Mataró. Jump up^ D. The foundation was created by cyborg Neil Harbisson and Moon Ribas as a response to the growing amount of letters and emails received from people around the [64] world interested in becoming a cyborg. was the overall winner of the Cre@tic Awards. eds.org/xpl/articleDetails. 7. Jump up^ http://ieeexplore. by Manfred E. Kline.He claims that cochlear implant manufacturers advertise and sell cochlear implants as a mechanical device as well as an uncomplicated medical "miracle cure". the Cyborg Foundation became the world's first international organization dedicated to help [63] humans become cyborgs. Technology. 9. created a short film about the Cyborg Foundation.000 USD. based in Mataró (Barcelona). By EyeTap. pp. and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century by Donna Haraway 5.mrs. despite cochlear implants having been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since [61] 1984.ieee. Mentor. the film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival's Focus Forward [68] Filmmakers Competition and was awarded with $100. 6.org/s13-program-ss/ 10. the foundation. Arbor House. 2." Astronautics. Jump up^ http://www. Schismatrix. to promote the use of [66] cybernetics in cultural events and to defend cyborg rights. Retrieved July 4. 1965). 26–27 and 74–75. In 2010. 1995.jsp?arnumber=6409466 . In 2012. See also[edit]  Biorobotics References[edit] 1. Jump up^ "Cyborgs and Space [1]. 29–34. Halacy. Kline. 3. 4. Jump up^ Technology as extension of human functional architecture by Alexander Chislenko Jump up^ A Cyborg Manifesto: Science. In 2013.. Valente criticizes cochlear implant researchers whose studies largely to date do not include cochlear implant recipients. S. Jump up^ Manfred E. Jump up^ Sterling. reprinted in Gray. Pamela J.

2012 15.1 & p. 27 June 2012. EBSCO. Michael. Jump up^ Baker. Michel. p. Chris Hables. Academic Search Complete. Jump up^ *Miah. 1995 22. p. Jump up^ Warwick. Chuck." Technology Review 111. ed. Jump up^ Macintyre. "Re-wiring the Body. 8 Mar. 18 January 2005 [dead link] 12. by Marisa Jahn. 2008) p.319 ISBN 978-3-540-75273-8 19. Jump up^ Otto Bock HealthCare : a global leader in healthcare products | Otto Bock 13. Springer (New York." Artificial Organs 28. 2008). Web. M. pp. P.11. 8 Mar. 8 Mar. Jay. "Colour-blind artist learns to paint by hearing". Daily Planet.  Ingram. Emma Rich: The Medicalization of Cyberspace Routledge (New York. James BMI: the research that holds the key to hope for millions. Jump up^ Byproduct: On the Excess of Embedded Art Practices. Ronchi: Eculture: Cultural Content in the Digital Age. The Daily Telegraph. ^ Jump up to: a b "I listen to color". Jump up^ Alfredo M. Web. Emma. IEEProceedings on Communications. 151(3). Jump up^ Chorost. "The Naked Ear. September 2002 14. EBSCO.1 (2008): 72 –74. Routledge (New York.15 (2005): 67–72. Jean François: The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge. 2009). The Cyborg Handbook. 1984 23. 2010. YYZBOOKS. "Cyborgs and Stem Cells". 2010.2 (2004): 161–165. K." Design News 60. 24 February 2008. 25. La Contra de La Vanguardia.10 (2008): 50.232-235 ISBN 978-0-14-317786-9   Gordon. H and Wu. et al. 2010). Richard. Wired Magazine. TED Global. 24. Alfredo M. Jump up^ Haddad. Jump up^ Gray. p. 2010. "Rise Of The Cyborgs.130 ISBN 978-0-415-37622-8  Brooks. Bryony. Web. The medicalization of cyberspace. 2009). Research TV. The Ultimate Book of Everyday Science.185–189. Penguin (Canada. 10 July 2010. 2010 December 4th 18. 12 January 2005. Jump up^ Murray. Sherry. Academic Search Complete. The Independent 29 May 2008 16. Web. Jump up^ Andy Miah.319 ISBN 978-3-540-75273-8   "La veo en blanco y negro pero la oigo en colores"." Discover 29. 21. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. The Sunday Times. Springer (New York. "Improved Early Survival with the Total Artificial Heart. Andy / Rich. Hutt. Kyberd. I. p. Goodhew. B. X: "Thought Communication and Control: A First Step using Radiotelegraphy". "Eyes opened to sound of socks". . Ronchi: Eculture: Cultural Content in the Digital Age. 4 Nov. New York: Routledge. Science Reference Center. EBSCO. Jump up^ Vision quest. Academic Search Complete.130 (Hardcover:ISBN 978-0-415-37622-8 Papercover: ISBN 978-0-415-39364-5) 20. Jump up^ Lyotard. Schulzrinne. Gasson. 2004 17.

Sky. "Surgically Implanted Micro-platforms and Microsystems in Arthropods and Methods Based Thereon". Jump up^ Cyborg beetles to be the US military's latest weapon. 2006 Solid State Sensor and Actuator Workshop. Gilmour R. Web. 34.. Jump up^ Bozkurt A. Retrieved 2013-04-09. EBSCO. Jump up^ Judy. but now I see. (17 February 2013). Jump up^ Ornes. 1727 –33. Retrieved on 29 August 2011. 8 Mar.. Academic Search Complete. 41. Academic Search Complete. Bonnie. 40. Jump up^ Baker. 37.. DARPA Microsystems Technology Office. 2011. The Guardian(London)." Discover 30. Retrieved 23 February 2013. Academic Search Complete.. "Was blind. Retrieved on 29 August 2011. Lal A. Kobe. BBC News. LiveScience (7 March 2006). (2007) Microprobe Microsystem Platform Inserted During Early Metamorphosis to Actuate Insect Flight Muscle. EBSCO. Stern D. "Hybrid Insect MEMS (HI-MEMS)". AZ. EBSCO. Jump up^ Paul A.. Bozkurt A. 2010. "The race to create 'insect cyborgs'"." 11. Jump up^ Lal A. Lal A. Jump up^ Bozkurt A. Ewer J. Paul A. Stern D. E. 56:6. "RISE OF THE CYBORGS. Jump up^ Military Plans Cyborg Sharks.5 (2009): 14. 33. Insect Machine Interface Based Neuro Cybernetics. Paul A. Washington Times (13 March 2006). Christian Century Foundation. 2010." Journal of Evolution & Technology 19. Jump up^ Anthes.. Jump up^ http://news. Jump up^ Military seeks to develop 'insect cyborgs'. Bozkurt A. YouTube (28 October 2009). "Alzheimer's: Deep brain stimulation 'reverses' disease". 29.. pp. 36. Sinha A. Web. Gilmour R. January 2007. 35. "THE PENTAGON'S BEETLE BORGS. Jump up^ Bozkurt A. Web. pp. 405–408. Academic Search Complete.. 9 Mar.10 (2008): 50–57.edu/gazette/story/2012/08/merging-the-biological-electronic/ 31. "Becoming More Than Human: Technology and the Post-Human Condition Introduction. 39. . 2007. James (28 November 2011). Tucson.harvard. 21st IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2008). Retrieved on 29 August 2011.26. Jump up^ Marsen. pp 209–211. JAPAN. Blossey B. pp. January 2008. Jump up^ Gallagher. 20th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2007). Gilmour R. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. Stephen. 2010. US Patent Application # US20100025527. 32. 160 –163. 28. (2008) MEMS based Bioelectronic Neuromuscular Interfaces for Insect Cyborg Flight Control. Ramkumar R. Lal A (2009). EBSCO. Web. 27.. Filed on 12/11/2007. Hilton Head Island. Ewer J.. Archived from the original on February 10. Blossey B. Jack. June 2006. 30." Discover 29. 1 Mar. Ewer J.1 (2008): 1 –5. Jump up^ Thurston. Pulla S. Sherry. (2006) Surgically Implanted Micro-Platforms in Manduca-Sexta. Lal A. 8 Mar. 2010. 38.

de. "Cyborg Bodies.com. Wired. M/C Journal. ^ Jump up to: a b Wafaa Bilal. Jump up^ Extended-Body: Interview with Stelarc.edu.ongruo.doi:10. The End of the Progressive Body: Editorial".theglobeandmail. Retrieved on 29 August 2011. Retrieved on 29 August 2011. inc. "The intimate control of insects with embedded microsystems will enable insect cyborgs. Turkey. "Cyborg The artist as cyborg". 46. medienkunstnetz. In Motion Magazine. Missing or empty|title= (help) 57. 18 Mar."Automan. Pamela (2010). 60. Charlie (20 November 2009). 50. Retrieved on 29 August 2011. 51. Jump up^ [5] 59. Jump up^ Bozkurt A. ^ Jump up to: a b Guizzo. 1 Mar 2010. 2012. Jump up^ [4] 58. Jump up^ Volkart. Web. Bing. Joseph Michael (2011). Jump up^ Man Has Camera Screwed Into Head – Bing Videos. 18 February 2011. Jump up^ Generative Music – Brian Eno. Stanford.com/What_is_a_Cyborg%3F 55." 45. | http://www. "Hybrid Insect MEMS (HI-MEMS)".us/2010/12/29/cybernetics-in-art-and-the-myth-ofthe-cyborg-artist/ 53. 48. |http://cyborganthropology.1177/1077800411414006. . Jump up^ "What is a Cyborg? ". Huffington Post. Jack. "The Illustrated Man: How LED Tattoos Could Make Your Skin a Screen". Jump up^ [3] 52. 2011. DARPA Microsystems Technology Office. 62. Eric.technologyreview. such as a microphone or a gas sensor. (2009) Radio Control of Insects for Biobotic Domestication.com/computing/23847/page1/. 49. Qualitative Inquiry 17 (7): 639–652. IEEE Spectrum. Kate. Jump up^ http://www. Gets Camera Implanted In Head.us. 4th International Conference of the IEEE Neural Engineering (NER'09).com. to relay back information gathered from the target destination. Jump up^ [6] 61.42. Retrieved on 29 August 2011. Web. "Moth Pupa + MEMS Chip = Remote Controlled Cyborg Insect. 29 December 2010. Yvonne. Jump up^ Sorrel. Retrieved on 29 August 2011. Tfaoi. March 5. Retrieved 2013-04-09. theglobeandmail. Tom. Archived from the original on February 10.com/news/arts/the-artist-as-cyborg/article1913032/ 56. 2012. March 9. NYU Artist. Jump up^ Taylor.. Jump up^ [2] 47. 2012.medienkunstnetz.de/themes/cyborg_bodies/editorial/1/ 54. "Cyborgization: Deaf Education for Young Children in the Cochlear Implantation Era". "Cybernetics in Art and the Myth of the Cyborg Artist". March 9.com. Lal A. Jump up^ Kincheloe. | http://inc. "Do Androids Dream of Electric Speech: The Construction of Cochlear Implant Identity on American Television and the "New Deaf Cyborg"". CyborgAnthropology. 43. Jump up^ Tim Hawkinson. Jump up^ Valente. which could carry one or more sensors. Antalya. Jump up^ Judy.ongruo. 2012. Gilmour R. ^ Jump up to: a b Tenney. 44. |http://www.com (25 September 2005). 17 Feb 2009.

Chris Hables. Chris Hables. 103–118. 67. Clark. La Vanguardia. Susan Stryker andStephen Whittle. Cyborgs. "From Cyborg Fiction to Medical Reality. 33. Gray. Mechanical Bodies. eds.Vol.63. "Bodies That Matter: Science Fiction. The Uncanny: Experiments in Cyborg Culture. Haraway. Natural-Born Cyborgs. Franchi. and Ira Livingston. 2006)." Literature and Medicine 20. Jump up^ García. Technology and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century. Halacy. Avui. Judith. Ll. Grenville. . Jump up^ Rottenschlage. Bruce. and Austin Booth. Cyborg. Eds. D. Cambridge. 22 January 2013  Haraway. Routledge & Kegan Paul. Posthuman Bodies. and Women. 2005. Sabine: The Artificial Human. 1. and the Gendered Body. pp. 3 Jan 2011. Jump up^ Redacción "Una fundación se dedica a convertir humanos en ciborgs" El Comercio (Peru). 1965. 1 Mar 2011." Ethics & the Environment 7.. Bern. pp. Mass. New York: Routledge. Steve "Cyborg Foundation" wins $100K Focus Forward prize. 65. and Güven Güzeldere. Computational Minds: Artificial Intelligence from Automata to Cyborgs. 1 March 2011. 20 Nov 2010 68. S. The Reinvention of Nature. Donna. 64. Andy. 66. "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science. Craig. Klugman. Kurzweil.2 (Autumn 2002): 127–152. Andreas "The Sound of the Cyborg" The Red Bulletin. 1996.: MIT Press. Jump up^ Pond. 1995. Reload: Rethinking Women + Cyberculture. "Self-Deselection: Technopsychotic Annihilation via Cyborg. ed. Flanagan. New York: Harper & Row. Cyborg Citizen: Politics in the Posthuman Age. eds. ed. 1995. Technoculture. Kaye. 109– 128  Further reading[edit]                Balsamo. No. The Cyborg Handbook. New York: Routledge. Arsenal Pulp Press.. 1990. Durham: Duke University Press. Frankfurt/M. Crittenden. New York: Arbor House. 1 Mar 2011. F. 2002.1 (Spring 2001): 39–54. 2006. Halberstam. New York 2011 "The Artificial Human" Gray. New York: Routledge. 2004. Anne. Technoculture and Science Fiction (Mar. Chicago Tribune. 2001. 1972.C. Caidin. Mitchell. Ray." The Transgender Studies Reader." Science Fiction Studies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 2002. "La Fundació Cyborg s'endú el primer premi dels Cre@tic". Horst Albert and Rossbach. "Nace una fundación dedicada a convertir humanos en ciborgs". Oxford: Oxford University Press. Martin. Stefano. A Novel. Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman. Jump up^ Martínez. Donna. Chris. Glaser. Viking. MIT Press. Technologies of the Gendered Body: Reading Cyborg Women. Albert ""Les noves tecnologies seran part del nostre cos i extensió del cervell"" La Tribuna. Mary. Simians. Jump up^ Calls. The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology . 2005.

S. I. The science fiction encyclopaedia. The science fiction handbook for readers and writers. From Reconstruction to the Augmentation of the Human Body in Restorative Medicine and in Cybernetics THESIS in Biological and Cultural Anthropology (2011). Simpson and E. Yoshito Ikada. p.5 (October 2004): 372–373. Rushing." Cinema Journal 44. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Muri. Body & Society 9. Elrick. 1979. Projecting the Shadow: The Cyborg Hero in American Film. LeiLani. Smith.Cyborg. "Cyborgs". Vol 4 p. Cambridge. 34–49. David. Of Shit and the Soul: Tropes of Cybernetic Disembodiment.au/31911/ Nishime. Allison. Garden City. 1971. http://eprints." Leonardo 37. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.C. 2003. 2004. Chicago: Chicago Review Press. Unknown parameter |media=ignored (help) Mitchell. Garden City. associate editor.qut. William. David M.Y. and Joanne Morra. 188. and Thomas S. 151. N. 2005. Marquard. Weiner. ISBN 019-504994-2.3 (2003): 73–92. ISBN 0-385-65825-7 (A paperback version also exists. Ghost in the Shell. 2006. p.: MIT Press. MIT Press. Endnotes. Retrieved 28 October 2008. The Enlightenment Cyborg: A History of Communications and Control in the Human Machine. Me++: The Cyborg Self and the Networked City. University of Illinois Press.edu. Steve. Malcolm Edwards. Frentz. By George S. Janice Hocker. eds. 1995. The Prosthetic Impulse: From a Posthuman Present to a Biocultural Future. 1978. Rorvik. 1660–1830. and Hal Niedzviecki.2 (Winter 2005). Nicogossian. Judith.  Mann. The Oxford English dictionary. ISBN 0-385-65826-5). Mann. Carolyn Eardley. 1991. Muri. Kodansha ISBN 4-7700-2919-5. Kevin. Blackwell 2008. General editor. Warwick. Peter Nicholls. contributing editors. 2nd ed.: Doubleday. Mass. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Steve.Y. Mertz. Allison. 1st ed. "Telematic Tubs against Terror: Bathing in the Immersive Interactive Media of the Post-Cyborg Age. 2001. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. As Man Becomes Machine: the Evolution of the Cyborg. "The Mulatto Cyborg: Imagining a Multiracial Future. edited by J. 1989.A. technical editor. John Clute. Bio Materials: an approach to Artificial Organs                . Brian Stableford. 77. N. International Encyclopedia of Communications. Masamune Shirow.: Doubleday. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer Doubleday.

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