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35 views6 pagesLet G be a (p, q) graph. A one-one map f : V(G) {1, 2, …, p} is said to be a pair sum labeling
if the induced edge function, fe : E(G) Z – {0} defined by fe(uv) = f(u) + f(v) is one-one and fe(E(G))
is either of the form {k1, k2, …, kq/2} or {k1, k2, …, k(q1)/2} {k(q+1)/2} according as q is even or
odd. Recently, the pair sum labeling is introduced by R.Ponraj, J. V. X. Parthipan. In this paper we
study about the pair sum labeling of coconut tree CT(m, n), the the Y-tree Yn+1, Jelly fish J(m, n), (m,
2)-kite, (m, 1)-kite and the theta graph Ѳ(l[m] ), for m even.

Oct 08, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Let G be a (p, q) graph. A one-one map f : V(G) {1, 2, …, p} is said to be a pair sum labeling
if the induced edge function, fe : E(G) Z – {0} defined by fe(uv) = f(u) + f(v) is one-one and fe(E(G))
is either of the form {k1, k2, …, kq/2} or {k1, k2, …, k(q1)/2} {k(q+1)/2} according as q is even or
odd. Recently, the pair sum labeling is introduced by R.Ponraj, J. V. X. Parthipan. In this paper we
study about the pair sum labeling of coconut tree CT(m, n), the the Y-tree Yn+1, Jelly fish J(m, n), (m,
2)-kite, (m, 1)-kite and the theta graph Ѳ(l[m] ), for m even.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

35 views

Let G be a (p, q) graph. A one-one map f : V(G) {1, 2, …, p} is said to be a pair sum labeling
if the induced edge function, fe : E(G) Z – {0} defined by fe(uv) = f(u) + f(v) is one-one and fe(E(G))
is either of the form {k1, k2, …, kq/2} or {k1, k2, …, k(q1)/2} {k(q+1)/2} according as q is even or
odd. Recently, the pair sum labeling is introduced by R.Ponraj, J. V. X. Parthipan. In this paper we
study about the pair sum labeling of coconut tree CT(m, n), the the Y-tree Yn+1, Jelly fish J(m, n), (m,
2)-kite, (m, 1)-kite and the theta graph Ѳ(l[m] ), for m even.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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PAIR SUM LABELING OF SOME SPECIAL GRAPHS

K. Manimekalai

1

, K.Thirusangu

2

1

Department of Mathematics, Bharathi womens College (Autonomous), Chennai-108.

2

Department of Mathematics, S.I.V.E.T College, Gowrivakkam, Chennai -600 073.

manimekalai2010@yahoo.com

Abstract

Let G be a (p, q) graph. A one-one map f : V(G) {1, 2, , p} is said to be a pair sum labeling

if the induced edge function, f

e

: E(G) Z {0} defined by f

e

(uv) = f(u) + f(v) is one-one and f

e

(E(G))

is either of the form {k

1

, k

2

, , k

q/2

} or {k

1

, k

2

, , k

(q1)/2

} {k

(q+1)/2

} according as q is even or

odd. Recently, the pair sum labeling is introduced by R.Ponraj, J. V. X. Parthipan. In this paper we

study about the pair sum labeling of coconut tree CT(m, n), the the Y-tree Y

n+1

, Jelly fish J(m, n), (m,

2)-kite, (m, 1)-kite and the theta graph (l

[m]

), for m even.

Keywords: pair sum labeling, pair sum graph, AMS Classification: 05C78.

1. Introduction

The graph considered here are all finite,

undirected and simple. V(G) and E(G) denote

the vertex set and edge set of a graph G. The

pair sumlabeling is introduced in [3] by R.

Ponraj and et al. In [3],[4] [5] and [6] they

study the pair sumlabeling of cycle, path, star

and some of their related graphs like B

m,n

, K

1,n

K

1,m

, P

m

K

1,n

, C

n

C

n

etc. In this paper

we study pair sumlabeling of coconut tree

CT(m, n), the the Y-tree Y

n+1

, J elly fish J (m,

n) , (m, 2)-kite, (m, 1)-kite and the theta graph

(l

[m]

), for meven. Let x be any real number,

then | | x denotes the largest integer less than

or equal to x. Terms and terminology as in

Harary [2].

Definition 1.1 [3]. Let G(V, E) be a (p, q)

graph. A one-one function f : V(G) {1, 2,

, p} is said to be a pair sumlabeling if the

induced edge function f

e

: E(G) Z {0}

defined by f

e

(uv) =f(u) +f(v) is one-one and

f

e

(E(G)) is either of the form{k

1

, k

2

, ,

k

q/2

} or {k

1

, k

2

, , k

(q1)/2

} {k

(q+1)/2

}

according as q is even or odd. A graph with a

pair sumlabeling defined on it is called a pair

sumgraph.

Definition 1.2: A coconut Tree CT(m,n) is the

graph obtained from the path P

m

by appending

n new pendent edges at an end vertex of P

m

.

Definition 1.3: A Y

-tree Y

n+1.

is a graph

obtained from the path P

n

by appending an

edge to a vertex of the path P

m

adjacent to an

end point.

Definition 1.4: An (n, t)-kite is a cycle of

length n with a t-edge path (the tail) attached

to one vertex. In particular, the (n, 1)-kite is a

cycle of length n with an edge attached to one

vertex. (n, 1)-kite is also known as flag, F

n

.

Definition 1.5: The J elly fish graph J (m, n) is

obtained from a 4- cycle v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

by

joining v

1

and v

3

with an edge and appending

mpendent edges to v

2

and n pendent edges to

v

4

.

Definition 1.6: Take k paths of length l

1,

l

2

,

l

3, . . . ,

l

k

, where k 3 and l

i

=1 for

at most one i.

Identify their end points to forma new graph.

The new graph is called a generalized theta

graph, and is denoted by (l

1,

l

2

, l

3, . . . ,

l

k

). In

other words, (l

1,

l

2

, l

3, . . . ,

l

k

) consists k 3

pair wise internally disjoint paths of length

l

1,

l

2

, l

3, . . . ,

l

k

that share a pair of common end

points u and v. If each l

i

(i = 1,2, . . . ,k) is

equal to l, we will write (l

[k]

).

In [3], R.Ponraj and J . V. X. Parthipan have

proved the following results which we will use

in the proof of our theorem.

Theorem 1.1 (as Theorem 3.9 in [3]): (3, 1) -

kite is not a pair sumgraph.

Theorem 1.2[2]: The complete bipartite

graphs K

1,n

and K

2,n

are pair sumgraphs.

Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 251-256 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 252

2. Main Results

Theorem 2.1: The (m, 2)-kite is a pair sumgraph for all m> 3.

Proof: Let V be the vertex set and E be the edge set of (m, 2)-kite. Then |V| =|E| =m+2. We

consider the following two cases.

Case1: mis even. Let m=2r.

Let V ={u

i

, v

i

/ 1 s i s r} {w

1

, w

2

} and E ={u

i

u

i+1

, v

i

v

i+1

/ 1 s i s r-1} { u

r

v

1

, v

r

u

1

, u

r

w

1

,

w

1

w

2

} .

Define a map f : V {1, 2, , (2r+2) } as follows:

f(u

i

) =2i ; 1 s i s r-1

f(v

i

) = f(u

i

) ; 1 s i s r-1

f(u

r

) =1, f(v

r

) =1, f(w

1

) = (r+1), f(w

2

) =(2r+1).

Then f is a pair sumlabeling.

Case2: mis odd.

Subcase 2.1: m> 9

Let m=2r+1 , r > 4.

Let V ={u

i

/ 1 s i s r} { v

i

/ 1 s i s r+1} { w

1

, w

2

}

and E ={u

i

u

i+1

/ 1 s i s r-1} {v

i

v

i+1

/ 1 s i s r} { u

r

v

1

, v

r+1

u

1

, v

r

w

1

, w

1

w

2

} .

Define f : V {1, 2, , (2r+3) } as follows:

f(u

i

) =2i ; 1 s i s r-1

f(v

i

) = f(u

i

) ; 1 s i s r-2

f(u

r

) =2r1, f(v

r-1

) =2r3, f(v

r

) =(2r2), f(v

r+1

) =(2r1)

f(w

1

) = (2r5), f(w

2

) =2r+3.

Then f is a pair sumlabeling.

Subcase 2.2: for m=3, 5 and 7, a pair sumlabeling of (m, 2)-kite is given in Figure 1.

Hence the (m, 2)-kite is a pair sumgraph for all m> 3.

Corollary 2.2: By deleting the pendant vertex in the (m,2)-kite of the proof of the Theorem2.1 and

by Theorem1.1, the (m, 1)-kite is a pair sumgraph except for m=3.

-2

5

-1

-3

-2

Figure 1

(5,2)-kite

7

2

-2

1

-3

4

-4

9

3

-3

2

-6

7

-5

5

-7

(3,2)-kite

(7,2)-kite

Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 251-256 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 253

Example 2.1: In Figure 2, pair sumlabeling of (16, 2)-kite and (17, 2)-kite are illustrated.

Theorem 2.3: The coconut tree CT(m, n) is a pair sumgraph.

Proof: Let G(V,E) = CT(m, n). Then |V(G)| =m+n and |E(G)| =m+n-1

Case 1: m> 5

Subcase 1.1: mis even. Let m=2r.

Then V(G) ={u

i

, v

i

/ 1 s i s r} {w

i

/ 1 s i s n} and

E(G) ={u

r

v

1

, u

i

u

i+1

, v

i

v

i+1

/ 1 s i s r-1} {w

i

/ 1 s i s n}

Define f : V {1, 2, , (2r+n) } as follows:

f(u

1

) =-3, f(u

r

) =1, f(v

r

) = 1

f(u

i

) =2i ; 2s i s r-1

f(v

i

) = f(u

i

) ; 1 s i s r-1

s s +

s s +

=

=

odd i & 3 ; 3) (2i

even i & 2 ; 3) (2i -

1 i ; 7

) f(w

i

n i

n i

Subcase 1.2: mis odd. Let m=2r+1.

Then V(G) ={u

r+1

, u

i

, v

i

/ 1 s i s r} {w

i

/ 1 s i s n} and

E(G) ={u

i

u

i+1

, u

r

v

1

, v

r

v

r+1

, v

i

v

i+1

/ 1 s i s r-1} {v

r+1

w

i

/ 1 s i s n}

Define f : V(G) {1, 2, , (2r+n+1) } as follows:

=

s s +

=

r. i ; 1

1 r i 1 ; 1) 2(i

) f(u

i

+ =

s s

=

1 r i ; 1

r i 1 ; 2i

) f(v

i

s s +

=

=

=

n i

i

3 ; ) 1 (2i -

2 ; 7

1 i ; 2

) f(w

i

Case 2: ms 4.

Subcase 2.1: m=1, then G =CT(1,n) is the star K

1,n

. By Theorem1.2 [2], G is a pair sumgraph.

Subcase 2.2: m=2, then G =CT(2,n) is the star K

1,n+1

. By Theorem1.2 [2], it is a pair sumgraph.

Subcase 2.3: m=3, then G =CT(3,n).

-2

-4

-6 -8 -10 -12 13 -14

(16,2)-kite:

Figure 2: Pair sum labeling of (16, 2)-kite and (17, 2)-kite

(17,2)-kite:

2

17

4

6 8 10 12 1

14

-9

-2

-4 -6 -8 -10

-12 -14

-1

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 15

-15

-11

19

Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 251-256 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 254

Let V(G) ={v

i /

1 s i s 3} {w

i

/ 1 s i s n} and E(G) ={v

1

v

2

, v

2

v

3

} {v

3

w

i

/ 1 s i s n}

Label the vertices v

1,

v

2

and v

3

by -3,2 and -1 respectively.

For 1 s i s n , define

+

+

=

even i ; ) 2 (

odd i ; ) 1 (

) f(w

i

i

i

Subcase 2.4: m=4 then G =CT(4,n).

V(G) ={v

i

/1 s i s 4}{w

i

/ 1 s i s n and E(G) ={v

1

v

2

, v

2

v

3

, v

3

v

4

} {v

4

w

i

/ 1 s i s n}.

Label the vertices v

1,

v

2 ,

v

3

and v

4

by -2,-4, 1 and 2 respectively.

For 1 s i s n , define

s s +

s s

=

=

=

=

odd i & 5 ; 2) (i

even i & ;4 1 i

3 i ; 3

2 i ; 1

1 i ; 4

) f(w

i

n i

n i

Then f is a pair sumlabeling.Hence the coconut tree CT(m, n) is a pair sumgraph.

Example 2.2: In Figure 3 we give a pair sumlabeling of CT(4,7).

Corollary 2. 4: For r > 3, the Y

tree Y

r+1

is a pair sum graph.

Proof: We can easily observe that Y

r

+1

~ CT(r-1,2) for r > 3. Hence by Theorem 2.1 , Y

r+1

is a pair

sumgraph.

Example 2.3: In Figure, 4 a pair sumlabeling of Y

4+1

and Y

5+1

are illustrated.

Theorem 2.5: For m, n 1, Jelly fish graph J(m, n) is a pair sum graph.

Proof: Let G(V,E) =J (m, n). Then G has (m+n+4) vertices and (m+n+5) edges.

Let n m. Let V(G) = V

1

V

2

where V

1

={x, u, y, v}, V

2

={ u

i

, v

j

; 1 s i s m , 1 s i s n } and E =

E

1

E

2

,where E

1

={xu, uy, yv, vx, xy } , E

2

={ uu

i

, vv

j

; 1 s i s m, 1 s j s n }.

Define f : V {1, 2, , (m+n+4) } as follows:

Label the vertices x, u, y, v by -5, -1, 3 and 1 respectively.

4 2

1

2

-9

5

-7

3

-3

-1

4

Figure. 3: Pair sum labeling CT(4,7)

-2

4

-3

-1 2 -3

3 1 -1

Y

4+1

:

-3 2 1 -4 -2

-1

-1 3

-3

-6

1

Y

5+1

:

Figure 4: pair sum labeling of Y

6+1

, Y

4+1

and Y

5+1

Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 251-256 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 255

Define

+ s s +

s s

=

=

1 5 ; ) 2 (i

4 2 ; 1) - 2(i

1 i ; 5

) f(v

i

m i

i

For 2 s j s n-m

s s + +

s s + +

=

+

odd j & 3 ; ) 2 / ) 1 ( 5 (

even j & 2 ; ) 2 / ( 3

) f(v

j m

n m j j m

n m j j m

f(u

i

) =f(v

i+1

) ; 1s i s m.

Then f is a pair sumlabeling.Hence the J elly fish graph J (m, n) is a pair sumgraph.

Example 2.4: In Figure 5, a pair sumlabeling for the J elly fish graph J (4, 7) is exhibited.

Next we will prove that the theta graph (l

[m]

) is a pair sumgraph , for meven.

Theorem 2.6: For meven, the theta graph (l

[m]

) is a pair sumgraph.

Proof: Let G(V,E) = (l

[m]

). Then |V(G)| =m( l- 1) +2 and |E(G)| =ml.

Let V(G) = V

1

V

2

where { } 1 - l j 1 and 2 / i 1 | v , u V

j i, j i, 1

s s s s = m

,

{ } v u, V

2

=

and

E(G) =E

1

E

2

where { } 2 - l j 1 and 2 / i /1 v v , u u E

1 j i, j i, 1 j i, j i, 1

s s s s =

+ +

m

,

{ } 2 / i /1 u v , v v , v u , u u E

1 - l i, i,1 1 - l i, i,1 2

m s s =

.

Define a map f : V(G) {1, 2, , m( l- 1) +2} as follows:

f(u) =1, f(v) = 1,

f(u

i,j

) = 2( li i+j l+1) ; 1 s i s m/2 & 1 s j s l-1

f(v

i,j

) =f(u

i.j

) ) ; 1 s i s m/2 & 1 s j s l-1

Clearly f is a pair sumlabeling.Hence the theta graph (l

[m]

) is a pair sumgraph for meven.

Example 2.5: In Figure 6, a pair sumlabeling for the theta graph (7

[6]

) is exhibited.

-6

2

-2

4

-4

-2

-6

-7

-5

3

1 -1

5

`4

6

7

8

-10

-3

-5

-7

-8

2

3

5

7

8

9

Figure 5: pair sum labeling for the Jelly fish J(4, 7)

-4 6

-9

2 4

6 8 10 12

14 16 18 20

22 24

26 28 30 32

34

36

1

-2

-4

-6

Figure 6: pair sum labeling for the theta graph (7

[6]

)

-8 -10 -12

-14

-16

-18 -20 -22

-24

-26 -28 -30 -32 -34 -36

-1

Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 251-256 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 256

3. References

[1] J .A.Gallian, A dynamic survey of graph

labeling, The Electronic J ournal of

Combinatorics, 14 DS6 (2009).

[2] F.Harary, Graph Theory, Narosa

Publishing House, New Delhi, India,(1998).

[3] R.Ponraj, J . V. X. Parthipan, Pair Sum

Labeling of Graphs, The J ournal of Indian

Academy of Mathematics, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp.

587-595, 2010.

[4]R.Ponraj, J . V. X. Parthipan and R. Kala,

Some Results on Pair Sum Labeling,

International J ournal of Mathematical

Combinatorics, Vol. 4, pp. 55-61, 2010.

[5]R.Ponraj, J . V. X. Parthipan and R. Kala,

A Note on Pair Sum Graphs, J ournal of

Scientific Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 321-

329, 2011.

[6]R.Ponraj, J. V. X. Parthipan, Further

Results on Pair Sum Labeling of Trees,

Applied Mathematics, 2, 1270-1278, 2011.

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