Beginners Lesson One Learn Hangul

The first step in learning Korean is to learn Hangul. Hangul is the name of the Korean alphabet. Before we begin to learn Hangul, let me remind you to set your browser to properly view Korean. Otherwise, all you will see is jibberish. If you scroll down and you see jibberish instead of Korean, please right-click now and go to encoding - Korean. Or, if you need to, refer to the Set-Up Hangul Page.

Learning the Korean Alphabet, Hangul , is a lot easier than trying to learn Romanization of Korean. Throughout your studies, you will run into many resources that will only publish Romanization though. I highly recommend you learn to read Hangul first, as it will be most useful to you. Then later, you should learn Romanization so that you can read the Romanization in those resources and know how to spell it properly in Hangul . Also, many Korean speakers will use Romanization on programs like AOL Instant Messenger, that do not support the Korean alphabet (If you are looking for programs that DO let you use the alphabet, I highly recommend MSN Messenger).
If you still have trouble after this lesson and truly wish to learn Hangul correctly, try out a membership at Learn Korean Now - it's incredibly affordable and will have you reading and writing like a native in no time. The site uses nearly 500 audio files to teach the alphabet - plenty to help you get that pronunciation you deserve!

There are also quizzes to help along the way. Better yet, membership gives you access to all of the premium lessons, not just lessons on Hangul. So just try it, what will it hurt?

NEW: Are you busy working on learning Hangul? If so, practice with this simple and playful tool for learning Korean Hangul letters. First, a few basics on Hangul (Don't worry! You will be reading in Hangul perfectly extremely soon!). Hangul is an alphabet, just like the Roman alphabet English speakers use. The only two differences are Hangul blocks syllables, and there are no lowercase or capitalize letters in Hangul. The letter is always written the same, no matter when it is used. Characters will be stacked into squares to form each syllable. For example ㅎ, ㅏ, and ㄴ are three separate characters. But, as they would form one syllable, they would be written 한 instead of ㅎ ㅏ ㄴ.

ㅎ + ㅏ + ㄴ= 한
want another example?

We then combine syllables to form words, just as we do in English.

한 + 글 = 한글
Recognize that word? That's right! It's Hangul . It consists of han (한) and gul (글). Two syllables. Six characters. As you begin to learn all the different characters, you will see how to construct the syllables properly depending on which character you are using. Just keep this one thing in mind. Every Korean word, syllable, anything...begins with a consonant. A vowel will always follow it, either positioned to the right of it, or below it. With each vowel, I will tell you where it should be positioned. Also, there will be 2,3, or rarely 4 characters in a syllable. 한 is one way of stacking, having the vowel to the right of the first consonant, with the third character under those two. 글 is the other main way of stacking, where the vowel falls below the first consonant, with the third character below the second. A third character will always fall on the bottom. You will never have three characters in a row on the top. I cannot even type an example for you to see, it just can't be done. Below is a table of the characters you will see.
ㅏ ㅣ ㅝ ㅢ ㅂ ㅁ ㅋ ㅓ ㅔ ㅘ ㅛ ㅈ ㄴ ㅌ ㅗ ㅐ ㅞ ㅠ ㄷ ㅇ ㅊ ㅜ ㅑ ㅙ ㅖ ㄱ ㄹ ㅍ ㅡ ㅕ ㅟ ㅒ ㅅ ㅎ

Learn Hangul - 한글 For now, I think it's time to begin! Why not start with the characters that make up Hangul .

The first character is ㅎ It has a couple variations. Generally, it is like an "h" sound. If it is at the beginning of a word, it will sound like an "h". There will be more on this one in Lesson 2. Next comes... ㅏ This is a vowel, and it is an "a" sound, as in father. It pretty much never varies and always has the same sound. Quite a simple character. This vowel will always be placed to the right of the first consonant. It does not fall below the consonant. ㄴ is a character that usually sounds like an "n". It only has one irregular form, which is in Lesson 2. So far, we have a "h" sound, an "a" sound, and a "n" sound. Or, we have ㅎ, ㅏ, and ㄴ. Together, these form the first half of Hangul, 한. Now let's break down the second syllable. ㄱ This is a light "g" or "k" sound. Don't push the air too hard or try and make this sound too heavy, it is a light sound. Don't emphasize the character. Especially at the end of a word, this character is very light. At the end of a word, it is almost as if you don't say the character. ㅡ This a little harder to explain. I think the best way to say it is, it sounds like the "oo" part in "good". Let me phrase this another way... It is like a short 'u', said in the back of the mouth. It is almost like a grunt! Be sure you don't actually grunt though when you say it :) This vowel will always be placed below the first consonant. It does not fall to the right of the consonant. ㄹ

but will be used at the beginning for borrowed words. depending on where it is. If it is at the end of a syllable. At the end of a word. you feel like you are beginning to see how Korean and Hangul are? Are you ready for more? ㅂ This is a common character. almost unheard sound. You can now write 한글 and you can! You can write both in Hangul. If that is the case. do you remember what each of those characters is like? Let's provide a little practice. it will usually be a light "l" sound. Now. but try first! 나 가 낙 하 근 는 See Answers. and the word Hangul. it will have a very light. You may if you need to.This character might be the most complicated character you run into! But I'll be honest. Read these words to yourself. This character is covered very well in Elementary Korean. it will most likely be a rolling "r" sound. It will have a light "b" or "p" sound. and try to not refer to the section above. That's it! You now have learned 6 characters. treat it as it needs to be in order to say the loanword properly. ㅁ .Common Characters So. It does not come at the beginning of a syllable of any Korean word. you will have it down along with all the other characters before the week is over! Think of it as either a light "l" sound. or a rolling "r" sound. 바 pa 밥 bap. Learn Hangul . like loanwords. If it falls between two vowels. 반 ban.

It is the same way in Korean. you must learn it properly. and low. never to the right of it. it sounds like a light "ng" sound in "running".This is a very easy character. as with the experiment before. When words with an O sound comes up. What do you think 마 would sound like? If you said ma. Or. They are very similar. try to think of these are learning to spell. as in awe. Simple. It is as simple as that. ㅗ is like the 'o' in go. One sound. So. Some people will be able to hear the difference if they have a good ear. As simple as that. ㅗ This is another "o" sound. row. pawl. and law. think of it this way. It sounds just like an "m" sound. that's right! ㅇ I think you are ready for a very commonly used character. "ng" sound at the end. It is that ng sound in the back of your throat. This vowel will always be placed to the right of the first consonant. Say the letter O.. This vowel will always appear underneath the first consonant. Shape your mouth as if you were to say the 'o' in 'go'. just learn how it is spelled and leave it at that because they sound so similar. The beginning of the O sound. bow. In English you can't always know how to spell a word. Now make a sound like aw. bawl. The best I can do is say this may be more like the other side of saying O. Let's learn two more. for those who cannot hear the difference. and then have a little practice. Let's look at this in a different way.. is no sound! It makes no sound at all when it is the first consonant in the syllable. . It has two sounds. It is more like a place holder since all Korean syllables must start with a consonant. but do not emphasis the "g" part of it. When it falls at the end of a syllable. never underneath. Make it really really long and say it slow. When spelling and learning Korean. ㅓ This is an "o" sound. Many non native speakers have the problem hearing the difference though at first. The part toward the end in O is more like this. It is hard to explain. Notice where your mouth starts to close in? This sound is the sound before that. They sound very similar. but try this. So the two sounds? No sound at the beginning of a syllable.

ㄱ. Simple as that. ㅎ. ㄹ. ㅡ. "oo" in boot. ㅏ. ㅡ. while vowels consisting of a vertical line will be placed to the right. ㅂ. ㅓ. Go back and review the characters you have learned now.Let's try a few more practice words to read. ㄴ. it is the "ou" part in you. So far we have covered (in order): ㅎ. ㅜ This one is easy. never to the right. ㄴ. ㅇ. ㄱ. If you know what has been said about each so far. ㄹ. ㅇ. ㅓ. Don't believe me? Go back and check!* ㅣ . ㅗ 남 만 밥 반 번 몬 안 방 응 남안 만방 See Answers. ㅂ. move on! ㅁ. *Notice a pattern with placement of vowels? One vowel consisting of a horizontal line will be placed underneath the consonant. Here is a list of them. ㅗ. ㅏ. This vowel always falls below the first consonant. ㅁ.

Notice how instead of one short line. ㅐ This vowel sounds like ea in bear. You will see vowels like ㅠ.ㅛ.This character is easy as well. It played all the time. ㅘ This sounds like wa in water. An example using it would be 미. And these next two things are simple. All other vowels follow the same pattern. and do not ever sound irregular (When could they?!?).Go ahead and try! This vowel is placed to the right of the first consonant. never underneath.ㅕ. and then you know all vowels and everything about them. The vowels are all easy if you just memorize them. The e in met. It sounds like the e in yes. Here are a couple examples. ㅝ. The vowel on the left (long horizontal line) comes first. There are two more things you can learn about vowels. ㅑ. never underneath. never underneath . All the teenagers should know it from the song Hey Ya! by Outkast. I will give two examples. such as ㅘ.. You just run the vowels together into one sound. That sounds just like saying "me" in English. ㅔ This one is pretty similar to the one above. there is a y like sound. ㅑ This sounds like saying Ya in English.ㅒ etc. you will see vowels combined to form a new vowel sound. ㅢ.More On Vowels You have now covered all the basic vowels. Learn Hangul . This vowel always appears to the right of the first consonant. It is the "ee" sound in meet. This vowel always appears to the right of the first consonant. ㅟ. .. Next. there are two? This means that before the vowel sound.ㅖ . ㅠ This sounds like saying "you" in English. You can guess where it is placed.

You also know a few of the consonants in Korean as well. you only hear ㅣ and not the other part. like 시. 봐 과 의 원 줘 The first consonant is written in the top left. It is just how it sounds when spoken. You are now a master at vowels. You will find many consonants sound like a light d sound if they are at the end of a word. you do run the two together however. It is more or less like wee.ㅟ This sounds just like the French oui. it ends with a light d sound. Speaking of mixing these with consonants. Learn Hangul . Let's just take a look at a couple and it will explain itself on how to write them. At the end of a word or before a syllable that begins with a vowel or consonant other than ㅅ. it is usually pronounced like an sh. ㄷ . or for this example. It works just like the others. except if it comes after a consonant. shee. At the beginning of a syllable. Let's finish up the rest of the consonants.More Consonants ㅅ This is a consonant that sounds like an s in English. ㅢ I have chosen to include this one for a special reason. It is a very light s and isn't stressed or anything. Also. before the Korean vowel ㅣ. Any consonant that comes after the vowel sound comes at the bottom.

ㅣ.ㅁ.ㅗ.ㅕ.ㅛ. ㅈ This is a light j sound in between vowels.Speaking of light d sounds.ㅅ. So does 맛 however. At the beginning of the word. See what I mean by ㅅ sounding like a light d sound at the end? 맛 is not mas. We have covered A LOT! Better put.ㅇ. and you know Hangul! But first. It is mat. let's make sure we know what we have covered so far. This is a light d or t sound.ㅠ.ㅜ.ㅏ.ㅐ. it sounds just like an ㅅ and a ㄷ. Are you excited? There are only four more consonants left. At the end of a word.ㅡ. ^-^ 한 줘요 자다 식당 밥을 네 불고기 나무 어디 먹어요 어디 가? 하나 공원 .ㅎ.ㅓ. here it is. 맏 sounds like mat. we have covered ㅂ.ㅈ. That is actually in order of the keyboard.ㄴ.ㅑ. with a very light t sound at the end.ㄱ.ㄷ.ㅔ.ㄹ. it is often heard as a "ch" sound instead.

try to see if you can catch something in common with all of these in relationship to their similar consonant sounds. each contains an extra little line somewhere. but you can try and pronounce it! 한국말을 알아요? 한국말을 사랑해! See Answers. much like ㄷ. ㅊ-ㅈ . except said with more air to it. If you don't know what that means. It is similar to the ㅈ sound. ㅋ this is like kha. they basically are said with more of a puff of air. Look at them and compare them. except is said with more air. Did you catch what is in common in them all? They all look very similar to the other consonants that sound similar! The only thing is. except said with more air to it! ㅊ This is a cha sound.) ㅍ This is the last consonant. The only one that doesn't fit perfectly with this is ㅍ and ㅂ.Aspirated Consonants Here are the final four! These four are aspirated sounds. and last character you will learn in Hangul! It has an airy P sound to it. Similar to ㅂ but with more air. let's try one of these on for size.안녕하세요! Also. It is similar to the ㄱ sound.ㅊ sounds like a cha between vowels. Always a cha sound. Learn Hangul . Also. ㅌ This is a t sound. never a j sound ( ㅈ sounds like a j between vowels. Always. More towards a K sound. Most likely you won't understand it.

It is often difficult at first but eventually you will be able to hear the subtle differences. followed by consonants. ㅏ ㅓ ㅗ ㅜ ㅡ ㅣ ㅔ ㅐ ㅑ ㅕ ㅛ ㅠ ㅖ .List Of Characters Here is a list of all the characters. Vowels are written first. Learn Hangul .ㅌ-ㄷ ㅋ-ㄱ ㅍ-ㅂ If you are lucky enough to own Rosetta Stone Korean Level 1 then you will easily be able to hear the differences between the similar characters.

ㅒ ㅘ ㅝ ㅞ ㅙ ㅢ ㅟ ㅂ ㅈ ㄷ ㄱ ㅅ ㅁ ㄴ ㅇ ㄹ ㅎ ㅋ ㅌ ㅊ .

ㄲ.ㅆ.ㅉ. You can consider these seperate characters if you wish. .ㄸ. you will see some consonants doubled up. or just think of them as being stronger with more voice to them. 한국말을 재미 있어요? 네! 한국말을 참 재미 있어요! 슬퍼요 :( 배가 고파요. Let's practice one more time. These are ㅃ. 어디 있어요? 거기 있어요! 뭐 먹어요? 밥을 먹어요.ㅍ One more note.

This is not the case with Korean. ㄱ. At the end of a word or before a consonant. you can read any Hangul and read it perfectly. Let's get started. Here is what I mean: ㅋ. Korean is more simple when it comes to reading than English is. Once you know the characters and the times they are irregular. ㄲ . many other characters will be simplified to sound just like these. The first irregular pattern has already been mentioned in Lesson One.Beginners Lesson Two Hangul Irregularities So. Then you're ready for Lesson 2! This lesson will cover all the Hangul irregularities. you feel you've got a good grasp on the basics of the characters. So. enough talk. ㅂ. ㄷ These three characters are your three main basic consonants. Sometimes in English you can read it 5 times and still not know how to say the word correctly.

ㅊ Now. ㅃㅍ These will sound like ㅂ. a better way to put it would be if the character comes before another consonant sound or at the end of a word. ㅆ. we treat it as if the syllable begins with a vowel (since it is unheard). There are two of them and they are both consonants. See a pattern? ㅂ. ㅃ. then it will be reduced to one of the three basic consonants. it will sound like an s. if a syllable begins with the Hangul character ㅇ following these rules. that isn't so much of a difference.both of these characters will sound like ㄱ before another consonant or at the end of a word. That makes more of a difference. So. They are . Even though ㅅ gives an s sound normally. After the second irregularity. it will sound like a d or t if it occurs before another consonant or at the end of a word. and ㅍ are all made by closing your lips. But for this example. The main thing to watch for is the second character.ㅉ. Notice the pattern in the two sets above? One includes characters that are made in the back of the throat. Now. ㅂ. ㅅ. The second Irregularity The second irregularity involves changing the sound of a few characters if it comes before certain other characters. how about some real examples. If it occurs before a vowel. you should not forget which characters end with a ㄱ. all of these will sound like ㄷ before another consonant or at the end of a word. If you remember this pattern. This is the first irregular to keep in mind. there will be some time to practice a little bit before continuing. 맛 mat 맛은 mas-un 앞 ap 앞에 ap-e (with more air on the p) 꽃 Goht 꽃이 Gohch-ee Keep in mind. or ㄷ sound. How about this one though? ㅈ. while the other includes characters that are made with the tongue behind the teeth on the roof of the mouth.

but because it comes before ㄴ. 학년 . If this makes it difficult for you like that. the reason for this irregularity is it makes the words flow better. just think of it sounding like a quick d or t sound. The last cases are all the sounds made by placing the tip of the tongue on the roof of the mouth. ㄴ These two characters are known as nasal sounds. I personally believe if you know irregular forms above this. ㅅ. just a short one click of the tongue. If ㄱ.ㅁ. ㄷ. as if it was the consonant ㅇ. ㄴ is also made with the tongue in a similar position. but when spoken it will reflect the change. ㅋ any of the "throat" sounds occur before one of these two consonants. If ㄹ is between vowel sounds. 합니다 . it will change to an "ng" sound. . Notice why it changes to that? That is a throat sound as well. Notice how saying 함니다 flows a lot better than saying 합니다? It just flows better. ㄸ get the picture? These will change to the ㄴ sound before an ㅁ or an ㄴ. as opposed to eet-nun (notice the t at the end? That would be the case following irregularity rule number one. These two rules are the main two irregularities you will run into.this is pronounced hang-nyon. It is not the long rolling "r" sound you hear in spanish. ㅉ. and not as common. Most other irregularities are much smaller. In writing it will keep the original spelling. ㅍ any of the sounds made by closing your lips will change to the ㅁ sound before either of these two consonants. Basically. ㅆ. it sounds like an ㄴ). as opposed to hak-nyon 먹네 . here are some examples. The next irregularity deals with the character ㄹ This character has a few irregular forms that you will see.This is pronounced ee-nun. you will be able to pronounce most anything reasonably well. and not a group of characters. as with the above case. ㅊ. and let's the word flow better. ㅈ.This is pronounced hamnida. They tend to be specific to a single character. ㅃ. ㅁ is also made by closing the lips. ㄲ. it will sound like a rolling "r" like in spanish or japanese. as opposed to mok-ne 있는 .This is pronounced mong-ne. ㅂ. as opposed to hapnida.

At the end of a syllable before a consonant ( excluding ㅇ then it will usually sound like a light "l" sound. Both of these were mentioned in the previous lesson. Irregularities deal with when is falls next to certain characters. It will only begin a word if it is a loanword, in which case it will sound like the loanword. But it sometimes (rarely) will be the first consonant after another syllable ending in a consonant, such as 정로. When this is the case, it will sound like ㄴ. 정로 is pronounced chongno. The second irregularity is if it is at the end/beginning of a syllable, and the other consonant it lies next to (end/beginning, whichever the ㄹ is not) is a ㄹ or an ㄴ. If it is an ㄹ, then it will be an "l" sound, like usual. But, if it is next to an ㄴ, as in 일년, it will still make an "l" sound. 일년 is pronounced eel-lyon, not eel-nyon. Try saying it both ways, you will see that eel-lyon flows a lot better.

ㅌ This character has one irregular form. It is simple as well. If ㅌ comes before 이, it is
pronounced as if it were ㅊ, meaning with a "ch" sound. 같이 is pronounced ga-chee, not gat-ee.

ㅎ This is the final irregular form you will learn. Whenever this falls next to (end/beginning
syllable combination) a sound such as ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅈ, or ㅂ, you will usually not hear the ㅎ sound and the ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅈ, or ㅂ sound will sound more like ㅋ,ㅌ,ㅊ,or ㅍ with more air. Some words in this situation are 놓다, 좋다, 괜찮다.

Beginners Lesson Three Korean Verbs
Lesson Three introduces Korean Verbs. This page is the best place to start if you can read Hangul, but are not yet able to understand Korean.

From this page on, it is assumed you can read Hangul, the Korean alphabet. If not, please look through lessons one and two and then return here.

Korean verbs are extremely important. Verbs in Korean sentences are the most important part of the sentence. In fact, it is the only part you need for the sentence to be complete. Korean, unlike English, does not mention the subject of the sentence if it can be assumed from context. For example, in English, one might ask "Are you hungry?" In Korean, if someone could just ask "Hungry?" and people knew who they were referring to, then it is perfectly fine to leave off the "you." You may hear this in English as well, but it is not considered grammatically correct. It is considered grammatically correct in Korean! So, to sum up that paragraph, the verb is the only needed part in a Korean sentence. Everything else is extra. Now I know you are eager to start learning verbs and looking them up in the dictionaries, but we must cover one important piece of grammar first. Korean verbs can take many different forms, depending on who you are talking to. Korean still has social status literally integrated into the language itself. The verb "to be" when speaking to an older person or teacher will be slightly different than "to be" when speaking to your best friend. Most Korean verbs have the same root, regardless of who you are talking to, but you will change the ending of the verb depending on who you are speaking with. 먹다 is the dictionary form of the verb "to eat." The dictionary form consists of the verb root, 먹 in this example, and the 다 ending. Go ahead, look up a few of your favorite verbs here or even better, grab yourself a copy of Declan's Korean Flashcards (contains over 3600 words with audio, arranged in vocabulary sets) to start building a strong foundation of Korean verbs. You will see all forms they list end in 다. If you remove the 다 ending, you will be left with the verb root. The verb root of 먹다 is 먹. The verb root by itself has no meaning. You must remove the 다 ending and replace it with a different ending depending on what you want to say and who you want to say it to. In my mind, I see three different, very distinct endings for speaking and writing. Formal , Polite , and Casual .
Formal Ending Polite Ending Casual Ending ㅂ니다 / 습니다 어요 / 아요 어/아

For now, we will focus on the two most common styles of verbs you will use, polite and casual. As you can see above, there are also two different endings for both polite and casual speech. The way you decide which ending to choose is based on the verb root. If the last vowel in the verb root is ㅗ or ㅏ then you choose the 아요 (polite) or 아 (casual) ending. If the last vowel in the

verb root is anything other than ㅗ or ㅏ, then you choose the 어요 (polite) or 어 (casual) ending. Look at the following chart of commonly used verbs and compare the verb root to the ending to get a better understanding of this. I will refer to the Formal ending section next.
English To Have Verb Root Dictionary Form Polite Ending Casual Ending Formal Ending 있 있다 좋다 가다 없다 하다 있어요 좋아요 가요 없어요 해요 있어 좋아 가 없어 해 있습니다 좋습니다 갑니다 없습니다 합니다

To Be Good 좋 To Go 가

To Not Have 없 To Do 하

Let's look at a couple. 있다 means "to have." 있 is the verb root. The last vowel in 있 is ㅣ. Since this is not ㅗ or ㅏ then we know to choose the 어요/어 endings depending on whether we will need to be polite or if it is casual speech. 없다 (~업다) has a verb root of 없. The final vowel in this root is ㅓ, so we need to choose the 어요/어 endings. If you look at 좋다, this has a verb root of 좋 with a final vowel of ㅗ. So, since that is ㅗ or ㅏ, it must take the 아요/아 ending. Understand the general pattern? Irregular Verb Patterns

Now, as you can see in the chart, there will be some situations that do not follow this exactly. 가 다 means "to go". If you remove the 다 to get the verb root you are left with 가. Following this pattern, you would add 아요/아 to the verb root, and get something like 가아요. The real way is

If we remove the dictionary 다 ending. we shorten 만나아요 to 만나요. Also.just 가요. Following normal patterns for the polite form.가르쳐요. This one verb is irregular all on it's own. Below is a table of irregular verbs that follow a pattern. and you just need to memorize the case. Briefly look over the table and then continue on. English To Drink To Meet To Come To Be Busy To Not Know To Be Hot Verb Root 마시 만나 오 바쁘 모르 덥 Dictionary Form 마시다 만나다 오다 바쁘다 모르다 덥다 Polite Ending 마셔요 만나요 와요 바빠요 몰라요 더워요 Casual Ending 마셔 만나 와 바빠 몰라 더워 The first one is "To Drink" or 마시다. 기다리다 . It doesn't follow a pattern. This one should be easy. . it is simply 가요 or 가. 치다 . Since the verb root ends in 아.기다려요. Any verb root that ends in ㅣ will naturally take the 어요/어 endings. This is a very common verb in any language. We already went over it with 가다. The polite form is 해요 and the casual form is 해. the real polite form is 마셔요. Just take a few minutes right now to memorize this and then you will never have to worry about it again. Other verb examples that take this pattern are 가르치다 . and we shorten ㅣ+ 어 to ㅕ. keep in mind this pattern works with verb roots that end in ㅓ as well. let's move on. It has been shortened because otherwise we just say two of the same vowel in a row. Next we meet 만나다 (get it?).쳐요. 하다 has a root of 하. we are left with 마 시. To make it easier and sound better. It shouldn't be too hard because you will see this all over the place. Done? Ok. we would have 마시어요. Since that is a waste of time and breath. The final verb is the chart above is 하다.

사요. You might be thinking. Now. I promise!).예뻐요. But you may still be wondering what exactly that means! Is polite language simply the same thing as if you were to be polite in English? . We dropped the ㅡ and got 라요. it will naturally take the 아요 ending and because all of you will know this lesson. That is the correct way. we get 바빠요. 서다 . Try and say that. the last vowel would be ㅏ. Together. we drop the ㅡ.잘라요. 예쁘다 . The final verb in the verb chart above is 덥다. The next verb is 모르다. it should naturally take the 어요 ending. We get 더워요 in the end. So. 몰라요. 우 and ㅓ combine into 워. when we drop the ㅡ and add the 아요 ending. This would naturally take the 아요 ending.나와요. 즐겁다 . This is another pattern where we combine two characters to make it smoother. This would be a double vowel sound so we just shorten it the same way. Following normal verb patterns we would figure the polite form would be 바쁘아요. you must remember two things.가요.If it ends in ㅓ it would naturally take the 어요 ending. Other verb examples using this pattern are 자르다 . And then we drop the ㅡ.서요.써요. For this example.불러요.빨라요. Other verb examples that take this pattern are 가다 .어려워요. with this irregular pattern. When a verb root ends in ㅡ. Other verb examples that follow this pattern are 어렵다 . you will naturally combine the ㅗ and the 아요 to 와요. If it ends in 우. Now. making 오아요. Whenever a verb root ends in ㅗ.갔다와요. You can take a verb out of a dictionary such as Declan's Korean Dictionary. Wouldn't it be much easier to combine the ㅗ and the ㅏ into ㅘ? It sure sounds better and smoother. 빠르다 . Next.즐거워요. when a verb root ends in ㅂ. 부르다 . it would. we come to 오다 (ok. I will really stop now. Other verb examples that follow this pattern are 나쁘다 . Often. You should definitely be good with verb roots by now and instantly know it is 덥. except Koreans have decided if a verb root ends in 르 (not just ㅡ). The verb root is 오. find the root. when we pick a style such as polite style. Now you should know the verb patterns you will run into.쓰다 . The verb root is 바쁘. you move to the second step. we have 몰라요. and put it in either casual language or polite language. 사다 . we have 바쁘다.나빠요. Other verb examples that take this pattern are 갔다오다 . The verb root is 모르. and become 모라요? Indeed. that ends in ㅡ so wouldn't it follow the above irregular pattern. We added a ㄹ to 모 and got 몰. After that. you should drop the ㅂ and add 우. then we will double up the ㄹ by adding a second ㄹ to the end of the syllable before the 르. That is exactly what we do. try and say 바빠요. 나오다 . look at the last vowel in the root that is left (not including the ㅡ) and add the appropriate ending. Next.

and to go back and make sure you know the patterns covered on this page. This does not mean you should use the same verbs when speaking to them.but not the same. since Korean is still a language with social status still built into the actual language. then you should just remember to be polite to everyone in Korea or when speaking Korean. and actually know whether it should be a casual or polite verb. A teacher. Remember how in Korean verbs can be used all alone and the sentence will be grammatically correct? Let's see some examples. If it can be assumed. you must be polite with your speech or you will be considered very rude. above you. If you want to think of it as the same. yes. you're going. pretty much everyone except your closest friends! You may use casual language when speaking to someone younger than yourself. There will definitely be more to come on verbs later. This whole concept about the verbs being so general is hard to learn at first. are we going?. that is because you are younger. make it into a casual or polite verb. Now that you can take a verb from the dictionary. You could be saying "I'm eating. and it means "to eat" (don't worry if you haven't memorized the verbs yet. your close friends. One of the most recommended Korean language products. You should be polite.Similar. Any other time would be considered rude. But do we know what we are saying when we say 먹어요 to someone? Well. and they say something and in English you would just give the reply "Good!" or something. it depends :). If someone asks you how is something. someone's going. if you are having a casual conversation about something with your friend. In Korean you can use the verbs in a much more general manner than in English. "Are my new shoes ok? Do you like them? How are they?" "좋아요!". Just try your best! Casual verbs can have even more meanings than other forms! If you say 가 you could be saying I'm going. A lot of Korean is about what can be assumed. Irregular Verbs . This means that each of you will add different endings to the verbs. a stranger. there is no need to say it in the language." If someone said "What do you want to do?" You could reply 먹어요.. you are ready to actually use some. it's a conversation with your friend). find the root." Or.. Here is the thing. If we were to say 먹어요. You could be saying "eat. you can just say 좋아!(remember. Another example could be 좋다. Or. a parent. new to you. what exactly are we saying? We know it is a polite way. choose which to use wisely. etc. This means To Be Good. So. let's go. makes learning this part a breeze. you could be saying "you're eating". Later we will see how to add words such as "I" or "You" if necessary to clear up the meaning of a sentence. This wraps up the intro to Korean verbs! It's time for you to memorize a few. If you are talking to an adult and they are using casual verbs. Rosetta Stone Korean Level 1. you can say 좋아요! Like. You should use the polite style with anyone older than you. based on this. You will be sent to the homework page shortly to do some memorization). and your brothers and sisters.

since our verb of "to be" is 이에요. We will use the same sentence as the example in English. When spoken. 책이에요 means "It is a book. Equality? What is that?!? In English. The verbs on this page are different." Let's see a couple more examples. There is no space between 이에요 and the word it is describing. right now! Verb . it is the verb of equality. instead of being irregular patterns . This verb will follow it's own pattern however. etc. Other words fall before the verb. but either have more than one meaning. Remember. Irregular verbs in Korean are actually not too bad though! In Beginners Lesson Three. you were introduced to Korean verbs and the irregular verb patterns . are used weird. Also. Let's practice with a sentence. or 예요 if it comes after a vowel. The structure is different." "It" is equal to "book". we should use the polite ending 이에요. Memorize what you find on the homework page. in Korean sentence structure is different. You will also see it spelled 에요 after a vowel. it will sound more like 에요 after a vowel. this is like "book-to be". our sentence comes out to be 책이에요 As you see. So. Basically. we may say "It is a book.Beginners Lesson Four is all about those verbs in Korean that are just plain weird.Polite Style 이다 The first irregular verb that I need to cover here is definitely what many books and courses will call the copula . you will see 이다 The verb root is 이. so. It is pretty much the verb "to be. These verbs are commonly used verbs. 연필 . Book in Korean is 책 Since 책 ends in a consonant. With most normal verbs. The polite form will be 이에요 if it comes after a consonant. there is a space between the verb and any other words." If you look in a dictionary. There is no space in between the two words. I feel the best way for you to understand it and get used to it is just to see it. The verb falls at the end of the sentence always . You will see what I mean. but the copula is a special case. but you will get used to it as you see more and more of it. you don't need to remember every noun you see yet. It doesn't fit any pattern and just needs to be learned. that will fall at the end.

Since 책 ends in ㄱ. .Casual Style 이다 Many resources choose to teach you mostly one style first. The sentence would be 차예요. If 이다 follows a consonant. If we combine this with the polite ending and keep the correct word order. we can just use 책이야." Do you understand it a little better now? If so. a consonant. or book. but will learn faster later on and the whole time you will be learning more efficiently. it is spelled 야. Verb . we get 책이야. The first one used the word 책. Lets use the same three examples as above so that you may compare the two forms. If we teach both.연필 means pencil. 책이야 and 책이에요 mean the exact same thing! The only difference is who we are speaking with. usually polite style. meaning "It is a pencil. it is spelled 이야. If we are speaking with our close friends. in the example." 차 차 means car. As previous lessons covered. we get 연필이에요. you will not be as strong with it. and then there will be some practice problems. then let's look at this. if we speak with someone older or a teacher or anyone who deserves more respect. It ends in ㄹ which is also a consonant. and then much later return to teach you the other commonly used style. I feel it is best to teach you them both from the start. you will learn at a slower pace at first. If we put this with 책. the casual style form should be 이야. depending on whether it follows a consonant or vowel. the correct spelling of 이다 would be 예요. It ends in ㅏ which is a vowel. That is the only difference! It is something you will get used to as you learn Korean. because they both are very important if you plan on learning Korean well. meaning "It is a car. If we put off one. and so does the casual form. So. we would use the polite form 책이에요. here it is! 이다 has two polite forms. Because it ends in a vowel. If 이다 follows a vowel. The polite style was 책이에요.

Polite style is 있어요. 연필이야 and 연필이에 요 also mean the same thing.Root is 있. Casual style is 있어.The second example sentence was 연필이에요. so we only add 야 instead of 이야. I feel it is a verb worth mentioning because it is an extremely common verb. and are only different because of who we may be speaking to. "I have chicken. meaning "It is a pencil. As you can guess.To have or To be (location). 있다 is a special verb because it has a couple of different meanings. "It is a ____"? 기차 펜 사람 것 치약 전화 This also works for people and their names. we get 차야. 앤나 마이클 See Answers Here Verb . so we will add 이야 to this one as well. 차예요 was the final example sentence. If you can get these." This ends in ㄹ. When we form the new sentence.있다 있다 . 차 ends in a vowel. In the next lesson we will see how to specify who we are referring to." "Do you have a . this is equal to 차예요. Let's look at the two meanings you will see. as in "It's Joe" or if you were referring to yourself." "I have a car. a consonant. then you know the irregular verb 이 다 and are one step closer to knowing Korean! How do you say. I think you probably understand this pretty well by now and are ready to take on anything like this! Here are a few practice problems. To Have This is a very common verb in all languages. 연필이야 is correct. Meaning .

it will be of great help to you! It will contain a few basic nouns that I will use often in examples and problems. 연필 있어요? could also mean "Is there a pencil?" For this sentence as it is. Nothing else in the sentence changes. If it cannot be. you can turn this statement into a question asking "Do you have a pencil?" by simply adding a question mark on the end. I will not always include the English word next to it. Try the following practice problems. If we said "(In the room) 연필 있어요?" then we can automatically assume it is talking about location. and may print whatever you need :) (Homework pages especially!) Study/Print the Homework Page . Later. if you would review and memorize this section on the homework page. Remember. Anna 차 있어요? At-Home 의자 있어요? 2 Blocks away 있어요. but should help you to see more examples of the use of 있다." In written" All of these deal with possesion of something. it is the tone of your voice that determines this. and is easy to understand with this meaning alone. If we say "(Anna) 연필 있어요?" Then we can automatically assume we are talking about possession. using the same sentence. in Korean the subject may be left out if it can be assumed. You may always go back and look at anything you need to. Once the word has appeared on a homework page. This is a fairly simple verb when looking at it from this position. Also. We could say 차 있어요 to mean "I have a car" or "she has a car". 연 필 있어요 could mean "I have a pencil. See Answers Here I think this is the perfect place to stop for now. For example. To Be (Location) 있다 can also mean To Be. So does 있다. you will see the difference easier as we learn how to make our sentences longer and more complex. They should not be difficult. it pretty much means the same thing. when used for location. You are wanting a pencil and are asking if there is one or if they have one or whichever. 연필 있 어요? In spoken Korean. which you will learn soon. it will be added in.

. without a space in between the word and the particle. Shower is 샤워. What I mean by this is. 숙제해요. You will have no problem with 하다.root is 하. Subject Particle One of the first and most common particles you will run into is the subject particle. 먹다 means To Eat. "To Do Homework" is 숙제하다. Many verbs are formed using it. This verb is not as irregular as with 있다 and 이다. 하다 has an irregular spelling when used as you learned in Lesson Three.To Do. etc. As you learned in Lesson Three. 하다 is a verb you will soon know perfectly. When you conjugate them. In English." Up until now though. as you will see it forms many other verbs. Keep in mind it is 해요 and not 하요. You also learned that you could say 먹어요 to mean "I'm eating. The verb "To Make a Phone Call" is made by sticking the word for "phone" and the verb 하다 (To Do) together. It is a required part in English. Homework is 숙제.하다 하다 . The verb "To Make a Phone Call" is 전화하다.Verb . many Korean verbs are simply formed by taking a word and simply adding 하다 on the end of it. This is why you will see this verb a lot. Polite style is 해요. we haven't learned how to specify who or what is the subject if we need to for clarification. Phone is 전화. The particle is attached to the end of the word. casual style is 해. "To Shower" is simply 샤워하다. The subject tells us who or what is doing the action. it is done the same as 하다. Meaning .Endings attached to words to specify what significance the word has in the sentence. Particles Particles . but I would still like to briefly talk about it. 전화해요. one of the most basic parts of a sentence is the subject. but is not required in Korean.

Say "There is (a) _____" by filling in the blank with the words below. as in location. when speaking in the casual form. and we have our sentence. You should be able to say "I drink" or "I'm drinking" but you haven't been able to specify what it is you are drinking. and 를 after a word ending in a vowel. 연필이 있어요 means "There is a pencil (there. as in location). so we attach 가 and get 은지가. 연필이 means pencil. 을 after a word ending in a consonant. The 가 is what makes Eunji the subject. There is a pencil. you should have memorized 연필 means pencil. using the correct subject particle." Be sure to keep 이다 and 있다 separate when it comes to the verb To Be. as the subject. let's say Eunji is eating. This states which word in the sentence is the object of the sentence. 이 and 가. 우유 means milk. we can simply add the verb 먹다 in the proper present tense form. If you attach the proper object particle to it. In Lesson Four you learned 물 means . particles are commonly left off. It has two forms as well. 은지가 먹어요 in the polite form. 책 연필 책상 개 고양이 텔레비전 우유 See Answers Here Object Particle Another very common particle is the object particle. 은지 ends in a vowel. or the word receiving the action. You specify this using an object particle. As you will notice. as the subject of the sentence. and 가 comes after a word ending in a vowel." 연필이에 요 means "It is a pencil. In Lesson Four. From Lesson Four. In Lesson Three you were asked to learn the verb 마시다. 은지가 먹어 or simply 은지 먹어. You can then say 우유를 마셔요. you get 우유를 . 은지 가 means Eunji. we learned the irregular verb 있다. 있다 can mean To Be. For example. 이 comes after a word ending in a consonant. Eunji is eating.The subject particle has two forms. To Drink. Then.

but knowing how to say where it is you are going is very important! This is very simple! 에. If we like. try these sentences." You can make Joe the topic.. in which case the rest of the sentence will tell us who and where is eating the bread. 앤나가 집에서 먹어요 means "Anna is eating at home. except for the verb of course. 친구가 가요. 학교에서 doesn't mean "to school" anymore." 학교에 가요." Topic Particle The topic particle may be the most common particle you will run into. and we are saying what he is doing and where. When you add the 서 on the end. Say you have a simple sentence saying "Joe is eating bread at his house. and you will do just fine.water. but it will fall after any other particle. it then turns into a place where the action is happening. meaning the sentence is about Joe. 는 after a vowel. we may decide bread should be the topic. It means the action is happening at school . 집에 가요. I will keep it simple. It does exactly what it is called. so you know how to say you're going or someone is going. Keep in mind it will replace the subject or object particle if it is attached to a word that would otherwise have a subject or object particle attached. It takes the same form no matter what word it comes after. It is also one of the most difficult particles to learn when you begin to study Korean. You can take any part of a sentence and make it the topic. It sets the word or words before it as the topic of the sentence. One other location particle that I want to tell you about right now is 에서." or "I drink water. If I told you 학교 was school. You should know this! "I'm going home. 앤나가 물을 마셔요. you would know this too :) .. . It also has two forms." Now. and 은 after a consonant. Now you should know that 물을 마셔요 means "I'm drinking water." 학교에서 공부해요 means "I am studying at school.what the sentence is all about. 남이 빵을 먹어요. See Answers Here Location Particle You know the verb 가다 from Lesson Three.

This is a great place to take a break in this lesson. we may want to make "at home" the topic. Honestly. then I say you've learned plenty for the day. This sentence simply says "I am going home. it usually won't make much of a difference. you can understand any sentence with the use of a dictionary. but will take the form 으로 if it falls after any other consonant. and take the form 로 after vowels and a word that ends in the consonant ㄹ. you could understand it just fine :) . 차로 가요 means To go by car. You are expressing which means of transportation you will be using. 은지가 먹어요 means Eunji is eating. the object particle. Eunji is simply the subject of the sentence. Anna is studying math. Very similar. 기차로 갑시다 is a sentence saying Let's Go by train. Now for a few examples in Korean. or please write by means of a pencil.. In one case. Study/Print the homework page 로 / 으로 The particle 로 is commonly used to mean "by means of. but if you knew all the nouns and verbs. 학교 is school.. But. If you do not know the grammar your chances of understanding the sentence are much smaller." Another example could be 학교에서는 앤나가 수학을 공부해요. 수학 is math. It is not only used for means of transportation though. 공부하다 is to study. In the second case. . In this case. Often when you begin to learn Korean. You can always come back and study some more. 나 still means "I". or go ahead if you like! Keep your own pace." 연필로 쓰세요 means Please write with a pencil. This sentence is a little longer. 나는 집에 가요. It can be used for anything to mean "by means of. As you learned above. I will begin to introduce larger amounts of vocabulary words. think of it as "Speaking about me. but I just ask that you stick through the grammar until then :) ." It will fall after a noun." But if it helps you understand the topic particle better. Eunji is the topic of the sentence." This is why my lessons are so grammar heavy at first. you will be confused about when to use the subject particle vs. but this is simply where I will put a stopping point. going home.Or. Joe is eating bread. If you memorize the first section on the homework page tonight. Both are right :) . if we are talking about "at home". This sentence says "Speaking about what is going on at school. and a dictionary won't help much. I promise it will be worth it. 은지는 먹어요 also would mean Eunji is eating. If you know the grammar. we are saying what is going on at home.

I'm going (as far as) China. You can use it to say a destination you will go to. and can practice while you walk around at home! It'll be a breeze :) Household Term Nouns Korean 집 아파트 기숙사 방 침대 베개 담요 English House Apartment Dormitory Room Bed Pillow Blanket . not the English word. You will get used to the structure of sentences and the language. 중국까지 가요. this lesson will be full of items commonly found around the house... you are now ready to start learning household terms. so whenever you do. and meaning thats how far you will go. I'm going all the way to China.까지 까지 is a particle you stick onto nominals of place or time. This is the best way to learn all the household terms." As in. Plus. It is mainly a bunch of vocabulary words. Luckily for you. You will see them frequently. that doesn't sound fun. It is found in the question 어 디까지 갈까요? How far should we go? Household Terms If you have completed lessons 1-5. but it's part of the language! One of the hardest things about learning any language is just building a large enough vocabulary.I know. you will begin to build the foundation of your vocabulary with common items and tasks. It means "All the way up to. think of the Korean word.

자명종 거울 화장실 변기 샤워실 수건 치약 칫솔 비누 샴푸 부엌 오븐 냉장고 식탁 의자 접시 컵 램프 창문 소파 Alarm Clock Mirror Bathroom Toilet Shower Towel Toothpaste Toothbrush Soap Shampoo Kitchen Oven Refrigerator Dinner Table Chair Plate Cup Lamp Window Sofa .

To form the casual style. drop the 요 at the end. Korean 하다 일어나다 자다 있다 없다 읽다 보다 청소하다 놀다 운동하다 쓰다 먹다 Polite Style 해요 일어나요 자요 있어요 없어요 읽어요 봐요 청소해요 놀아요 운동해요 써요 먹어요 English To Do To Get Up To Sleep To Have (Lesson 4) To Not Have (Lesson 4) To Read To See / Watch To Clean To Play To Exercise To Write To Eat .텔레비전 책장 전화기 컴퓨터 Television Bookcase Telephone Computer Household Term Verbs Here is a list of common household verbs to go along with the household terms.

마시다 가다 입다 신다 벗다 숙제하다 공부하다 마셔요 가요 입어요 신어요 벗어요 숙제해요 공부해요 To Drink To Go To Put On Clothes To Put On Shoes To Take Off Clothes / Shoes To Do Homework To Study Total. First. not just household terms. This is a good idea to try with any word in the language. and we will examine some sentences and then have some practice ones. remember to remember the Korean household term for the object or task you are doing whenever you do it! This will help you retain the vocabulary much faster than continuously returning to the list or a dictionary. It will all be in present tense since that is the only tense that has been discussed so far. 알아요? I bet you did! Now that you have read it. 반 means half. read through the following paragraph. that will give you 19 household verbs and 31 household nouns. Be sure to read it outloud to yourself at least once! 7 시에 일어나요. 학교에 가요. 50 household terms total! I recommend memorizing the lists over the next few days. 그리고 책을 읽어요. numbers were used to help you pick up on this. but all in the present tense. 학교에서 공부해요. First off. 그리고 숙제해요. this is a general account of what could happen in a day using the household terms. let me cover a couple things that you may have picked up. 3 시 means 3:00. 나는 8 시에 먹어요. 샴푸하고 비누 없어요. 9 시 자요. It will be based using the vocabulary above. It is used when you say 3:30. As you may have noticed. Once you have them memorized. 4 시에 청소하고 놀아요! 6 시 반에 저녁 먹어요 (밥과 김치와 불고기!). Try your best to understand it. 저녁 후에 텔레비전을 봐요. 3 시 . Keep that in mind for future lessons! Household Terms does not have to be the only easy lesson! A Korean Paragraph Using Household Terms Now this can be your real first lesson diving into real Korean and real sentences. even if there are a couple of words you do not know yet :) You will be amazed at what you can accomplish by now if you have done the previous lessons and learned some household terms. 시 means hour. 운동하고 샤워해요. 3 시 집에 와요.

내 책이 어디 있어요? 여기 있어요! 뭐 해요? 텔레비전을 봐요.. 3 시 26 분에 means at 3:26. I watch tv. this is one last way to use "and". Yet wait. and read a book. Only the final verb in the list will be conjugated otherwise. 샴푸와 비누가 어디 있어요? 샴푸는 여기 있어요. At 8:00 I eat. .반. It will have the same meaning as 하고. Korean Practice Using Household Terms 한국말 책을 읽어요. 그리고 물을 마셔요. you can add 고 to the stem of the verb. you see another thing used for and when I listed the foods. 어디 공부해요? 학교에서 공부해요. I exercise and shower. At 4:00 I clean and play! At 6:30 I eat dinner (rice and kimchi and bulgogi!). After dinner. 와 comes after a word that ends in a vowel. There were a few 그리고 in there. At 7:00 I get up. 어디까지 가요? 학교까지 가요. 3 hours and half! 분 is used like 시.. and I do homework. 불고기하고 밥 would mean bulgogi and rice. 그리고 비누는 거기 있어요. There is no shampoo and soap :( . At school I study. if you see 하고 attached to a noun. Now continue to read an English translation. But. at 9:00 I sleep. In these cases. 숙제해요. When using to attach nouns. but means minutes (it is not needed when you use 반). you can also use 와 and 과. 뭘 먹어요? (무엇 = 뭐 무엇을 = 뭘) 밥하고 김치하고 불고기를 먹어요. One final thing. I go to school. 집을 청소해요. it will either mean "and" or it will mean "with". it means "and". I come home at 3:00. if you see two or three things that all seem like verbs but don't seem to have the exact same end on the word as you would've thought (운동하고 샤워해요) You would think it would be 운동해요. while 과 after a noun that ends in a consonant. Now read that paragraph again (or maybe twice!) now that you understand those couple things. That means "and" as well! When connecting sentences that is. When listing verbs.

I'm exercising and playing. See Answers Where are you going? Where (as in how far) are you going? I am going home. Hair Face . It's over there. Body Parts And Numbers Lesson Seven is a vocabulary lesson on body parts. Body Parts Korean 인체 머리 얼굴 English Body Head. And I'm playing. It will be the second major vocabulary lesson you will learn. Where is my house? I don't know. Where is my pillow. It also includes an intro to basic Korean numbers. This will be a shorter lesson. What are you eating? What are you drinking? I am eating rice and kimchi. Where is the toothpaste? I don't know. Anna knows. It's (right) here. It is provided for you to help you increase your vocabulary with common words. simply containing some common vocabulary words based on the body. I'm exercising. and the first 10 numbers in Korean. What are you doing? I'm sleeping. I am drinking milk. I am going as far as school.차로 가요? 아니오. 기차로 가요.

눈 눈썹 코 귀 입 뺨 입술 턱 목 어깨 가슴 배 등 팔 손 손가락 허리 엉덩이 다리 발 Eye Eyebrow Nose Ear Mouth Cheek Lips Chin Neck Shoulders Chest Stomach Back Arm Hand Fingers Waist Buttocks Legs Foot .

Korean 하나 둘 셋 넷 다섯 여섯 일곱 여덟 (여덜) Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . tangible objects (excluding money) and the hour (but not minutes). Pure-Korean numbers only go through 99. be sure to think of the Korean body part term! Pure Korean Numbers First. you will be introduced to the Pure-Korean numbers. Pure-Korean numbers are used to count physical. It is more difficult as it is composed of both number systems. I will tell you right off there are two sets of Korean numbers you will run into. Sino-Korean numbers can go as large as you like them to. which come straight from the Korean language. building your vocabulary. There are Pure-Korean numbers. Both sets of numbers are commonly used. and you will learn when to use which kind. Now whenever you think of a body part. You will learn time in the future. For now. which are taken from Chinese.발가락 Toes That basic list of common body parts should be enough to get you more familiar with the language. and there are SinoKorean numbers. Here are the first 10 Pure-Korean numbers.

스물 + 다섯 = 스물다섯 31 . 30. and so on.일흔 + 여덟 = 일흔여덟 .서른 + 하나 = 서른하나 46 .쉰 + 다섯 = 쉰다섯 69 . Korean 열 스물 서른 마흔 쉰 예순 일흔 여든 아흔 Number 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 The pattern is the same as it was for the teens. 25 . you need to learn the word for 20. 열 + 하나 (10 + 1) 열하나 = 11 열 + 다섯 (10 + 5) 열다섯 = 15 But in order to continue this pattern. 40.아홉 열 9 10 To form the numbers 11-99. you will simply follow a pattern.마흔 + 여섯 = 마흔여섯 55 .예순 + 아홉 = 예순아홉 78 .

둘. 하나. 넷 change when they come before a noun or something you are changing..3 pieces of paper This occurs in all cases where the number ends in one of these.1:00 두 병 . They will change to 한.How Many 귀가 두 개 있어요.2 bottles 네 마리 .여든 + 둘 = 여든둘 99 . 아흔한 마리 . 셋. Practice Use the body part terms above and the Pure-Korean numbers for this practice. The first four.82 . 네 respectively.43 people Secondly. they may be pronounced 석 and 넉 respectively.instead of 세 and 네.3 animals 세 장 . 팔 몇 개 있어요? 팔이 두 개 있어요. when 셋 or 넷 come before the sounds ㄷ or ㅈ. 한시 . 코가 몇 개 있어요? 코가 한 개 있어요. How many eyebrows do you have? How many legs do you have? How many fingers do you have? . This may not always happen however. 세 . 손가락이 열 개 있어요..아흔 + 아홉 = 아흔아홉 There are two last things to keep in mind with numbers. 발가락 몇 개 있어요? 발가락이 열 개 있어요.91 animals 마흔네 명 . 눈이 두 개 있어요. 두. 몇 .

Although you can say 먹어요 to mean you are eating. drop the 다 and you are left with the stem. 밥을 먹고 있어요 .먹 + 어요 = 먹어요 마시다 . 먹다 . The pattern is: ~고 있어요.. drop the 다. You take the dictionary form of a verb. To form the casual style. Then you will learn about another form for the present tense. These use the 어요/아요 ending. add the appropriate ending.I'm currently reading. I'm currently wearing this. I will briefly review the present tense. As you speak. it is happening. present.마셔요.there is a more specific way to say you are currently eating rice.I'm drinking milk (as we speak) 반바지를 입고 있어요 . followed by past and future. there are three normal verb tenses. It is commonly used :) I'm currently eating.How many hands do you have? How many feet do you have? Verb Tenses As we all know. This tense is used to represent what happens in the present. You add 고 있어요 to the verb stem and that is all! This will form a present tense of the verb of something that is currently happening. I drink....마시 + 어요 .I'm eating rice (as we speak) 우유를 마시고 있어요 . I eat. and future. as in 밥을 먹어요. It is a general term for the present. past. Korean has them as well! So far. Currently Happening There is a form you have not learned yet that is very common dealing with the present tense.I'm wearing shorts (as we speak).. you would just add 고 있 어. Present Tense The present tense is just as you have learned. It is quite simple..마시어요 . You take the verb from the dictionary form. you have been working using a normal present tense form of verbs. .

. because it's not current.I ate rice.but it was current).. 1. Here is the basic pattern.. 먹다 먹 + 어 .There will be practice at the end of all the tenses.있었어요. you already know what the sentences say! :) Past Tense Past tense is another easy verb tense.먹어 먹어 + ㅆ . Then you can use the form from above and make 있어요 past tense .What did you do? If you wish to say something you 'currently' were doing something in the past (say you were saying something happened while you were doing something. Add 어요 on the end.'currently' isn't exactly the word. 마시다 마시 + 어 ..I watched tv.he went to school. 학교에 갔어요 . I think a couple examples would explain better than words :) .먹었 먹었 + 어요 = 먹었어요.Take the dictionary form.마셔 마셔 + ㅆ . drop the 다 2. 텔레비전을 봤어요 .Add the ending 어 or 아.마셨 마셨 + 어요 = 마셨어요 가다 가+아-가 가+ㅆ-갔 갔 + 어요 = 갔어요 밥을 먹었어요 . 뭐 했어요? . Add ㅆ under the last syllable 4. which makes it the casual form (everything but the 요 at the end) 3. Otherwise.

I will probably go.. Remember back to when you learned some irregular verb cases? 듣 다 being one. If you just intend to say Will go. Future Tense There are a couple different forms of the future tense you will see. Also.I was watching tv.. remember how some verbs pick up a ㅂ and sometimes not? Example . 비가 올 거에요 .춥다. Attach (으)ㄹ 거에요 to the verb base. Probable Future One common future tense is the probable future tense. you attach ㄹ 거에요. but they are simple and easy to understand.. The basic formation of this future tense is as follows: Take the verb base. 난 먹을 거에요 . It can be used to mean "I probably will eat. None match up exactly to what we see the future tense in English as.this future tense may be your best bet. If it ends in a vowel. when using this for these few special verbs. It appears as 듣다 in the dictionary form." "I probably will go to school tommorrow. Does that make a little more sense? Just another form you will see and can use when making sentences and reading them. If the base ends in a consonant. 먹 for our example using 먹다.I was eating rice. 난 갈 거에요 . 텔레비전을 보고 있었어요 .It will probably rain. will eat.I will probably eat.* .. use the ㄹ ending on the base and not the ㄷ. you attach 을 거에요." This is probably the most similar (in my opinion) to our English future tense. it will not take the ㅂ. 추울 거에요 Will probably be cold.밥을 먹고 있었어요 . and 들어요 when conjugated? Well. but will pick up an 우. 들을 거 에요 Will listen. *One thing to keep in mind. in this case.well.

) Attach 겠 to that base. The example with 먹다 would be 먹었을 거에요. Notice the past tense ending is attached to the verb base. Practice Now that you know the three tenses. not the 거에요 verb part. 앤나가 한국말 공부했을 거에요.' 'Probably ate. 먹겠어요 means I intend to eat. etc. I'm positive it will happen. 듣겠어요. 어디 있어요? 어디 있었어요? 뭐 해요? 뭐 했어요? 뭐 할 거에요? What were you doing? Where did you go? . but varies slightly. even for verbs such as 자다. to mean 'must have' or 'probably have'. See how it is a little different from the previous future tense? This form has more certainty. Take your verb base (whatever is before 다 in the dictionary form. 먹었을 거에요 would mean 'must have eaten. Note the ending is always 어요 and never 아요. 먹었어요. 듣다 does not change to 들 as above. 학교에 갈 거에요. 자겠어요." Here is how it is formed. The meaning is similar to the above future tense. you should practice them. Try not to look above for the following! 먹겠어요.' Intentional Future The other form of the future tense you will see often will use 겠. 내일 모자를 사겠어요. 비가 오겠어요 means I'm sure it will rain.Past Probable You can also use this form with a past tense verb. 어제 모자를 썼어요. This form is more of the meaning "I intend to. Then simply add your 어 or 어요 ending you normally would use. no exceptions.

I was eating bulgogi. The following lesson will be a grammar lesson on adjectives and colors.Where will you probably go? What do you intend to eat? I intend (certainty) to eat rice. You will then be able to describe your clothing in more detail. After the vocabulary lists. followed by practice exercises. I intend to drink water. This will be done based on this set of vocabulary (plus the adjectives and colors). I am eating bulgogi (now). there will be a brief reading. Nouns Korean 옷 셔츠 와이셔츠 바지 반바지 청바지 신발 구두 운동화 양말 English Clothes Shirt White Dress Shirt Pants Shorts Jeans Shoes Dress Shoes Sneakers Socks . Clothes Lesson Nine is the third lesson on vocabulary. I will probably eat kimchi. The focus is on clothes for this lesson. Did you drink beer? Do you intend to drink beer? No.

Just makes it easier to remember :) . Traditional Clothing You may have noticed many of these terms are taken from the English language.치마 코트 재킷 모자 안경 반지 귀걸이 목걸리 장갑 원피스 양복 넥타이 파자마 브라 팬티 티셔츠 한복 Skirt Coat Jacket Hat Glasses Ring Earrings Necklace Gloves Dress Suit Necktie Pajamas Bra Underwear(Male and Female) Teeshirt Hanbok.

Shoes and socks will use 신다. no matter where it is.I am wearing a skirt. 입고 있어요 would mean currently wearing clothes. 반지 껴요 . As you learned in Lesson Eight. this means 'currently taking place' action.I am wearing a ring. depending on where the object is.I wear skirts (in general).I am wearing a shirt. the sentence usually in the following way. Clothes Practice 치마를 입고 있어요. 치마 입어요 . 셔츠 입어요 . and is used for any of the objects. Stuff on the hands like rings and gloves will use 끼다. 두 반지를 끼고 있어요. 반기 끼고 있어요 . I recommend using the phrase ~고 있어요. glasses. 치마 입고 있어요 .I wear shirts (in general).I wear rings (in general). 세 반지를 끼었어요. 셔츠 입고 있어요 .Clothes Verbs One thing you will notice is there are several verbs for wear. pants) will use 입다. If you use 입어요 instead of 입고 있어요. 청바지하고 셔츠를 입고 있어요. General clothing (shirt. . stuff on the head will use 쓰다. Hat. 벗다 is used to mean take off. Korean 입다 신다 쓰다 끼다 벗다 Polite Style 입어요 신어요 써요 껴요 벗어요 English To Wear (Body) TO Wear (footwear) To Wear (headwear) To Wear (Hands) To Take Off (anything) To say you are currently wearing something.

반바지를 입고 있어요. There is the word that means just the color. 치마를 입고 있어요. 오늘 청바지를 안 입고 있어요. 장갑을 안 끼고 있어요. 신발을 신고 있어요. I intend to wear a skirt tommorrow. then some parts may be understandable. some may not. I am wearing a hat. I am not wearing a hat. I'm not wearing jeans. common way. you will learn the most basic uses of color words and these should let you use colors just fine in an easy to understand way. Korean Colors These are a little more complicated than color words in English. I did not used to wear four rings. For now. I hope you come out of this lesson with a good grasp on Korean color words. First off. and I will teach you the most basic. 반지를 끼고 있어요. I am wearing sneakers. 어제 치마를 입고 있었어요. I was not wearing glasses. but you should be able to handle them! There are a few ways to deal with color words in Korean.네 반지를 끼고 있었어요. There are color verbs. 색 . I am wearing shorts. 안경을 쓰고 있어요. I probably will wear my glasses tommorrow. Korean Colors Hello and welcome to the lesson on Korean colors! Hopefully you now understand everything covered in lessons 1-9 because that is the best way to begin this lesson. If you skipped ahead. I intend to undress. Whatever you have decided to do. 그리고 운동화를 신고 있어요. colors can come in a couple forms. I used to wear three rings.

색 파란색 검정색 하얀색 빨간색 노란색 초록색 주황색 보라색 핑크색 / 분홍색 은색 금색 갈색 밤색 회색 Color Blue Black White Red Yellow Green Orange Purple Pink Silver Gold Light Brown Brown Gray Adjective / Noun Modifier 파란 까만 하얀 빨간 노란 초록색 주황색 보라색 핑크색 / 분홍색 은색 금색 갈색 밤색 회색 . I will refer to the chart below throughout the lesson. You may refer to it any time you wish until you learn the colors properly.색 means color. Knowing this will allow you to make more sense and understand the rest of this color lesson easily.

chances are the sentence states something is that color.. 핑 크색. Some of the words will have a shortened form.and attach the verb. Here.. 파란색이에요. If you are using them as an adjective. If that is the case. however. 하얘요 would be white. So you would just say 핑크색 차가 커요. If you do wish to make a sentence stating that something is a certain color.To Be. You can think of this as "blue color". such as 노래요.color #2 in the chart above. ... A few other examples are 파래요 and 빨개요.To Be Big). However. 파란색. You can just take the word for the color.we are just saying that the car is blue. From the table above. For now. just be aware that these forms do exist. Korean Modals Modals? What are modals? Modals is a grammatical term that is pretty much unknown to everyone except grammar teachers. then that's right! They are fairly easy to recognize when you read them. when naming colors use the actual color name form (the words on the left). without the 색. then you should put 색 at the end of the color word. you should use the verb 이다 . What do you think 까매요 is? If you said. such as "The blue car is big. If you see a version of one of the colors similar to these..whatever the word is.. you may see other versions of the word. but that isn't the topic of our sentence or anything like that. 차가 파란색이에요 means the car is blue.Let's look at the color blue. For example. but it may be harder to use them this way yourself because they aren't written exactly the same way when they are combined with 아요 or 어요. you may see it written as a verb itself. stating something is yellow. You know what they are though. It is very simple this way. It is just an adjective or noun modifier describing the car.. 파란 is the part that lets us know it is blue instead of orange. then you should use the form that is on the right side of the table. This way it is very easy. Other colors you can't really shorten like that. and 색 tells us it is a color we are talking about (you will see when 색 should be included and when it shouldn't be in a minute)." 파란 차가 커요 (크다 . If you are naming colors. 파란색.

'I want a car' 차 를 원해요.' 'I want to go. you may think so. and stick it before 'to want'. use modals.Have you ever wanted to say 'I can go. you've wanted to know how to use modals! Modals are simply combining verbs such as may. To want a noun Alright. There is another pattern you must use. speak Korean. or conditions of verbs. here we go! To Want To Need. Since we are talking about modals. need. modals are not so bad. To Have To Can. Be Able To May. Unfortunately. want. Well. can and should with another verb. right.' 사과를 원해요. . 'I want a house' 집을 원해요.' 'I should go. • • To want a noun. 가다. The verb 'to want' becomes ~고 십다. You still want to know how to use them in Korean. but everyone uses them in conversation. Have Permission Random Practice To Want There are two things to consider when thinking about the verb 'to want'. we cannot simply take the infinitive for 'to go'. To want to do something (verb). You use 원하다 when you say something like 'I want an apple. I will mention the first as well! The verb is: 원하다 . That is all there is to it! See. and communicate well! Oh. we are going to cover the second one in depth. Now you can go out.' or 'I may go' ? If so.' 'I need to go. To want (to do) What if you want to say 'I want to go'? Would you say 가다 원해요? At first.To want (a noun).

가고 싶어해요.Now. the verb is ~고 싶어하다. and drop the 다. 밥을 원해요. Now all you have to do is add the new verb! 가고 싶다. When you say it in a sentence. This gives you the verb base. 먹고 싶어요.. This simply means you use ~ 고 싶다 if you are talking about something you (yourself) want. 책을 원해요. 싶다 will change just like any other verbs. or simply 가 in this case. See Answers -----Sidebar-------- . take that infinitive. Practice 가고 싶어요. 앤나가 먹고 싶어해요. 엄마는 가고 싶어해요. ~고 싶다 is only used when talking in first person (about yourself). Simple enough? Let's just add one more thing. It becomes 싶어요. 엄마가 물을 마시고 싶어해요. 책을 읽고 싶어해요. 자고 싶어요. 사과를 원해요.. If you are talking about something someone else wants to do. 가다.

학교에 가야 돼요.-) I have to work..I have to work. sometimes we just do not have a choice! If this is the case. ~야 되다 will come in handy.Remember.. A couple more examples should make this pattern clear. . -------------------Have to. Let's stick with the example 'to go' to illustrate this. even if sometimes you pass up homework for a good time. However. . you will still see it written both ways.. and add the ending? 해야 돼요. It will build your vocabulary gradually yet steadily. Whether we want to do something or not. Many of you may need to say this statement. drop the 요. 일을 해야 돼요. 해요. In 'to want' we drop the 다 from the dictionary form and use that (the verb stem). Need to I have to do homework. if you don't already know lots of vocabulary. Practice 가야 돼요. Note how 되다 becomes 돼요. 되 + 어요 = 돼요. You just need to remember which part of the verb to use. 먹어야 돼요. giving you great knowledge on Korean words.가야 돼요 You simply drop the 요 from the polite form of the verb and add the ending. . Notice how all we did was take the verb to do. . 가다 . In this case. we drop the from polite form and attach the ending to that (the casual form of the verb). This statement may fit you better.I have to do homework. you can greatly benefit from the Vocabulary E-Zine. 숙제를 해야 돼요.

Simply jump to the 수 있어요.add ㄹ수 있어요 Verb ends in ㄹ . get the verb stem. 가다 . all you do is add ㄹ수 있어요. like 가. Now. 물을 마셔야 돼요.add 을수 있어요 .가. First.먹. Let me explain that a little better. 놀수 있어요. add the appropriate ending. . you don't have to add either ㄹ or 을. you can eat. Conditions: • • • Verb ends in vowel . 먹다 . 먹을수 있어요.I can eat. if it ends in a consonant. If the verb stem ends in a vowel. Take the verb stem (drop the from the dictionary form) and add ~(으)ㄹ수 있어요. you cannot add another consonant to the verb stem because there is already one there! If this is the case. Note: Oh. That's really all there is to it! Just remember the ending is ~(으)ㄹ수 있어요. If you need to say you can do something. 마셔야 돼요. However. you can go. Otherwise. Be Able To Moving right along.밥을 먹어야 돼요. See Answers Can.I can go. you use the following pattern. you add 을수 있어요. and one more thing! If the verb ends in the consonant ㄹ. 갈수 있어요 . the ㄹ becomes redundant.add 수 있어요 Verb ends in any other consonant .

you would use the verb 'may'. I may play. . See Answers May. 먹어도 돼요. 마셔도 돼요. Practice 자도 돼요. Have Permission If you have permission to do something.I may play.I may go. 와인을 마실수 있어요. 배울수 있어요. 숙제를 할수 있어요. (I have permission to go). 놀아도 돼요 . The ending is ~도 되다 You attach the ending to the casual form of the verb (drop the from the polite form). 가도 돼요 . Use the following practice to get used to this pattern.Practice 일을 할수 있어요. I may go. Nothing fancy here. 술을 마실수 있어요. (I have permission to play). This is pretty simple in Korean.

수영할수 있어요.encoding . 새 컴픁처를 원해요. I have been calling all 'verb style' words verbs. Right click . 영화를 보고 싶어요. Note: You may need to change the encoding for this page . 수필을 써야 돼요. 놀아도 돼요. 읽을수 있어요. .Korean Making The Distinction Between Verb And Adjective What is an adjective? As of now. See Answers Some Real Practice So. 앤나가 운동하고 싶어해요.How To Modify A Noun Have you ever noticed a word in a sentence that you almost recognized? Perhaps it looked very similar to a verb you had seen before. you understand them when separated. 놀고 싶어요.I do. 술을 마셔도 돼요. Adjectives .와인을 마셔도 돼요. Do you think you can recognize what they all mean when random? 학교에 가야 돼요.

such as 'to run'.' It doesn't quite mean the same thing. . There will be many cases when you will need to know whether or not the 'word' you are dealing with is an adjective or a verb. you can say 'The car is blue' and you can also say 'It is a blue car'. because they describe something. and the weather is warm. 그리고 날씨가 따뜻해요. We use them almost exactly alike. An adjective is a word that describes something. the writer may not necessarily be putting the emphasis on the color. These two sentences mean the exact same thing.' This gets you into a situation in which you need to use another form of the adjective. In the first sentence.' Am I focusing on the fact that a blue car just drove across the street. are all true verbs. It is not enough to say 날씨가 좋아요. You need to modify the noun . The weather is good. Both come at the end of a sentence. In the second sentence. What if I were to say 'A blue car just drove across the street. Both may take the normal endings you have learned. so hold on! How To Use An Adjective To Modify A Noun What exactly do I mean by that? Well. 'to swim'. except the word 'blue' is used two different ways. The color could just be there to provide additional information. the color in particular. or is the color of the car simply extra details? As of now. Let's look at the following sentence. Yet. the whole sentence is based on describing the car. it is now time to make the distinction between true verbs and adjectives. I am going to introduce you to one right now. you have been using the first form of the sentence. they both take the same 아요 / 어요 / 해요 endings.However. Words such as 'to be cold' 'to be clean'. correct? What if you wanted to say 'Warm weather is good. Other words. and 'to write'. They are actions. You would probably say 날씨가 좋아요. and 'to be busy' are all adjectives. which means 'The weather is good. Adjectives usually begin with 'to be' in

좋은 차 means 'good cars'. Be careful. Let's learn how to do it. you would say 따뜻한 날씨가 좋아요. This means 'Warm weather is good. We don't care about 'bad cars' or 'yellow cars'. you should add the 은 ending. you should add the ㄴ ending. visit the Korean Particles page How To Do This With Irregular Adjectives As you have learned by now. it provides a good example to demonstrate this point . To know the verb stem. . While this may not necessarily be entirely true in every case. The structure for this is based off adding ㄴ or 은 to a verb stem. Since 좋 ends in a consonant (ㅎ). For a review on topic particles. They are two separate things. you are left with 따뜻하.-) We want to modify the noun 'cars' to specify only 'good cars'. Good cars are expensive. 따뜻한 Let's look at an example in which we will add the 은 ending. 좋은 차는 비싸요. because we are talking about 'good cars'. don't confuse adding the topic particle 는/은 to the end of a noun with this new ending we attach to the word modifying the noun.' How To Move An Adjective Before The Noun So now you understand exactly what we want to accomplish.따뜻하다 is the verb for 'to be warm'. After you drop 다.Instead. 좋다 . there are usually some kind of irregular verb / adjective. we are left with 좋.to be good If we drop the 다. simply drop the 다 from the dictionary form. Because it ends in a vowel (ㅏ). You get 좋은.

One common adjective would be 재미 있다. Now. rather than ㄴ. 추운 날씨 Instead of adding the 어요 ending to 추우 as you would in the present tense (추우어요 contracts to 추워요). This results in 추운.to be far In this case. before ㄴ. It can be a little confusing to think of it like that.Irregular ㅂ Ending For example. It stays 멀어요. 있다 and 없다 You will occasionally run into a time where 있다 and 없다 will be used. we lost the ㅂ and gained a 우. In the present tense. Let's drop the ㄹ and get 머. ㅂ. meaning 'the house that is far away'. and the only reason the 으 part is usually added is simply because we need the extra vowel if it follows a consonant. and ㅅ. you cannot notice any change. the ㄹ is usually omitted. An example is 멀다. Often. if this is easier. because you might think 멀 is the base. You could say 먼 집. be interesting . You will also include the 우. However. the adjective 춥다 is conjugated as 추워요 in the present tense. right? In these adjectives that drop the ㅂ. Or. and so we would add 은. the ㄹ is dropped in some forms. we have 멀. ㄴ. Irregular ㄹ Endings Another irregular ending is when an adjective ends in ㄹ. you simply add the vowel ending form. adjectives that end in ㄹ will drop the ㄹ :-) 멀다 . Somewhere. try your best to realize that we are truly adding ㄴ. you will do the same when moving the adjective before the noun. simply remember that when moving an adjective before the noun. simply add the proper ending 먼.

However. which usually comes with special endings. because when ㅅ is followed by ㄴ. try practicing some! 춥다 덥다 좋다 나쁘다 따뜻하다 재미없다 맛있다 깨끗하다 어렵다 쉽다 . it ends in 있 다. because it describes something as interesting. this is pronounced 재미인는.재미 있다 is an adjective. you will add 는 instead of 은 /ㄴ. visit the Hangul Irregularities page Practice Moving Adjectives Now that you know how to move them. The interesting car would be 재미있는 차 Remember. For a review on irregular pronunciation. it sounds like ㄴ. With 있다 and 없다 endings.

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