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Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr.

Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

OBJECTIVES

To Give Basic Information on Storage Tanks used for Oil & Gas industry
Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

1.

Background Tanks have been around since the beginning of hydrocarbon production.

Tanks vary considerably, in the type and size, based on the type of products to be stored and the volume involved.
The failure of a tank can have several undesirable effects such as endangering personnel, affecting the environment and interrupting the Operators business. Companies therefore, require a consistent approach for assessing tank integrity and maintaining compliance with industry and regulatory standards, (that is community requirements). Such an approach must;
Ensure tanks are not leaking and will not leak before next inspection Reduce the potential for releases Maintain tanks in safe operating conditions, and Make repairs and determine when replacement is necessary.

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

2.

Functions of Tank

The primary function of a storage tank is to store liquid substance. This liquid substance may be: a) Water b) Feedstock c )Finished products prior to shipping out to customers d) and Unfinished petroleum components awaiting for further - processing - blending While in the storage tanks, these products may settle out undesirable substances such as; Water, Emulsions, Dirt etc. These undesirable substances can then be removed through draw-off devices. Products may also be mixed, blended and treated in storage tanks effectively, using the large capacity available in these tanks.

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

3.

Classification of Tanks

Broadly, the storage tanks can be divided based on internal pressure: Atmospheric Tanks: Atmospheric storage is a term applied to tanks operating at or near atmospheric pressure. Although they are called atmospheric, they are operated at internal pressure slightly above atmospheric pressure ( pressure varies from atmospheric up to 0.5 psi above atmospheric. Low Pressure Tanks: Within the context of the tanks, low pressure means that tanks which are designed for a pressure higher than atmospheric tanks. This means that these tanks are relatively high pressure tanks. These tanks are designed to operate from atmospheric up to 15 psig
Note: Above types of tanks are used to hold liquid which will not vaporize at ambient temperature. Tanks used in this category are primarily the open top, fixed roof (cone & dome) and floating roof. These tanks are most commonly used

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

3.

Classification of Tanks

Pressurized storage : Pressurized storage applies to those vessels (mounded bullets) which are designed to withstand pressure sufficient to keep the liquid stored, from vaporizing. High vapor pressure hydrocarbons such as propane, butane, iC5 are the types of products requiring pressurized storage vessels (Mounded Bullets).

Note: We will basically focus on aboveground vertical storage tanks of various types.

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4.

Types of Tanks

Above & below-ground tanks: There are many ways to classify the storage tanks. Most fundamental classifications based on whether they are above ground or below ground tank. Above ground tank The above ground tanks have almost all their structure exposed. The bottom part of these tanks is placed directly above solid or concrete foundation. Advantages of these tanks are that they r easy to construct and can be built in for large capacities and cost less than underground tanks Below ground tank These tanks have less capacity than above ground tanks and are usually limited to between 20k liters (20 cum) to 75k liters (75cum) Can store fuel as well as variety of chemicals They are subjected to severe corrosion Note: We will mainly focus on aboveground, vertical storage tanks of various types

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4.

Types of Vertical Tank

Open Top tank: This type of tank has no roof and shall be used for storing city water, fire water and cooling water

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4.

Types of Vertical Tanks


Based on Type of Roof

A.

Fixed Roof Tanks:

These tanks can be divided into cone and dome roof types and each can further subdivided into non pressure, low pressure, high pressure & very high pressure fixed roof tanks. Non pressure Fixed roof tanks are suitable at atmospheric pressure and are therefore provided with open vents. The design pressure/vacuum is 10/ 5 mbar (g) Low pressure Fixed roof tanks are designed to work at low internal pressure or vacuum. The design pressure/vacuum is 25/ 8.5 mbar (g). They are provided with pressure/vacuum breather valves ser to be fully open at design pressure. High pressure Fixed roof tanks are designed to work at higher internal pressure or vacuum and are also fitted with pressure/vacuum breather valves set to be fully open at design pressures. The design pressure/vacuum is 60/ 8.5 mbar (g). Very High pressure Fixed roof tanks are designed to work at higher internal pressure or vacuum and are also fitted with pressure/vacuum breather valves set to be fully open at design pressures. The design pressure/vacuum is 500 / 20 mbar (g). Can be used to store hydrocarbons as per product classification as given for example in the IP code.

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4. A.

Types of Vertical Tanks

Fixed Roof Tanks A1 Cone Roof : These tanks have vertical sides and is equipped with a fixed cone shaped roof that is welded on the sides of the tank. Bottom is usually flat & the top is made in the form of shallow cone. They are economical to built ,These are the most widely used tanks for storage of relatively large quantities of fluid.

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Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4. A.
(A1)

Types of Vertical Tanks


Fixed Roof Tanks : Cone Roof : Self Supported Cone roof:

As per API 650, the slope angle of these tanks should be 37 (slope 9:12) , 9 (slope 2:12) These are relatively smaller sizes of tank

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4. A.

Types of Vertical Tanks

Fixed Roof Tanks : A1. Cone Roof : Supported Cone Roof As per API 650 Slope of supported cone Roof is 19mm in 300mm or greater approx 4 Support can be in the form of Truss, Column . For large diameter fixed roof tanks single or multi column supported roof are used.

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4. A.
(A1)

Types of Vertical Tanks


Fixed Roof Tanks : Cone Roof :Single Column Supported Cone Roof ( construction of Roof)

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4. A.
A1

Types of Vertical Tanks


Fixed Roof tanks: Cone Roof : Multi Column Supported Cone Roof

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4. A. A2

Types of Vertical Tanks


Fixed Roof tanks

Dome Roof :

Dome approximates a spherical surface. These tanks are self supported

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4.

Types of Vertical Tanks

A. Fixed Roof tanks A3 With Internal Floating Cover (IFRT) In fixed roof tanks internal floating roof (IFC) can be installed to give a further reduction of

vapor losses .

These tanks can be designed as non, low & high pressure tanks. For safety & environmental reasons, internal floating covers shall be of full contact type. In addition to cone roof the tanks has an internal floating roof pan is provided that floats directly on fuel surfece.

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4.
A.

Types of Vertical Tanks


Fixed Roof tanks

A3 With Internal Floating Cover (IFRT) : Internal Views These types of tanks can easily be identified with open vents in the tank side walls just beneath the roof joint

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4. A. A3

Types of Vertical Tanks


Fixed Roof tanks

With Internal Floating Cover (IFRT) (Pictorial views)

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4.

Types of Vertical Tanks

Internal view of an internal floating roof tank

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4.

Types of Vertical Tanks

B. EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOF TANKS (EFRT)


Recommended for diameters of 15 m & above however can be used for small diameters in special circumstances These types of tanks are designed to work at atmospheric pressure Diameters Common Types of Floating Roof Tanks are::

Pontoon Single Deck Floating Roof: A pontoon single deck type of roof consists of an outer pontoon ring divided by bulk heads into liquid tight compartments with an inner section of ordinary steel plates acting as single deck membrane. This type of roof is recommended for tanks diameters up to 48m. Double deck Floating Roof: A double deck floating roof consist of an upper and lower deck extending over entire area of liquid surface. The lower deck is separated from upper deck by circumferential rim plates and radial bulk heads to form a liquid tight compartments.

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4.

Types of Vertical Tanks


(site view)

B. EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOF TANKS (EFRT)

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4.

Ty es f ertical Ta

B. EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOF TANKS (EFRT)

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4.

Types of Vertical Tanks

B. EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOF TANKS (EFRT) Diagrammatic View

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4.

Types of Vertical Tanks

B. EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOF TANKS (EFRT) Details of Flexible Seal employed for Floating Roof Tank The floating roof has mechanical seal attached to its full perimeter . The rim seal covers the space between the floating roof and the tank shell (side wall)

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4.

Types of Vertical Tanks

B. EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOF TANKS (EFRT) Pictorial view

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

4.

Types of Vertical Tanks

B. EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOF TANKS (EFRT) Pictures from site

The purpose of using floating roof (internal/external) is that they minimize evaporation by covering the liquid surface

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

5.

Design Codes/Standards used for Tanks

COMMON INTERNATION ALSTANDARDS: i. API 650 : (American Standard) Covers design fabrication, erection and testing requirements of vertical, above ground, closed & open top welded steel storage tanks fro various sizes & capacities . For internal pressure approximating atmospheric, but higher internal pressure is permitted when addition requirements are met and Appendix F is followed. API 620: (American Standard) Covers large field assembled storage tanks that contain petroleum intermediates (gas or vapour) and finished products. The standard covers design & construction of large welded low pressure carbon steel above ground storage tanks. API 579: (American Standard) is fitness for service standard and was developed to evaluate flaws & damage associated with in service operation.

ii.

iii.

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

5.
a. iv.

Design Codes/Standards used for Tanks


COMMON INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS: BS EN 14015 ( British Standard) Specification covers the design manufacturing of site built, vertical, cylindrical flat bottomed, above f ground, welded steel tanks for storage of liquids at ambient temperature & above. Shell DEP ( 34.51.01.31-Gen) Covers the design requirement of shop assembled and site built, vertical, cylindrical flat bottomed, above ground, welded steel tanks Shell DEP ( 64.51.01.31-Gen) This is extension of above DEP & covers the Erection & Testing of vertical tanks

v.

vi.

vii. UL 142 ( Underwriter laboratory) Covers design & construction requirement of above ground storage tanks viii. UL 52 ( Underwriter laboratory) Covers design & construction requirement of below ground storage tanks

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

5.
b. 1) 2)

Design Codes/Standards used for Tanks


COMPANY STANDARDS: 32-SAMSS-005 ( Manufacturing of Atmospheric Tanks) 32-SAMSS-030 ( Manufacturing of Small Tanks)

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

6.

Question/ Queries?

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010

Storage Tanks ( basic info) Prepared by: M.SIRAJUDIN (Sr. Static Equipment Engineer)

July 29, 2010