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INGEN HOUSZ EXPERIMENT

BIOLOGY

2011
To Complete Biologys Task Grade XII Semester IYear of Teaching and Learning 2011/2012
Science-5) Science-5) Science-5) Science-5)

Biologys Teacher : Mrs. Dra. Anik Silfi W.

Aziza Ratna Kumala (05/XI Giovani Ellisa Puspaningtyas(11/XI Renny Yunia Nurhidayah(13/XI Rizki Diah Anggraeni (15/XI

SMA NEGERI 1 BJONEGORO

INGENHOUZH EXPERIMENT
To Complete Biologys Task Grade XII Semester I Year of Teaching and Learning 2011/2012

Biologys Teacher : Mrs. Dra. Anik Silfi W.

Groups Member : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Annaasa Nurhidayah Cipto Dwi L. Faizal Rachman Fitra Bunga Nirwana Rizki Diah Anggraeni (03/XI Science-5) (06/XI Science-5) ( /XII Science-5) (10/XII Science-5) (28/XI Science-5)

Renny Yunia Nurhidayah (25/XI Science-5)

SMA NEGERI 1 BOJONEGORO


JULY 2011 i

PREFACE
Assalamu'alaikum Wr. Wb. Praise Thank God we always pray toward the presence of God Almighty, because only with the blessing blessed, taufik and His guidance, this book can be completed. The purpose of writing this creative collection of letters entitled "I N G E N H O U Z H E X P ER I M E N T " is to show the differentiation of plant germination. The author would like to thank: 1. Drs. H. Puji Widodo, MM. as Head of SMA Negeri 1 Bojonegoro, which has provided Biology Laboratory and all inside it so that we can do this research. 2. 3. Mrs. Dra. Anik Silfi W. as the biologys teacher who had guided the authors in doing the research. The parties that we can not mention one by one due to limited places. The author believes that in this book is not perfect; therefore the authors expect criticism and constructive suggestions for the future improvement. Without his assistance, this work would not exist very well. Finally, we apologize if there are words that are less pleased at heart, because it is not our sole purpose. Wassalamu'alaikum Wr. Wb.

Bojonegoro, October 3rd, 2011

Author

CONTENTS
ii Cover.....................................................................................................i Preface...................................................................................................ii Contents.................................................................................................iii CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY......................................................................................1 1.1 Background.............................................................................. 1.2 Research Purposes................................................................. CHAPTER II RESEARCH METHODOLOGY............................................................. 2.1 Time and Place of Research................................................... 2.2 Materials.................................................................................. 2.3 Steps........................................................................................ CHAPTER III DATA AND DISCUSSION..................................................................... 3.1 Observational Data.................................................................. 3.2 Discussion............................................................................... CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Conclusions...........................................................................................

CHAPTER I iii 1.1 Background Photosynthesis biochemical energy bacteria process glucose nutrients, is in a the which carbon PRELIMINARY

formation of food substances or called with plants, algae, and some types of dioxide, and water, and needed the help of sunlight energy. Almost all living things depend on energy produced in photosynthesis. As a result, photosynthesis becomes very important for life on earth. Photosynthesis is also credited with producing most of the oxygen present in Earth's atmosphere. Organisms that produce energy through photosynthesis (photos meaning light) is called a fototrof. [1] Photosynthesis is one one way in photosynthetic carbon assimilation due to free carbon from CO2 bound (fixed) into sugars as energy storage molecules Reactions of photosynthesis in plants require chlorophyll, light, and carbon dioxide. Without light, plants are difficult to perform photosynthesis. In order to obtain optimal results choose plants that light has a certain wavelength. From the reaction will be generated energy, water and oxygen as the following equation: 6CO2 +6 H2O -> C6H12 O6 + 6O2 And to prove the photosynthetic reaction is carried out several experiments, including percobangan conducted by Jan Ingenhousz, in 1778, physician to the Austrian, who repeated Priestley's experiments.

He showed that the effect of sunlight on the plant that can "restore" air "damaged ". He also found that plants also 'dirty air' in the dark so that he then suggested that the plants are removed from the house at night to prevent the possibility of poisoning the inhabitants. He conducted an experiment with water plants Hydrilla to prove the existence of the process of photosynthesis. 1.2 1 Objectives To determine the Product of Photosynthesis To know some factors that influence of Photosynthesis To determain what the Photosynthesis need to its reakction

CHAPTER II 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2.1 Time and Place of Research Time : Wednesday,October 3th 2011 Place : Biology Laboratory

Beaker Glass

2.2 Materials a. Tools Reaction Tubes Spike/Cutter Inverted Glass Funnel 3 Beaker Glass Thermometer Bascom plastic / small bucket
Reaction Tube
Inverted Glass Funnel

b. Object

Thermometer

Hydrilla verticillata plants (aquatic plants for aquarium) Water Ice NaHCO3

Hydrilla Verticillata

NaHCO3

2.3 Steps 3 Prepare all the necessary tools and materials

Cut some hydrilla verticillata in a same size and length. Put the hydrilla into 3 beaker glass, each other must contain in the same number, example if in the first beaker glass there are 3 branch of hydrilla so the other beaker glass must contain 3 branch of hydrilla too. Fill glass beaker with water, each glass beakers have the same amount. for example, each containing 450 ml. Fill the tube reaction with water,too. The reaction tube must havent a space for air, it must full of water. Put glass beakers that already contain of water and hydrilla in a different place. a. Fisrt beaker glass : Put it in the original/ordinary condition, it means that put the first beaker glass in the outdoor with more sunlight (hot place). b. Second beaker glass : Put it in the shade, with some ice which you enter to the water in beaker glass.

c. Third beaker glass : Put in the normal condition, outdoor place like the first beaker glass but the beaker glass is added by some NaHCO3 of baking soda in that water. 4 Observe all the beaker soda in 7 minutes. a. Measuring the temperature of each beaker glass b. Observe changes that occur, is there a bubble or not? c. Count how many bubbles are generated each glass beaker every minute (in the same time) Make a data table of the result of the experiment. Make some conclusion of the experiment.

CHAPTER III 6 DATA AND DISCUSSION DATA

3.1

3.2 2 No 1 2 3 4 5

TABLE OF DATA Gelembung*)

Tabel Hasil pengamatan Perlakuan Waktu Suhu Tempat teduh Cahaya matahari langsung Cahaya langsung + air hangat Cahaya langsung + es Cahaya langsung + 5 gr NaHCO3 3 Keterangan: - bila tidak ada +++ Bila banyak 4 + bila sedikit ++++ Bila banyak sekali 5 ++ bila sedang

3.1

DISCUSSION According to data from experiments Ingenhousz above, the

number of gas bubbles produced by the plant Hidrila when the lights are on without the filter was reduced from minutes unity until the fifth minute. It was influenced by the duration of photosynthesis. It is also influenced by factors of sunlight. Bubbles of oxygen gas produced in a place exposed to the sun will be more. The reason is that when chlorophyll is exposed to light, the chlorophyll will catch it and use it in the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis begins when light ionizes the chlorophyll molecules in photosystem II, made releasing electrons to be transferred along the electron transport chain. The energy of the electrons is used to photophosphorylation that produces ATP. Photosystem II reaction causes a deficit or deficiency of electrons that must be replaced immediately. In plants and algae, the electron deficiency is filled by electrons from the ionization of water that occurs simultaneously with the ionization of chlorophyll. The results of this are the electron ionization of water and oxygen. The process of photosynthesis will be more effective if it is in the red filter conditions. That's because the pigment chlorophyll absorbs more red light (650-700 nanometers) than green (500-600 nanometers). This green light will be reflected and captured by our eyes, causing a sensation that leaves are green. Photosynthesis will produce more energy at the wave length of light with a certain. This is because the shorter wavelengths store more energy. Addition of NaHCO3 will also produce more bubbles because of NaHCO3 will be a catalyst and will cause a reaction that produces CO 2 for photosynthesis so that the material will be more numerous and the process of photosynthesis will occur more rapidly according to the equation 6CO2 + 12H2O + light C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 + 6H2O

The process of photosynthesis that occurs in 40o water also creates more bubbles of gas because the enzymes that work in the process of photosynthesis can only work at optimum temperature. Fotosintensis rate generally increases with increasing temperature to the limit of tolerance of the enzyme. Actually, gas bubbles generated in the experiment above is oksigen/O2 gas. This gas is formed by photolysis process in which water is broken down into oxygen gas bubbles form with the following equation: 2H2O (l) -> 4H + (aq) + O2 (g). From these equations appear O2 gas molecules generated from the decomposition of water.

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CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 4.1 CONCLUTIONS The conclusion that can be obtained from experiments Ingenhousz are: 1. In the process of photosynthesis takes water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide. 2. In the process of photosynthesis produces O2/oksigen. 3. The process of photosynthesis will be more effective in the red light conditions. 4. Some of the main factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis is the light intensity, the concentration of carbon dioxide, temperature, water content. 4.2 SUGGESTION 1. Filling water into a series of tools should be done quickly so there is no air in the test tube. 2. Installation Hidrilla should not be too tight so that air can freely move 3. A good selection of plants and fresh Hidrilla need to be considered in order to obtain optimal results. 4. Direction of light to be precise so that the rate of photosynthesis is not compromised.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www.gskool.com/n/node/84 http://theseedsite.co.uk/germinating.html http://www.backyardnature.net/n/x/hypogeal.htm