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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 243-247

International Journal of Computing Algorithm

ON E-CORDIAL LABELINGS OF COMPETITION GRAPH


E.Bala, K.Thirusangu Department of mathematics, S.I.V.E.T. College, Gowrivakkam, Chennai73 kthirusangu@gmail.com Abstract In 1968, Joel E. Cohen has introduced the notion of Competition graph in connection with a problem of ecology. The competition graph of a diagram D denoted by C(D) has the same vertex set of D and there is an edge between the vertices x and y if and only if there exists a vertex z in D such that (x,z) and (y,z) are arcs of D. In this paper we present an algorithm and prove the existence of graph labelings such as E-cordial, total E-cordial, product E-cordial, total product E-cordial labelings for the Competition graph of the Cayley digraphs associated with 2 generated 2-groups. Key words: Graph labelings, Cayley digraphs, Competition graph, 2-generated 2-groups. 1. Introduction In 1878, Cayley constructed a graph with a generating set which is now popularly known as Cayley graphs. A directed graph or digraph is a finite set of points called vertices and a set of arrows called arcs connecting some vertices. The Cayley graphs and Cayley digraphs are excellent models for interconnection networks [ 6 ]. Many wellknown interconnection networks are Cayley digraphs. For example hypercube, butterfly, and cube-connected cycles networks are Cayley graphs. The Cayley digraph of a group provides a method of visualizing the group and its properties. The properties such as commutativity and the multiplication table of a group can be recovered from a Cayley digraph. In [2], it is proved that the Competition graph of Cayley digraph associated with diheadral group Dn admits Z3 magic, Cordial, total cordial, E-cordial, total E-cordial, Product cordial, total product cordial, Product E-cordial and total product Ecordial labelings. In this paper we prove the existence of graph labelings such as E-cordial, total E-cordial, Product E-cordial and total product E-cordial for the competition graph of the Cayley digraphs associated with 2generated 2-groups. 2. Preliminaries In this section we give the basic notion relevant to this paper. Definition 2.1 A (p,q)-digraph G = (V,E) is defined by a set V of vertices such that |V|=p and a set E of arcs or directed edges with |E|=q. The set E is a subset of elements (u,v) of V V. The out-degree (or in-degree of a vertex u of a digraph G is the number of arcs (u,v)(or(v,u)) of G and is denoted by d+ (u) (or d- (u)). A digraph is said to be regular if d+ (u) = d- (v) for every vertex u of G. Definition 2.2 Let G be a finite group and S be a generating subset of G. The Cayley digraph Cay(G,S) is the digraph whose vertices are the elements of G, and there is an edge from g to gs whenever g G and s S. If S = S-1 then there is an edge from g to gs if and only if there is an arc from gs to g Definition 2.3 A group G is said to be a 2group if o(G) = pm for m 1. It is said to be 2generated if the minimal generating set of G has exactly two elements. Throughout this paper we take o(G) = p m = n and p =2 Definition 2.4 The structure of the Cayley digraph Cay ( G , (,)) for the 2-group is defined as follows. Using definition 2.2, the Cayley digraph for the 2-group, Cay ( G , (,)) has n vertices and 2n arcs. Let us denote the vertex set of Cay ( G , (,)) as V ={v1, v2, v3.vn}. Define the arc set as Cay ( G , (,)) as E(E , E) where E = {(v, v)| vV} and E = {(v, v)| vV}. Denote the arcs in E as {g (vi) | vi V} and E as {g (vi) | vi V}. Clearly each vertex in Cay (G, (, )) has

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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 243-247 exactly two outgoing arcs out of which one arc is from the set E and another is from the set E
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International Journal of Computing Algorithm and the number of vertices and arcs labeled with 1 differ atmost by one. Definition 3.5 Let V = { v1, v2, v3,,vn } and E (Ea, Eb) = {e1, e2, e3,, e2n} be the vertex and arcs sets of Cayley digraphs of 2generated 2-group. The competition graph of Cay ( G , (,)) denoted by Comcay( G , (,)) is a digraph consisting of same set of vertices and viervjesvk where vi,vj,vk V and er ,es E is a path in Cay( G , (,)) iff vivk is an arc in Comcay( G , (,)) Definition 3.6 The structure of competition graph ComCay ( G , (,)) is defined as follows. By the definition 3.5, the ComCay ( G , (,)) has n vertices and 4n arcs. Let us denote the vertex set of ComCay ( G , (,)) as V={ v1, v2, v3.vn}. Denote the arc set of ComCay ( G , (,)) as E(E, E , E, E }= { e1, e2, e3.e4n} E, E , E and E be the set of all outgoing arcs from vi generated by (,), ( , ), (, ) and ( , ) respectively. Thus the arc set of the ComCay (G, (,)) is as follows: For all 1 i n and n 0 (mod 2): (i) For i 1 (mod 2) and 1 i n-1: {(vi vi+1) (vi vi+1)} E (ii) {(v1vn-1)( v2 vn){vi v n-i+1| (i (4k 1)4k | k N)}{vi vi-2 | i (4k + 1)(4k+2) | k N }} E (iii) {{vi v (i+2) (mod n) | (i (4k 1)4k | k N)}{vi v n-i+1| i (4k -3)(4k-2)}} E (iv) ) For i 1 (mod 2) and 1 i n-1: {(vi vi+1) (vi vi+1)} E From the arc set of the ComCay (G, (,)), it is clear that E = E . Therefore, throughout this paper we consider the vertex set of ComCay (G, (,)) as V={v1, v2, v3.vn}and the arc set as E (E, E , E) = { e1, e2, e3.e3n} Now we present an algorithm to get E-cordial, Product cordial and Product E-cordial labeling for the competition graph ComCay (G, (,)) Algorithm 1 Procedure (E-cordial labeling for Comcay(G, (, )) V { v1, v2, v3.vn }

3. Main results In this section we present an algorithm and prove the existence of graph labeling such as E-cordial, total E-cordial, Product E-cordial, total Product E-cordial for the Competition graphs of Cayley digraphs associated with 2generated 2-groups. Definition 3.1 Let G(V,E) be a (p,q) digraph. It is said to admit E-cordial labeling if there exists a function f from E onto the set {0,1} such that the induced map f* on V is defined as f*(vi) =={f(vi vj)/ vi vj E}(mod 2) satisfies the property that the number of arcs labeled 0 and the number of arcs labeled 1 differ atmost by one, and number of vertices labeled 0 and the number of vertices labeled 1 differ atmost by one. Definition 3.2 Let G(V,E) be a (p,q) digraph. It is said to admit total E-cordial labeling if there exists a function f from E onto the set {0,1} such that the induced map f* on V is defined as f*(vi) = {f(vi vj)/ vi vj E}(mod 2) satisfies the property that the number of vertices and arcs labeled with 0 and the number of vertices and arcs labeled with 1 differ atmost by one. Definition 3.3 Let G(V,E) be a (p,q) digraph. It is said to admit product E-cordial labeling if there exists a function f from E onto the set {0,1} such that the induced map f* on V is defined as f*(vi) = {f(vi vj)/ vi vj E}(mod 2) satisfies the property that if the number of vertices labeled 0 and the number of vertices labeled 1 differ atmost by one, and number of arcs labeled 0 and the number of arcs labeled 1 differ atmost by one. Definition 3.4 Let G(V,E) be a (p,q) digraph. It is said to admit total product E-cordial labeling if there exists a function f from E onto the set {0,1} such that the induced map f* on V is defined as f*(vi) = {f(vi vj) / vi vj E}(mod 2) satisfies the property that that the number of vertices and arcs labeled with 0

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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 243-247 E(E, E , E ){ e1, e2, e3.e3n} if (vi vj E ) for i = 1 to (n/2) do g(vi) 1 end for for i = (n/2)+1 to n g(vi) 0 end for else if (vi vj E) for i = 1 to n do g(vi) 0 end for else for i = 1 to n do g (vi) 1 end for end if end if end procedure Algorithm 2 procedure (product E-cordial labeling for Comcay(G, (, )) V { v1, v2, v3.vn } E(E, E , E ){ e1, e2, e3.e3n} for i = 1 to (n/4) do g(vi) g(vi) g (vi) 0 end for for i = (n/2)+1 to (3n/4) do g(vi) g(vi) g (vi) 0 end for for i = (n/4)+1 to (n/2) do g(vi) g(vi) g (vi) 1 end for for i = (3n/4)+1 to n do g(vi) g(vi) g (vi) 1 end for end procedure Theorem 3.1 The competition graph ComCay(G, (,)) admits E-Cordial labeling. Proof From the construction of Competition graph ComCay(G,(,)), we have n vertices and 3n arcs. Consider the arbitrary vertex vi V. To label the arcs, using algorithm 1,define a map f : E{0,1}. From these definitions of the labeling functions, we have the total number of arcs labeled 0 is (n/2)+ n = 3n/2 and the total number of arcs labeled 1 is (n/2)+ n =

International Journal of Computing Algorithm 3n/2. Thus the number of arcs labeled 0 and the number of arcs labeled 1 differ by atmost one. In order to get the labels for the vertices, define the induced map f* : V {0,1} such that for every vertex vi , f*(vi) = (f(g(vi)) + f(g(vi)) + f(g (vi)) )(mod 2). Now for every vi, where 1 i (n/4), f*(vi) = f(g(vi)) + f(g(vi)) + f(g (vi)) = (1+0+1) (mod 2) = 0 . Under this map, the number of vertices labeled 0 is n/2. Again for every vertex vi, where (n/4)+1 i n, f*(vi) = f(g(vi)) + f(g(vi)) + f(g (vi)) = (0+0+1) (mod 2) =1.Under this map we have the number of vertices labeled 1 is n/2. Thus the number of vertices labeled 0 and the number of vertices labeled 1 differ by atmost one. Hence the competition graph ComCay(G, (,)) admits E-cordial labeling. Theorem 3.2 The competition graph ComCay(G, (,)) admits total E-cordial labeling. Proof By the above theorem, using the map f on E and there by the induced map f* on V, we have the number of arcs labeled 0 is 3n/2 and the number of vertices labeled 0 is n/2. Also, the number of arcs labeled by 1 is 3n/2 and the number of vertices labeled by 1 is n/2. Thus the total number of ones on vertices and arcs taken together is (3n/2)+(n/2) = 4n and the the total number of zeroes on vertices and arcs taken together is (n/2)+2n = 4n. Thus the number of zeroes on the vertices and arcs taken together differ by atmost one with the number of ones on vertices and arcs taken together. Hence The competition graph ComCay(G, (,)) admits total E-cordial labeling. Theorem 3.3 The competition graph ComCay(G, (,)) admits Product E-cordial labeling. Proof From the construction of Competition graph ComCay(G, (,)) using algorithm, we have n vertices and 3n arcs.Consider the arbitrary vertex vi V. To label the arcs, using algorithm 2, define a map f : E{0,1}. From these definitions of the labeling functions, we have the total number of arcs 245

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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 243-247 labeled 0 is (n/2)+ (n/2)+(n/2)+ = 3n/2 and the number of arcs labeled 1 is (n/2)+ (n/2) + (n/2)= 3n/2. Hence the number of arcs labeled 0 and the number of arcs labeled 1differ by atmost one. In order to get the labels for the vertices define the induced map f* : V {0,1} such that for any vertex vi, f*(vi) = (f(g(vi)) f(g(vi)) f(g (vi))) (mod 2). Now for every vertex vi, where 1 i (n/4), f*(vi) = ( f(g(vi)) f(g(vi)) f(g (vi)) ) = 000 = 0 . Again for every vertex vi, where (n/2)+1 i 3n/4, f*(vi) = ( f(g(vi)) f(g(vi)) f(g (vi)) ) = 000 = 0. Under this map the number of vertices labeled 0 is n/2. Now for every vertex vi, (n/4)+1 i (n/2), f*(vi) = ( f(g(vi)) f(g(vi)) f(g (vi))) = 111 = 1. Again for every vertex vi, (3n/4)+1 i n, f*(vi) = ( f(g(vi)) f(g(vi)) f(g (vi))) = 111 = 1. Under this map, the number of vertices labeled 1 is n/2 . Thus the number of vertices labeled 0 and the number of vertices labeled 1 differ by atmost one. Hence ComCay(G, (,)) admits Product ECordial labeling. Theorem 3.4 The competition graph ComCay(G, (,)) admits total product ECordial labeling.

International Journal of Computing Algorithm Proof.: From the construction of Competition graph ComCay(G, (,)),we have n vertices and 3n arcs. By the above theorem, using the map f on E and there by the induced map f* on V, we have the number of arcs labeled 0 is 3n/2 and the number of vertices labeled 0 is 3n/2. Thus the total number of zeroes on vertices and arcs taken together is (n/2)+3n/2 =4n Also, the number of arcs labeled by 1 is 3n/2 and the number of vertices labeled by 1 is n/2. Thus the total number of ones on vertices and arcs taken together is (n/2)+3n/2 = 4n .Thus the number of zeroes on the vertices and arcs taken together differ by atmost 1 with the number of ones on vertices and arcs taken together. Hence The competition graph ComCay(G, (,)) admits total product Ecordial labeling. Example Consider the 2-generated 2-group G={1,-1 , i, -i, j, -j, k, -k} with the generating set S = {i,j} such that i2 = j2 = k2 = -1, ij=k, jk=i, ki=j, ji=-k,kj=-i, ik=-j. Competition graph of the Cayley digraph associated with 2generated 2-group and its E-cordial labeling and Product E-cordial labeling is shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2 respectively. Figure 1

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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 243-247 Figure 2

International Journal of Computing Algorithm

4. Conclusion In this paper we have presented an algorithm and proved that the competition graph of Cayley digraph associated with 2-generated 2groups denoted by ComCay(G, (,))admits E-cordial, total E-cordial, Product E-Cordial and total Product E-cordial labelings. 5. References [1] Bala.E, Thirusangu.K, E-Cordial and Z3 magic labelings in extended triplicate graph of a path, General Mathematics Notes (GMN), Vol 5, No.2, 2011. [2]Bala.E, Thirusangu.K, Some graph labelings in competition graph of Cayley digraphs, International Journal of Combinatorial Graph Theory & Applications (IJCGTA), Vol.4. No.2, 117-132, 2011. [3] Bala.E, Thirusangu.K, Graph labelings in competition graph, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.4, No.8 , 938-943, 2011. [4]Gallian.J.A, A dynamic survey of graph labeling, The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics 18, #DS6, 2011. [5]Hovey.M, A-cordial graphs, Discrete Math., Vol. 93, 183-194, 1991. [6]Heydemann.M, Cayley graphs and inter connection networks in Hahn .G and

Sabidussi.G (Eds), Graph symmetry: Algebraic methods and Applications, 167224, 1997. [7]Sundaram.M, Ponraj.R and Somasundaram.S, Product cordial graphs, Bull. Pure and Applied Sciences (Mathematics and Statistics), Vol. 23E, 155-163, 2004. [8]Sundaram.M, Ponraj.R and Somasundaram.S, Total product cordial labeling of graphs, Bull. Pure and Appl. Sci. Sect. E Math. Stat., Vol. 25, 199-203, 2006. [9]Thirusangu.K, Atulya K. Nagar, Rajeswari.R, Labelings in Cayleys digraphs, European Journal of Combinatorics, Vol 32, 133-139, 2011. [10]Thirusangu.K, Bala.E, Magic and antimagic labelings in Cayley digraphs of 2generated p-groups, International Journal of Mathematics Research Vol 3. No.3, 221229, 2011. [11] Thirusangu.K, Bala.E and Balasangu.K, Product antimagic labelings in Cayley digraphs of 2-generated 2-groups, J. Appl. Math. and Informatics (JAMI). Vol.30, No.12, 49-56, 2012. [12]Yilmaz.R and Cahit.I, E-cordial graphs, Ars Combin., Vol. 46, 251-266, 1997.

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