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Lecture 13: Variational and WR Formulations.

Up until now we have focused on the DSM


Step 1: Set the element type. Step 2: Define the displacement function. Step 3: Define the stress-strain relationships. Step 4: Derive the element equations.

A logical process that relates nodal loads to nodal displacements. Step 4 is logical for structural problems.

Between steps 3 and 4 there is a crossroads at which the method of solution and the focus of the solution changes slightly when we apply variational or WR methods.
MECH 420: Finite Element Applications

Lecture 13: Variational and WR Formulations.

For example, lets go back to Step 3 of the bar element derivation:


du x = dx and x = E x

As the bar must be in static equilibrium.


d ( A x ) =0 dx d ( EA x ) =0 dx d du =0 EA dx dx

A x = const
This is a second order differential equation that is eerily similar to that shown on the board in Lecture #1. In the variational or MWR forms of the FEM, we want to get the best approximate of the true solution u(x).

MECH 420: Finite Element Applications

Lecture 13: Variational and WR Formulations.

Objectives of Lecture #13 and Lecture #14.

Review the concept of virtual work.

Use an example of virtual work as applied to a rigid body (DAlemberts principal). Move on to virtual work as applied to a differential cube of elastic material.

Relate the virtual work principle to a natural variational principle: the conservation of potential energy. Apply the variational principle to the derivation of spring, bar, and beam equations.

2.6 (springs), 3.10 (bars), 4.7 (beams).

Show how Galerkins MWR is equivalent to any naturally occuring variational principal.
MECH 420: Finite Element Applications

Lecture 13: Variational and WR Formulations.

The principle of virtual work as applied to rigid bodies (MECH 330).

External generalized forces: Spring force. Applied force. Damping force. The method of virtual work was originally intended for static systems. Based on a equilibrium of applied loads. DAlembert (1717-1783). Coined the term inertial force or dynamic load. This new view of inertia permits dynamic equations to be written in the form of an equilibrium statement.
MECH 420: Finite Element Applications

O1

O2

Lecture 13: Variational and WR Formulations.

Considering the relationships that exist in a three dimensional state of stress/strain.


Strain Stress

du du dv x = , xy = + dx dy dx dv dv dw y = , yz = + dy dz dy dw du dw z = , xy = + dz dz dx

x = x E y y = E

xy - y - z , xy = E E G yz - x - z , yz = E E G

z = z - x - y , xz = xz E G E E

MECH 420: Finite Element Applications

Lecture 13: Variational and WR Formulations.

We introduce a matrix notation for the state of strain and stress in a body:
= { x y z xy yz xz } = { x y z = D
G G G G
T

Spatial stress vector Spatial strain vector


E ( ) (1 + )(1 2 ) E ( ) (1 + )(1 2 ) E (1 ) (1 + )(1 2 ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G 0 0 G 0 G 0 0

xy yz xz }

Elasticity Matrix

E (1 ) (1 + )(1 2 ) D= SYM

E ( ) (1 + )(1 2 ) E (1 ) (1 + )(1 2 )

MECH 420: Finite Element Applications

Lecture 13: Variational and WR Formulations.

Greens theorum permits us to write out a weak form of the equilibrium equations.

MECH 420: Finite Element Applications

Lecture 13: Variational and Weighted Residual Methods.

Rather than integrating over the full domain of the original problem, integrate over an element domain.

The element can be a well defined region. Simplifies the integral evaluation.

MECH 420: Finite Element Applications

Lecture 13: Variational and WR Formulations.

The principle of virtual work illustrates the synergy of variational and Galerkin formulations.

MECH 420: Finite Element Applications