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1. Buddhism: Discuss the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path.

Siddhartha Guatama o Born to warrior caste o Clan of Shakyas (from Nepal) o Known as the Shakya muni (Sage of the Shakyas) o Married a princess o Spiritual conversion at 29 4 significant encounters in the course of a drive through Lumbini park came upon an old man, sick man, a corpse, and an scetic monk came to the realization of universal suffering in this world and of the emptiness of all life renounced princely life shaved hair life of an ascetic seeking the way of deliverance o search 6 years sought instructionn under 2 religious masters unsatisfied, went to forest ( regime of extreme mortification) town of Gaya o sat under a Bo tree outside the town o wont move until he attained light and understanding o Buddha, the Enlightened One Attained nirvana, the blowing out or extirpation of all desire and the liberation from the cycle of transmigration 35 years old

o Benares 1st sermon turning of the wheel of doctrine won 5 disciples o disciples converts called arahats, the worthy ones o died at 80 years old last words: all composite things are doomed to extinction. Exert yourself in wakefulness not about following his doctrine o Doctrine Dharma Found in first sermon Contains 4 noble truths and 8 fold path Passed by oral tradition Four Noble Truths o Universal fact of pain and suffering Old age Illness Death Things we hate Separation from things we love Suffering is physical and emotional o Origin of suffering Craving thirst causes suffering and cycle of rebirths, the renewal of becomings Seeking further satisfaction Craving for gratification of senses, for existence and annihilation Life then is impelled by cravings and desires, and by shallow, illusory wants One illusory goal to another and from one

disappointment to another 2 borrowed beliefs from hinduism samsara o belief in transmigration o cycle of successive rebirths karma o belief in retribution o law of universal causality, by which the effects of good and bad deeds are carried over to the succeeding life o we reap what we sow it is the empty attachment and seeking for the self that causes suffering to liberate ourselves, we must renounce the self. We must die to the self expatriate all cravings and greed, thereby put out the prolongations of karma achieved by effort and discipline by individual o Cessation of suffering Put an end to all cravings and thereby release ourselves from the hold of desire and the empty seeking for the self Buddha denies the existence of human soul Human is part of this whole constant flux like everything else There is no self, no underlying personal identity What is usually considered the self is only an aggregate, a combination of 5 elements body, feelings, impulses, perceptions and consciousness Metaphor: chariot made up of pieces,

dismantled there is no chariot Individual person then is a transitory composite that is bound to pass away like all composite things Root of all suffering is this illusion or overweening attachment to the emtpy false notion of the self Moral task: to die to the self, renounce self and all self-seeking, all desires and cravings o Path leading to the cessation of suffering Take the way of the 8 fold path Eightfold Path o Right view Understand 4 noble truths Right viewpoint that pierces the illusion of vain selfseeking o Right resolve /aspiration Strive to observe what the right view and understanding have shown us Go beyond the seeking for the I and for what is mine o Right speech Try to avoid all that desire and self-seeking in our words Refrain from gossip, idle talk, slander Our words must be marked by self0control, consideration and thoughtfulness o Right action Practice the 5 percepts vingind on all monks and laypeople Thou shall not kill Thou shall not steal

Thou shall not lie Thou shall not have illicit sexual relations Thou shall not take intoxicating or alcoholic drinks Right livelihood Avoid any occupation that does violence or harm life Butcher, soldier Practice positive virtues like good will towards all human beings and the forgiveness of injuries Right effort Strive to find our own pace and our own way in the path toward emancipation and enlightenment Engage only in mindful or thoughtful action Right concentration Try to acquire a detached and calm attitude with regard to our emotions and passions Try to see things as they are, free of all illusions and self-deceptions Free ourselves from the enslaving fantasies of the imagination Right contemplation Quiet down all irrelevant thoughts until we come on to the true knowledge, not by way of reason or logic, but by intuition and by insight At the point of the highest insight, all sense experience ceases and the mind is finally released At that point, there will be no more rebirth Enlightenment is attained. It is the point of nirvana Nirvana Ultimate goal of 8 fold path Means to extinguish

No more karma Cessation of all desire for pleasure of things, for life, or for self Fullness of freedom and awareness and enlightenment Not pure annihilation or nothingness State that is ineffable, nothing like any nature or form in worldy existence Transcendent state o Ultimate joy o Heavenly bliss Unthinkable Out of this world o Buddhas nirvana Pari-nirvana Ultimate nirvana Nirvana of no return 2. Confucian Ethics: Discuss the Three Main Virtues. Why does Confucius hold that the ethical cannot be separated from the political? Confucious o Born to poor family, but of noble descent o From state of Sung, but moved to Shantung o Family name: Kung ; name: Chiu o Later known as kung tse, Master Kung o Father died when he was 3 o Had many menial jobs, then became a private tutor o Appointed as minister of justice or police commissioner for the state of Lu at 50 o Resigned because ruler of the state was not willing to follow his reform measures

o Travelled to other states, but feudal lords were not appreciative of his advice o Went back to Lu to devote his life to teaching o Saddened by his sons death and his most promising disciple, Yen Hui He o Died without seeing any effect or influence of his moral and social ideas on the community affairs of his time o Lived during Chou dynasty Country split into warring feudal states, each one ruled by a hereditary feudal lord who goes to war at whim, overtax people, and impose heavy labor o Confucious saw that to relieve the common people of suffering, there was a need for social and political reforms o Return to the source of old chinese tradition, with emphasis on moral education and obserance of traditional rites and ceremonies Sees himself as a reformer rather than an innovator o Early Han dynasty Confucian philosophers and confucian classics were established as the official ideology of the Chinese empire Made the core of educational system and of the civil service exams Tao and Te o Confucious teaching contained in Lun Yu / Analects of Confucious Small book with 20 chapters o Thoughts may be viewed as a reprise of two ancient ideas of chinese tradition Tao (The Way) Similar to western notion of Logos

Signifies nature of which all things are made Also means the standard to which all things must conform Common to all things, that of which all things are made Kind of a transcendental principle The way, truth, and being of all things Te (virtue) Signifies some human trait considered as a gift from Heaven When Tao acts upon man, it becomes Te, constituting mans attitude of mind and his character o Te as composed of Chih and Wen Only one worthwhile purpose man can have To be a good man, a man of virtue, to be a complete full man 2 things needed for this attainment o Chih Basic natural stuff / substance Material substance of morality signifies the basic inclination to do what is right Endowment from heaven Moral virtue or character is in part is a gift from heaven o Wen Nurturing, formative process Original endowment is like a seed that needs to be nurtured and brought to fullness by man, by way of a long process of

education and application Education for confucious consists mainly of the study of 5 books of ancient chinese literature, which confucious believed to be the repository of human wisdom and moral insight, especially suited to draw out and bring into actuality the original endownment and potential of man. Thus, they are called The Confucian Classics o Moral man is one who has 2 main elements Natural endowment and formative process composed of the grounding in the Confucian Classics and the life-long effort of self-overcoming * Gentleman someone who has acquired 3 main virtues; man of humaneness never worries, man of wisdom never of two minds, man of courage never afrad 3 Main Virtues o Humaneness (Jen) Sense of connaturality or respect, love and good will toward fellowman Most important moral quality Flows over to the 2 other virtues Overcoming oneself, ones self-interest, desire for

gain (Li) Return of the rites Other side of o overcoming our egotistic tendencies Rites are the traditional body rules and ceremonies governing all aspects of life from birth to death Must be examined from time to time in view of what is right Method of humaneness confucious recommends Rule of the shu o Using oneself as an analogy for arriving at what others like and dislike o Do not impose on others what you yourself do not desire o Recommended the use of as a tool for putting into action the positive element, chung, doing ones best in the love of fellowmen o Wisdom (Chih) Never of two minds Distinguish wrong from right Not deceived by what is false Does not mistake it for what is true and valid Possession of 2 combined elements of learning (hsueh) and thinking (ssu) Together with learning, there must also be thought Improve what we have learned o Reflection on the past o Courage (Yung) Never afraid

Overcoming of fear in the pursuit of what is right Must be based on something other than itself, namely what is right Rightness (yi) then is a standard of courage Also standard for learning Also norm for rites o What is rightness? Tien Ming o Heavens decree Emperor ruled by heavens decree, by this virtue it is emperors duty to rule for the good of his people Heaven could withdraw its decree and pass it on to another more worthy of power and position In confucious Duty not only emperor, but everyone Universal moral imperative incumbent on every one Transcendental principle Tien Ming and Tao o Confucious not clear whether heavens decree is different from Tao (the way) o Gentleman stands in awe of 3 things Heavens decree Great men Words of the sages o Fundamental nature, ground and source of morality Confucianism o Striving to make the Way and heavens decree concerete and actual by way of the exercise of moral virtue and the performance of the rites and practices of daily life Ethical cannot be separated from political

3. Rachels: Discuss the main claims of Cultural Relativism. Why does Rachels hold that morality cannot be reduced to ones cultural belief system? How can we assess the objective moral validity of cultural practices in a world composed of various (and oftentimes clashing) belief systems? Main claims o Different cultures, different moral codes o So there is no objective right or wrong o Right and wrong are only matters of opinion, and opinions vary in every culture Unsound argument Premise about peoples knowledge of morality Conclusion about the nature of morality Ex: world is flat We could no longer say that customs of other societies are morally inferior to our own nazis Decide whether actions are right or wrong just by consulting the standards of society Society not perfect, room for improvement No more UN Idea of moral progress is called into doubt Morality cannot be reduced to ones cultural belief system Objective moral validity of cultural practices in a world composed of various belief systems o Seemingly different on the surface o In actuality, just different form of expressions of common values Ex: honoring the dead Callatians eat them

Greeks cremate them o Moral worth of a practice is contingent upon how it contributes to the society in which it is practiced Standard: human flourishing o Common values for survival Caring of young / welfare of people Truth telling No murder Learnings from cultural relativism o Open-mindedness o Tolerance of diversity o Mutual criticism without thinking that we are morally superior 4. Plato: Discuss the Allegory of the Cave. How was Plato able to show that there is a rational and objective standard for morality beyond the world of appearances and opinion? What is the role of anamnesis in forging a harmonious soul and society? Allegory of the Cave o Inside the cave Prisoners chained and held immobile Fixed necks, can only look at wall in front of them Behind the prisoners is a raised walkway/ parapet, along which puppeteers can walk Prisoners cannot see walkway or people, but watch their shadows not knowing they are shadows There are also echoes off the wall from the noise produced from the walkway Shadows and echoes are real for prisoners, instead of reflections of reality, since they are all they have seen/heard Prisoner who can guess the next shadow is

applauded So when the prisoners talk, what are they talking about? If an object (a book, let us say) is carried past behind them, and it casts a shadow on the wall, and a prisoner says I see a book, what is he talking about? He thinks he is talking about a book, but he is really talking about a shadow. But he uses the word book. What does that refer to? Platos point is that the prisoners would be mistaken. For they would be taking the terms in their language to refer to the shadows that pass before their eyes, rather than (as is correct, in Platos view) to the real things that cast the shadows. If a prisoner says Thats a book he thinks that the word book refers to the very thing he is looking at. But he would be wrong. Hes only looking at a shadow. The real referent of the word book he cannot see. To see it, he would have to turn his head around. The prisoners may learn what a book is by their experience with shadows of books. But they would be mistaken if they thought that the word book refers to something that any of them has ever seen. Likewise, we may acquire concepts by our perceptual experience of physical objects. But we would be mistaken if we thought that the concepts that we grasp were on the same level as the things we perceive. o Release from the cave A prisoner freed

Show him things that cast the shadows Not recognize them Shadows more real than actual thing Look at the fire Struck blind Look back at shadow, which he can see clearly Dragged out of the cave Blinded by sunlight Eventually be used to the light o See things more clearly o Return to the cave Remember his fellow prisoners and pity them Bad at guessing shadows, no longer accustomed to the dark Fellow prisoners will think that his eyes has been corrupted, and that it is not worth to go up Afraid of anything but what they already know Kill the freed man if they have a chance Problem of greek thinkers o Multiplicity and unity of things o Things are different and constantly change, yet they also have similarities o Belief in Logos or Reason as an all-encompassing governing principle of all reality Ex: kosmos One ordered universe Platos theory of ideas or forms o Human knowledge Possible only with a stable form and structure amidst the ever changing world Aside from the changing sensible world we are in,

there must be some other world where resides the permanent forms, which are the proper object sof human knowledge Fact of human knowledge is proof of existence of another world, the world of permanent and immutable forms, aside from this changing sensible world we are familiar with o World of ideal forms Source and foundation of material world Material world only exhibits gradients of imperfection More or less good / beautiful Never the good / beautiful in itself Pale copies of the ideal world, participation In and of the ideal world Ground and exemplar of all things in sensible world The Good Ascending order of fundamental ideas All things subsumed under Movement and Stillness Being and Non Being The Good All are imitations of the Good Idea of ideas Source of all ideas and hings The absolute Everything is a participation of the Good o How does man manage to take hold of these ideal forms while he remains rooted in the sensible world? / without going to the sensible world Man composed of body and soul Body o Composed of 4 traditional elements fire,

water, earth, air Soul o 3 distinct faculties, 3 levels of knowledge and of desire sensation (aesthesis) cloudy images of ideal forms sensuous desire (epithumia) endless frustation in seeking satisfaction in ever changing material world opinion (doxa) for practical matters hypothetical sciences and governance of communal life spirit desire (thumos) spontaneous tendency otoward everything beautiful and good mind (nous) immortal part of the soul, with the capacity for truth and wisdom will desire (boule) souls tendency toward the good explained thru myth man was purely soul residing in spiritual world with all ideal form due to some fall of man because of commission of evil deed by ancestors, soul was exiled to material world and imprisoned in the body

exiled, forget about the world of ideas Theory of Reminiscence o since material world is a copy of ideal world, it serves as a constant reminder of ideal forms o when man comes upon an object, his memory is joggled and reminded of original dog/flower o encounters in this world as recollection of sould of original forms/ideas o Fall of Man Tendency toward a life of sense and physical pleasure, and tendency to go back to the Good Tendency of soul to go back to the good is a manifestation of souls connaturality with the Good and mans original pre-existence in the world of forms and ideas Moral task: Go back to the Good where he originally came from o Man must then die into himself, restraining his passions, gaining control of himself, thereby liberating the soul from the hold of the body and world of material world o Life in material world like spiritual voyage to return to the Good Spiritual voyage leads man on a gradually ascending path in life Starts from eros o Desire for physical beauty

o Coincides with sensation (aesthesis) Search for spiritual beauty o Spiritual offsprings Poetic works, hypothetical sciences, social and legal institutions o Corresponds to opinion (doxa) Union with the Good o Soul joins with the Good by way of souls highest faculty, nous or mind o Mystical, transcendent, beyon comprehension o Only expressed in terms of Goods external manifestations Truth, proportion, beauty o Liberated from al mutation and tribulation and thus attains immortality, which has been the goal in pursuit of all

that desiring for physical and spiritual procreation by eros and thumos o Philosopher-king Those who attain wisdom and union with the Good even while they are still living in this world Best people to lead the polis/community since they have found the true end and purpose of life Function Maintenance of basic moral virtues within the communal life o Temperence Rein in human desire for sense pleasures o Courage Overcome fear in defense of citystate o Justice Keep everyone in proper place Maintain unity and order o Wisdom Familiarization and contemplation of the Good Purpose of politics is essentially moral Political responsibility of leading the community in a life of moral virtue and wisdom one the way to the Good o Those who are at the end of their life but still mired in physical desires and pleasures Led to judgement Reincarnated either as animal or man, depending

upon their misdeeds of past life Reincarnated until they are able to purify themselves of material desires 5. Aristotle: For Aristotle, eudaimonia is the ultimate goal (telos) of all human activities. One can only be truly happy through being virtuous (arte) and being virtuous involves the proper combination of practical wisdom (phronesis) and habituation (ethismos) in ones pursuit of the golden mean (mesotes) in every situation. Aristotle o Most prominent student of Plato Ethics o Not science (episteme) dealing with absolute truths but art (techne) of living ones life well o Characterized by comparative method Comparing different opinions regarding the good and bad, and coming up with a set a set of rules on how to live ones life Goal (telos) o Inquired about mans end and goals o Men seeks many end All men seek happiness but in different kinds Pleasure, wealth, power o Aristotles query not what man seeks at the moment, but what his true end is Ultimate end End beyond which there would be no other Ergon (purpose of man) o In search of ergon, asked what is man o Man composed of body and soul Soul Animates and commands the body

2 main parts o rational independent of the body further divided into speculative intellect (theoretike dianoia) practical intellect (praktikon dianoetikon) o irrational Vegetable part characterized by nutrition, growth, reproduction Desiring part Sense desires and covetousness (epithumia) Spontaneous impulses (thumos) o Partly subject to reason Desires and wishes (boulesis) o Completely under dictates of reason Fundamental activity of soul is logos o Different from Platos soul oriented towards the Good o Logos All-encompassing governing principle over all reality o Rational man = capacity for selfgoverning immanent activity Act of intellection and act of virtue

Self-initiated and selfmotivated acts which ead towards the end Unlike animals whose activities are transitive, initiated from without and terminating in some end or external to the individual Body Subordinate to soul o Fulfillment of reason Mean 2 things Higher level o Act of contemplation o Activity of speculative reason Lower level o Life of moral virtue within the context of the polis, which would be the proper activity of the practical reason Speculative intellect o Capable of most fundamental principle (nous) o Capable of science (episteme) o Demonstration, conclusion from first fundamental principles o Philosophia / sophia Highest capability Possession of most fundamental principles and their derivations Maximum degree Contemplation of most sublime things including the eternal heavenly bodies and God o God for Aristotle

Not God of Abraham Most perfect being Pure act with no further potency Pure reason Pure thought that knows no one but himself since if he were to think of anything outside himself, he would be in potency of that external entity Ultimate final cause of all things Towards whom all other beings would tend In this sense, for aristotle, he would be First Motor / Prime Mover o Contemplation Theoretical intellect is involved in dialogue with itself, thereby approximating eternal activity of aristotles god, pure intellect intellecting itself As approximation of gods own proper activity, theoretical intellects act of contemplation would constiture mans end and happiness Capacity of man for contemplation indicate something other than his soul-body? Something divine or immortal o Nous /mind Immortality of man? Reflection of Pure act reintegrated back to God in mans death? Practical Reason o Life of moral virtue with polis o Virtue

Action under reason Reason control over desires, following the rule of mesotes, neither deficient nor excessive Habitual state acquired by constant repetition (ethismos) After repeated practice becomes habit for individual Right intention Action is done for own sake, not for some motive outsude the action itself o Ex: friendship Goal: human relationship Pronesis o Practical wisdom o Master virtue o Partly knowledge (theoretical reason), partly action (practical reason) o Knowledge Insight regarding the truth o Practical reason Command ones desires Deciding properly when to act and selecting the appropriate means as demanded by the situation in view of the intended goal o Different moral virtues as particular aspects of one master virtue, phronesis Moral virtue as social o Temperance Hard work of workers of economic organizations providing for communitys self-sufficiency Courage

o o

Virtue of military to defend community from external threat and guarantee survival Friendship Virtue of community members reciprocally bearing good will and love toward one another Education Assuring continuance of community Virtues of in charge of polis to assure overall governance, system of reward and punishment, distribution of goods, harmony and peace Wisdom (phronesis) Justice (to dikaion) Equitableness (epieikeia) Common sense (gnome) Ergon of man not simply moral virtues but the polis Polis Concrete life of moral virtues Passed down from generation to generation Assuring continuance of human existence Shared communal life, the shared rational activity immanent in every individual and has the good of every individual as its proper end