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Oct 08, 2013

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A set D ⊂ V of a given fuzzy graph

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A set D ⊂ V of a given fuzzy graph

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ON DOMINATION IN FUZZY GRAPHS

D.Antony Xavior

1

, Florence Isido .D

1

, V.M.Chtira

2

1

Department of Mathematics, Loyola College, Chennai 600 034

2

SKR Engineering College,Poonamalee,Chennai 600123

chithu1234@yahoo.com

Abstract

A set D V of a given fuzzy graph 0(I,p,p) is a dominating set if for every u I there exists

: such that (u,:) is a strong arc and p(u) p(:) and if the number of vertices of D is

minimum then it is called a minimum dominating set of G. Domination number of G is the sum of

membership values of vertices of a minimum dominating set and it is denoted by y(). In this

paper we study domination in fuzzy graphs. Also we formulate an algorithm to find dominating set for

a given fuzzy graph.

Keywords: fuzzy domination, strong arc, weak arc, strength of connectedness.

1. Introduction

It is quite well known that graphs are simply

models of relations. A graph is a convenient

way of representing information involving

relationship between objects. The objects are

represented by vertices and relations by edges.

When there is vagueness in the description of

the objects or in its relationships or in both, it

is natural that we need to design a Fuzzy

Graph Model.

Application of fuzzy relations are widespread

and important; especially in the field of

clustering analysis, neural networks, computer

networks, pattern recognition, decision making

and expert systems. In each of these, the basic

mathematical structure is that of a fuzzy graph.

Harary et al [2] explained an interesting

application in voting situations using the

concept of domination in graphs. Rosenfeld

[4] introduced the notion of fuzzy graph and

several fuzzy analogs of graph theoretic

concepts such as paths, cycles and

connectedness. Somasundaram A. and

Somasundaram S. [5] discussed about

domination in fuzzy graph. The concept of

strong arcs was introduced by Bhutani [1] in

which an arc of a fuzzy graph is strong if and

only if its weight is equal to the strength of

connectedness of its end nodes. In this paper

we define dominating set in a fuzzy graph

0(I,p,p) connecting the concepts of strong

arcs and membership values of vertices of G.

2. Preliminaries

Let us see the following basic definitions in a

fuzzy graph. [3].

Definition 1: A fuzzy subset of a nonempty set

V is a mapping o:I [0,1].

Definition 2: A fuzzy relation on V is a fuzzy

subset of V V.

Definition 3: A fuzzy graph 0 =(o,p) is a

pair of function o:I [0,1] and

p:I I [0,1] where p(u,:)

o(u) o(:) for all u,: I.

Definition 4: The underlying crisp graph of

0 =(o,p) is denoted by 0

=(I,E) where

I ={u I o(u) >0}and

E = {(u,:) I I:p(u,:) >0}.

Definition 5: The order p and size q of the

fuzzy graph 0 =(o,p) are defined by

p = o(:)

uv

and q = p(u,:)

(u,)L

.

Definition 6: Let G be a fuzzy graph on V and

SV, then the fuzzy cardinality of S is defined

to be o(u)

uS

.

Definition 7: The strength of the

connectedness between two nodes u, v in a

fuzzy graph G

is p

(u,:) =sup{p

k

(u,:):k =

1,2,3..}where

p

k

(u,:) =

sup _

p(u,u

1

)p(u

1

,u

2

)p(u

2

,u

3

)

p(u

3

,u

4

).p(u

k-1

,:)

_.

Definition 8: An arc (u, v) is said to be a

strong arc if (u, v) =p

(u,:) If p (u,:) =

0 for every : I, then u is called an isolated

node.

Let us now define dominating set, minimum

dominating set and domination number in a

fuzzy graph

Definition 9: Let 0(I,p,p) be a fuzzy graph

and I , is a dominating set if for every

Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 248-250 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 249

u I S there exist : such that (i)

(u,:) is a strong arc and (ii)p(u) p(:).

v3

v4

v5

(1)

(0.4)

(0.5)

0.6

0.4

0.3

0.5

0.7

0.5

0.7

v1(0.8)

v2

Figure 1 D = {V

2

, V

5

}

Definition 10: A dominating set of a fuzzy

graph with minimum number of vertices is

called a minimum dominating set.

Definition 11: Domination number of a fuzzy

graph is the sumof membership values of the

vertices of a minimumdominating set.

3. Main Results

Proposition 1: A fuzzy graph remains

connected even after removal of all weak

edges in it.

Proof:

Let G be a fuzzy graph and ) , ( v u

denotes

the strength of connectedness

between two vertices u and v. Let e be a weak

edge in G and0

i

=0 c.

To prove: 0

i

is connected.

Let us prove this by method of contradiction.

Assume that 0

i

is a disconnected graph.

Suppose that the weak edge c =(u,:) makes

the graph0

i

disconnected into more than one

component. That implies that there is no path

between u and v except the edge c =(u,:) in

G. Therefore ) , ( v u = ) , ( v u

which is a

contradiction.

An Algorithm to find Dominating set

Step 1: Find ) , ( v u

Step 2: Delete all the weak edges

Step 3: Select the vertex u with maximum

(u) in 0

i

Step 4: Group the vertices dominated by u, as

I

1

Step 5: Find 0

i

I

1

Step 6: Repeat the steps 3 to 5 until we get

isolated vertices.

Step 7: The collection of vertices selected in

step 3 and the isolated vertices will forma

dominating set.

An Illustration

1

0.7

0.8

0.4

0.5

0.3

v1

v1

v2

v3

(0.9)

(1)

v4

(0.7)

(0.5)

.9

.9 v1 v2

v4

(0.9) 1

0.7 0.5

.7

.8

.5

v3

.9

.9 v1 v2

v4

(0.9) 1

0.7 0.5

.7

.8

v3

Figure 2 different steps of the above

algorithm

In the above Fuzzy graph the dominating set

is D={v

2

,v

4

}.

Proposition 2: In a fuzzy cycle all arcs are

strong arcs.

Proof: Let G be a fuzzy cycle. Assume that all

arcs are not strong arcs. Then there exist at

least one weak edge in G. Let us discuss the

proof in two cases.

Case 1: Only one weak edge exists .The

membership value of the edge is minimum.

But in fuzzy cycle there should be at least two

edges with minimummembership value which

is a contradiction to our assumption.

Case 2: more than two edges with minimum

membership value. Then the edges will not be

weak edges.

Proposition 3: Let D be a dominating set of a

fuzzy graph G. Then for each : , there is

no vertex in D dominates v.

Proposition 4: Let D be a dominating set of a

fuzzy graph G then no bridge exists between

any two vertices of I .

Proof: Suppose there exists a bridge between

any two u,: I .Then (u,v) is a strong

arc. Then either u dominates v or v dominates

u or v dominates u. Therefore either u

or : .

Proposition 5: Let D be a minimum

dominating set of a fuzzy graph G .If ||

v

2

, theny() y(I ).

Proof: Let us assume y() <y(I ) .Then

number of vertices in D must be less than

number of vertices in I .Therefore

|| <|I |.But || +|I | = |I|,

Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 248-250 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 250

|I | =|I| || >||, |I| >2|| .Then

|| <

v

2

Proposition 6: If (D) <y(V D), then there

exists at least one v D dominates two or

more vertices of I , where D is a

minimumdominating set.

Proof: Suppose no vertices of D dominates

two or more vertices of I .Then every

vertices in D dominates a vertex inI ,

which implies || =|I | .This implies

that. y() y(I ) by definition of

domination

It is easy to prove the following property.

Proposition 7: Let D be a dominating set of a

fuzzy graph G and

i

is a dominating set of

the supp G, then || |

i

|.

Conclusion: In this paper we define a

dominating set, minimumdominating set and

domination number in a fuzzy graph and an

algorithmis also formulated for finding a

dominating set of a fuzzy graph. Various

results regarding the domination number of a

fuzzy graph are discussed.

References

[1]K.R. Bhutani,Strong arcs in fuzzy graphs

information Science, 152,(1989), pp.319-322.

[2]F. Harary, Graph Theory, Addison-

Wesley, Reading, MA, 1969.

[3]A.Nagoor Gani, and V.T.Chandrasekaran,

Domination in Fuzzy Graph, Advances in

Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 1 (1) (2006), 17-26.

[4]A. Rosenseld, Fuzzy graphs In L.

A.Zadeh, K.S Fu and M. Shimura(Eds.),Fuzzy

sets and Their Applications. AcademicPress,

New York.

[5]A.Somasundaram, S.Somasundaram,

Domination in Fuzzy Graphs-I, Elsevier

science, 19 (1998) 787-791. Discrete

mathematics 33(1981) 249-258.

[6]A. Somasundaram, S. Somasundaram

Domination in fuzzy graphs I Pattern

Recognition Letters, 19, (1998), pp.787-791.

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