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Towards understanding Taqleed Part'2 G- I will never lay my hands on such books which have so many lies in them. I seek refuge from (oining) such a sect in the future, which speak so many lies. You have put me at ease as far as every matter of mine. The truth of the matter is that we (only) learn a few Ahadith, and then fall behind (attacking) those who have (actually) dedicated their lives for the course of Deen. We have no knowledge whatsoever as far as which (Hadith) is abrogated, and which (Hadith) has replaced it. We should be praying for those who have sacrificed their lives in the preservation and presentation of all the rulings of Deen for us. At the times of difficult we go to them for the solution, and (at other times) we swear at them, this is sheer treachery. I am going to re-invite all those whom I have encouraged to read salah bare-headed, and make salaam with one hand. I am also going to bring back those whom I have made to stand with their feet spread apart in salah. The very first lesson of those friends who had put me on this (path of Ghair muqalliDeen) was, not to go and question those who have knowledge regarding the Ghair muqalliDeen, but to go to the uneducated and those who have made no research, and pester them. I have joined forces with them and ridiculed my father on numerous occasions. I will seek forgiveness from him too. Today only have I realized how these people speak lies using tlie name of the Quraan and Hadith. They call everything Hadith. What will the condition of the general masses amongst them be, when the ulama amongst them speak so many lies? May Allaah protect every Muslim from speaking lies and may He guide one and all to follow in the footsteps of the pious predesessors. Ameen.

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Towards understanding Taqleed Part-Z

..QIRA'AAH KHALFAL IMAAM"


Reciting Qiraa'ah While Following The Imaam
Ouestion: The Ghayr Muqallideen regard Qiraa'ah Khalfal Imaam as Fardh (obligatory) and prove their point by quoting the Hadith: "There is no salaah for the one who does not recite the opening of the Kitaab (Surah Faatiha)." They claim that the Hanafis oppose this Hadith and also say that one cannot lconfradict a,Hadith that appears in Bukhaari and Muslim. People are now in doubt. We would therefore appreciate a detailed reply in the light of the Qur'aan and the Ahadeeth, especially quoting the proofs of the Hanafis and their replies to the others. Your reply will be a cause of guidance and will Inshaa Allaah dispel the wrong notions of the masses.
Answer: This issue is a point of great contention and difference of opinion. One cannot prove himself by presenting only a portion of a Hadith because a decision can be made only by studying all the various Ahadeeth.

The Hadith you quoted refers to the salaah

of a person

performing salaah by himself (and applies also to an Imaam). It does not refer to the salaah of a Muqtadi. The following is an ex',ract from Sahih Tirmidhi from the famous Muhaddith and Mujtahid Imaam Ahmati bin Hambal U[#ri#'?i:

Translation Edited by: Mufti A H Elias (May Allaah protect him) Shawaal 2029 - October 2008

"Imaam Ahmad U&ifit, states that when Rasulullaah ffi# said, "There is no salaah for the one who does not recite the opening of the Kitaab" he vzas referring to the person performing salaah by himself. He proves this point by quoting a Hadith in which Hadhrat Jaabir 'diltW said, "Whoever performs a Rakaah without reciting the mother of the Qur'aan
225

224

Towards understanding Tasleed Part'2 Imaam." Here we have

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Rasulul1u2,11

(Surah Faatiha) has performed no salaah unless he is behind an

a companion of

interpreting the words "There is no salaah for the one who does not recite the opening of the Kitaab" as a person perfonning salaah individually.r

reports that
Satrabah
; fuIas'ood

this verse was revealed because some '@gW used to recite loudly when they followed

adhrat Abu Huray6Y1,1i\ViiW6

Rasulullaah

narration quotes th"" words


according conforms with the

of

Hadhrat

narration of Tahaawi'quotes the words from himself. Imaam Abu Dawood tXflliW has

to

Hadhrat Sufyaan bin

Hadith refers to a person who performs The stance of the Hanafis therefore Ahadeeth and the narrations of the

some people reciting as they followed the Imaam, he turned to them after the salaah and said, ,,Has the time still not arrived for you to understand the verse: . , When the Qur'aan is recited, then listen attentively to it End remain silent.sg .lhat mercy may be shown to you",. Iladhrat Hasan lUfraii,fr, Hadhrat Zthn tl3iiilW and Hadhrat , Ibraheem Nakha'ee tlciiirL6 have stated that this verse refers to salaah."

lW!trW heard

in salaah ... When Hadhrat Abdullaah bin

Sahabah'@]G@E;t and Taabi' een.

The Qur'aan states: t'When the Qur'aan is recited, then listen attentively to it and remain silent so that mercy maj'
be shown to

you.'/

The chief of the Mufassireen Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Abbaas '+AW'\W and Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Mughagal 4iiltffiir&j both state that this verse refers to the Fardh (obligatory) salaah.s Allaama Ibn Kaatheer UYil,ai#J*j adds further that the same interpretation has been stated by Hadhrat Ir.4ujaahid iWt'iW, as quotid by Hadhrat Sufyaan Thowri tE,fli#f, and several other

Itnaam Ahmad tE't^itYfr, has stated, "people are unanimous ; about the fact that this verse re[ers to salaah."E Imaam Z-aid,bin Aslam tE&ittW and Hadhrat Abul Aaliya tlGflifg sa!e, "Because some Sahabah'fsWi$ used to recite loudly when they followed Rasulullaah W in salaah, Allaah revealed the verse: When the Qur'aan is recited, then listen attentively to it (stop talkiry) and remain silent so that mercy may be shown to you." e

Abdur Rahmaan binZaid,bin Aslam

txgrlW!

the Ima,rm, he turned to them after the salaah and said, ,,Has I the time still not arrived for you to understand the Allaah's I command when He says: ' When the Qurraan is recited, then 1 listen attentively to it and remain silent so that mercy may , be shown to you"'. The following is stated in the book A/ Ikhtiyaala:,,A Muqtadi will not recite Qiraa'ah during the salaah because Allaah states:
zeel with the Tafseer of Ibn Katheer (Vol.3 pg.623).

Tlte Tafseer of Ibn Katheer (Vol.3 pg.623) also quotes a ,narration stating that when Hadhrat Abdullaah bin . Mas'ood 'WtliWS heard some people reciting as they followed

' Tirmidhi (Vol.l

Pg.42).

vol.t eg.toz.
Sruah

Abu Da*ood (Vol.1 Pg.l26).

A'raaf, verse 204. s_The T'o\t"r, of Ibn Katheer (Vol.3 Pg.623). o The Talseer of Ibn Katheer (Vol.3 PC.623).

1Pg.601). I Pg.601).

226

227

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Towards

Part-2
was the perfectly is

'When the Qur'aan is recite and rernain silent so that mercy may be shown to you."'. Trris is because Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Mas'oo6'sl,lVidilVt, Hadhrat Abu HurayruT'affiiGi and many Mufassireen state that the verse was revealed when some Sahabah & used to recite loudly when they followed Rasulullaahp in salaah.
The book Zujaajatul Masaabeeh (Vo1.1 Pg.2aD also quotes several narations in this rcgard. All of the above make it clear that the Muqtadi should remain silent while the Imaam is reciting the Qiraa'ah in both audible and silent salaahs. The verse of the Qur'aan gives two explicit commands. The first is the command to listen attentively (to the recitation of the Imaam), which refers especially to the audible salaahs. The second is the command to remain silent (while the Imaam is reciting), which refers to both silent and audible salaahs.ll
Ahadeeth on the subject

:indicates that even though Imaam Sulaymaan

only one to narrate the addition, his narration


authentic.12

ln reality, however, there are other narrations of reliable


narrators that are the same as that of Hadhrat Sulaymaan Taymi tlffiiWr. Moulana Zafar Ahmad Thanwi cpilirifr has narrated a report from Sahih Abu Awaana, which is narrated from Abdullaah bin Rushayd, who then narrates from Abu Ubaydah (Mujaa'ah binZlhayr Atki), Qataadah, Yunus bin Jubayr, Hattaan bin Abdullaah Raqaashi and

then Hadhrat Abu Moosa Ash'ari '4W]3d[65. This naration also states that Rasulullaahffi said, "but when the Imaam recites, you remain silent. Then, you say 'Aameen' when
he recites:

,olEl'

r:r#y*lj;,y

1. Hadhrat Abu Moosa

Ash'ari '+AUJtii{s{, says, "Rasulullaah W delivered a sermon in which he explained the Sunnah to us as well as the manner of performing salaah. He said, 'When you stand up for salaah, form your rows with one of you as the Imaam. When he calls out the Takbeer Tahreema, you also follow suit, but when he recites, you remain silent. Then, you say 'Aameen' when he recites:

The narrator Abu Ubaydah tlg,ifi?t is a reliable narrator and Ansaab Sam'aani states that the narrations of both Abdullaah bin Rushayd {l&tiWa and Abu Ubaydah Ug^)ti?, are reliable.
Daar Qutni has also reported the narration in his Sunan. In

+l':ol'

li|ax.

g';.;,rU

his narration, Umar bin Aamir and Sa'eed bin Abu lhwa tXSaiWi have na:rated from Qataadah A(&l#Jil a report like that of Sulaymaan Taymi tW&itlr. This
narration also adds: "...but when the Imaam recites, you remain silent." Imaam Muslim UGfflYfr narrates from Umar bin Aamir UUt^iil, as well as from his student

This Hadith is narrated in Muslim Oor.i piJJq'1. ivh", or" of Imaam Muslim iJfdd'i#Gi's students asked him whether the narration of rmaam Sulaymaan Taymi X&ilfi?t was authentic' which states that Rasulullaah W added. "When he (the Imaam) recites, then you (the Muqtadi) remain silent." To this, Imaam Muslim X'ldfffi replied, "Do you wish to know of someone with a memory better than Sulaymaan's?" This
tt Fat'hul Qadeer (Vol.1 Pg'342).
12

Muslim tEffrlW, Imaam Aby Khuzaymah W.i#?i ay6 Ibn Hibbaan BEiii#Gi aho narrate from him. The belief of certain Muhadditheen that only Sulaymaan Taymi i;XidftYE, has reported the addition is therefore wrong. It has also
Muslim (Vol.l Pg.174).

Saalim

bin Nooh cl1flitW. Apart from Imaam

228

229

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Towards
been

Part-2 reports from three students of Qataadah


naJTators.

I =

Towards

Part-2

of whom are reliable


2.

uhless he is behind an Imaam." Imaam Tirmidhi


adds that the narrationis Hasan Sahih.r6

The following is quoted from Nasa'ee: "Interpreting the verse 'When the Qur'aan is recited, then listen attentively to it and remain silent so that mercy may be shown to you."', Hadhrat Abu Hurayrah lf#lilisi said, 'Rasulullaah W said,'The lmaam has been appointed to be followed, so call out the Takbeer Tahreema when he does, be silent when he recites the Qiraa'ah and say " te1,"pt .rJt .iJl" when he says "o.tl gI &l gc","'13

Imaam Tahaawi UWiiyS, narrates the same Hadith from *ur-ror1*1, ffiW. He writes, "Hadhrat Jaabir 'MtiW reports that RasulurluuA W said, "Whoever performs a Rakaah without reciting the mother of the Qur'aan (Surah Faatiha) has performed no salaah unless he is behind an Imaam."l7

3.

Ibn Maajah narrates: "Hadhrat Abu Hurayrah 'W&ilf# narrates that Rasulullaahffi said, ", 'The Imaam has been
appointed to be followed; so call out the Takbeer Tatreema when he does, be silent when he recites the Qiraa'ah, say qja$ 19" arrd say " n6!t "irT" when he says "gd,l5t 1i

This narration mentions specifically that it is not Waajib (compulsory) for the Muqtadi to recite Surah Faatiha when following the Imaam.

6.

.rJr

eU r.1"

when he says "o.,t.1,i,ltl gi","'14

Both the narrations

Nasa'ee and Ibn Maajah are authentic. When a student of Imaam Muslim tX&lW': called Abu Bakr Ug'if', and asked him about the narration of Hadhrat Abu HurayraTt'.{fififi/65, he replied that it was authentic.rs This Hadith makes it clear that the Muqtadi should not recite anything behind the Imaam. It has also become clear that the Hadith clarifies the verse When the Qur'aan is recited, then listen attentively ;o it and remain silent so that mercy may be shown to you."'

of

The Mu'atta of Imaam Maalik tl6dii,?t states: "Hadhrat Naafi U&iW reports that when Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Umar WiW was asked whether a Muqtadi should recite Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam, he replied, 'When any of you performs salaah behind an Imaam, the recitation of the Imaam suffices for him as well. However, when he performs salaah by himself; he should recite the Qiraalah.' ,W,ti;li4 Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Umar himself would not recite any Qiraa'ah when following an Imaam.l8

4.

Tirmidhi reports that Hadhrat Jaabir 'd/f)ffitrt$ said,


"Whoever performs a Rakaah without reciting the mother of the Qur'aan (Surah Faatiha) has performed no salaah
tu

Zujaajatul Masaabeeh (Vol.l Pg.25l) states: "Allaama AynitJfrflilr$?i said, 'Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Umar !#!(fidw would not recite the Qiraa'ah when following an Imaam and he was one who followed most closely in the footsteps of Rasulullaahffi#.'u

13

rs

Nasa'ee (Vol.1 Pg.93) arrd ra Ibn Maa3ah (Pg.61).

Misl*aatul Masaabeeh (Pg'81).

', tB

i;;;;

Tirmidhi (Vol.1 Pg.42)

Muslim (Vol.l Pg.l 74).

Mu'atta of Imaam Maalik (pg.29)

ry;ii p;joi;.

and

Mu'attaof Imaam Muhammad

(pe.7s).

230

231

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Part-2
Rasulullaah Qiraa'ah of the Imaam is his Qiraa'ah as well."
8.

that then the

dependable scholars Sahih."

of Shaam. The narration is

therefore

The Musnad of Imaam Abu Haneefah ll6/'aii'fi states2o: "Hadhrat Jaabir |diif5di;ft{ reports that RasulullaahW said, 'If one has an Imaam, then the Qiraa'ah of the Imaam is his Qiraa'ah as well."'

ll.The i

'

'

Ma,attazz of Imaam Muhammad A6i)rW quotes another narration as follows: "Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Shaddaad, UUSdifi, reports that Rasulullaah W once led the Sahabah '@tg,&b in Asr salaah. When one of the

Sahabah

9.

Ihiaam Muhammad tliilrJ#?, states2l: "Imaam Abu Haneetah ilY&iW reported to us from Abul Hasan Moosa bin Abu ,A.a'isha tEffli#fi, from Hadhrat Abdullaah bin ShaddaadtlGiiif"fr, frorn Hadhrat Jaabir bin Abdullaah 'dvfriW that Rasulullaahlffi said, "If one has an Imaarn, then the Qiraa'ah of the lmaam is his Qiraa'ah as well."

The Mu'atta

of

'@6W, started to recite Qiraa'ah, the Sahabi WiW) beside him indicated to him to remain
silent. When the salaah was over, the Sahabi 'e,WfF, asked, 'Why did you indicate to me to remain silent?' The other replied, 'Rasulullaahffi was in front of us and I did not want you to recite behind him. Overhearing this conversation, Rasulullaah W then said, 'If one has an Imaam, then the Qiraa'ah of the Imaam is his Qiraa'ah as well."'

lO.

Zujaajatul Masaabeeh (Yol.l Pg.zaq shtes: "Hadhrat Jaabir Wdltr$ reports that Rasulullaah W said, 'If one has an Imaam, then the Qiraa'ah of the Imaam is his Qiraa'ah as well.' This has been narrated by Imaam Muhammad UCidJiSi, Daar Qutni tWflffiG1 and Bayhaqi tXiiifif.t from our Imaam Abu HaneefahA&tiW , a chain of narrators that is most authentic. In fact, Allaama Ibn Humaam WiltY?t has asserted that the narration conforms with the standards of authenticity used by Imaam Bukhaari il6'rl#fr and Imaam Muslim tlffibf't- Alaama Ayni ilX,filW.: says, "The narration is authentic. As for Imaam Abu Haneefuh AV6il#?\ he was after all, Imaam Abu HaneetahU&itifr. Moosa bin Abu Aa'isha tyciiitfit is amongst the reliable and dependable narrators from whom Bukhaari and Muslim narrate. Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Shaddaad iW,i#G) was amongst the leading and most

!2. Kitaabul Aathaals contains the following: "Hadhrat Jaabir '*A[fri;f# reports that Rasulullaah W was leading

Another Sahabi lxdl?'iW stopped him from reciting Qiraa'ah in salaah and a dispute arose between the two,
with the first saying, 'Why do you prevent me from reciting Qiraa'ah behind Rasulullaah ffijT When their dispute reached Rasulullaah W's ears, he said, 'If one has an Imaam, then the Qiraa'ah of the Imaam is his Qiraa'ah.as well.' Imaam Muhammad tX&iitif,t says, 'It is this practice that we follow and such is the opinion of Imaam Abu Haneefah U&tt#,fr.
13. Zujaajatul Masaabeelr (Vol.1 Pg.25O) reports from Hadhrat Ali'ifftilil# that someone once asked Rasulullaah ffiftS,

the salaah when a Sahabi

WiiW

started to recite Qiraa'ah.

"should
20

I recite Qiraa'ah

behind the Imaam or should I

'e

Pg.6l.
Pg.

r33.

"

Pg.77.

Pg.78. '2 21 Pg.23.

232

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Towards understanding Taqleed part-2 remain silent?" "No," Rasulullaah W

rcplied, "you

should remain silent because his Qiraa'ah suffices for you.',

t4.Zujaajatul Masaabeeh (Vol.l Pg.250) reports

" ,

Towards understanding Taqleed Part-2 In this Hadith as well, the Qaari refers to the one who recites the Qiraa'ah, which is the Imaam only. If everyone needed to recite Qiraa'ah, Rasulullaah ffi# would have
aa

another
a4rr
t,

narration from Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Abbaas,#AWii&5 in which Rasulullaah W said, "The Qiraa'ah of the Imaam suffices for you, whether he recites silently or audibly.,, This narration is from Daar Qutni.
15. Muslim2a reports

Apart from the above, there are several statements of the


and Taabi'een and reports about them to support the stance of the Hanafis. We shall now present
these.

Sahabah

'@'M

Rasulullaah W said, "When the Qaari (reciter of Qiraa'ah, viz. the Imaam) says, "d,GJr I t # ,a;b;J;r ,cand those following him say, "g,rT", all their previous sins
are forgiven

from Hadhrat Abu Hurayrah ,#NfiiiGr,t that

Reports from the sahabah'ff1l.3&?,

if their "dyT' corresponds with the "q.T' of the

angels."

This Hadith refers to performing salaah in Jamaa'ah and refers only to the Qiraa'ah of the Imaam, making it ,.pparent that it is only the Imaam who needs to recite. Had it been necessary for the Muqtadi to recite eiraa'ah, the Hadith would not have spoken about the eiraa'ah of the Imaam only. The Hadith also indicates that the responsibility of reciting Surah Faatiha is that of the
Imaam.
16.

iXtirYH says that Rasulullaah ffiW, '&L6ii;trd, Hadhrat Abu Bakr Hadhrat Umar IEj{(Ti'rWL and Hadhrat Uthmaan l{Jl(5tii{# all prevented people from reciting Qiraa'ah when following the Imaam.26
Hadhrat Moosa bin Aqaba

Another narration from Taabi'ee states that Hadhrat tUmar 'e,Xffi;[s5 took a pledge from the people that they would not recite Qiraa'ah when following the Imaarrr.2l
About Hadhrat p^lt,lMtiiEi

Hadhrat Ali'f/fffid6q said, "The person who recites when following the Imaam is not upon Fitrah."z8

narration of Bukhaarix reports from Hadhrat Abu Hurayrah 'Wfi;(55 that Rasulullaah W said, "When the
Qaari (reciter of Qiraa'ah, viz. the Imaam) says 'Aameen,,
says

lladhrat
26

1.Jii'W)tAW6 aho said, "The one who recites when following the Imaam conflicts with Fitrah."2e AMur Razzaaq (Vol.2 Pg.139), as quoted hZujaajatul Masaabeeh
Pg.250)"

you also say 'Aameen' because the angels also

'Aameen' and all the previous sins of a person are forgiven whcn his 'Aameen' corresponds with that of the angels."
1

(Vol.l
27

AMur Razzaaq(Vol.2 Pg.138), as quoted inZujaajatul Masaabeeh


(Vol.1 Pg.107) atllylaaiatut Masaabeeh(Vol.l Pg.251).

(Vol.l Pg.25l).

'vol.l

Ps.r76-

's Yor.2vi.s+t.

llTf:"*^, Abdur Razzaaq

(Vol.l

Pg.137).

234

235

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
Towards understanding Taqleed Part- 2 About Harlhrat Abdullaah Bin Mas'oodWii;l?) A r,an once al4lroached Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Mas'ood '$6dfili5 and asked, "Should I recite Qiraa'ah when following an Imaam?" Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Mas'ood'#Nfidi/6 replied, "Remain silent because there are other things to occupy you when performing salaah (such as contemplating about the commands, promises and warnings in the Qur'aan). The Imaam will do the recitation for you."3o

owards large belly. The Qiraa'ah


you' -33

Part-2

of the Imaam will suffice for

Z. Hadhrat Zaid. bin Aslam We,iiLfr, says that

Hadhrat from people prevent '@{fifiib, to used Umar Abdullaah bin Imaam'"the reciting Qiraa'ah when following

3: Hadhrat

W'aiW reports that when someone asked ,iW,itW,t about reciting Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Umar
Naafi

Hadhrat Alqama bin Qais tl1titY?, reports that Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Mas'ood'eNXiW6 would not recite Qiraa'ah when following an Imaam, regardless of whether the salaah was silent or audible and whether it was the first two Rakaahs or the second two Rakaahs. However when he performed salaah by himself, he would recite both Surah Faatiha and a Surah in the first two Rakaahs and only Surah Faatiha in the
second two Rakaahs.:

'

"The Qiraa'ah of Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam, he replied, ttt" Imaam will suffice for you."3s someone once asked Hadhrat Abdullaah bin 'A$iiil*L about reciting Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam, Umar

4. When

hereplied,"TheQiraa'ahofthelmaamwillsufficefor
yoo."3u

About Hadhrat Zaid Bin Thaabit'@I(SW{


Hadhrat Ataa bin Yasaar i\Yeifif| narrates that when Hadhrat Taid bin Thaabit '{dl[f,di;fg was asked about reciting Qiraa'ah a behind the Imaam, he replied, "Under no circumstances must Imaam Imaam'" an following Derson recite when il;ril Awit\fr has also reported ihis narration'37
Hadhrat Dhakwaan iW&flyfi' reports that both Hadhrat

About Hadhrat Abdullaah Bin Abbaas,Wftlilg Hadhrat Abu Hamza UYSii$fl reports that he once asked Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Abbaas 'elt6ll;[g whether he should recite any-Qiraa'ah when following the Imaam. "No," came
the reply.32

About Hadhrat Abdullaah Bin Umar :WIfA;fA

'dVl'W' Tllaabil CusllW', and Hadhraf Abduttaatr bin Umar used to prohibit people from reciting Qiraa'ah behind the
Imaam.38

Zaidbin

1. Hadhrat Ibn Seereen tffif#fr

reports that he once asked Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Umar !#XSIWA whether he should recite any Qiraa'ah when following an Imaam. tladhrat Abdullaah bin Umar'Wlitifg replied, "You seem to have a
(Vol.2 Pg.138) and the Mu'atta of Imaam Muhammad

33 3a

3s

36

12

Inraam Muhammad dlEiiirHfi (Pg.78).

tMiwa (Pg.76). The M u, att aof lmaam Muhammad dxiiltY?5 e g.77 ). 31 Zujaajatul Masaabeeh (Vol.1 Pg.251) and Muslim (Vol'l Pg'251)'
TheMu,attaof Loau* Muhammad
lE

Abdur Razzaaq(Vol.2 Pg.l40)' Abdur Razzaaq(Vol.2 Pg.140). - ....--

Tahaawi (Vol.l Pg.108).

AMur Razzaaq(Vol'

1 Pg. 140).

236

237

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
Part-2

ilr
Zaidbin Thaabit '$W^i;li$ say, "In no salaah should one recite
Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam."3e

tn" r"*na t*o Rakaahs, whether it was Surah

or any other Surah.aa

bout Hadhrat Muhammad Bin Seereen"d(]1tiG'


rat Muhammad bin Seereen U&itW said, "As far,.as Sunnah'"*' , reciting Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam is not

About Hadhrat Jaabir Bin Abdutlash,(ilViiiiw, Hadhrat Jaabir said, "Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam ehould neither take place in audible or silent salaahs."40 Hadhrat Ubaydullaah bin Muqsim

About Hadhrat Suwayd Bin Ghafala'd/i/it'dil?r)


HaOtnat Waleed bin Qais

Abdullaah

Thaabit 'AU&$liS and Hadhrat Jaabir |WfrW, about reciting Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam. They all told him that in no salaah
should a person recite Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam.al

bin

ilY'&itlt asked Hadhrat Umar '&[ftii&6, Hadhrat Zaid bin

'Hudhrut Suwayd bin Ghafala regard as a Sahabi) about reciting Qiraa'ah l"whom ,o-" "u* the Zuhr and Asr salaahs, he replied that rt in Imaam the behind
bhould not be done.a6

that when he asked W-.:yp:rts (an eminent Taabi'ee Uffii#f5

asked 'e1fftif# Hadhrat Jaabir whether he recited Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam the Zthr and Asr salaatrs, he replied the

When Hadhrat Ubaydullaah bin Muqsim

iliiiifti

About Hadhrat Ibraheem Nakha'ee UYil^J#A'


' Hudhrut Mansoor We,tf^?t reports that Hadhrat Ibraheem i{akha'ee tx#^J#et said, "The first person to read Qiral'ah behind the Imaam was someone against whom many perfectly accusations have been levelled (someone not
roliable)."a7

in

in

negative.a2

About Hadhrat Alqama Bin Qais i;l1idJti6 Hadhrat Ibraheern Nakha'ee AUiljiW reports that Hadhrat Alqama bin Qais UYJdiW said, "f would prefer biting on a burning charcoal rather than reciting Qiraa'ah behind the
lmaam."43

Hadhrat Ibraheem Nakha'ee tE,flf,ly,?, reports that Hadhrat Alqama bin Qais eycfrfilH never recited Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam regardless of whether the salaah was silent or audible,

tbraheem Nakha'ee Wefffi, was amongst the leading Fuqahaa r of Kufa and the first person to start reciting Qiraa'ah b-ehind the Imaam was moit probably some Khaariji or Qadri' Whereas the people of Kufa always followed the teachings of ,,iiadhrat Abd;lh;h bin Mas'oodl{AV;iiWi and would not recite oiraa'ah behind the Imaam, it was this person who introduced

Moulana Zafar Ahmad Thanwi U6.i:iri?t writes that Hadhrat

Nuttu'""
44

1i

to t1"

p3,gp,P,,gf

5"tu WjfJrYfr does not however

fr: statement :l I-11-*J:':l:"i

mean that the people of

ai

Kitaabul Aathaar (Pg.22).

lbn Abi Shaybah (Vol'1 Pg.377). o6Ihn Abi Shaybah (Vol.l ,.. ...-a7 he Mu'ani of Imaam Muhaml;p1dWtil:{fr (Pg.78)

Pg.377).

238

239

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
Towards understandi4g Taqleed Part'2 Makkah and Hijaaz who recited Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam were perpetrators of Bid'ah and people who stood accused of
wrong.o8

Apart from the above, there are many other narations, which
we have omitted.

Zujaajatul i'Lasaabeeh states that the verse of the Qur'aan gives two explicit commands. The first is the command to listen attentively (to the recitation of the Imaam), which refers especially to the audible salaahs' The second is the command to remain silent (while the Imaam is reciting), which refers to the silent salaahs. It is this practice that has been adopted by Imaam Abu Haneefah iffiti#'?': and his companions and has been stated by Hadhrat Jaabir bin AbdullaahWiffi, Hadhrat Zaid bin Thaabit 'AW,i;W, Hadhrat Ni 'f/i['ii!Wr. Hadhrat

' Waqqaas 'A[!dW, Hadhrat Zaid bin

Hadhrat Thaabit

Umar tl(5iJiilb andHadhrat

Thebooklkhtiyaarstates..AMuqtadiwillnotreciteQiraa,ah is duriug the salaah because Allaah states: 'When the Qurtaan that so silent remain recite-d, then listen attentively to it and may be shown to you."''.-This. is because Hadhrat

-a."y

Nakha'ee tXii'itW'-t and the students of Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Mas'ood , together with other eminent d Taabi'een tlcifi#?'. This has been stated Sahabah his Istidhkaar wat Tamheed. Allaama in by Ibn lso reported that more than eighty eminent Ayni U have prohibited people fiom reciting Sahaba be9 gited bY Qir '&(Ki:17': and the os6'4$ftiiw)' the Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Umar Wdlilg and Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Abbaas +AfX,i;f$.It has also been stated that more than

that the verse Hurayrah 'WiW, and many Mufassireen state '@gM used to Sahabah was explicitly revealed when some It has salaah. in ,recite loudly Ls they followed Rasulullaah W Hadhrat Abu Hurayrah "#MdWs that also bpen rlported-from -W said,'The Imaam has been appointed to be Rasulullaah followed, so be silent when he recites the Qiraa'ah'' Imaam' Rasulullaah ffi# also said, 'When a person follows an the Qiraa'ah of the Imaam suffices for him'' Imaam i^t",Ui-ilfAir#; has also reported that Rasulullaah569 satd, fmaam."'5o ,.No eiraa,ah should be reciied when following an

Abduilaah

bin Mas'ood '@ffili;G6, Hadhrat Abu

Rasaa'ilulArkaan(Vot.lPg.101)statesthattheQiraa,ahof follower according to the ',the Imaam suffices for the of jurisprudencc'.The schools Hanafi, Hambali and Maaliki proof stems from the Hadith of Hadhrat Jaabir '4ffiGi irr

*ti"t

said, "When a person has an Imaam' Rasulullaah This then the Qiraa'ah of the lmaa r is his Qiraa'ah as well'" by..Imaam narrated been has Hadith is Sahih (authentic) and

'

Ail'n;;;;i;h
stated
ae

in his Mu'atta that Imaam Abu Haneefah tXflt'ifi?i has

ilr,tiW'r. Imaam Muhammad tl&ifiJ{"t .has

aE

Faatihatul Kalaam (Pg.al).

to

AI lkitiyoo, Lita'leelil Mukhtaar (Vol' i Pg'50)'


24L

Zuiaaiatul Masaabeeh (Vol.l Pg'242)'

240

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
ards understanding Taqleed Pgrt-2 r"p"rted tt io him and Ibn lai i&tili?'t has also reported it through his own chain of narrators from Imaam Abu Haneifah UYJdiiyGt. Allaama Ibn Jowzi U\il,iii?t has ruled that
Tow the narration is Sahih. The details have been elaborated upon in

Fat'hul Qadeer together with the chains of narrators. Both chains of narrators end at Rasulullaah W, the one from
Imaam Abu HaneefahtE/.riW being the more authentic of the two. Our practice in this matter has proven from the practices of emi nent Sahabah'@r6&j5. Haafidh Ibn Taymiyyah tJ(Xri#fl, whom the Ghayr Muqallideen claim to follow, writes, "The issue is a bone of contention from both camps, but those who prohibit reciting Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam are the majority of scholars form the past and the present. They have the Qur'aan and authentic Ahadeeth to back their claim whereas those who claim that it is Waajib (compulsory) for the Muqtadi to recite Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam have in their s_upport Ahadeeth that the A'immah
have declared to be weak."Sl

Part-Z he recites the Qiraa'ah." Furthermore, Hadhrat r ,{il(iiliGi said, "Whoever performs a Rakaah without iting the mother of the Qur'aan (Surah Faatiha) has no salaah unless he is behind an Imaam." This has been declared to be Hasan Sahih. Imaam

iW5fityet
llaah

and several Muhadditheen including Imaams UUiAitiSt and Maalik tXJdiWa have also reported it. from the above, there are sewal other narrations from m Muhammad iliii)tVl and Ibn Abi Shaybah tl|idirY?,

has reported these words from

iating the view that reciting Qiraa'ah behind

the

following the Imaam. Hadhrat Abdullaah bin '&XK'W, Hadhrat Jaabir '+-NiliiV, and Hadhrat llaah bin Umar ..{fl/fjti;;C6 also did not recite Qiraa'ah
ind the Imaam.

is prohibited. It is in view of all of this that Imaam Abu tx*itYfi has instructed Muqtadis to remain silent

Tafseer Haqqaani reports a narration from Hadhrat Abu Hurayrah 'eXSliW, shting that after leading the salaah on 9ne '@r'{W if occasion, Rasulullaah ffi# asked the Sahabah replied that someone did, Rasulullaah ffiB "I did feel that someone was wrestling with me in 'WnM no reciting." From that day onwards, the Sahabah longer recited Qiraa'ah behind Rasulullaah ffiE in the audible salaahs. Tirmidhi has declared the Hadith as Hasan The same type of narration has been reported from Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Mas'ood"{AW1W, Hadhrat Imraan bin Husayn '&Mitiliir> v1f,
Sahabah remarked, Hadhrat Jaabir bin Abdulla an "rNfinGS.

anyone had recited Qiraa'ah behind him. When

'WgM

the

Muslim has also reported a narration in which Rasulullaah 68I said, "T[e Imaam has been appointed to be followed..." This Hadith adds that Rasulullaah W also said, "...so be silent
5' To,rn**' u' ul I haadaat (Pg.86)

Shaafi'ee tYJfitLf, and other Muhadditheen have sed the recitation of Surah Faatiha. However, they say the Muqtadi will recite it only when the Imaam pauses reciting it firsL They prove their opinion by quoting a ith in which Rasulullaah W said, "Whoever performs without reciting the mother of the Qur'aan, his salaah ill be incomplete." However, the Muhadditheen, especially Ahmad tl|tiiiL?t who is the Imaam of Muhadditheen that this Hadith refers to the person who is performing by himself and is not following an Imaam. When this is meaning of the Hadith, it will therefore be implausible to that it restricts the pu.port cf the verse of the Qur'aan, ially when Imaam Bayhaqi ilifrit#?t las stated that the was revealed with reference to salaah.5z

Islaam Hadluat Moulana Husayn

Ahmad

i A6lilW says that there are several apparent points of


Tafseer Haqqaani (Vol.4 Pg.182).

242

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
Towards understanding Taqleed Part- 2 rationale making the Hanafi point of view evident. The first is that there are no narrations stating without ambiguity that it is Waajib (compulsory) to recite Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam. Since this is an act that happens ever so often and is of such importance, the absence of a clear narration makes it evident that ii is not Waajib (compulsory) for the Muqtadi to recite
Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam. The second point is that if reciting Qiraa'ah behind the Imaarn was Waajib (compulsory), there needs to be a time within the salaah when he ought to be reciting. The Imaam would then be instructed when to pause his Qiraa'ah so that the Muqtadi may recite. There is however no such instruction mentioned. This

Towards

Part-2

' t

."t*h

count made

the Rakaah."54 Now the person joining only in the Ruku does not recite Surah Faatiha, yet even those who

fird * in Sajdah, make the Sajdah but do not ".d it. As for the one who makes it for the Ruku, he has

it for

'

proves that Qiraa'ah is not Waajib (compulsory) for the Muqtadi because why would the time not be mentioned for something that is compulsory when times are mentioned for things that are Mustahab, such as saying ".rJl slJ l+J" and

Faatiha)" to substantiate their claim, this Hadith is reported with the addition of the words "and more"' This means that there is no salaah for the one who does not recite surah Faatiira and more (additional verses of the Qurl-1g), This addition has been narrated by Imaam Muslim Ug'ifie'

(Vol.t Pg.l69)ss.

,, -, uar

53

1. With regard to the Hadith of Hadhrat Ubaadah "$)(6dWs, Imaam Sufyana bin Uyaynah EW'friif, and Imaam Ahmad A6di#H both state that it does not refer to the
Muqtadi. The Hadith therefore does not apply to all people performing salaah and regarding it to be such will result in contradicting narrations such as "unless he is behind an Imaam" and "If one has an Imaam, then the Qiraa'ah of the Imaam is his Qiraa'ah as well." Adopting the approach of the Hanafis will prevent assuming such a conffadiction because each Hadith will have an independent appli;ation; one referring to the Muqtadi and the other to the Munfarid.

Although some Muhadditheen say that the narrator Hadhrat Ma'mar llfiilW is the onll one who has reported the addition, they are mistaken because other reliable narrators have also reported it. Examplgs. oI such narrators are Hadhrat Sufyaan bin Uyayah Uetif in a narration of Abu Dawood, narrating from Ima Saalih bin KaYsaan A8ii6 Hadhrat Abdur Rahmaan bir have also reported the same addition as Hadhrat Ma,mar &y(giWB.s6

2. Most of the Sahabah't$g(W

and all of the A'immah maintain that the person who joins the Imaam only in Ruku has rnade it for the Rakaah. This is also established from a Hadith in ,hich Rasulullaah W said, "If you come for

This addition is also substantiated in other Ahadeeth, such 'affiGf in as a narration from Hadhrat Abu Sa'eed Khudri which he states, "Rasulullaah mg instructed us to recite Surah Faatiha and whatever else of the Qur'aan that is easy for us." Another narration states that Rasulullaah W said' "There is no salaah for the one who does not recite the
!a

Abo Do*ood, as quoted in Mishkaatul Masaabeeh (Pg'102)'


(Pg.78)
Faotihotul

s3

Ma'aarife Madantyyuh (Vol.5 PS.106).

Mithkootul Masaabeeh " 16 Kolaam pg.58.

244

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
Towards Part-2
opening of the Kitaab (Surah Faatiha) and some more.' The following narrations also reinforce this:

Hadhrat Abu Hurayrah WdW reports

that Rasulullaah ffi# instructed him to announce that there is no salaah for the one who does not recite the opening of the Kitaab (Surah Faatiha) and some more.58

Hadhrat

XW narrates that Abu Sa'eed Khudri said, "There is no salaah for the one who Rasulullaah does not recite Surah Faatiha and a Surah in every Rakaah of the Fardh (obligatory) and other salaahs.ll5e

laah."6o

volume 7 when then states the ruling of the Muqtadi in U"t ioa heard'""' 'ah of the Imaam cannot be

The above narrations tell us that the recitation of Surah Faatiha together with another few verses of the Qur'aan should be Fardh (obligatory), whereas this is not the case even according to those who claim that reciting Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam is necessary. Now why would they practise on one part of the Hadith and forsake the other without any justification? This reinforces the viewpoint of the Hanafis that reciting Qiraa'ah is not necessary for the Muqtadi, but it is Waajib (compulsory) for the lmaam and the Munfarid to recite Surah Faatiha together with a Surah or a few Yerses of the Qur'aan.
The gist of it all is that it is wrong to claim that it is Waajib (compulsory) for the Muqtadi to recite Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam because just as the Sutrah of the Imaam suffices for the Muqtadi, so too does the Qiraa'ah of the Imaam suffice for the Muqtadi whether it be during audible or silent salaahs. It is therefore clear that it is wrong to claim that the view of the Hanafi Madh'hab is wrong.

state tf,at the Muqtad: th'."tl j"^"-ttTl ffi, "w. iut the Imaam in every salaah in which the

f,,[his statement

of Imaam Shaafi'ee [yit^iffi' makes it apparent recite Surah Faatiha ftrat it is incorrect for the Muqtadi to salaahs' He has ind the Imaam when performing the audible in the ririJ,nu, Qiraa'ah bL recited Gt'ioa the Imaam only
salaahs.

iTo

i#

;:il; il;iilfit
Had

it is appropriate to cite the words "o*r",e raties' runot'at wl iy'li)#?t' which will ;;il;;nr"ri"r, Jiuato light on the issue' While I had originally intended Sir" ; Uti"T reply to this- questio', lh: -':1Y }fl ::::,1: the following woutd add to the bodv of I have decided to include it because it is so
the above reply,

seen this earlier'

I would have sufficed by

ine it after a brief rePlY. ifuOn

Moulana writes that according to Imaam .fb" Muqtadi to {""i^n tXli;WAr, it is not permissible for the the i't" Qiiou'ut behind the Imaam regardless of whether

ut

5'
58

5'Ibn Maa;ah (Pg.6l).

Abu Dawood (Vol.l Pg.l25). Abu Dawood (Vol.l Pg.l25).

6t

vol.t rg.93.

Kitaebul Umm (Yol.1 Pg'153)'

246

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
f ar"+, a ra s u n a e rsfr, n ang f aql e
salaah is siient or audible. It is by their deduction that Imaams Ahmad UUf'ditW and Maalik tXSdirW-> differentiate between the silent and audible salaahs. As has been stated, the verse of the

Part-2
endorsed the words of the Sahabi incident took place during the Asr salaah, which is a silent h, making it Llear that the ruling does not change from to salaah.

Qur'aan ("When the Qur'aan is recited, then listen attentively to it and remain silent"), it refers to both silent and audible salaahs. The Ahadeeth of Rasulullaah W exhorting silence and aftentive listening do not differentiate

between silent and audible salaahs. Rasulullaah ffi# expressed '@(WL's recitation behind him displeasure at the Sahabah when it occurred during the Fajr salaah an<l also during the

WrtWa shted in a Hadith that is ic without any doubt. The same has been statcd by t Abu Dardaa WiiW when he quotes that rlullaah W said, "When the Imaam recites Qiraa'ah, it
this what Hadhrat Jaabir

certainly suffice for the Muqtadi."63

salaah. He used the word "wrestling" as well as 'WM for "confusing" when admonishing the Sahabah reciting Qiraa'ah behind him. There was no differentiation between silent and audible salaahs.

Ztfir

In fact, a report states that Rasulullaah W once led the Sahabah 'WSM in the Asr salaah. When one of the '@gW started to recite Qiraa'ah, the Sahabi ';t(SdW, Sahabah
beside him indicated to him to remain silent. When the salaah was over, the Sahabi 'eMfii;E$ asked, 'Why did you indicate to me to remain silent?' The other replied, 'Rasulullaah ffiftS was in front of us and I did not want you to recite behind him. then said, Overhearing this conversation, Rasulullaah

'&A(!ifi;EZ' and Hadhrat people from 19.9i!r.19 Qiraa'ah prevented mr'{iMiiGL all following the Imaam.6o ff^ufiOt AynillGfii)W states that

msuyr

tlrat Rasulullaah W' Hadhrat Abu

EN: Hadhrat Moosa bin

'&!&^iW, Iiadhrat Umar

narration is authentic.

Imaam Muhammad tlc&i#?t as saying, "I wish that stones Hadhrat Umar be filled into the mouth of the person who recites
'ah behind the Imaam."
'al$i,iWL: Hadhrat 1l11!9,ffiG5 said, "The one

one has an Imaam, then the Qiraa'ah of the Imaam is his Qiraa'ah as well."f2

'If
o,t

tt.," folowing the Imaam conflicts r""it"t ,,65

with

This means that there is no need for the Muqtadi reciting


Qiraa'ah because the Imaam is already doing so. This is similar to the verse of the Qur'aan in which Allaah says: "Does it not

suffice for them that We have revealed the Book to you." This telts uS that when the Qur'aan suffices to guide mankind, there is no need for another scripture.

have thus far concentrated on research findings and ining narrations of Ahadeeth because the natrre of the ct is one dealing with Fiqh and Ahadeeth. following is quoted from Nasa'ee: "Interpreting the verse en the Qur'aan is recited, then listen attentively to it
i. The chain ofnarrators is authentic. Abdru Razzaaq (Vol.2 Pg.139), as quoted hZuiaajatul Masaabeeh
7o1.1Pg.250).

behind the Imaam


62

The above narration makes

is an act that is
t$AfijLf,

it

evident that reciting Qiraa'ah

disliked

since

Th" Mo'"tt

'of

ImaamMuhammad

Ibn

eti

Shaybah and Abdur Razzaaq

(Vol'l Pg'L37)'

248

249

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
Towards understanding Taqleed Part'2 and remain silent so that mercy may be shown to you."', Hadhrat Abu Hurayrah'@WiiEL said, 'Rasulullaah W said, 'The lmaam has been appointed to be followed, so call out the
Takbeer Tahreema when he does, be silent when he recites the Q:rra'ah and say ".tJl .IJ k1 p.flt" when he says " ot ilr g*

Part-2 Towards remain silent sc that mercy may be shown to you"' Even when Rasulullaah ffi# went to Masjidul Aqsa before leaving high-ranking tor the Mi'raaj, all the one of them angels waited for him

t""it"d

Surah Faatiha

the Qiraa'ah

o'r",t't66 This Hadith makes it clear that it is Waajib (compulsory) for the Muqtadi to remain silent and to listen attentively to the recitation of the Imaam and it does not
specify the silence for the Surah only.

in salaah. When someone did reciting Qiraa'ah behind Rasulullaah ffilB, t some of You It is ther insffucted or Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam'
was suffering his final illness, he had instructetl Hadhrat Abu Bakr WiiW to lead the salaahs. As When Rasulullaah

A FINE POINT: A fine line of difference between the verse of


Surah A'raaf and the Hadith is that while the Hadith speaks about remaining silent, the verse of the Qur'aan speaks about both remaining silent as well as listening attentively. This is

because

sometimes audibly. The ruling when the Qiraa'ah is audible is to listen attentively and when it is silent, the ruling is to remain

the Qur'aan

is

sometimes recited silently and


expound the rulings

Hadhrat Abu Bakr 'd/l6i[f$ was leading the Fajr salaah, Rasulullaah ffi# was feeling a bit better and a:rived in the

silent. The purpose

of the verse is to

applicable to Qiraa'ah, whereas the purpose of the Hadith is to expound the ruling with regards to the Muqtadi. It instructs the Muqtadi to remain silent regardless of whether the Qiraa'ah of

the Imaam is audible or not and whether the Muqtadi


attentive listening.

is

Rasulullaah

listening attentively or not. The Hadith therefore mentions only

the instruction to remain silent, without any reference to


In fact, from the very beginning when salaah was made Fardh (obligatory) up to the time that Rasulullaah ffiff passed away, it has always been the practice for the Imaam to recite the Qiraa'ah and for the Muqtadi to listen in silence. When some Sahabah 'Wru{ decided to recite Qiraa'ah behind Rasulullaah W out of their own discretion, they were prevented from doing so by the revelation of the verse "When the Qur'aan is recited, then listen attentively to it and
56

therefore did not recite Surah Faatiha in this he led or any of the Qiraa'ah that Hadhrat Abu final salaah that g,aya'$ViiWs has already recited. all,
the are

therefore two types ot Qiraa'ah according to this Hadith; , Qiraa'ah llaqeeqi (actual Qiraa'ah) arrd Qiraa'ah Hukmi '(Qiraa'ah that is not actual Qiraa'ah, but in shares the same ,tatus). her"for", if it is assume<i that Rasulullaah W referred to Loth the Imaam and Muqtadi when he said, "There is no salaah
At -uO (Vol.1 pg.632) and Daar Qutni (Pg.l53) in a narration from tWg'W6. ilIaOtrat Abdullaah bin Abbaas

Abu " W said, .i,ust as Rasulullaah is his Qiraa'ah of the Imaam


The Qiraa'ah of Hadhrat

fl

Nasa'ee

(Vol.l Pg.93)

and

Mishkaatul Masaabeeh (Pg.81).

250

251

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Towards understanding Taqleed Part-2 for the one who does not recite the opening of the Kitaab", then it ivill be necessary to assume that it also refers to both tho types of Qiraa'ah. According to this interpretation, the Qiraa'ah of the Muqtadi in this Hadith with refer to the Qiraa'ah Hukmi
because Rasulullaah

Part-2

said,

"If

one has an Imaam, then the

Qiraa'ah of the Imaam is his Qiraa'ah as well." This Qiraa'ah Hukmi takes place when the Muqtadi remains silent and listens attentively to the Imaam. By remaining silent, the Muqtadi will therefore be practising on both the verse of the Qur'aan enjoining silence as well as the Hadith invokirig Qiraa'ah Hukmi. As for the person who recites Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam, he will be guilty of acting in conflict with the verse of the Qur'aan as well as wrestling with the Imaam, which Rasulullaah W prohibited. Had Rasulullaah W ever instructed the Sahabah'tr)Y3&;5 to reciting Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam, he would never have reproached the Sahabi WditiGi in question.

fo' thit reason that within his salaah. tt il-. will be nullified' ah is nullified, the salaah of the Muqtadis salaah will not eas an act on their part nullifying the fy the Imaam's and their salaah' Similarly' *" ll:I.:j. and preceding the Imaam will suffice for the Jamaa'ah
in any posture is Prohibited'

if

the Imaam's

UPON FaRTHER DBLIBEMTION: The purpose of Qiraa'ah is either to listen to the commands of Allaah or to engage in conversation with Allaah. If the former is the
pu4)ose, then the Imaam is Allaah's ambassador to convey the commands to the people and if it is the latter, then the Imaam is the people's represontative before Allaah, who will present the

in Jamaa'ah' it refers fact, when the Qur'aan refers to salaah ttWhen they verses: one salaah. Examples of this are the you up for salaa\ they stand up lazily" and "When ,t'yo,r.r"toes for the salaah, do nat lpp:"i"| 11-l".: salaah indicates rnken state". The singular use of the word if every Muqtadi t the salaah in Jamaa'ih is one' Therefore' the salaah will not i to reciting Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam' performing their individual one, but it will be several people ,,Lr""'n, t; ;r; place. This then cannot be termed salaah in
Jamaa'ah.

supplications of the people to Him. It is obvious that an ambassador or a representative can be one person only. IIe will be the Imaam and the Muqtadis will say Aameen to his Qiraa'ah. As for the etiquette of worship which includes the Ruku, Sajdah, Tasbeeh and the other postures and acts of the salaah, these are necessary for both the Imaam and the Muqtadis. Representation is not applicable here because ihe purpose of these acts is to revere Allaah, which is incumbent on every individual. The plea for guidance to the straight path that is stated in Surah Faatiha is adequately presented by the Imaam who represents the entire congregation. FURTHBRMORE: A study of the Qur'aan and Ahadeeth will reveal that ,the salaah in Jamaa'ah is really a single salaah, which is the salaah of the Imaam. The salaah of the Muqtadis
252

Abbaas if/f5ii;W nartation from Hadhrat Abc'ullaah bin used to lead the states that when Rasulullaah W in Makkah' he S.n"i*Agn"Ole in salaah during their stay which the Mushrikeen would recite the Qur'aan loudly, hearing and the One who revealed the ]u.ea to swear at the Qur'aan revealed the verse "Do not QJuurr. It was then that Allaah nor softly' but recite (the Qur'aan) loudly in your salaah' (nvo extremes)" ' This verse seek a path in between these the Muqtadis can insffucts the Imaam to recite in a manner that not to recite' h"u, because it is their duty to listen and

68

'&Xff'W Explaining The Hadith Of Hadhrat Ubaadah


behind the Imaam (as The strongest proof for reciting.Q]13a'ah ;;"t;y"i*aam Shaafi'ea ilXkii6) is the Hadith of Hadhrat
68

Bukhaari.

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Towards underttonding Taqleed Port-Z
laah for the one who
does not recite the opening of the Kitaab gurah Faatiha)."

Towards-t.lllllerstandinp Taqleed Imaam Tinnidhi

Part-2

In response, the reply from Imaam Abu HaneefahUGairWi wttl be that the Hadith in question does not specify the Muqtadi. On the other hand, the verse of Surah A'raaf (When the Qurraan is recited, then listen attentively to it and remain silent so that mercy may be shown to you) was revealed with explicit reference to the Muqtadi. Furthermore, those Sahabah'@J(ru4 who reciting Qiraa'ah behind Rasulullaah W wer. reprimanded.

srates thar according .!9.._llr',ou* $V6"a['?)1' tne fi;;; $iAW, (who taught Imaam.Bukhaari refer to the Hadith of Hadhrat Lrbaadah AYeiil?t does not himself' He by salaah t toqruai but to the person performing of ' Hadhrat oro*, this by ciiing the above narration is not to be i^"Ai, |X'AW;, which explains that Surah Faatiha recited if one is following an Imaam'
AWirW
,,Imaar;r Ahmad bin Hambal

Now

it is a principle with Imaam Shaafi'ee UGfibW, that a

verse of the Qur'aan with an unspecified meaning may be made

specific with a solitary narration of Hadith. It will therefore be obvious that a solitary narration of Hadith with an unspecified meaning may be made specific with a verse of the Qur'aan.

heard anyone from the people of ah as Vtuqtrai't salaah is invalid when been the imaam does in the audible 'W' the stut O by Rasulullaah Taabi'een, Imaam Maalik Imaam Thowri Uei#e' Awzan'ee t[61iiW-: from the pe None has ever tl"lo'o eyfuftfi?, from the people of Egypt' when he does not stated that the salaah of the follow is invalid
recite Qiraa'ah."6e

uaiiw

said, 'we have never Islaam state that the

Furthermore, there are also several Ahadeeth that refer specifically to the Muqtadi. Amongst these is the Hadith 'When any of you performs salaah behind an Imaam, the recitation of the Imaam suffices for him as well." This narration is authentic and complies with the standards of authenticity as specified by Imaams Bukhaari UYflaiW-s and Muslim Ugtitr'r.It is therefore Apparenr that the Hadith of Hadhrat Ubaadah '+AWi;65 refers to the Imaam and the Munfarid, as stated by the teacher of Imaam Shaafi'ee U&tiW-t, Hadhrat Sufyaan bin UyaynahU&ifiH and reported in the Sunan of Imaam Abu Dawood lffirJi.fi. Emphasising the same is the narration of Tirmidhi in which Hadhrat Jaabir 'd$iiil3$ said, "Whoever performs a Rakaah without reciting the mother of the Qur'aan (Surah Faatiha) has
performed no salaah unless he is behind an Irnaam."

It has therefore been noted that ncne of the Sahabah'@XWi' Taabi'een or pious predecessors advocated reciting Qiraa'ah Imaam behind the Imaam in auclible salaahs' In fact' iir.iir,t WeJtW notes that Imaam Shaafi'ee UY&j#Jrj nad it Waajib swayed too much to the extreme when he declared the (compulsory) for the Muqtadi to recite Qiraa'ah behind has emphasised Imaam. Even Imaam Ibn Taymiy yah tX3'li6 to recite Muqtadi a ttrat it is not permissible and Haraam for audible salaahs' Those Qiraa'ah behind the Imaam during of the people in today's times who claim to be followers (Ahle Hadith) shoutd study the Fataawaa of Allaama
Ahadeeth Ibn TaymiY Y ah tVfi(^if^fr '

6 Al Mughni (Vol.l Pg.564)' See also (Vol'l Pg'(r06)


Taymiyyah (Vol.2 Pg. I 41- 150)

arrd

Fataawaa lbtt

255

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Towards understanding Taqleed Part-2 In a nutshell The opinion of Imaam Abu Haneefuh AVSihti?.; is exrremely well substantiated by the Qur'aan and Ahadeeth. It also appeals perfectly with logic and common sense. One may refer to the detailed commentaries of Hidaayah and Bukhaari for the
details.

Towards understanding Taqleed Part- 2 suit the needs of the questioner. Either he or someone else had edited and doctored the original fatwa and published it. In fact, they had altered the fatwa to include the word 'Haraam'. T'l'is gave rise to a furious debate and point of discussion in the local
papers.

WHERE DO PIOUS WOMEN PERFORM

Many people asked me regarding the ruling of whether it is Haraam or not for women to come into the Masjid. I had replied: No! There are rnany instances where wornen eome and go through the Masjid, whilst in the state of cleanliness.
The people then asked me regarding the fatwa which prohibits women from entering the Masjid. I informed them that this fatwa relates to the five times daily Salaat and specifically to women attending the Masjid at nighrtime. This prohibition has been issued in order to prevent fitnah.

THEIR SALAAT
BY
Hadhrat Moulana Mufti Kifaayatullaah Dehlevi (May Allaah have mercy on him) Grand Mufti of Hind.

My 'interrogators' then stated that the Masjid is a place of sanctity and there can be no fear of fitnah therein. I informed

homes." (Surah Ahzaab)

"And (O Muslim Women) remain

steadfast

in

your

shaitaan (lays in ambush) and surreptitiously follows her.,,

"A woman is tAurah' when she emerges (from her home)

(Tirmidhi)

them that the fitnah is not in the Masjid but rdther when they leave their homes and whilst they are on the road. There is especially a greater fear if the Masjid is far away and if they . have to walk at night. It is also virtually impossible that each woman who attends the Masjid is able to have a mahram to accompany her for all Salaats.

A few days prior to the first of September 1997 someone sent a


question to the Daarul Iftaa at Daarul Uloom Deoband:

"What is the Shar'i ruling regarding women performing Salaat in the Masjid with congregation? Is it permissible or not? Oi do the Ulama-e-Kiraam merely prohibit it because of some cogent or underlying reason?" The Daarul Iftaa had replied to the question according to their normal practice, but it appears that this reply of theirs did not
256

Salaat which is a great institution in Islaam needs to be protected and safeguarded, hence this fatwa and ruling has been transmitted throughout the ages by none other than the "@gWr.This is no new ruling in Islaam. Sahaabah
Since the original fatwa of Daarul Uloom Deoband had not
been properly afforded its due justice and the people have been left in a quandary regarding its actual purport, it is only proper that we apprise the public regarding the true facts and the

proper Shar'i ruling regarding this matter:


257

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Towards Part-2 Besides the fatwa in question the Daarul Uloom had also issued another more detailed fatwa on this issue, which we deem appropriate to publish.
Besides the fataawa of the Daarul Uloom, there is an excellent treatise on this subject by Mufti Kifaayatullah Saahib Dehlwi, entitled Salaatus Saalihaat (the Salaat of the pious women), which we have also included in our distribution drive.

Part-2 reason? Kindly furnish or underlying of some cogent with a detailed reply. Was Salaam
(no. 527): Bismillahir Rahmaan nir Raheem

1. The wife of

In this little booklet of ours which is now in your hands, we firstly written the two current fatwas of Daarul Uloom Deoband and after that the treatise by Mufti Kifaayatullah
have

Sahib.

We have entitled the entire booklet, Where pious Women PerfurmTheir Salaat.

We trust th4t this treatise will enlighten all the readers to properly understand the situation at hand, thereby getting a clear understanding of the Shar'i viewpoint regarding the Salaat of women.
May Allaah Ta'ala make this booklet beneficial to all and make this a means of closing all doors to a pending fitnah.
Was Salaam (Moulana) Marghoobur Rahmaan Principal of DaaruI Uloom Deoband
25 Jamaadul Ula 1418

Hadhrat Abu Humaid Sa'idi !$WiiVs, Hadhrat Umme Humaid WUilij,{A came in the presence ,,O Rasulullaah W! I desire of Nabi W and asked, to perform Salaat behind you (in congregation) in the Masjid (-e-Nabawi). " Nabi W rcplied, "Yott desire to perforrn Salaat behind me, whereas your Salaat in the innermost corner of your home is better than your Salaat in your room, and your Salaat in your room is better than your Salaat in your courtyard and your Salaat in your courtyard is better than your Salaat in the Masjid of your village and your Salaat in your local Masjid is better than your Salaat in my Masiid (i.e. Masjid-e-Nabawi). "Thereafter she made herself a place for performing her Salaat in the darkest and innermost corner of her home. [Ahmad / Ibn Hibbaan / Ibn
Khuzaima

Targheeb wa Tarheeb, page 58J

Hadhrat Umme Salma ft$Eiii){i, reports


Rasulullaah

that

"A wornan's Sakint in the inner most corner of her house is better than her Salaat performed in hir room and it is bener for her to read in her room than in her veranda and it is better for her to read Salaat in her house than in her local Masjid." pbidl
said.,

Hadhrat Aaishah WV'il,G5 reports that if

Rasulullaah

The First Fatwa Of Daarul Uloom Deoband (number 680)

nad seen the condition of the women after his passing away then he would surely have prevented them from attending the Masjid just as the women of Bani Israeel were preyented from entering
the

Uui;+ioh^ What is lhe Slrur'i ruling regarding women performing Salaat in the Masjid with congregation? Is it
permissible or not? Or do the Ulama-e-Kiraam merely prohibit 258

Masjid.

[Muslim Shareef, vol.l page 183]

Hadhrat Abu Amr Shaibaani UWi#At reports that he personally witnessed Hadhrat Abdullah ibn Mas'ood
259

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Towards understanding Taqleed Part-2 .iilWdW ejecting women from the Masjid on the day of Jumu'ah, saying to them, "You people go and read Salaat in your homes. Your Salaat performed at home is b ette r for you. " [Tibraani / Majmauz Zawahid, vol. I page t 56 ]
and it is clear from them that although the reward of performing Salaat in Masjid.e-Nabawi is fifty thousand times greater, the Salaat of a woman porformed in her local Masjid warrants greater reward for her, and her salaah performed in her own home is more rewarding than even this. Furthermore, her Salaat which she performs in the innermost corner of her house bears more reward for her than that Salaat which is performed in the
veranda or any room in her house.

All four of the above narrations are authentic

Part-2 T' passed so that women been has prohibition this , wisdom is that they be Another be deprived of full reward. ved liom fitnah and fasaad which is inhgrent with their nce from the home, becausc as soon as a woman leaves bastion of her home shaitaan lays in ambush and itiously follows her around. This is according to the words ol Yo$i ffifl?.
as-Salaam bur Rahmaan ay Allaah Ta'ala have mercy on him)

Rabiuth Thaani 1418

Second Detailed Fatwo Of Daarul Uloom 7B7l

Added to this Lte the explicit prohibitions of women performing Salaat in the Masjid which is borne out by the narration of Hadhrat Aaishah fWiilitlg and the action of Hadhrat Abdullah ibn Mas'ood1l{(5iji/6ia where he had ejected women from Masjid-e-Nabawi.

'women from leadership posts, Imaamat, Prophethood, Khilaafat and congregational Salaat. All these posts ure
exclusive to men. From these Ahaadith it is abundantly clear that Salaat in congregation has not been ordained for women, however, if a woman performs Salaat behind a man her obligation of Salaat will be fulfilled. For example the Shariah has not ordained that women go for Hajj without a mahram, but if a woman does go for'Hajj without a mahram then the Fardh obligation of Hajj will be fulfilled.

Another point to remember is that Allaah Ta'ala has excluded

it obligatory or Sunnatul Muakkadah for women nowadays attend a Masiid for congregational Salaat with the men?
y reply in the light of the Qur'aan Majeed and Hadith.

[631]:

is

Similarly if a woman aftends her local Masjid for Salaat then although she will be deprived of great rewards, the obligation of Salaat will be fulfilled. The Fuqahaa have ruled that it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi for women to attend the Masjid to perform
Salaat.

illahir Rahmaanir Ra.reem neither Fardh, Waajib, nor Sunnat-e-Muakkadah for to attend the Masjid for the five times Salaat in ion with men. The fact of the matter is that there not even the weakest of weak Ahaadith which exhorts eneourages women to attend the Masjid. In fact, the iah has not made it binding upon women to attend the id like it has for men. Like it is narrated in Musnad Hambal tx'frffif, from Hadhrat Abr: 'Af5#iE6 that Nabi said, "Had it not beenfor the

bin

260

26L

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
Towards understanding Taqleed Part-2
women and children in t'\rc homes, I would establish the Esha Sulaat and instruct the youth to burn down those homes of the men wlto are not in tlrc Masjid."

Towards understanding Tasleed Part-2 They do not receive any special reward
to attend.
11

are they

This Hadith clearly proves that women are not ordained by the Shariah to attend the Masjid for Salaat, otherwise they would also have been included in Nabi's ffiB chastisement like the men in the aforementioned Hadith. In fact, had it not been because of them (women) and children, the houses whose male
occupants do not attend the Masjid for Salaat would have been burnt down.

This consent was also only resfficted to the need of the time, so that the women also perform Salaat behind Nabi E* and be eye-witnesses to his manner of conduct. This has been stated so in Ash-atul Lam'aat, the Sharah of Mishkaat. (This motivation - for women to attend the Masjid - no longer exists).

Also, it has been reported in many Ahaadith that the Salaat of women in the innermost corner of their houses are the best. To such an extent that Nabi W evet stated in one Hadith that the Salaat of women in their homes is better than their Salaat in Masjid-e-Nabawi. Ibn Khuzaimah has established a chapter specifically discussing this issue in his Saheeh, and he has made it crystal clear that the reward for Salaat perfonned in Masjid-e-Nabawi is reserved for men and not women.
[See

ow have a look at those narrations which are the cause of the iority of the Fuqahaa of Islaam ruling that women are not allowed to attend the Masjid for congregational Salaat. That is, Ithe initial consent and permissibility that existed during sacred ,the era of Nabi W no longer exists.
,In this regard,Hadhrat Aishah

Wdffiil?, states: "Had NabiW witnessed the condition of the wonrcn (today-i.e. during her era), hq would most certainly have prohibited them from the id like the women of the Bani Israeel were prohibited."
IBukhaari Shareef]

lbn Khuzaimy vol. 3, page 94, chapter 177]

The reward for women is proportionate to the extent of their seclusion and concealment from men.However there are such narrations wherein Nabi ffiM said that if women request pennission to attend the Masjid then they should not be prevented. There are also Ahaadith wherein 11u61ffi said that if women request attending the Musaajid at night (for Esha Salaat) then they should not be prevented. Some narrations state that when women emerge then they should not wear perfume. There are those who, when their eyes fall on such narrations, jump about and celebrate, and classify the attendance of women in the Masjid as being Sunnat-eMuakkadah. This they do even if they do not practice upon it. Such narrations merely grant consent and show some level of pemissibility for women to attend the Masjid for Salaat. 262

f,lris Hadith is accepted by all the Muhaddithuen as being This makes clear that immediately after the era of i W, the condition of the women deteriorated
;iderably, such that if he had been alive, ho would most ainly have prevented women from attending the Masjid like women of the Bani Israeel were prevented from attending Masaajid when the evil habits, practices and immorality
rarnpant.

ruling, albeit directed at the women of the Bani has not been abrogated in our Shariah. The
ition of women attending the Musaajid can thus be taken be from Allaah Ta'ala and His Rasool W, because the immorality and mischief far supersedes that of the r times. This fact cannot be disputed by anyone. This is
263

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Towards understanding Taqleed Part-2 the very reason why the Sahaabah 'tr)(rub prevented the women from attending the Musaajid, because they saw the immorality creeping in. They then, introduced the un-abrogated ruling which pertained to the women of the Bani Israeel. Therefore the prevention of women from attending the Musaajid, which was ruled by the Sahaabdh'&!3W5, was done in accordance to the desire of Allaah Ta'ala and according to the teachings of His Rasool ffiW.

Part-2 questioner was a Hanafi, therefore we have replied in 'dance to the Hanafi Math-hab. We deem the presentation the Hanafi Fuqaha texts as being sufficient' As it is the is fairly lengthy. This is the reason why it has been into the form of a treatise, entitled, )te e c'rt'.1[t ci5 "The prohibition of women attending public lectures gatherings." Haaji Abdurrahmaan Saheb has kindly wards d and distributed the same [The original Urdu Kitaab was in 1334 A.H. and is extremely scarce' Their exists only

All

the four Imaams of Fiqh, all the Muhadditheen

and

Fuqahaa, in fact, the majority of the Ummat are unanimous that due the present-day immorality and mischief, is impermissible for women to attend the Musaajid for the Fardh Salaat. And Allaah Ta'ala knows best.

copy

to

it

s note: The English transtation of this Kitaab

in the library of

Darul Uloom

Deoband
is

available.)

Habeebur Rahmaan

(May Allaah Ta'ala have mercy on him).

17l05n4t8
[This Fatwa was attested to by the following Muftis:

Nizaamuddeen, Muhammad Tafeerud Deen, Mahmood Bulandshari. Muhammad Abdullah Kashmeeri, Kafeelur
Rahmaanl

would like to clarify at this juncture that I have not prepared [b reatise of .rrl.]r 6 on the basis of any anmity or mosity. In fact I do not waste my time in getting mlself olvled in unnecessary arguments and debates which entually leads to animosity. I had been as!e! 9 gugsfon Yd irply replied it in the light of the Hanafi Math-hab citing irious Hanafr references.

THE TREATISE ON THE SALA.A.T OF PIOUS WOMEN


B is

ver today, on the l1ft of Zul-Qa'dah 1334 A'H' I was aware of a treatise entitled Eid Ahmedi' Its author is some vi Abdus Sattaar Saheb Kalaanuri, who has not only ized and severely disparaged the author of ou'.lt .rf' this humble writer, but also our great Ulama such h A'ini and other senior Hanafi Aimmah' He accused of them as having acted contrary to the Hadith, ' r claimed t they did not un-derstand n:-y-p:.! of the Ahaadith' that
standereO Hadhrat Aishah 1@ii5ili{A, etc', etc'

millahi r Rahmaanir Rahim said and done,


r beginning

if

one merely peruses the book Eid Ahmedi

In Sha'baan 1334 A.H. someone presented a question to this insignificant writer asking whether it is permissible or not for
women to attend lecture gatherings" 264

to end then you will' not find any such single or argument worthy of an intelligent reply to what we have in otrlt uif.
265

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Towards understanding Taqleed Part- 2 Although the Ahle-Ilm regarded Eid Ahmedi as being worthless and not of any consideration, nevertheless, in order to save the Muslim public from being ill-informed and labour under the misconception that the Hanafi stance on the issue of the prohibition of women emerging from their homes being a baseless issue and not one enjoined by the Shariah, I deemed it appropriate to clarify this mas?alah in greater detail, by presenting clear and authentic proofs from the Ahaadith of Nabi ffij, the Sahaabah'@l6M and the Salf-e-Saaliheen.
Tow ards understanding Taqleed

Part'Z

In

contrary.
Hadith
1

fact we have come across narrations which teach the


i

Hadhrat Abu Hurairat'WdiiWi reports that Rasulullaah W said, "Hod it not been for the women and children in the homes, I would establish the Esha Salaat and instruct the youth to bum down those homes of the men who are not in the

Masjid."

[Ahmed/Mishkaat]

I had prepared this treatise in order to clarify the actual mas'alah. I have hope that ttre Ahle-Ilm and intelligent people benefit from it and become informed and aware of the reality.
It is clear that the Hanafi Aimmah do not dispute the fact that
during the era of Rasulullaah1@ the women would attend the Masjid for the five daily Salaat and the Eid Salaat. They would announce acceptance of this fact from the rooftops. It would however not be of any benefit to debate and oppose the Hanafi Fuqaha by only citing the Ahaadith pertaining to this issue which occurred during the era of Nabi ffiW. The issue at hand and the point of contention is whether this ruling still applies at this day and age or not? We have written this freaty and discussed the issue in separate chapters.

Nabi ffi#J issued this warning referring to those men who do not attend the Esha Salaat with Jamaat. Every intelligent person will understand from this Hadith that Nabi W was referring to only the men who do not attend congregational Salaat. The only factor preventing 5u6i ffi# from instructing the burning of the homes was the fact that there were women
and children in the homes.

The mentioning of women by Nabi W in this Hadith only proves and substantiates the contention that women are not obligated by the Shariah to attend congregational Salaat. Otherwise there would have been included in Nabi's W
chastisement.

Chapter One
Has the Shariah emphasized the attendance of .vomen for congregational Salaat as it has done for men?
may establish congregational Salaat as being emphasized for women. We have studied and scanned through many Ahaadith Kitaabs and their commentaries and have not found any such Hadith which exhorts and emphasizes women to attend
congregational Salaat.

Ihere is no Hadith which can be presented that

Their presence in the home would not have been a barrier against 11u61 ffiB carrying out his threat. Since they are not enjoined by the Shariah to attend congregational Salaat in the Masjid like the men, they were not regarded as offenders
alainst the Shariah by not being in the Masjid. Similarly, all the Ahaadith which appear in chapter two prove the point that it is not necessary or incumbent for women to attend the Masjid for c-ongregational Salaat.
267

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ards understanding Taqleed Part- 2 Chapter Two
Tow

Toivards und

Part 2

Is it more virtuous and rewarding for women to perform Salaat in their homes or in the Masjid?

her Salaal therein, until she met Allaah Ta'ala. Haithami adds, The narrators in this Hadith are all authentic, except for 'Abduttaah bin Suwaid Al-Ansaari, however lbn Hibbaan had authenticated him.

Haofth 2
that Hadhrat Umme Salmah W6ii,liS reports from Nabi he said, "The best Musaajid for women are the innermost corner of their homes."
flnnam Ahmad / Baihaqi / Kanzul Ummaal]

Hadith 6 i I Hadhrat AUOfrllaah

ibn Mas,ood ffiiW reports that "The Salaat of awomen in the comer of Rasululiaah W said, her home is better than her Salaat in her room. And her Salaat in the chamber (smallest room) is better than her Salaat in the
corner ofher house."
TAbu

Dawoodl

Hadith

Hadhrat Umme Salmah f#6il;l?5 reports that Nabi ffi# said, "A wotnan's Salaat in the innermost corner of her house is better than her Salaat performed in her room and it is bener for her to rcad in her room than in her veranda and it is better for her to read Salaat in her house than in her local Masjid." [Tibraani / Kanzul Ummaal / Targheeb]

Hadith 7
Hadhrat ibn Mas'ood|l98lff/,iiliS states, "The Salaat of a women in the corner ofher house is better than her Salaat in her room and the Salaat in her room is better than the Salaat in the courtyard and tQe Salaat in her courtyard is better than the Salaat anywhere' else (beyond the confines of the home)." He ftrrther stated, "Indeed when a women emerges from her home, lhaitaan surreptitiously pursues her-" Repotted by Tibraani in Kabir and all the narrators are authentic. [Majma'uzhwaahid]

Hadith 4
Umme Humaid, the wife of Abi Humaid As-Saa'idi from Nabi that he said to her, "I have been informed that you lilce to perform Salaat behind me, but your Salaat in the innermost cornet of your house is better than your Salaat peformed in your room and it is better for you to read in your room than in your veranda and it is better for you to read Salaat in your house than in your local Masjid and your Saiaat perfortned in your local Masjid is better than your Salaat performedin my Masjid-"

It is reported from

Hadith 8 It is also reported from Hadhrat Ibn Mas'ood


takes an oath, a

firm

'AV/"\W6 that he oath, saying, "There is no better plac& to

[Imaam Ahmad / Ibn Hibbaan / Kanzul Ummaal]

perform Salaat for a womail than the corner of her home, except Hajj and (Jmrah, besides for that womdn who has lost ' hope on a husband, and she is 'munqaleen"' someone asked him what 'munqaleen' meant, to which he replied, "An old, weak and stumbling woman." Tibraani reports this narration in
Kabeer and all the narrators are

authentic'
[Maimauzzawaahid]

Hailith 5
This Hadith has been cited in Majma'uz7awaahidby Haithami and the following had been added: She ordered (her house-

people) to build for her a place to perform Salaat in the darkest and innermosl corner of her home. She would perfrom
268

,lf5iii{g also stated, "No woman Hadhrat Ibn Mas'ood (the Wrforms a Salaat more belaed to Allaah Ta'ala than

Hadith 9

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Towards understanding Taqleed Part-2 Salaat which she pe.rforms) in the darkest corner of her home." Tibraani reports this narration in Kabeer and all the narrators are authentic. [Majmauzhwaahid]

permissibility, and

any virtue, (being Mustahab). [Look at istihbaaD emphasis Hadith no. 4 and 5l

not owing to

Part-2

or

Hadith

10

i.

Hadhrat Abdullaah Ibn Mas'ood'd/i5diljs> reports that Nabi ffi# said, "Women are aurah (objects of concealment). Indeed when they emerge (from their homes), shaitaan (lies in ambush and) surreptitiously follows her. Indeed, she is closest to Allaah Ta'ala in the innermost comer of her home." Tibraani

Notwithstanding the consent granted to women to attend the Masjid, Nabi W acttally exhorted and taught that it is better and more virtuous that they perform their Salaat at their homes. He would greatly encourage this and extol the virtues thereof'
lSee Hadith 4l

reports this narration in Kabeer and authentic. IMajmauzkwaahid]

all the narrators

are

l.

Hadith

11

has been reported from Hadhrat Abdullaah Ibn Mas'ood Wti;li$ that he taid, "Indeed women are aurah. Indeed that woman who emerges from the home who has no flaw, shaitaan surreptitiously follows her, saying: 'You will not pass by anyone except that they will admire you.' When a woman dons her clothing and it is asked of her: 'Whither are you off to?' She will reply: 'I am going to visit the ill, or attend a burial or perform Salaat in the Masjid.' No woman cdn worship her Rabb better than in her home." Tibraani reports this narration in Kabeer and all the narrators are authentic.

It

The addition which appears in Hadith 4 by Haithami, clearly indicates that Hadhrat Umme Humaid W(iffilg practiced on the advice of Nabi W and performed her Salaat in the corner of her home for the rest of her life' This was true obedience to the guidance of Nabi ffi# and fulfilment of his wishes'
10 clearly establishes the fact that Nabi ffiE deemed the emergence of women from their homes as an avenue and opening of filnah, and that their isolation in the innermost corners of their homes as being proximity to Atlaah Ta'ala. This is the reason why Hadhrat Ibn Mas'ood '+A[,,di;li$ takes a firm oath that the Salaat of women in the corners of their homes
is the most virtuous.

5. Hadith

The following salient points are clearly


above-mentioned Ahaadith:

IMajmauzhwaahid] gleaned from the

6.

1. There is no emphasis in the Shariah for women

to attend the Masjid for congregational Salaat. In fact, the contrary holds true that their Salaat performed at home is more virtuous. [Have a look at all the above Ahaadith.l

in Hadith 2,3 and4 clearly The statements of Nabi indicate that the Salaat of women in the remote corners of their homes is better than their Salaat in their rooms, and their salaat in their rooms is better than their Salaat in their courtyards, and their Salaat in their courtyards is better than their Salaat in their local Masjid and their Salaat in their local Masjid is better than their Salaat in Masjid-e-Nabawi W. Keeping these Ahaadith in before us, it is clear that the attendance of women for
271

2.

The attendance of women in the Masjid during the era of Nabi ffi$j was primarily due to consent and
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Tow ards

2 congregational Salaat in the Masjid during the era of


understandins
T aqleed P art'

'owards

Nabi ffiB was not due to any virtue or greater reward, rather it was based on mere consent and permissibility. How sad then is the state of those people who call women to the Musaajid and encourage them to perform their Salaat in congregation. They are actually exhorting opposition to the teachings and wishes of Nabi ffi. To further exacerbate the issue they deem this a Sunnat, and they regard their actions as being a revival of the Sunnat! If it had been Sunnat for women to attend the Masjid for congregational Salaat, why then did Nabi W teach that a woman's Salaat in her local Masjid is better than her Salaat in Masjid-e-Nabawi and that her Salaat in her home is better than her Salaat in her local Masjid? It is obvious then that a woman's Salaat performed in isolation in her home would be an omission of the Sunnat. Is the reward in practising a Sunnat greater or omitting it? It will then be as though Nabi 6# is encouraging an omission of a Sunnat by encouraging women to perform their Salaat in their homes! It is as though these people (who clamor4r for women attending the Masjid) regard themselves as being more virtuous tharr Nabi W and that their Musaajid hold greater virnre than Masjid-e-Nabawi!
7.

Part-2 the great reward of performing Salaat in ljid-e-Nabawi, the Salaat of women performed in their local gid is more rewarding for them, and their Salaat in the courtyard of their homes is more rewarding even their Salaat in their local Musaajid. Their Salaat in
rooms holds more virhre for them than their Salaat in their and their Salaat in the remote corner of their homes more reward for them than their Salaat in their rooms'

much

is

abundantly clear that as a woman sheds her her reward is proportionately decreased. Why is

reason

the greater the possibility of fitnah increases. There is no reason for the decrease in reward for women' Just take a

is simple - the further a woman goes from her

..when a man travels further from his home, his reward because there is no fear of fitnah in his emergence
the home.

One Salaat performed in Masjid;e-Nabawi is, according to the narration of Hadhrat 61as'$fi1{ifr?5, equal to the

Abu Moosa Ash'ari '@rYffi;&5 reports that Rasulullaah said, "Those who receive the greatest reward for their are those who tavel the funhest (to the Masiid) and than them are those who travel an even greater

reward

of 50 000

Salaat (performed any /here else,

"

JBukhaari Shareef / Muslim Shareefl

besides the Haram).

Hadith

12

Hadhrat Anas bin Maalik'e,M'iW reports that Rasulullaah@said, "The Salaat of a man in his house is equal to a single Salaat...and his Salaat in my Masjid is equal to 50 000

Jaabir '$\ff'fW, reports that Rasulurluua W said to Salmah who intended moving closer to the Masjid, in ycur places. You are being rewarded for every step take (towards the Masiid)- Remain in your places' You are

t4

Salaats." llbn

Majah / Mishlatat Shareefl

rewarded

for

every step you take (towards


273

the

272

iid)..."

IMuslim Shareef]

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Tow ards

understanding Tasleed Part-2

Towards

Part-2

The consent and permissibility granted to women to attend the Masjid was not without conditions. They were forbidden from wearing perfume, donning gaudy clothing, excessive jewellery,
etc.

like smart gaudy clothing, extemal display of jewellery, and a pompous exhibition of beauty. tibid.l

means that she is,unscented. [Aunul Ma'bood] All ,""h fu"to^ are included under the term scented which leads to attra*ion,

Refer to the following Ahaadith:

Hadith

15

said, Hadhrat Zainab Thaqafiya W6,d;fA reports that Nabi not then should "When a woman emerges for Esha Salaat, she apply scent." llbn Hibbaanl

Nabi

All these narration clearly show that women were permitted to attend the Masjid, provided they adhered to these conditions. It is also crear that if they do not practice on these advices they are acting contrary to the injunctions of
ffi#.

Hadith

16

Can

it

Hadhrat Zainab Thaqafiya ffii'W further reports that Nabi said, "When any of you wornen present yourself for Esha Salaat, thenyou should not don perfume that night." [Muslim]

honestly be said that the women of today who may

Hadith

17

their splendour and beauty? Will they not wear and make a display of their jewellery? Will they ever be able to come in their scruffy unscented clothes?

attend the Masjid for the five daily Salaat or for the Eid saraai, would adhere to these conditions? Will they not come out in

Hadhrat Zainab WdWs, the wife of Abdullaah reports that Nabi ffiW said to the women, "When any of you present yourself in the Masjid, then you should not don perfume."
IMuslim Shareef]

If anyone, for argument sake, says that a woman can adhere to all these conditions, in present times, then we would kindly
refer our readers to peruse chapter 3 in this freatise.

Hadith

18

$ummary Any intelligent person wJro studies all these narrations will ve no doubt that the attendance of women in the Masjid ring the time of Nabi ffi was merely due tc consent and issibility. It was not because of anv special .,irtue or
the so-called adherents of the Hadith who have ung up in recent times, understand that women are supposed ettend the Masjid for congregational and Eid Salaat. They it a Sunna! nay Sunnat-e-Muakkadah!
275

Hadhrat Abu Hurairan "til(fiiliW reports that Rasulullaah ffi said, "Do not prevent the female slaves of Allaah from attending the Masjids of Allaah, but they should emerge (from tlrcir lnmes) in the state that their bodies ar pungcht."
[Abu Dawood]

The Arabic word, tafilanr which is used in this Hadith means unscented. A woman is described as tafilatun when her body exudes an unscented (pungent) odour. This has been stated by Ibn Abdil Barr, etc. Shaukaani states that the word tafila refers to a stench. A woman who is described as imra'atun tafilatun
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Towards understnnding Taqleed Pqft'Z Everyone is well aware that one who omits a Sunnat-eMuakkadah is worthy of censure and one who continuously omits it is tiable for punishment. J.-ust tike it is Sunnat-eMuakkadah for men to attend the, Masjid for congregational Salaat and if any man does not go to the Masjid, he will be censured. If a man persists in his abandonment of congregational Salaat in the Masjid, then he is liable for punishment (in an Islamic State).
,

T owards

understanding

Taq leed Part- 2

Hadith 20 A man should not prevent his wornenfolk from attending Masjid. tAhmadl Hadith
2L

the

Do not prevent your womenfolkfrom the Masjid. [Abu Dawood]

Hadith22

If

the wde of any of you requests permission to attend

the

intended to incinerate thehornes of those men Rasulullaah who do not attend the Esha Salaat in the Masjid. Why was this? Because these people had become habituated to missing the Esha Salaat in the Masjid with congregation.

ffi

Masjid, you should not prevent her.


I Bukhaari Share ef / Muslim Shareef]

Therefore if congregational Salaat in the Masjid was binding (Wfi);{$, who had on women, then Hadhrat Umme Humaid continued performing her Salaat in the remote corner of her home until she died, would have been liable for /ullshment'

In fact, if congregational Salaat for women in the Masjid was (even) Mustahab or more rewarding, then Nabi ffiB would never have encouraged Hadhrat Umme Humaid to perform her Salaat at home, considering the fact that she was desirous and
eager to perform her Salaat behind Nabi

These narrations are written such in Eid Ahmedi. We have transcribed them here verbatim. What do these na:rations actually say? Ihey are mene advices to the men not to prevent their womenfolk from attending the Masjid. These narrations most certainly do not prove that the attendance of women in the Masjid for congregational Salaat is Mustahab or Sunnat-e-Muakkadah.
Since there was consent and permission for the women during to attend the Masjid for congregational the era of Nabi Salaat, they therefore had the prerogative to practice on their

@.

We will now present some of the narrations cited by the socalled followers of the Hadith, which they harp on and use as proof to exhort women to attend the Musaajid and which they claim are proofs that this is Sunnat' We will explain the import of these narrations and place them in proper context.

rights. The men were therefore advised not to prevent them, which would have deprived them (the womenfolk) of what
they were permitted to do.

Hadith 19
Do not prevent womenfrom attending the Masiid if they permission from you.

askfor

Another point is that during that era there was a need for the women to attend the Masjid because Jhey were all in need of education. There was the need that they attend the Masjid and witness the actions of Nabi W arrd learr from him directly. If they need to know anything, they could ask for themselves. This is the reason why the men were told not to
277

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Towards understanding Taqleed Part'Z prevent the women from attending the Masjid. [As stated by Muhaddi th Dehlwi i}r,6iiW;1 Thirdly, the era of Nabi W was free from immorality and fitnah, so the prevention of women from attending the Masjid was not done because of fear of fiurah but would have been done to ']xercise authority and supremacy, displaying pride. This is another reason why Nabi ffiB advised men not to prevent the womenfolk from attending the Masjid. [As stated in Hujj atullaahi Baali ghal
Nevertheless, these narrations do not prove or indicate that the Musaajid for women is congregational Salaat

Towards 25

Ibn Abbaas 'A\ffiifo reports that Rasulullaah W ld take his wives and daughters with him for the Eid
,Salaat. [Baihaqi / Ibn Majah]

ilhis narration also only proves that it was permissible for the women to attend the congregational Salaat during the era of
Nabi

@, so Nabi ffi# would take his family along with him.

Hqwever, his act of taking them with him does not prove 'lntihbaab or Sunnat. An example of this can be seen in the ing nanation of Fladhrat Aishah l@/(fl$tr$, which appqrs Bukhaari Shareef:

in

Mustahab or Sunnat.

Hadith 26

Hadith 23
Hadhrat Ibn Umar 'Wttri;{t$ reports that Rasulullaah W said, "Give consent to your wotnen to attend the Masiid at nights."
lBulhaari Slnreef]

*Nabi W used to kiss his Aishah W|iilil?f reports, whilst in the state of fasting, and he could control his better than you people." [Bu*haari Shareef / Muslim Shareefl

another narration
ires the way

it is stated, "Which of you can control his

Hadith 24

said, Hadhrat Ibn Umar tWtKtI{6 reports that Rasulullaah "If your wornen request permission to attend the Masiid at night, then grant them permission." [Buk]nari Slareell

All

these Ahaadith only denote the permissibility of women attending the Masjid. tlaafidh Ibn Hajar A&ilWa sbtes that if it was necessary and binding on women to attend the Masjid for congregational Salaat, then there would be no need or point in their requesting permission. Bath-hul Baaril. Because there is no question about requesting perrrission from anyone to perform an obligatory act of ibaadat. This does not also prove istihbaab, as we have explained previously. 278

could control his?" ithstanding this Hadith being authentic, it does not prove it is Mustahab or Sunnat to kiss one's wife whilst fasting. fact, Hadhrat Aishah Wffitlb indicates that it is best for lrrad fil/.t did, because Nabi lers not to do as he go than a kiss, not further over his desires and he would there is great possibility that another person would not at the kiss, hence it is best to exercise caution.

NabiW

Atiyya WflWtT states, "We were instructed to go out the Eid Salaat), and also take those in haidh, the young and those in hiiaab. As for those wornen in haid.h they be present for tlw congregation and dua, but not in the

n9

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
Towards understanding Taqleed Part-2 And since those who are inviting towards practice of this Hadith, themselves do not claim it to be Fardh, therq is therefore no need for us to explain any further. Now remains the matter as to whether it is Mustahab or not. We say that it is not Mustahab and cite the following rgasons in
substantiation:

Hadhrat Umme Atiyya Y*$Wnfi, states that Nabi @ said, *Take the young girls and those in hiiaab to the Bid Salaal and the dua. The women in haid should stay clear of the Salaat

(area)."

[Ibn Maiah]

These two narrations are the sfiongest proofs for the so-called followers of the I{adith, because they contain the explicit terms

Firstly, consider the statement of

Rasulurluuyl

where he

command, which denote emphasis or at the very least istihbaab. Nevertheless, they misunderstand the import and real meaning of these narrations.

of

had clearly stated that the Salaat of women in the innermost corner of their homes is better than their Salaat in the Masjid. had We have explained in detail regarding this issue. Nabi clearly stated that the Salaat of women in their homes is more

ffi

We will explain them in detail: It is widely accepted that the expression of amr (positive command) is used in three instances: sometimes it expresses an denotes a compulsion, like 'Establish Salaat!', sometimes it denotes istihbaohr llke 'And eat therefrotn and feed the poor and beggars..." and sometimes it denotes permissibility, like 'Wen you become Halanl (ftom ihram) then (you may) hunt',

virtuous than their Salaat in Masjid-e-Nabawi (which boasts the reward of frfty thousand Salaat as compared to any Salaat performed elsewhere). We have also learnt that the reward for women decreases in proportion to their abandonment of concealment (see Hadith 3,4,5 and 6). These factors (of abandonment of concealment) are clearly present on the occasion of Eid where they will be attending a large congregation, where their gazes will fall on the mrcn and they will be outside in broad daylight. All these factors make it abundantly clear in ttre light of these narrations that their attendance for the Eid Salaat can never be classified as Mustahab. There is no exception stated in these narrations wittr regard to the Eid Salaat. Secondly, is that the Jumuah and five times daily Salaat qre Fardh and it is advisable and more virtuous for woman no! to attend them in congregation so therefore since Eid Salaat rvhich is not even Fardh it is all the more unudri*661e for women to attend.
281

and'Eat and drink...'. Although the actual application of arnr is compulsion, but when it is established from the context that compulsion is not the intention, then we will turn our attention to ibaahat
(permission) or istihbaab.

We will now consider the objective of the usage of Amr in calling the women out to the Eid Salaat' It should be kept in mind that compulsion is most certainly not the intcntion because there is nothing which indicates towards this, that it
is Fardh for women to attend the Eid Salaat. The Eid Salaat and

attendance of the Eid Gah is not even Fardh on men, how then can it ever be Fardh for women?
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Towards understanding Tasleed Part-Z Thirdly, is that Nabi ffiffij did not mention any virtue or exfra reward for women attending the Eid Salaat, wherefrom it can be established that the eid Salaat for women would be
Mustahab or Mustahsan.

It

has been reported that Hadhrat Aishah

Wftiliw

said, "Had

Now since we have established the amr is not a positive


command denoting compulsion neither does it denote Istihbaab therefore we say it is only to show consent and permissibilit-v. The actual import and intention of Nabi statement is that women be allowed to attend the Eid Salaat and if they wish to go they should not be prevented because it is permissible for them to attend. We also accede to the fact that women used to attend the congregational Salaat during the era of Nabi

'Israeel were prevented." [Butclwari Shareefl

@.

Chaptcr Three
Does the consent and permissibility which existed during the era of Nabi ffi for women to attend the congregational Salaat still apply today or not?

30 The women of the Bani Isareel being prevented from the iid has been established from the Hadith of tfudhrat Urwah Aishah WffiifiS marfoo'an. Abdur Razzaaqhas cited it an authentic sanad and his words are: Sha sai.d, 'The men of the Bani Israeel used to make feet (stilu) from wood they could ogle at the men in the Masjid (owing to their ight odvortdge). Allaah Ta'ala then made their attendance the Masjid Haradm, and He decreed upon them (subiected to) haidh.'
this Hadith is mauqoofon Hadhrat Aishah W&)itrd, is nevertheless, classified as marfoo', because such things
be said frc:q one's own opinion or qiyaas.

It is clear and accepted by all that women were allowed to perforrr their Salaat in the Masjid during the era of Nabi ffiW. However the conditions of the society started deteriuating from the era of the Satraabah 'W&M, not long after ttre demise of Nabi 6ffi8. Immorality and fitnah started increasing, and the Sahaabah Wrui had themselves startert o.reventing women from attending the Masjid. This prohibition of theirs was based on and extracted from the teachings of Allaah Ta'ala and His Rasool W, as our readers have learnt earlier on.
The Hanafi Ulama have ruled that it is no longer pennissible for women to attend the Masjid fu congregational Salaat. In fact, for women to perform their Salaat in their homes was preferable and more virtuous during the era of Nabi W,but today it is necessary and obligatory for them to perforrr their
Salaat at home. The proofs of the Ilanafi Ulama are as outlined

Ibn Hajar, Qaadhi Shaukaani, Allamah '/;trqaartt (the of Muwatta Maali\, the author of Aunul 'boodAWW had all classified Hadith 3O as marfoo'. They the Hadith as being authentic. The following salient ere learnt from this Hadith:

The women of the Bani Israeel used to attend the


Masjid for Salaat. They were permitted to do so.

below:

Since we have established from an authentic Hadith that the women of the Bani Isra'eel were prohibited from attending the Masjid owing to immorality which
283

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Towards understanding Taq leed Part-2 crept into their societies, it follows that this ruling also applies to the Ummat e Muhammadiyyah and that it is Haraam for women to attend the Masjid because immorality and fitnah have become the order of the
day.

if

Ambiyaa (alaihimus salaam) are non-existent today in true forms, it is not possible or binding upon us to follow
which teachings. There is no certainty that the injunctions

Part-2 the Divine Scriptures which were revealed

to

the

3.

In Hadith 29, Hadfuat Aishah Yffi$il;{i5 states that the condition of the women started deteriorating after the demise of Nabi W, arrd had he witnessed what was happening he would most certainly have prohibited the women from attending the Masjid, just as the women of
the Bani Israeel were prohibited.

ist today (in the other religious books) are from Allaah )ala, however as for those Divine Commands which were ffi#' creed on the previous Ummats as told to us by Nabi would be binding upon us just as the Cor'nmands which
decreed directly upon us, as long as they have not been

It has thus been established from the Hadith of Hadhrat


Aishah

creeping into the Muslim society, and it has further been established that immorality and fitnah are the reasons for Allaah Ta'ala decreeing the prohibition of women from attending the Masjid, as had been seen regarding the women of the Bani Israeel. It follows then that the ruling of the prohibition of women, of the Ummat of Muhammadffi,from attending the Masjid, is also gccording to the Desire and Wish of Allaah Ta'ala.

f$6f,\fg that immorality and fitnah had started

this Hadith which states that the women of the Bani 'eel were prohibited from attending the Masjid owing to iW which crept into their societies, is an authentic it is ith, it follows that this ruling also applies to us and that for women to attend the Masjid because immorality
fitnah have now become the order of the day'

Any ruling which was decreed for the previous Ummats, if it had not been abrogated for our Ummat, its relevance will hpply to us as well. Whatever was birtding on the previous Ummats (as long as it has not been abrogated for us), will apply to us as well. As Allaah Ta'ala states in the Qur'aan Majeed, addressing Nabi W,'And thcir (the previous
,l

proof is crystal clear and there is no doubt in it, because it rrises two authentic Ahaadith and one Qur'aanic Aayat' less it is possible that some people may object to aspects thereof, therefore we will deal with these in detail.

Ambiyaa) guidance, you should follow.

"

I Surah

I n'aam, Aayat

90

Hadith

31

,,youtr Nabi W is Hadhrat Ibn Abbaad'Wilw stated, amongst those who instructed the obedience to the previous

Ambiyaa"

rulings of the previous Ummats would only be binding us if no confiary ruling exists in our Shariah' Our Shariah pefmitted women to attend the Masjid which cancels and previous Ummats' It Lates the ruling of prohibition of the an abrcgated as though you are now proving the matter with
ng.

[BuHuari Shareefl

284

285

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amongst you in the front and indeed We are aware of those who remain behind." [Surah Hijr, Aayat 24]

Reply
This notion is incorrect because this Hadith proves that the women of the Bani Isra'eel used to attend the Masjid and they were pennitted to do so. However when they begun acting immorally and the fasaad started spreading, that is when their attendance was made Haraam. This ruling has not been
abrogated in our Shariah.

It has been reported in Tirmidhi Shareef that during the era of


Nabi
accused of it. Nabi W ordered that he be stoned to death. The ffue perpekator felt guilty that another person be punished for his crime, so he admitted guilt and was punished accordingly. When such incidents were reported to have taken place during the era of Nabi W, then how will it be correct to say that the consent (for women to attend the Masjid) was granted because it was Ll era which was free from fitnah. and that because of thefitnah which crept in later caused the ruling of prohibition?

ffi

a Sahaabi once raped a woman, and another man was

It

should be understood that the permission for women to attend the Masjid applies only on the condition that there is no

fear of fitnah and fasaad, and the permission which was granted to them was done during al era which was free of fitnah and fasaad. This fact did not abrogate the ruling of prohibition, which was initially promulgated due to fitnah and
fasaad.
The era of Nabi ffi# was fren of fitnah and fasaad, which was the causative factor in the ruling of prohibition. This is clearly established in Hadith 29 of Hadhrat Aaisha @(Xfi6 where she states, "Had NabiW witnessed the condition of women today ...this statement of hers clearly inplies that the fitnah and Therefore fasaad had rtot existed during the era of Nabi the consent which was granted (during the time of 5u6i ffiftiB) was most certainly in an atmosphere confary to when the

Reply

W.

prohibition was decreed (for the Bani Israeel).

Objection two
It will not be correct to say that the era of Nabi ffiS was free of fitnah, because there were some people who would purposely stand in the back rows so that they could ogle the women and there were other pious persons who wish to go to the front so that their gazes do not fall on the women. Regarding them this Aayat was revealed, "And indeed We are aware of those
286

The ruling which made it Haraam for the women of the Bani Israeel to attend the Masjid was issued because of the immorality and fasaad which crept into the society. The statement of Hadhrat Aaishah (Wflili{i5 clearly indicates that new acts of immorality had iregun to surface after the demise of Nabi W. lt we combine these two narrations then it becomes abundantly clear that thefitnah andfasaad which was the causative factor in the ruling of prohibition, was the fasaad (mischief) that existed in 'he intentions of the women. The Aayat and Hadith cited in the objection above relates to and establishes the immorality that existed in the men, not women. Therefore these incidents fall beyond the ambit of this
discussion.

The fact of the matter is that if the intentions of women are Slean and clear then the harms which result from the 'immorality perpetrated by men are not as severe as when these ipmoralities are initiated by the women. This is the reason why the ruling of prohibition for the women of the Bani Israeel was 28i

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Towards Part-2 only decreed when they showed signs @ the ruling of prohibition for the women of this irmmat was decreed when the immorality amongst women began. Towards

Reply 2
The occurrence of one or two isolated incidents during the era of Nabi w does not render the entire era as being one of fitnah and fasaad. An era will be classified as being one of fitnah and fasaad when such incidences occur regularly and become the order of the day. It is clearry understood from the Hadith of Hadhrat Aishah rfi!$ililg that such conditions srarted prevailing after the demise of Nabi ffi.

Fat-hul objects to this proof i by stating that a general prohibition for women cannot ded'rced from this narration, because Hadhrat Aishah u:ta had based the ruling of prohibition on such a which did not exist, therefore the ruling of tion does not come into existence. It can be said that iW did not see the condition of the women hence he did prohibit them, therefore the permission for their attendance the Masjid still exists.

Ibn Hajar

UY'ttbEGt

Second Proofi
Hadhrat Aishah WUifi&4. She states, .Had Nabi W wifrtessed the condition of wornen today, he would, certainly ltave pret,ented them from attenkng ,h"'- i;;;,,
[Agreed upon] There is another way of extracting a proof from the Hadith

of

Ibn Hajar eftflilyft is correct is stating that Nabi ffi# not witness these conditions (of the immorality in women),

This narration clearly proves that such immorality as had crept up.after the demise of Nabi w was non-existent during his .blessed era. The condition deteriorated after Nabi,s ffi demise, therefore the import of Hadhrat Aishah's Wftilili\ .siaternent is that these newly developed conditions render the ruling of prohibition necessary. The use of laam takeed in her ryo1ds denote the emphasis, that is, that Nabi ffiW wotld, most cefiainly have prohibited women from attending the Masjid.

ore he W did not prohibit them. However, his rding that the ruling of permission still exists, requires consideration. We had established earlier on that the nt of Hadhrat Aishah f$WiG| established that the ng condition of the women is the causative factor in ruling of prohibition, so how can Haafrdh Ibn Hajar that, notwithstanding the deteriorating condition of the ruling of permissibility still prevails?
if Haafidh Ibn Hajar's view is that the immorality of does not necessitate therr prohibition from the Masjid,
we have two answers for him:

This statement of Hadhrat Aishah wlliili{i, proves that the condition of the women deteriorated after the demise of Nabi @ ano it also establishes the ruling of prohibition. It follows that when the condition of the women deteriorated, the ruling of prohibition comes into place.
288

, is that we intend using the narration of

Hadhrat proof. This narrations clearly states the WEiliilg as our necessity that Hadhrat Aishah W(iliil?f regarded the ,tion of immorality amongst women as being the factor in prohibiting them from attending the Nlasjid. Ibn Hajar does not accept this. We accept the

289

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opinion of Haafidh Ibn Hajar.

Part-2

Secondly, the ruling of prohibition indicated to by Hadhrat Aishah W(51)rtG5 thar the immorality in women necessirated their prohibit'tn from the Masjid, was not the result of her opinion, in fact, she deemed it as a Divine Injunction. The Hadith regarding the women of the Bani Israeel, was a strong proof for her. Since it has been established that the immorality of women and the ruling of their prohibition from the Masjid are mutually necessary, how can the averment of Haafidh Ibn Hajar ever be correct that since Nabi ffiSj did not see it he did not rule against it, so the initial permissibility still exists? A similitude would be that of the case of grape wine. The ruling: If it intoxicates then its consumption is Haraam, is completely correct. However if someone says, f it does not intoxicate tl"en it is not Haraam, therefore this ruling (of it being Halaol) will contirme - how can this ever be correct and acceptable? That is, the ruling of permissibility still exists even after intoxication occurred and the ruling of prohibition does not apply. Thing view is spurious and completely incorrect.

rso there was no need to rssue the prohibition. There is no , incumbency to issue a ruling before the needs arises, otherwise Haafidh Ibn Hajar tEi'd:jiy,"t would not be able to evade the queries which would arise regarding the rulings issued on .yarious rele.vant occasions. For example, the ruling of tayammurn was revealed on the occasion of lladhrat Aishah WW;IGS losing her necklace on a journey. It occurred in such a place where there was no water. The people became restless and they complained to Hadhrat Abu Bakr '+)WiiiGr, who in turn chastised Hadhrat Aishah W)6fi,t*r. She was greatly grieved. It was on that occasion that the ruling of tayammurn was revealed. Now if anyone were to ask Haafidh Ibn Hajar that since Allaah Ta'ala was aware that such occasions will arise where water will not be availaLle, why did He not reveal the rulings of tayammum hefore the need arose?
Just rike this, there are countles-. occasions where rulings were issued on the 'spur of the moment' and on specific occasions
,

Objection 2
i

for specific incidences. If Haafidh Ibn Hajar were to be asked regarding all of them, then whatever reply he offered. would
also apply to this issue at hand.

Haafidh Ibn Hajar Wg^iiK?t had also raised this objection that if the increase in immorality rendered the attendance -rf women in the Masjid Haraam, then Allaah Ta'ala knevr this would happen, so why did He not decree the prohibition in the first
place?

, Allaah Ta'ala was aware that immorality was to becorne prevalent. He had also issued the ruling of prohibition a previous occasion for the same thing, when the condition

Reply

Allaah Ta'rla most certainly knew that immorality would


increase, nc ,ertheless, it had not yet been prevalent at the time,

the women of the Bani Israeel deteriorated. This very same ing also applies to our Ummat, which applied to the viotis Ummat. The fact that Allaah Ta'ala had informed abi W of His decree for the Bani Israeel was sufficient for us to deduce the relevance ofthe ruling for us.
291

290

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Part-2
distinguish

The same applies here, that since we cannot

Haafidh Ibn Hajar AY&,itW had also raised this objection that

if

the ruling of prohibition followed the introduction of fitnah, then this should only apply to those women who are guilty of perpetrating fitnah and not to all women in general.

i', between the well-intending women and immoral ones, a general ruling of prohibition was issued. The narration tegarding the women of the Bani Israeel also shows that a general prohibition was issued which applied to all the women. This objection of Haafidh Ibn Hajar is also incorrect.

Third Proof:
;,:Hadith 32
,,The men Hadhrat Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood,e.$drifg reports, and 'ttomen of the Bani Israeel used to perform Salaat in congregation. If any of the women had a (male) friend, she would wear stilts so that she could be taller and could see him. Allaah Ta'ala then subjected them (the women) to haidh." ,Hadhrat ibn Mas,ood,WriM used to say, ,,Expel them (i.e. the women) from the Masjid, just as Allaah Ta'ala had rexpelled the others." [Majmauz Zawaaid - Haafidh Haithami :,Eaid that all the narrators are authentic and reliable]

Reply.
When

fitnah and immorality creeps in to the society, then it becomes very difficult if not impossible to pinpoint the culprits and guilty ones. If only some women are allowed into the
Masjid then the others would formulate some plan or the other to get themselves admitted. It will be practically impossible to regulate the flow of women into the Masjid. Can guards be placed at the doors of the Musaajid and be able to sift out the acceptable from the unacceptable? Can anyone look into the hearts and intentions of others? Immorality is something which is not always apparent. It is amongst the hidden traits and only Allaah Ta'ala is Aaalimul Ghaib (Knower of the unseen). A general and blanket prohibition for all women has been decreed so as to close all the doors of fitnah. A similarity of this can be found in the incident in the life of Nabi ffiB where the munaafiqeen and jews would present themselves in Nabi's presence and they would say, Raa'ina, which had a derogatory meaning and implication. The Muslims "'ould also say the same word when in Nabi's W presence, which in their case meant, Look at us.

33
Abu Amr Shaibaani reports that he saw Hadhrat ,@/[Jilii;W expelling women from the llaah ibn Mas'ood on the day of Jumuah, saying, "Go to your homes, it belterfor you." lMajmatzZawaaid - Haafidh Haithami said
all the narrators are authentic and reliablel

following points are clear from these narrations:

Now since there was no apparent means of knowing who


meant what, a general prohibition of the usage of this word was

1. Hadhrat Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood 'A$dillb


women from the Masjid on the day of .Iumuah

ejected

issued by Allaah Ta'ala

in the Qur'aan Majeed, "O You who bulieve! Do not say, Raa'ind, (but rather) say 'Unzur na' (Inok at us)." [Surah Baqarah, Aayat 104]
292

2.

He would advise the people to elect the women from


the Masjid.

293

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Towards understanding Taq leed Part-Z 3. Citing the incident of the women of Bani Israeel that they were expelled from the Masjid because of their immorality and fasaad he instructed the Muslims to do . likewise.
silence of Hadhrat grrral lg)EiitiGi was not one of consent, fact it was one of abomination and distaste. Allaamah

Hadith 33 of Hadhrat ibn Mas,ood,.{AUSd!t;[g is marfoo', its sanad is reliable and it is similar in meaning to the narration of Hadhrat Aaishah W)(5fi19, therefore it is clearly established from these two narrations that it is the will and decree of Allaah Ta'ala that women be banned from the Masjid when they engage in immoral acts and fasaad increases. Their
attendance in the Masjid would be Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.

ni states regarding this silence of Hadhrat Umar 'fJW'iJ;W the commentary of Muwatta, "He remained silent because disliked her emergence for Fair and Esha Salaat-" objection may be raised that if Hadhrat gnal'$)W*i{ti iked his wife's emergence then why did he not prevent her' reason for this is that this wife of Hadhrat Umar 'd/iEdi;W was Aatika, the daughter of Z.aid and at the time of her Nikah lith Hadhrat Umar Wd:ilg, she made the condition that he prevent her from attending the Masjid for congrogational not prevent her' lest it be $alaat. This is the reason why he did g breach in his agreement. Nevertheless, this did not prevent im from disliking her action or his regarding it as Makrooh' may say that since he regarded this as Makrooh, then did he agree to this condition in the first place when he
urade the Nikah?

We now take a look at those Sahaabah'W, Taabieen, Mujtahiddeen and Muhaddithe"o iSgffiffa who regarded the attendance of women in the Masjid as being Makrooh after the
demise of Rasululla ah

W.

Hadith 34
Hadhrat ibn Umar 'dXf,W reports, "The wife of Umar'A$,fi;{F, used to attend the Fajr and Esha Salaat in congregation in the Masjid. It was said to her, 'Why do you come out of the house when you know that Umar dislikes it.' She replied, 'What prevents himfrom stopping me?' They told her, 'The statement

of Rasulullaah W: 'Do not prevent the female slaves of Allaah Ta' ala from the Mus aaj id of Allaah Ta' ala. " "
[Bul&aari Shareef / Ibn Abi Shaibah / Kanz]

reply to this objection is that at the time of his making , the condition of women had not deteriorated to the low which warranted their prohibition from the Masjid, hence that time he did not regard their attendance in the Masjid as It was only later that the condition of women that he deemed their emergence as Makrooh, but to his initial agreement with her, he did not wish to
his contract.

From thrs narration we understand that Hadhrat gnr6"$fifdlWrs regarded the attendance of women for Fajr and Esha Sa1aat in the Masjid as Makrooh. His reason was that there was a fear of fttnah.

This na:ration appears thus in Muwatta Imaam Maalik that when this wife of Hadhrat Umar Wilil1f requested his consent
to attend the Masjid, he remained silent. 294

for the reason cited for his not preventing his wife from nding the Masjid being the statement of Nabi ffil$, it is not that this was his reason. This was merely the opinion of people around him. Another point is that if this was his on, then how is it that he regarded the emergence of to the Masjid as Makrooh, when Nabi ffits had allowed
attendance?

295

ruwara" u"aerstanang f His regarding the attendance of women in the Masjid

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as

Makrooh was because of the rise and preponderance of fitnah andfasaad, and his not preventing his wife was in fulfilment of his agreement with her. To regard it as Makrooh because of the fitnah and fasaad is not in opposition to the statement of Nabi ffiSj, "Do not prevent the female slaves of Allaah Ta'ala

@nion

W, '17 the wift of any you should not go Masiid, to the to ''p you seeks consent of the the majority and the ruling of nt her', .ffJf;fi&b in preventing the womenfolk from
between the statement of Nabi

Part-2

from the Musaajid of Allaah Ta'ala." The fourth view is that it (women attending the Eid Salaat) is Makrooh. This has been reported by Tirmidhi from Thouri and Ibn Mubaarak. It is also the view of Maalik and Abu Yusuf. Ibn Qudaama repofted it from Nakha'ee and Yahya bin Saeed Ansaari. [Neelil Autaar]
Our (Shaafi) companions have stated: It is Mustalrub to take only those women to the Eid Salaat who are not attracrtve and eye-catching and not those that dre. Our reply to the ndrration which endorses taking the young wamen and those who are in hijaab to the Eid Salaat is that the blessed era (of Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam) was free from fitnah and fasaad, contrary to the present times. It has been established from Hadhrat Aishah(fiWil?, through an authentic sana.d. that she said, 'Had. Nabi W witnessed the condition of the women today, he would rnost certainly have prohibited them from the Masjid just as the women of the Bani Israeel were prohibited.'
Qaadhi Iyaadh stated; 'The Salal have dffired regarding the emergence of womenfor the Eid Salaat. A group ilnongst them regarded it as their (women's) right. Amongst them was Hadhrat Abu Bakr, Ali, Ibn Umar, etc. There were those who prohibited them from attending. Amongst them was Urwah, Qaasim, Yahya Al-Ansaari, Maalik and AbuYusuf. Imaam Abu Hanifoh consented to their attendance once and prohibited it

tattending, because the preventive factor which is referred to in the Hadith is the ghairat (sense of honour) which stems from '@@Ed prevented their women , pride. The Sahaabah from attending the Masjid because of their ghairat which stemmed {romfear of fitnah, and this is pennissible.
lHuijatullahil Baaligha, vol. 2, page
261

These excerpts clearly show those persons who prohibited women from attending the Masjid for the five times daily Salaat and for the Eicl Salaat. They regarded the attendance of women as Malaooh.

The majority of the Sahaabah


Baalighah
Hadhrat Aishah Y&Eiili,fb

'@g&H

Huijatullahil

Hadith 29 and3o

Hadhrat Abdullaah Ibn Mas'ood'dAKiW, ,Hudh.at Umar


,

Hadith 32 and33

lffiti;li$

_ Hadith 34

Sufyaan Thouri and Abdullah Ibn Mubaarak

- Tirmidhi

Imaam Maalik, Imaam Abu Yusuf, Ibratrim Nakha'ee and Yatrya Saeed Ansaari - Neelil Autaar
Ttre nephew of Hadhrat Aishah YMSiilg, Hadhrat Urwah bin 7-tbair, Qaasim and Imaam Abu Hanifah UYffiW -- Nawawi
and Aunul Ma'bood

later.

[Nawawi / Aunul Ma'bood]

Amongst

reasons which mnke absence from the congregational Salaat permissible is fear of fimah, like if a wornan applies perfume and attends. There is no dffirence of
296

the

.lthe Masjid for the congregational Salaat were the '@6U6. The reason and causative factor that ,',sahaabah
ispurred this ruling ts the Desrre of Allaah Tatala that women
297

From the above discussion the readers will clearly understand that the first persons who had prevented women from attending

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Towards understanding Taqleed Part-2 be prevented from the Masjid as He had decreed for the wome.n of the Bani Israeel. This prohibition has been transmitted down the ages from the time of the Sahaabah'{ic)(5W unril this day,
as has been discussed earlier.

Important Note

The Ahaadith which have been cited in the second chapter that

the best place for a woman to perform her Salaat is the innermost corner of her house and also that her Salaat in her home is more virtuous for her than her Salaat in Masjid-eNabawi should not leave any woman dejected or forlorn, thinking that she is deprived of the great reward of performing Salaat in Masjid-e-Nabawi. We present hereunder two points
which should be consoling to them:

'owards understanding T' Part-2 applies also to congregational Salaat' The fact of the rnatter that sometimes we may regard something to be very great rewarding, but we need to first subject our desires to the ires of Allaah Ta'ala and His Rasool 6'f,#. Whatever they ve decreed for us, that is better for us and not what we deern being better. Allaah Tatala and His Rasool ffi had ruled the Salaat of wornen in their homes is better for them than their Salaat in the Masjid, therefore it is necessary that tuomen rject themselrzes to this decree and practice subservience to

onnon should believe that their Salaat performed in their home is better for them, thereby adopting subservience to the and they should iWiU of Aflaah Ta'ala and His Rasool their personal notions that congregational Salaat is

better for them.

Firstly, they should not feel dejected or deprived. In fact they should feel elated that Allaah Ta'ala had bestowed on them more reward for performing their Salaat in their homes, than having to perform it in the Masjid-e-Nabawi. [See Hadith 4] women attain more reward by just remaining in their homes and performing their Salaat. This is actually an occasion of happiness and celebration for women and not one of sadness and grief.
Secondly, Allaah Ta'ala had reserved the emergence from the home and mixing in gatherings especially for men. Like this there are many posts and duties which are specifically for men, like participation in Jihaad, delivering sennons, Khutbah, Imaamat, etc. It would be impermissible for women to be jealous or display greed for that which Allaah Ta'ala had not decreed for them
298

Important Note 2
Many so-called followers of the Hadith present the deceptive af,gument for peopie that, in view of the consent ot rgu6i @, ,the prohibition of the Sahaabah'@@i5 are unacceptable. 'ffJli3$?' does not They say that the statements of the Sahaabah negate Hadith-e-Marfoo'

Men need to walk and go there to acquire the reward, whereas

this is one false and <ieceptive argument. The fact of the matter 'tr)l6815 would not be that the statement of the Sahaabah acqepted against a Hadith-e-Marfoo' only if there is a between the two, and if this conffadiction cannot
of Nabi W applies to an environment which is free ftomfitnah andfasaad,and the ruling of the Sahaabah'@r6M as is -11!9 iappti"t to the presence of fitnah arrd fasaad, l46undantty clear from the Hadith of Hadhrat Aishah WEiiliGS'
299
be resolved. This is not the case here. In fact the statement and

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Towards understanding Taqleed Part-2 There is absolutely no contradiction between the statement ol' Nabi ffi# and the ruling of the Sahaabah 'W$eH in this case.
Another point is that this prohibition is not merely based on the statement and actions of the Sahaabah'ff/i(ru;5, in fact Hadith 5 which is marfoo' ,, shows that in an environment of fttnah and fasaad the ruling of prohibition is decreed by none other than Allaah Ta'ala Himself.

Part.2

STATUS OF IMAM ABU HANIFAH


n Abu Haneefah Affi#f' The Necessity for Codifying ifr" Popularity of the Hanafi Madh'hab in the

""J Subcontinent

A.tr"Jr

?t .l .r"fr U v1.s i>11

iaral aalrr,alS dtl

l3

,J-n *;1-Jt161.rlt1

and lmaam of the Imaams, the leader of the Fuqahaa , Haafidh of Hadith Imaam Abu was that Mujtahid of the highest calibre' Muhaddith, ascetic, pious and humble fmaam whose Muhadditheen les and atffibutes have been lauded by great to their various refer may Ulema of all the Madhaahib' One

for details.
Muhammad Kifaayatuilatr Madrasah Ameeniya, Delhi
as Abu Haneefah tNJdlW is commonly referred to been has and A'zam (The greatest of the Imaams) fact' by a large group of Ulerna and Muhadditheen' In

LZ,ilttti

1334 A.H.

Translation Edited by Mufti A. H. Elias Muharram 1429 lJanuary 2008

than half of the Ummah are his followers' and was born during the period of the Sahabah an embodiment of piety, knowledge and all good of His hometown was Kufa, which was then a seat there. lived r because thousands of Sahabah'@]."66i5 were over a thousand Fuqahaa in Kufa' a hundred and of whom were Sahabun'ff9i(&16' Amongst these were

'W

e like Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Mas'oo6 '$VdiWi

and

was gsl such people that Imaam Abu Haneefah $fiftffil under the h, o, and together with this, he also studied of the Haramain.
:100

Abu Hurayran "(XSiW;t as well as four thousand of Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Mas'oodffiiifiq and eight It was students of tladhrat Abu Huray'sh ffi#Jwz

301

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Tawards understan din.q Taqleed Part-2 Glad Tidings For Imaam Abu HaneelshU6dhi?i From The Ahadeeth
Rasululiaah ffilW once said, "Even if Imaan has to be on the Pleiades constellation, a rnan of Persian descent would get it from there."7O Another Hadith states that Rasulullaah ffi# said that some people of Persian descent will get it from there. Imaam Jalaaluddeen Suyuti AU&irW reports from many Muhadditheen like Imaam Bukhaari A6(,,bt;, and Imaam Muslim Affiii;At that these Ahadeeth refer specifically to Imaanr Abu Haneefah AYJdiiW. One of Imaam Suyuti tlKniW's students writes, this statement of his teacher is absolutely true because no other person of Persian descent

Towards u Part-2 80 A.H. None of the Imaams i" t is tir* fraa ihis honour, not Imaam Awzaa'ee AY4''tjiW who was in Shaamn, the two ms named l{ammaad who were in Basrah, Imaam ri t!fidbLil who was in Kufa, Imaam Maalik AU1dbW was in Madinah and Imaam Layth bin Sa'd UYll,uW ,y11s
in Egypt.
large
reefah

group

of critics have verified that Imaam Abu AWa::tGi was reliable in his narrations, had a knowledge of Ahadeeth and his narration r{ere

lutely reliable. Here we shall quote a few of these experts:

reached
Haneefah

the height of knowledge that Imaam


AY,6diW-; reac hed.
7

Abu

Shah Wali'ullaah Muhaddith Dehlawi

Haneefah $WitWa and the author of Ghaayatul Awtaa{2 writes: "It is certain that the Hadith of Bukhaari and Muslim refers to Imaame A'zam and his students because none of the descendants of the Persians had more knowledge and a deeper understanding of the Deen than them."
Imaam Abu HaneefahU!ilii,", Was A Taabi'ee

the Hadith refers to none other but Imaam Abu

tx'friiLf, also says

that

Inraam Yahya bin Ma'een AUilitytrt (passed a-way 233 A.H.) was a famous saint, Muhaddith and expert in the subject' of Rijaal (critical analysis of the narrators of Ahaoeeth). He taught Imaam Bukhaari AVfrilY?, and other Muhadditheen and Imaam Bukhaari Xt^iiw has the following to say about him, "I have never seen myself belittled (in ierms of krrowledge) in front of anyone other than Yahya bin Ma'een AYffiW." This same Imaam Yahya UGff&iW, attests to the great caiibre of Imaam Abu Haneefah AYgitW and says, "He is Thiqa (reliable) and trustworthy and I have never heard adyone who regards him to be a weak narrator."14 He also mentioned that the , best Fiqh in his estimation is that of Imaam Abu Haneefah ilY'ilniW.ts Imaam Yahya bin Sa'eed Qattaan tEtrii[?t (passed away 198 A.H.) was also a famous saint, Muhaddith and expert in the subject of Rijaal (critical analysis of the narrators of Ahadeeth). He taught the likes of Imaam Ahmad AY&iifffr and Imaam Ali bin Madeeni Aygitf"?r. Despite his profound knowledge, he learnt from Imaam Abu Haneeftahiffiiff.?,t and expressed ggeat praise in being a student of Imaam Abu
Qaari {YoI.3 Pg.66). Hisaan p9.30.

Allaama Ibn Hajar Haythami Makki AVidiW.; writes in his Khayraatul HisaanT3 that Imaam Abu Haneefah ilVtnitW was amongst the greatest of the Taabi'een and that he met a large $oup of the Sahabah il'e;5 who lived in Kufa after his birth
70

7t
72

Muslim (Yct1-2Pg.312) and Bukhaari (Yol.2Pg.727).


Shaami

(Vol.l

Pg.49).

"

Translation of Durrul Mukhtaar (Vol. I Pg.2l). Pg.zL.

:Umdatul

302

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
was arnongst Haneefah AWlirVe, in many cases and had the following to say about Imaam Abu Haneefall${5i)tW1
those who knew the most Ahadeeth of Rasulunaah@ and had studied Ahadeeth from many teachers." I{adhrat A,bdullaah bin Mubaarak UWtiWj used to encourage people to follow Imaam Abu

"I

Irnaam Abu Haneefah AYfflhWi,,. He would therefore issue rulings colresponding to those of 6 Irnaam Abu Haneefa h tXSt:iW -7
"By Allaah! We sat in the company of Imaam Abu Haneefah tEfrifi,H and learnt Ahadeeth from $m
and each time

have never heard an opinion better than those

of

.,We Haneefah AY;fijYTt and say, have been to many schr-lars of Hijaaz and kaq but have never found a class'rnore blessed and more beneficial than that of Imar,m Abu Hanee fah tXffiiWi .-7e

looked at his face,

I could see that

he was a person who feared Allaah."11

"I'have been to many cities but I had never known the principleo of Halaal and Haraam until I met him (kr aarn Abu Hanee 1s,7 t)Y'triW1."8o

"There was none other than Imaam Abu Haneefah tl6/.ri#?5 to solve the problems people were having. Although he was not known of initially, his status and positicn then multiplied in leaps and bounds'"?8
3.

"I lnve str-lied gnder many teachers but have never knu"', any as proficient in Fataawaa as he (Imaam A.ru Hanee fah il(flliWi).-8r
"Were it not for sounding prejudiced, I would say that I have never seen anyone as proficient in Fataawaa as he (Imaam Abu Haneefahl)6151ffi1."82

Abdullaah bin Mubaarak AY'ilirL"t (passed away 181 A.H.) was one of the most senior of the Muhadditheen and the teacher of people like Imaam Ahmad tllfiiti?t ancl Imaam Yahya bin Ma'een AUfdjjyfr. In fact, the first books that Imaam Bukhaari tl6diW studied were those of Hadhrat Abdullaah bin MubaarakilGiiiff':. He is unanimously regarded as the Ameerul Mu'rnineen in the field of Ahadeeth and Imaams Bukhaari i&trL#?t and Muslim Miifi?t narrate many Ahadeeth from him. He was one of the special students of Inraam Abu Haneefah iWiW't and was so captivated by the personality of Imaam Abu Haneefah igitriili*i that he stayed with him throughout his life. Hg.hqd the following to iay about Imaam Abu Haneefah$Gtrififr:

Ameerul Mu'mineen

in Hadith Hadhrat

"He (Imaam Abu Haneefah tl(&niWi) exceiled people in his memory for Ahadeeth, his Fiqh, his knowledge, his trustworthiness and his sheer
piety."83

"He had the deepest understanding of Deen and I

have never seen any other


understanding thap he."84

with a

deeper

If an opinion rs to be sought, it is to be taken from Maalik, Sufyaan and Abu Haneefah. tl|iliiet . From them, the one with the best, the deepest
lMaruaqib Kurdi (Yol.l Pg.l03). Marnaqib Kurdi (YoLl Pg.l03). Manaaqib Kurdi (Yol.l Pg.lM)" Manaaqib Kurdi (Yol.l Pg.lOa).
laami Bayaanil llm,
as quoted

16 71
78

Khay raatul Hisaan pg.3l. Muwaffaq (Vol. 1 Pg.19 1).

h{uwaffaq (Vol.2 Pg.45).

inTaqieede A'immah pg.113.

Khay raat ul H i s aan p9.29.

304

305

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
Towards understqnding Taqleed Part-? and mcst finely tuned u rderstanding
Haneefah UY&aiW
.8s

is

Abu

Towards understanding Taqleed Purt-Z

Imaam Abu Haneetatr $Eiiai:'W because he was an Imaam, a pious man, an Aalim and a Faqih. With his keen insight, understartding and intelligence, he has exposed knowledge in sucll a way that no other persorhas done.86

To this, Imaam A'mash tycfijtLfi exclaimed, ,,We (the Muhadditheen) are just the pharmacists while you people (the Fuqahaa) are the
doctors.t'88
5.

also explained how he had arrived at the conclusion.

Amecrul Mu'mineen
Hajjaaj iWililV,

in

Hadith Hadhrat Shu'ba bin

4.

Irnaam A'mash KufiU!;ldirWi (passed away 148 A.H.) was an eminent Faqih and Muhaddith cf Kufa and one of the teachers of the great Muhadditheen. Despite this, he 4yty.s hatl words of praise for Imaam Abu Haneetah tWtiWiNote the following.

(passed away 160 A.H.) was one of the highest ranking narrators of all those whose narrations are included in the most authentic books of Ahadeeth. He had a very good reiationship with Imaam Abu Haneefahtbiditiet. Note the follovring:
)>

referred

questionel to Imaam Abu Haneefah tl(ft^iWi, saying that Imaam Abu Haneefah U'ffitLf, will have a better reply Lecause

the

Whenever he was asked about Imaam Abu Haneefah UYgifi?i, he would always laud praises on him and sent him a gift every y"*.rn
When he heard that Imaam Abu HaneefahUlf,ini#!il had passed away, he exclaimed, ""Innaa Lillaahi wa Innaa llayhi Raaji'oon! The light of knowledge had been extinguished for the people of Kufa, the likes of which they will never see again."eo

he has been blessed in his knowledge.8T

once sitting with Imaam A'mash tX&tiW v11sn also arrived there. Imaam Abu Hanee intricate question, about Someone then asked an .iy&ifi'fr kept his peace' He which Imaam A'mash then turned to Imaam Abu Haneefah ififln)W a16 asked him what the answer was. When Imaam Abu Haneefah itxg"i#?t gave a satisfying reply, Imaam A'mash lcfrifif, asked him from which tladith did he derive the reply. Imaam Abu HaneetahdI6.ivI7.i then explained that it was from a Hadith that Imaam A'mash tVtijY, had himsetf narrated to him. He
8s

The Imaam of Ahadeeth Hadhrat Ali bin Madeeni UU?'iiky (passed away 234 A.H.) was the teacher of personalities Dawcrod WMi5 and Imaam Dhahabi ilVfririfl. He was always praising Imaam Abu Haneefaht[,tr^itW and said:

like Imaam Bukhaari WaiW't, Imaam

Abu

Zaid, Hishaam, Wakee, Abbaad bin Awaam and Ja'far bin }4aymoon have all narrated from Imaam

Khayraatul Hisaan pg.29. Khayraatul Hisaan pg.29. 81 Khayraatul Hisaan pg.3l.


E6

306

307

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
intricate ruling, he would say, 'oNone would have a better answer to that other than the man we all envied." He would then turn to one of Imaarx 46s Haneefah WaiWj's students and ask, "What has your teacher got to say about that?" After the student had given the reply, Irnaam

7.

Imaamul Hadith Hadhrat Sufyaan Thowri iWfflW (passed away 161 A.H.) was a Muhaddith of the highest calibre. Khateeb writes that all scholars are unanimous about his piety, reliability in knowiedge and being an authority of the highest ranking. He was a contemporary of Imaam Abu Haneefah AU!ilitW and both men revered and stood in great praise of each other. He had the following to say about Imaam Abu Haneefah Aliliii?i :

:,:??r."*#f?#::::rff

:j"#,H;',?ivand

8. The famous Muhaddith Hadhrat Yazeed

in acquiring knowledge and abstained rigidly from


what was forbidden. He practiseci only that which was conclusively proven from Rasulullaah W arrd he had profound knowledge of what was abrogated and what was not. He always researched the actions that Rasulurluub W did during the final stages of his life."e2

AYeifi?, says, "When I once went to Imaam Abu Haneefah XiltiW' he asked me where I was coming from. When I told him that I had come from lmaam Sufyaan Thowri tXfl.,JW't, he remarked, 'You are coming from a man whom even Alqama and Aswad would have been in need of had they been alive.' When I then went to Sufyaan A1frftYfr' and he asked me where I had come from, I replied that I had been with Imaam Abu HaneetahtX*itW. He then remarked, 'You have come from a man
who is the greatest Faqih on earth."'e3

bin Haarcon ilEflti:f't (passed away 206 A.H.) was a great scholar, of his time. He studied under Imaam Abu 't[Ji#3i,Imaam Haneefah Maalik WgitW and Hadhrat Sufyaan Thowri tXSi:tYr. Amongst the colntless students he ha( scrre of the famous ones were Hadhrat Ali bin lv{adeeni ACiiM and Imaam Yahya bin Ma'een A{&ilfikr" Seventy thousand people would listen to his iessons at the Fajr salaahs q,i1tq the following to

have never found any with as much Taqwa and more truthful than Imaam Abu Haneeruntliilify7

'

Hadhrat Yazeed bin Haaroon a6iliw': was enss with Hadhrat Yahya bin Ma'een Exfl,i#fri, Hadhrat Ali bin Madeeni il&ti#'1fis' Hadhrat Ahmad brn Hambal tWrWi, Hadhrat Zahary bin Ltatb tX&iWi and several others when a person arrived and posed a question. "Go to the men of knowledge," fladhrat Y azeed tXfliW': told the man.

:
"

ez

et

Khayraatul Hisaan pg.67. Kurdi (Vol.2 Pg.1) and Khayraatul Hisaanpg.30.

Kurdi (Vol.2 Pg.11).

"
308

Muwaffaq (Vol.2 Fg.l4). Anwaarul Baari (Vol I Pg.80).

309

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
Towards understanding Taqleed Parb2 "Are the men of knowledge and Ahadeeth not with you?" Hadhrat Ali bin Madeeni tx'&Jffi, asked. Hadhrat Yazeed AY:'ijiW replied, "The people of knowledge are the students of Imaam Abu Towards understanding Taqleed Part-2 than Imaam Abu Haneefah ilLiitti?'-t nor anyone
who performed salaah better than he."ee
10.

Haneefah AUfi#At.
pharmacists."96

You people ate

the

alright for a person to issue Fataawaa, he rep.lied, "When the person is like Abu Haneefaht/ff;'itifi." "It is sffange that you should, say that," the person remarked. Hadhrat Yazeedllitifif.t then said, "You are right. I should actually give him more praise than that. I have not seen a man who is a grcater Aalim and Faqih than he. I have also not seen anyone as pious as he. I once saw him sitting beside someone's door in the sweltering heat. When I asked him why he did not rather sit in the shade of the house, he replied that it was because the owner of the house owed him some money (he did not want to take from the person more than what was due by sitting in his shade as well). Hadhrat Yazend then added, "Have you ever seen anyone nlore
oious than that?"e7

Haafidhul Hadith Hadhrat Imaam Abu Yusuf tEfri#?) (passed away 182 A.H.) was an Imaam in the field of Ahadeeth and the teacher of great Muhadditheen like Imaams Ahmad, Yahya bin Ma'een and Imaam Ali bin Madeeni tV'fr\W. These were all senior teachers of the likes of hnaam Bukhaari tWfrif1 and other lVtuhadditheen" Imaam Abu Yusuf i$C&fr[X, was one of the senior students of Imaam .{bu Hanee tah tXiiillfti and he has the following

"He (Imaam Abu Haneefah Ueiditi?;1had a deeper understanding of authentic Ahadeeth than I had."loO

have never seen anyone more knowledge

of the

explanations of the Ahadeeth than Imaam Abu Haneefah iW&ffifr. When we once differed on a ruling, we went to Imaam Abu Haneefah iMlfi?i and he imrnediately presented a satisfying reply."lol
Hadhrat Isaam bin Yusuf dlEiihl?l narates that they once said to Imaarn Abu Yusuf UW;J#?j, "People agree that there is none more knowledge of Fiqh and Ahadeeth than you." To this, he remarked, 'My

9.

Imaam Wakee bin Jarraah AflitL?t (passed away 197 A.H.) was one of the senior teachers of the Imaarns who compiled the six most authentic books of Ahadeeth.
which made him stand up and sigh, "Regret will be of no use now. Where is Imaam Abu l{aneefatr tVfrittW': now to solve the problem for us?!"e8

knowledge compared io that of Imaam Abu Ilanecfah i$&ti#A/, is like a little stream beside the Euphrates River."lo2

e6

e7

g.47). Muu,affaq (Vol.I Pg.191). eB Kurdi (Vol.l Pg.97).


P

M uwaffaq (Y ol.2

pc.18 .61. Muwaffaq (Vol.2 Pg.43).

Muwaffaq (Yol.2Pg.42).

310

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
Maalik
once asked Hadhrat Imaam AY&itU.t (passed away 179 A.H.) about several

t*

He has the following to

say

about Imaam Abu Haneefah Oridffi;4:

Muhadditheen, he described their conditions to him. when he then enquired about Imaam Abu Haneefah llffaiW, Imaam Maalik txfrirffi, exclaimed, "subhaanallaah! I have never seen any like him."lo3

places Imaam Abu Haneefahilifrii#6 as a medium between himself and Allaah and if he follows his
Madh'hab."1o7

12 Imaam Shaafi'ee tl1t/itlL?t (passed away 204 A.H.) said:

Haneefah Uifii#?, in Fiqh because known a Faqih greater than him."

have never

Haneefah tX&iff'-t'sl books can never have a deep understanding of knowledge and of Fiqh."lu

Abu Haneefuh AVflitW and his students as they were discussing something point of Fiqh in raised voices. He stood there for a while and then remarked, "These people Lre better than the martyrs, worshippers and those who perform Tahajjud. They are reviving the Sunnah of Rasulullaah W arrd removing the ignorant from
their ignorance."lo8
15. The famous Muhaddith Imaam

l3.Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal tliiii#?, (passed away 241 A.H.) said, "In terms of his piety, abstinence and
preferenge of the Aakhirah over this world, he (Imaam Abu Haneefatr Ur'iiirW;1 had reached a level that no other
has."lo5

away 157 A.H.) was a IraulLnla. Hadhrat Abdulliah bin Mubaarak Ellttt#fr relates, "Imaam Awzaa'ee tyittJf^fr once asked me, 'Who

Awzaa'eeilKeflX

(passed

great Muhaddith, Faqih.-. and

14.Imaamul Hadith Hadhrat Mis'ar bin Kudaam tl(g^\fiti was a teacher of the compilers of the Sihaah Sitta and the Imaam of the Muhadditheen. This testimony is given by Ameerul Mu'mineen in Ahadeeth Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Mubaarak tlffijj|r. He was also the teacher of the likes of Hadhrat Sufyaan Thowri tlcilfffif and Hadhrat Sufyaan bin Uyaynah tl|&itlt. Dgspitg- this, he studies und'.r Imaam Atu Haneefah tE'ti#fit. Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Mubaarak iWfij*?t says, "I saw Mis'ar in the lessons of Imaam Abu Haneetah U&ti#fi, asking questions and
1o3

is this perpetrator of Bid'ah in Kufa who is known as Abu Haneefah?' I gave no reply, but later presented to him some rulings that Imaam Abu'Haneefan tlcSiilW had.passed' Afteireading through them, Imaam Awzaa'eetXiltiW saw that they were written by someone called Nu'maan bin Thaabit. He therefore asked me who this man was' I replied, 'He is a man whom I have met in Iraq.' [maam Awzaa'ee tlffiiw'-t then remarked' 'This is a gern from amongst scholars. Go and learn as much as you can from him.' I then told him, 'He is the same Abu Haneefah whom you have been preventing trE from'' When Imaam Awzaa'ee i;lcidifif, hter met Imaam Abu Haneefah Wflftfif, in Makkah, the two started discussing

rM
ros

Khay

raanl Hisaan pg.29.

!06
ro1

Khayraatul Hisaan p.g.29. Khayraatul Hisaanpg.30 and Shaami (Vol.1 Pg.56)'

Khayraatul Hisaan pg.29. Hadaa' iile Hanafiyyah pg.1 9. toB Muwaffaq (Vol.I Pg.249).

312

313

Ulamaehaqulamaedeoband.Wordpress.Com
excellent explanations. After they had separated, Imaarn Awzaa'ee i)Utriii?, said, 'I envy him for this tremendous knowledge and accomplishment of his wit. I repent from the error I had been living with. Stay close to him because he is not at all as I have been told."l@
16. The great Muhaddith

Makki bin IbraheemA,itl$ (passed great scholar of Ahadeeth . away 2L5 A.H.) was a Faqih, a and the teacher of Imaam Bukhaari t#ilJlfi, and Allaama Ibn Ma'een tlifiiill?t. He used to say that Imaam Abu Haneefah tX&iW': was the most knowledgeable scholar of

Towards understanding Taqleed Part-2 the grave of Rasulullaullffi and collecting Rasulullaahffi-'s blessed bones. When someone asked for the interpretation from the famous dream interpreter Hadhrat Ibn Seereen UWaiWi, Hadhrat Ibn Seereen UYSiJ#Gj asked who it was that saw the dream. The person remained silent and again asked for the interpretation. When Hadhrat Ibn Seereen tW'iliiYe, again asked who it was that saw the dream, the person again held his peace. Upon:dti.j third request, Hadhrat Ibn Seeieen UY&ni#$ said, "The pers.x who saw this dream will make knowledge so apparent ttrat none befbre him as ever done."ll2
Hadhrat Ali bin Uthmaan Hajrveri Lahori txgittYS, who passed away in the year 465 A.H. was regarded as one of the leading Awliyaa of the Indian subcontinent. He wrote the famous book Kashful Hujoob and was a staunch Hanafi. He narrates an interesting dream he had when he fell asleep at the tomb of Hadhrat Bilaal !WSdl;{# in Damascus. He says that he saw

the time.rlo 17. The famous Muhaddith, Aalim and saint Hadhrat Shaqeeq Balkhi Uelri;j (passed away 194 A.H.) said that Imaam Abu Haneefah tX&i#fa was the most knowledgeable of all people, the most pious of all, the most devoted worshipper of all, the most revered and most cautious.' ''

Apart from the above personalities, there have been many other Muhadditheen who have heaped praises upon Imaam Abu

Haneefah

tl6ii#, and testified to his veracity and

lrimself in Makkah and that Rasulullaah W entercd the Masjidul Haraam through the Banu Shaybah gate. He saw that just as a loving elders takes a child in his lap, Rasulullaah ffi# took a man in his lap. Hadhrat Ali bin Uthmaan tl(flrJ#Gi run
towards Rasulullaah and started to kiss his hands and feet. Rasulullaah knew that he wished to know who the person in his lap was, so he informed him that the man was Hadhrat Ali bin Uthmaan ilYfiitLfr 's Imaaro and the Imaam of his nation, namely Inmam Abu Haneehn$&bW.

dependability and to the fact that he was a Haafidh of Ahadeeth and a peerless Faqih. His great status can be ascertained from the fact that countless great Muhadditheen were his students and the compilers of the Sihaah Sitta were students of his
students.

Despite these accolades there are people who still say that Imaam Abu HaneefahtlGiiiifr was a vreak narrator and knew only 14 to 17 Ahadeeth. If this is not prejudiced and a result of warped thinking, it can be nothing else.
Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Mubaarakiiliifrtflf/a reports that lmaam Abu Haneefah tEii)rW once saw himself in a dream digging

Hadhrat Ali bin Uthmaan Acfii#?, says that this gave him great hope in his people and told him that Imaam Abu Haneefah U&iitt was cne of those people lived only to keep the Shari'ah alive and he sacrificed h.imself only to keep alive what Rasuluila.:h ffiB brought. Because his ccndition was such, he was rherefore not iikely to mak'; any mistakes rn his judgement.

roe rro rrl

I Hisaanpg.30 and

Kurdi (Yol.7Pg.39).
'r2

Hisaanpg.29. Hanafiyyahpg-76.

Mirqaat (Vol.l Pg.28).

3t4

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