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Thit b truyn khi

1. nh ngha v phn loi: - Thit b truyn khi l thit b dng thc hin qu trnh truyn vt cht trong ni b 1 pha, cng nh t pha ny sang pha khc khi chng tip xc nhau. - Khi thc hin truyn khi gia hai pha, thit b cn c b mt tip xc pha ln, hot ng n nh, hiu sut cao, nng sut ln, d ch to, lp t, vn hnh, sa cha v thay th. - C nhiu cch phn loi TB truyn khi: + Theo nguyn tc lm vic: c th chia thit b truyn khi thnh: thit b lm vic lin tc, gin on v bn lin tc. + Theo p sut lm vic: thit b lm vic p sut thng, thp v cao. + Theo phng php cp nhit cho qu trnh: un nng trc tip v gin tip + Theo chiu chuyn ng ca cc dng pha: thit b lm vic xui chiu, ngc chiu v cho chiu. + Theo dng b mt tip xc pha: tip xc pha lin tc, tng bc. + Theo kt cu: thp mng, thp m, thp a v thp phun. Trong thc t c th phn loi v gi tn thit b truyn khitheo phng php hn hp. 2. Thp mng: - B mt tip xc pha l b mt cht lng chy thnh mng theo b mt vt rn thng l thng ng. B mt vt rn c th l ng, tm song song hoc m tm. 2.1 Thp mng dng ng: C cu to tng t thit b trao i nhit dng ng chm, gm c ng to mng c gi bng hai v ng hai u, khong khng gia ng v v thit b tch khi cn thit. Cht lng chy thnh mng theo thnh ng t trn xung, cht kh (hi) i theo khong khng gian trong mng cht lng t di ln.

2.2 Thp mng dng tm phng: Cc tm m t dng thng ng c lm t nhng vt liu khc nhau (kim loi, nha, vi cng treo trn khung...) t trong thn hnh tr. m bo thm t u cht lng t c 2 pha tm m ta dng dng c phn phi c bit c cu to rng ca. 2.3 Thp mng dng ng khi lng v kh i cng chiu: Cng c cu to t cc ng c nh trn 2 v, kh i qua thn gm cc ng phn phi tng ng t ng trc vi ng to mng. Cht lng i vo ng to mng qua khe gia 2 ng. Khi tc kh ln s ko theo cht lng t di ln chuyn ng di dng mng theo thnh ng to mng. Khi cn tch nhit c th cho tc nhn lnh i vo khong khng gian gia v v ng. nng cao hiu sut ngi ta dng thit b nhiu bc ging nhau. - Thy ng lc trong thit b dng mng: + Khi Re <> 1600 chy ri Khi c dng kh chuyn ng ngc chiu s nh hng ln n ch chy ca mng. Khi , do lc ma st gia kh v lng s c cn tr mnh ca dng kh lm b dy mng tng ln, tr lc dng kh tng. Tip tc tng vn tc dng kh s dn n cn bng gia trng lc ca mng lng v lc ma st v dn n ch sc (nhiu khi pha kh ch 3-6m/s xy ra sc). Khi tc vt qua tc sc s lm ko cht lng theo pha kh ra ngoi. - u v nhc im ca thp mng: + u:

- tr lc theo pha kh nh. - c th bit c b mt tip xc pha (trong trng hp cht lng chy thnh mng) - c th thc hin trao i nhit. + Nhc: - nng sut theo pha lng nh. - cu to phc tp, khi vn hnh d b sc. * ng dng: - trong phng th nghim - trong trng hp c nng sut thp - trong nhng h thng cn tr lc thp (h thng ht chn khng,...) * V d: H thng chng du v ht iu, ti sinh du nhn, chng ct tinh du, c c nc tri cy,... 3. Thp m: a) S cu to: Cu to gm: thn thp rng bn trong y m lm t vt liu khc nhau (g, nha, kim loi, gm,...) vi nhng hnh dng khc nhau (tr, cu, tm, yn nga, l xo,...); li m, ng dn kh v lng vo ra.

phn phi u lng ln khi m cha trong thp, ngi ta dng b phn phn phi dng: li

phn phi (lng i trong ng kh ngoi ng; lng v kh i trong cng ng); mng phn phi, vi phun hoa sen (dng tr, bn cu, khe); bnh xe quay (ng c l, phun quay, );... - Cc phn t m c c trng bng: ng knh d, chiu cao h, b dy . i vi m tr, h = d cha c nhiu phn t nht trong 1 n v th tch. - Khi m c c trng bng cc kch thc: b mt ring a (m2/m3); th tch t do (m3/m3); ng knh tng ng d(t) = 4r(thy lc) = 4.S/n = 4 /a; tit din t do S (m2/m3) - Khi chn m cn lu : thm t tt cht lng; tr lc nh, th tch t do v v tit din ngang ln; c th lm vic vi ti trng ln ca lng v kh khi v S ln; khi lng ring nh; phn phi u lng; c tnh chu n mn cao, r tin, d kim... lm vic vi cht lng bn nn chn m cu c khi lng ring nh. b) Nguyn l hot ng: - Cht lng chy trong thp theo m di dng mng nn b mt tip xc pha l b mt thm t ca m. - Thp m lm vic ngc chiu c cc ch thy ng lc sau: + Ch mng OA: khi mt ti khng ln, tc kh nh, cht lng chy thnh mng theo b mt m, kh i khe gia cc mng. + Ch hm AB: t A tng tc kh s lm tng ma st ca dngkh vi b mt lng v km hm s chy ca mng lng, lng lng gi li trong m tng. Khi tng tc kh lm tng xoy o mng lng trn m nn tng cng qu trnh truyn khi. + Ch nh tng BC: Kh-lng to thnh h nh tng khng bn 2 pha lin tc-gin on ca kh-lng i vai tr cho nhau lin tc, lm tng b mt tip xc pha v cng truyn khi ln cc i, ng thi tr lc thy lc cng tng nhanh; ch ny duy tr rt kh mc d cng truyn khi ln. + Ch cun theo: qu gii hn sc, nu tng tc kh, ton b cht lng s b gi li trong thp v cun ngc tr ra theo dng kh. - Hiu ng thnh thit b (channeling effect) Cht lng c xu hng chy t tm ra thnh thit b, gy gim hiu sut do tip xc pha km. Khc phc bng cch: + Nu chiu cao m ln hn 5 ln ng knh m th chia m thnh tng on; gia cc on m t b phn phn phi li cht lng. + Chn d/ = ng knh m/ng knh thp = 1/15 1/8. + Xp m: nu d < 50mm: ln xn d > 50mm: xp th t + Ti lng v phun kh ngay t u. c) u nhc im - ng dng: * u: cu to n gin; tr lc theo pha kh (hot ng ch mng/qu ) nh. * Nhc: hot ng km n nh, hiu sut thp; d b sc; kh tch nhit, kh thm t. * ng dng: + dng trong cc trng hp nng sut thp: thp hp th kh, thp chng ct,... + dng trong cc h thng tr lc nh (nh h thng ht chn khng,...) 4. Thp a: a) S cu to:

- Thp a thng cu to gm thn hnh tr thng ng, bn trong c t cc tm ngn (a) cch nhau mt khong nht nh. Trn mi a hai pha chuyn ng ngc hoc cho chiu:lng t trn xung (hoc i ngang), kh i t di ln hoc xuyn qua cht lng chy ngang; y tip xc pha xy ra theo tng bc l a.Ty thuc cu to ca a cht lng trn a c th l khuy l tng hay l dng chy qua. - Thp a c ng chy chuyn: bao gm thp a, chp, l, xupap, li,...Trn a c cu to c bit lng i t a trn xung a di theo ng ring gi l ng chy chuyn, a cui cng ng chy chuyn ngp su trong khi cht lng y thp to thnh van thy lc ngn khng cho kh (hi hay lng) i theo ng ln a trn. Pha kh (hi hay lng) xuyn qua cc l, khe chp, khe li,hay khe xupap sc vo pha lng trn a. phn phi u cht lng ngi ta dng tm ngn iu chnh chiu cao mc cht lng trn a. - Thp a khng c ng chy chuyn: khi kh (hi hay lng) v lng i qua cng mt l trn a. b) u nhc im v ng dng: - Thp a l: u im l kt cu kh n gin, tr lc tng i thp, hiu sut kh cao. Tuy nhin khng lm vic c vi cht lng bn, khong lm vic hp hn thp chop (v lu lng kh). - Thp chp: c th lm vic vi t trng ca kh, lng thay i mnh, kh n nh. Song c tr lc ln, tiu tn nhiu vt t kim loi ch to, kt cu phc tp. Ni chung thp chop c hiu sut cao hn thp a l. - Thp xupap: dng trong chng ct du m. 5. Thp phun: 5.1 Thp phun kh lng: 5.2 Thp phun lng lng:

- Dng trong trch ly lng lng, n gin, gn, chim t din tch. V nguyn tc c th phn tn pha nng (git) vo pha nh (lin tc) hay phn tn pha nh (git) vo pha nng. - Thit b gm 3 vng: vng phn tn pha phn tn thnh git, ch yu l vi phun; vng git chuyn ng u; vng kt dnh cc git phn pha. - N c th lm vic vi cht lng bn, thm ch vi bn. Nhng do tc cc pha thp nn cng truyn khi khng cao, chiu cao ca n v truyn khi ln, n 56 m.