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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 251-256 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 251


PAIR SUM LABELING OF SOME SPECIAL GRAPHS

K. Manimekalai
1
, K.Thirusangu
2
1
Department of Mathematics, Bharathi womens College (Autonomous), Chennai-108.
2
Department of Mathematics, S.I.V.E.T College, Gowrivakkam, Chennai -600 073.
manimekalai2010@yahoo.com
Abstract
Let G be a (p, q) graph. A one-one map f : V(G) {1, 2, , p} is said to be a pair sum labeling
if the induced edge function, f
e
: E(G) Z {0} defined by f
e
(uv) = f(u) + f(v) is one-one and f
e
(E(G))
is either of the form {k
1
, k
2
, , k
q/2
} or {k
1
, k
2
, , k
(q1)/2
} {k
(q+1)/2
} according as q is even or
odd. Recently, the pair sum labeling is introduced by R.Ponraj, J. V. X. Parthipan. In this paper we
study about the pair sum labeling of coconut tree CT(m, n), the the Y-tree Y
n+1
, Jelly fish J(m, n), (m,
2)-kite, (m, 1)-kite and the theta graph (l
[m]
), for m even.
Keywords: pair sum labeling, pair sum graph, AMS Classification: 05C78.

1. Introduction
The graph considered here are all finite,
undirected and simple. V(G) and E(G) denote
the vertex set and edge set of a graph G. The
pair sumlabeling is introduced in [3] by R.
Ponraj and et al. In [3],[4] [5] and [6] they
study the pair sumlabeling of cycle, path, star
and some of their related graphs like B
m,n
, K
1,n

K
1,m
, P
m
K
1,n
, C
n
C
n
etc. In this paper
we study pair sumlabeling of coconut tree
CT(m, n), the the Y-tree Y
n+1
, J elly fish J (m,
n) , (m, 2)-kite, (m, 1)-kite and the theta graph
(l
[m]
), for meven. Let x be any real number,
then | | x denotes the largest integer less than
or equal to x. Terms and terminology as in
Harary [2].
Definition 1.1 [3]. Let G(V, E) be a (p, q)
graph. A one-one function f : V(G) {1, 2,
, p} is said to be a pair sumlabeling if the
induced edge function f
e
: E(G) Z {0}
defined by f
e
(uv) =f(u) +f(v) is one-one and
f
e
(E(G)) is either of the form{k
1
, k
2
, ,
k
q/2
} or {k
1
, k
2
, , k
(q1)/2
} {k
(q+1)/2
}
according as q is even or odd. A graph with a
pair sumlabeling defined on it is called a pair
sumgraph.
Definition 1.2: A coconut Tree CT(m,n) is the
graph obtained from the path P
m
by appending
n new pendent edges at an end vertex of P
m
.


Definition 1.3: A Y

-tree Y
n+1.
is a graph
obtained from the path P
n
by appending an
edge to a vertex of the path P
m
adjacent to an
end point.
Definition 1.4: An (n, t)-kite is a cycle of
length n with a t-edge path (the tail) attached
to one vertex. In particular, the (n, 1)-kite is a
cycle of length n with an edge attached to one
vertex. (n, 1)-kite is also known as flag, F
n
.
Definition 1.5: The J elly fish graph J (m, n) is
obtained from a 4- cycle v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
by
joining v
1
and v
3
with an edge and appending
mpendent edges to v
2
and n pendent edges to
v
4
.
Definition 1.6: Take k paths of length l
1,
l
2
,
l
3, . . . ,
l
k
, where k 3 and l
i
=1 for

at most one i.
Identify their end points to forma new graph.
The new graph is called a generalized theta
graph, and is denoted by (l
1,
l
2
, l
3, . . . ,
l
k
). In
other words, (l
1,
l
2
, l
3, . . . ,
l
k
) consists k 3
pair wise internally disjoint paths of length
l
1,
l
2
, l
3, . . . ,
l
k
that share a pair of common end
points u and v. If each l
i
(i = 1,2, . . . ,k) is
equal to l, we will write (l
[k]
).
In [3], R.Ponraj and J . V. X. Parthipan have
proved the following results which we will use
in the proof of our theorem.
Theorem 1.1 (as Theorem 3.9 in [3]): (3, 1) -
kite is not a pair sumgraph.
Theorem 1.2[2]: The complete bipartite
graphs K
1,n
and K
2,n
are pair sumgraphs.
Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 251-256 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm
Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 252
2. Main Results
Theorem 2.1: The (m, 2)-kite is a pair sumgraph for all m> 3.
Proof: Let V be the vertex set and E be the edge set of (m, 2)-kite. Then |V| =|E| =m+2. We
consider the following two cases.
Case1: mis even. Let m=2r.
Let V ={u
i
, v
i
/ 1 s i s r} {w
1
, w
2
} and E ={u
i
u
i+1
, v
i
v
i+1
/ 1 s i s r-1} { u
r
v
1
, v
r
u
1
, u
r
w
1
,
w
1
w
2
} .
Define a map f : V {1, 2, , (2r+2) } as follows:
f(u
i
) =2i ; 1 s i s r-1
f(v
i
) = f(u
i
) ; 1 s i s r-1
f(u
r
) =1, f(v
r
) =1, f(w
1
) = (r+1), f(w
2
) =(2r+1).
Then f is a pair sumlabeling.
Case2: mis odd.
Subcase 2.1: m> 9
Let m=2r+1 , r > 4.
Let V ={u
i
/ 1 s i s r} { v
i
/ 1 s i s r+1} { w
1
, w
2
}
and E ={u
i
u
i+1
/ 1 s i s r-1} {v
i
v
i+1
/ 1 s i s r} { u
r
v
1
, v
r+1
u
1
, v
r
w
1
, w
1
w
2
} .
Define f : V {1, 2, , (2r+3) } as follows:
f(u
i
) =2i ; 1 s i s r-1
f(v
i
) = f(u
i
) ; 1 s i s r-2
f(u
r
) =2r1, f(v
r-1
) =2r3, f(v
r
) =(2r2), f(v
r+1
) =(2r1)
f(w
1
) = (2r5), f(w
2
) =2r+3.
Then f is a pair sumlabeling.
Subcase 2.2: for m=3, 5 and 7, a pair sumlabeling of (m, 2)-kite is given in Figure 1.















Hence the (m, 2)-kite is a pair sumgraph for all m> 3.
Corollary 2.2: By deleting the pendant vertex in the (m,2)-kite of the proof of the Theorem2.1 and
by Theorem1.1, the (m, 1)-kite is a pair sumgraph except for m=3.





-2
5
-1
-3
-2
Figure 1

(5,2)-kite
7
2
-2
1
-3
4
-4

9
3
-3
2
-6
7
-5
5
-7
(3,2)-kite

(7,2)-kite

Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 251-256 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm
Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 253
Example 2.1: In Figure 2, pair sumlabeling of (16, 2)-kite and (17, 2)-kite are illustrated.















Theorem 2.3: The coconut tree CT(m, n) is a pair sumgraph.
Proof: Let G(V,E) = CT(m, n). Then |V(G)| =m+n and |E(G)| =m+n-1
Case 1: m> 5
Subcase 1.1: mis even. Let m=2r.
Then V(G) ={u
i
, v
i
/ 1 s i s r} {w
i
/ 1 s i s n} and
E(G) ={u
r
v
1
, u
i
u
i+1
, v
i
v
i+1
/ 1 s i s r-1} {w
i
/ 1 s i s n}
Define f : V {1, 2, , (2r+n) } as follows:
f(u
1
) =-3, f(u
r
) =1, f(v
r
) = 1
f(u
i
) =2i ; 2s i s r-1
f(v
i
) = f(u
i
) ; 1 s i s r-1

s s +
s s +
=
=
odd i & 3 ; 3) (2i
even i & 2 ; 3) (2i -
1 i ; 7
) f(w
i
n i
n i
Subcase 1.2: mis odd. Let m=2r+1.
Then V(G) ={u
r+1
, u
i
, v
i
/ 1 s i s r} {w
i
/ 1 s i s n} and
E(G) ={u
i
u
i+1
, u
r
v
1
, v
r
v
r+1
, v
i
v
i+1
/ 1 s i s r-1} {v
r+1
w
i
/ 1 s i s n}
Define f : V(G) {1, 2, , (2r+n+1) } as follows:

=
s s +
=
r. i ; 1
1 r i 1 ; 1) 2(i
) f(u
i

+ =
s s
=
1 r i ; 1
r i 1 ; 2i
) f(v
i

s s +
=
=
=
n i
i
3 ; ) 1 (2i -
2 ; 7
1 i ; 2
) f(w
i

Case 2: ms 4.
Subcase 2.1: m=1, then G =CT(1,n) is the star K
1,n
. By Theorem1.2 [2], G is a pair sumgraph.
Subcase 2.2: m=2, then G =CT(2,n) is the star K
1,n+1
. By Theorem1.2 [2], it is a pair sumgraph.
Subcase 2.3: m=3, then G =CT(3,n).
-2
-4
-6 -8 -10 -12 13 -14
(16,2)-kite:
Figure 2: Pair sum labeling of (16, 2)-kite and (17, 2)-kite

(17,2)-kite:
2
17
4
6 8 10 12 1
14
-9
-2
-4 -6 -8 -10
-12 -14
-1
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 15
-15
-11
19
Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 251-256 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm
Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 254
Let V(G) ={v
i /
1 s i s 3} {w
i
/ 1 s i s n} and E(G) ={v
1
v
2
, v
2
v
3
} {v
3
w
i
/ 1 s i s n}
Label the vertices v
1,
v
2
and v
3
by -3,2 and -1 respectively.
For 1 s i s n , define

+
+
=
even i ; ) 2 (
odd i ; ) 1 (
) f(w
i
i
i

Subcase 2.4: m=4 then G =CT(4,n).
V(G) ={v
i
/1 s i s 4}{w
i
/ 1 s i s n and E(G) ={v
1
v
2
, v
2
v
3
, v
3
v
4
} {v
4
w
i
/ 1 s i s n}.
Label the vertices v
1,
v
2 ,
v
3
and v
4
by -2,-4, 1 and 2 respectively.
For 1 s i s n , define

s s +
s s
=
=
=
=
odd i & 5 ; 2) (i
even i & ;4 1 i
3 i ; 3
2 i ; 1
1 i ; 4
) f(w
i
n i
n i

Then f is a pair sumlabeling.Hence the coconut tree CT(m, n) is a pair sumgraph.
Example 2.2: In Figure 3 we give a pair sumlabeling of CT(4,7).










Corollary 2. 4: For r > 3, the Y

tree Y
r+1
is a pair sum graph.
Proof: We can easily observe that Y
r

+1
~ CT(r-1,2) for r > 3. Hence by Theorem 2.1 , Y
r+1
is a pair
sumgraph.
Example 2.3: In Figure, 4 a pair sumlabeling of Y
4+1
and Y
5+1
are illustrated.










Theorem 2.5: For m, n 1, Jelly fish graph J(m, n) is a pair sum graph.
Proof: Let G(V,E) =J (m, n). Then G has (m+n+4) vertices and (m+n+5) edges.
Let n m. Let V(G) = V
1
V
2
where V
1
={x, u, y, v}, V
2
={ u
i
, v
j
; 1 s i s m , 1 s i s n } and E =
E
1
E
2
,where E
1
={xu, uy, yv, vx, xy } , E
2
={ uu
i
, vv
j
; 1 s i s m, 1 s j s n }.
Define f : V {1, 2, , (m+n+4) } as follows:
Label the vertices x, u, y, v by -5, -1, 3 and 1 respectively.

4 2
1
2
-9
5
-7
3
-3
-1
4
Figure. 3: Pair sum labeling CT(4,7)
-2
4
-3
-1 2 -3
3 1 -1
Y
4+1
:
-3 2 1 -4 -2
-1
-1 3
-3
-6
1
Y
5+1
:
Figure 4: pair sum labeling of Y
6+1
, Y
4+1
and Y
5+1

Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 251-256 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm
Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 255
Define

+ s s +
s s
=
=
1 5 ; ) 2 (i
4 2 ; 1) - 2(i
1 i ; 5
) f(v
i
m i
i
For 2 s j s n-m

s s + +
s s + +
=
+
odd j & 3 ; ) 2 / ) 1 ( 5 (
even j & 2 ; ) 2 / ( 3
) f(v
j m
n m j j m
n m j j m

f(u
i
) =f(v
i+1
) ; 1s i s m.
Then f is a pair sumlabeling.Hence the J elly fish graph J (m, n) is a pair sumgraph.
Example 2.4: In Figure 5, a pair sumlabeling for the J elly fish graph J (4, 7) is exhibited.












Next we will prove that the theta graph (l
[m]
) is a pair sumgraph , for meven.
Theorem 2.6: For meven, the theta graph (l
[m]
) is a pair sumgraph.
Proof: Let G(V,E) = (l
[m]
). Then |V(G)| =m( l- 1) +2 and |E(G)| =ml.
Let V(G) = V
1
V
2
where { } 1 - l j 1 and 2 / i 1 | v , u V
j i, j i, 1
s s s s = m
,
{ } v u, V
2
=

and
E(G) =E
1
E
2
where { } 2 - l j 1 and 2 / i /1 v v , u u E
1 j i, j i, 1 j i, j i, 1
s s s s =
+ +
m
,
{ } 2 / i /1 u v , v v , v u , u u E
1 - l i, i,1 1 - l i, i,1 2
m s s =
.
Define a map f : V(G) {1, 2, , m( l- 1) +2} as follows:
f(u) =1, f(v) = 1,
f(u
i,j
) = 2( li i+j l+1) ; 1 s i s m/2 & 1 s j s l-1
f(v
i,j
) =f(u
i.j
) ) ; 1 s i s m/2 & 1 s j s l-1
Clearly f is a pair sumlabeling.Hence the theta graph (l
[m]
) is a pair sumgraph for meven.
Example 2.5: In Figure 6, a pair sumlabeling for the theta graph (7
[6]
) is exhibited.










-6
2
-2
4
-4
-2
-6
-7
-5
3
1 -1
5
`4
6
7
8
-10
-3
-5
-7
-8
2
3
5
7
8
9
Figure 5: pair sum labeling for the Jelly fish J(4, 7)
-4 6
-9
2 4
6 8 10 12
14 16 18 20
22 24
26 28 30 32
34
36
1
-2
-4
-6
Figure 6: pair sum labeling for the theta graph (7
[6]
)
-8 -10 -12
-14
-16
-18 -20 -22
-24
-26 -28 -30 -32 -34 -36
-1
Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 251-256 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm
Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 256
3. References
[1] J .A.Gallian, A dynamic survey of graph
labeling, The Electronic J ournal of
Combinatorics, 14 DS6 (2009).
[2] F.Harary, Graph Theory, Narosa
Publishing House, New Delhi, India,(1998).
[3] R.Ponraj, J . V. X. Parthipan, Pair Sum
Labeling of Graphs, The J ournal of Indian
Academy of Mathematics, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp.
587-595, 2010.
[4]R.Ponraj, J . V. X. Parthipan and R. Kala,





































Some Results on Pair Sum Labeling,
International J ournal of Mathematical
Combinatorics, Vol. 4, pp. 55-61, 2010.
[5]R.Ponraj, J . V. X. Parthipan and R. Kala,
A Note on Pair Sum Graphs, J ournal of
Scientific Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 321-
329, 2011.
[6]R.Ponraj, J. V. X. Parthipan, Further
Results on Pair Sum Labeling of Trees,
Applied Mathematics, 2, 1270-1278, 2011.