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# Lecture 13: Variational and WR Formulations.

## Up until now we have focused on the DSM

Step 1: Set the element type. Step 2: Define the displacement function. Step 3: Define the stress-strain relationships. Step 4: Derive the element equations.

A logical process that relates nodal loads to nodal displacements. Step 4 is logical for structural problems.

Between steps 3 and 4 there is a crossroads at which the method of solution and the focus of the solution changes slightly when we apply variational or WR methods.
MECH 420: Finite Element Applications

## For example, lets go back to Step 3 of the bar element derivation:

du x = dx and x = E x

## As the bar must be in static equilibrium.

d ( A x ) =0 dx d ( EA x ) =0 dx d du =0 EA dx dx

A x = const
This is a second order differential equation that is eerily similar to that shown on the board in Lecture #1. In the variational or MWR forms of the FEM, we want to get the best approximate of the true solution u(x).

## Review the concept of virtual work.

Use an example of virtual work as applied to a rigid body (DAlemberts principal). Move on to virtual work as applied to a differential cube of elastic material.

Relate the virtual work principle to a natural variational principle: the conservation of potential energy. Apply the variational principle to the derivation of spring, bar, and beam equations.

## 2.6 (springs), 3.10 (bars), 4.7 (beams).

Show how Galerkins MWR is equivalent to any naturally occuring variational principal.
MECH 420: Finite Element Applications

## The principle of virtual work as applied to rigid bodies (MECH 330).

External generalized forces: Spring force. Applied force. Damping force. The method of virtual work was originally intended for static systems. Based on a equilibrium of applied loads. DAlembert (1717-1783). Coined the term inertial force or dynamic load. This new view of inertia permits dynamic equations to be written in the form of an equilibrium statement.
MECH 420: Finite Element Applications

O1

O2

## Considering the relationships that exist in a three dimensional state of stress/strain.

Strain Stress

du du dv x = , xy = + dx dy dx dv dv dw y = , yz = + dy dz dy dw du dw z = , xy = + dz dz dx

x = x E y y = E

xy - y - z , xy = E E G yz - x - z , yz = E E G

z = z - x - y , xz = xz E G E E

## Lecture 13: Variational and WR Formulations.

We introduce a matrix notation for the state of strain and stress in a body:
= { x y z xy yz xz } = { x y z = D
G G G G
T

## Spatial stress vector Spatial strain vector

E ( ) (1 + )(1 2 ) E ( ) (1 + )(1 2 ) E (1 ) (1 + )(1 2 ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G 0 0 G 0 G 0 0

xy yz xz }

Elasticity Matrix

E (1 ) (1 + )(1 2 ) D= SYM

E ( ) (1 + )(1 2 ) E (1 ) (1 + )(1 2 )

## Lecture 13: Variational and WR Formulations.

Greens theorum permits us to write out a weak form of the equilibrium equations.

## Lecture 13: Variational and Weighted Residual Methods.

Rather than integrating over the full domain of the original problem, integrate over an element domain.

The element can be a well defined region. Simplifies the integral evaluation.

## Lecture 13: Variational and WR Formulations.

The principle of virtual work illustrates the synergy of variational and Galerkin formulations.