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9 views4 pagesFor an ordered set W = {w1, w2 … wk} V (G) of vertices, we refer to the ordered k-tuple r(v W) =
(d(v, w1), d(v, w2) … d(v, wk)) as the (metric) representation of v with respect to W. A set W of a
connected graph G is called a resolving set of G if distinct vertices of G have distinct representations
with respect to W. A resolving set with minimum cardinality is called a minimum resolving set or a
basis. The dimension, dim(G), is the number of vertices in a basis for G. By imposing additional
constraints on the resolving set, many resolving parameters are formed. In this paper, we introduce
cyclic resolving set and find the cyclic resolving number for a grid graph and augmented grid graph.

Oct 08, 2013

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For an ordered set W = {w1, w2 … wk} V (G) of vertices, we refer to the ordered k-tuple r(v W) =
(d(v, w1), d(v, w2) … d(v, wk)) as the (metric) representation of v with respect to W. A set W of a
connected graph G is called a resolving set of G if distinct vertices of G have distinct representations
with respect to W. A resolving set with minimum cardinality is called a minimum resolving set or a
basis. The dimension, dim(G), is the number of vertices in a basis for G. By imposing additional
constraints on the resolving set, many resolving parameters are formed. In this paper, we introduce
cyclic resolving set and find the cyclic resolving number for a grid graph and augmented grid graph.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

9 views

For an ordered set W = {w1, w2 … wk} V (G) of vertices, we refer to the ordered k-tuple r(v W) =
(d(v, w1), d(v, w2) … d(v, wk)) as the (metric) representation of v with respect to W. A set W of a
connected graph G is called a resolving set of G if distinct vertices of G have distinct representations
with respect to W. A resolving set with minimum cardinality is called a minimum resolving set or a
basis. The dimension, dim(G), is the number of vertices in a basis for G. By imposing additional
constraints on the resolving set, many resolving parameters are formed. In this paper, we introduce
cyclic resolving set and find the cyclic resolving number for a grid graph and augmented grid graph.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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CYCLIC RESOLVING NUMBER OF GRID AND AUGMENTED GRID

GRAPHS

Chris Monica.M

1

, D. Little Femilin J ana

2

1

Department of Mathematics, Loyola College, Chennai

2

Department of Mathematics, Prince Shri Venkateshwara Padmavathy Engineering College, Chennai

chrismonicam@yahoo.com

Abstract

For an ordered set W = {w

1

, w

2

w

k

} V (G) of vertices, we refer to the ordered k-tuple r(v W) =

(d(v, w

1

), d(v, w

2

) d(v, w

k

)) as the (metric) representation of v with respect to W. A set W of a

connected graph G is called a resolving set of G if distinct vertices of G have distinct representations

with respect to W. A resolving set with minimum cardinality is called a minimum resolving set or a

basis. The dimension, dim(G), is the number of vertices in a basis for G. By imposing additional

constraints on the resolving set, many resolving parameters are formed. In this paper, we introduce

cyclic resolving set and find the cyclic resolving number for a grid graph and augmented grid graph.

Keywords: Resolving set, Cyclic resolving number, Grid graph, distance

1. Introduction

If G is a connected graph, then the distance

d(u; v) between two vertices u; v V(G) is the

shortest u - v path. For an ordered set W ={w

1

,

w

2

w

k

} V(G) and a vertex v of G, the k-

vector r(v W) =(d(v, w

1

), d(v, w

2

) d(v, w

k

))

is referred as the representation of v with

respect to W. If distinct vertices of G have

distinct representations with respect to W, then

W is called a resolving set for G. A resolving

set containing a minimum number of vertices

is called a minimum resolving set or a basis for

G. The dimension, dim(G), is the number of

vertices in a basis for G [17].

The i-th component of r(v W) is 0 if and only

if v =w

i

, for an ordered set W ={w

1

, w

2

w

k

}

of vertices. Hence it is enough to verify that

r(x W) r(y W) for each pair of distinct

vertices x, y V(G) \ W, to show that W is a

resolving set. Slater [19, 20] introduced this

concept using locating set for a resolving set

and referred to the cardinality of a minimum

resolving set in a graph G as its location

number. Independently, Harary and Melter [7]

discovered these concepts but used the term

metric dimension for a location number. These

concepts have also been investigated by

J ohnson [8] of the Pharmaceutical Company

while attempting to develop a capability of

large data sets of chemical graphs and he also

noted that the problem of finding the metric

dimension is NP-hard. Independently,

Chartrand et al. [4] have also discovered the

concept of a resolving set and a minimum

resolving set.

Resolving sets have applications in chemistry

for representing chemical compounds [8],

problems of network discovery and

verification [3, 21], pattern recognition and

image processing which involve the use of

hierarchical data structures [11], robot

navigation [9] and in areas like coin weighing

problems [6]. The problem of computing the

metric dimension of a graph is NP-complete

[5]. This problem remains NP-complete for

bipartite graphs proved by Manuel et al. [14].

The metric dimension problemhas also been

studied for trees, multi-dimensional grids [9],

torus networks [13], Benes networks [14],

honeycomb networks [15], and Illiac networks

[16].

For graphs modeled by an interconnection

networks, a resolving set represents a set of

detecting devices in a network so that for

every station in the network, there are two

detecting devices whose distances from the

station are distinct. This is possible as there is

a distance between each vertex in a minimum

resolving set. To have an easy access between

the devices, the distance between devices

should be small [18]. This lead the

introduction of connected resolving sets and

was introduced by Saenopholphat et al. [17].

Many resolving parameters like connected

resolving parameter, path resolving and one-

factor resolving set [1], star resolving set [2]

have been analyzed. This paper reports the

resolving parameter of a graph G when the

resolving set induces a cycle.

2. Cyclic Resolving Number

A resolving set W of a graph G is said to be

connected if the subgraph G[W] induced by W

is a nontrivial connected subgraph of G. The

Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 310-313 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 311

connected resolving number cr(G) is the

minimumcardinality of a connected resolving

set W in G. A connected resolving set of

cardinality cr(G) is called cr-set of G. Clearly,

every connected resolving set is a resolving

set. It was noted in [17] that if G is a

connected graph of order n 3, then 1

dim(G) cr(G) n 1. Further, dim(G) =

cr(G) if and only if G contains a connected

basis. For a connected graph G of order n 2,

cr(G) =1 if and only if G =P

n

, cr(G) =n 1 if

and only if G =K

n

or G =K

1, n 1

. Moreover,

for each pair k, n with 1 k n 1, there is a

connected graph of order n with connected

resolving number k [17].

If the subgraph G[W] induced by a resolving

set W of G is a cycle, then G[W] is a cyclic

resolving set. The minimum cardinality of a

cyclic resolving set in a graph G is called the

cyclic resolving number of G, denoted by

cyr(G). In other words, for minimum positive

integers m, n such that G[W] mC

n

, then m is

a cyclic resolving number.

3. Grid Networks

An interconnection network is modeled as an

undirected graph G =(V, E) with vertex set V

and edge set E where there are no multiple

edges or self-loops. The vertices of a graph

represent the nodes (processing elements,

memory models or switches) of the network

and the edges correspond to communication

lines. Three basic attributes such as degree,

diameter and node disjoint paths are necessary

for developing an interconnection network. In

addition to this, optimal algorithms for various

nodes of packet communication,

embeddability, symmetry properties and

recursive scalability are the complex attributes

to be considered. A few examples of

interconnection networks are tree, grid

(especially the 2-dimensional grid M

n n

),

hypercube, k-ary n-cube, OTIS-Network and

WK recursive grid. The advantage of grid

network is that it adapts dynamically to the

changes in the structure of the network [10].

A two-dimensional grid graph [12], denoted

by G(m, n), is the graph Cartesian product P

m

P

n

of path graphs on m and n vertices. The

vertex set and edge set of an m n Grid Graph

G(m, n) are: I ={(i, ]):0 i <m,0 ] <

n} and E ={(i,]),(i

i

,]

i

): |i i| +|] ]| =

1}. Hence the number of vertices and edges of

a grid graph G(m, n) are mn and 2mn m n.

The grid graphs are bipartite graphs and

Hamiltonian if either the number of rows or

columns is even. In this paper, we denote the

vertices of an m n Grid Graph G(m, n) as (i,

j) where i denotes the row and j denotes the

column.

4. Cyclic Resolving Number of Grid

Networks

Lemma 4. 1: Let G denote the m n grid

graph. Then cyr(G) > 1, where m 3; n 4 .

Proof:

Consider the vertices (i, j), (i +1, j), (i +1, j +

1), (i, j +1), 0 i m 1, 0 j n 1 which

induces a 4-cycle. i. e., C = {(i, j), (i +1, j), (i

+1, j +1), (i, j +1)}, 0 i m 1, 0 j n

1.

To prove that C does not resolve G.

For 0 i <m 1, 0 j <n 1, r((i, j +2) | C)

=r((i +2, j +1) | C) or in other words, the

vertices (i, j +2) and (i +2, j +1) have the

representation with respect to C. If i =m 1, 0

j <n 1, r((m 1, j +2) | C) =r((m 3, j +

1) | C), for 0 i <m 1, j =n 1, r((i, n 3) |

C) =r((i +2, n 2) | C) and for i =m 1, j =n

1, r((m 1, n 3) | C) =r((m 3, n 2) | C).

Hence cyr(G) > 1.

Theorem 4. 1: For an m n grid graph G.

Then cyr(G) =2, m 3 and n 4.

Proof: By Lemma 4. 1, cyr(G) >1. Let S= C

4

1

C

4

2

where C

4

1

={(0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 1), (1, 0)}

and C

4

2

={(0, n 2), (0, n 1), (1, n 1), (1, n

2)}.

We claimthat S is a cyclic resolving set.

For any two vertices in the same row or

column, d((0, 0), (i, j)) d((0, 0), (i, j +1)), 0

i <m, 0 j <n or d((0, 0), (i, j)) d((0, 0), (i

+1, j)), 0 i <m, 0 j <n.

Consider any two vertices in different rows or

columns. Then d(x, (i +2, j +2)) =d(x, (i +1,

j +1)) for x C

4

1

, 0 i <m 1, 0 j <n 1.

Similarly, d(x, (m 1, j +2)) =d(x, (m 3, j +

1)) for i =m 1, 0 j <n 1, d(x, (i, n 3)) =

d(x, (i +2, n 2)) and i =m 1, j =n 1, d(x,

(m 1, n 3)) =d(x, ((m 3, n 2)). Pair of

vertices with same representation with respect

to C

4

1

is resolved by (0, n 1). Hence S

resolves all pairs of vertices in G.

By the structure of an m n grid graph G,

there exists cycles of length 2l +2, 1 l m +

n 2. This implies that C

4

is a cycle of

minimum length. Since the set S which

induces 2C

4

is cyclic resolving set, cyr(G) =2.

Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 310-313 International J ournal of Computing Algorithm

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR) 312

Figure 1 is a 5 7 Grid Graph G and the

cyclic resolving sets of G are {(0, 0), (0, 1), (1,

1), (1, 0)}, {(0, 5), (0, 6), (1, 6), (1, 5)}.

Figure 1: 5 7 Grid Graph with its Cyclic

Resolving Set

Corollary 4. 1: For an m n grid graph G,

cyr(G)=1 if m =2 and n 3 or m 3 and n =2.

Corollary 4. 2: For m 3 and n =3, then

cyr(G) =2, where G is an m n grid graph.

5. Augmented Grid Graph AM(m, n)

An augmented grid AM(m, n) is a grid G(m, n)

with additional edges are obtained by joining

the vertices (i +1, j) and (i, j +1),0 i m

1, 0 j n 1.

Lemma 5. 1: Let G be AM(m, n) wherem 3,

n 4. Then cyr(G) > 1.

Proof:

To show that a cycle of length 3 does not

resolve G.

Let C ={(i, j), (i, j +1), (i +1, j)}, 0 i m

1, 0 j n 1. Clearly C induces a cycle of

length 3.

For 0 i <m 1, 0 j <n 1, r((i +2, j +1) |

C) =r((i +1, j +2) | C). Similarly, if i =m 1,

0 j <n 1, r((m 2, j +2) | C) =r((m 3, j

+2) | C), if 0 i <m 1, j =n 1, r((i +2, n

3) | C) =r((i +1, n 2) | C) and if i =m 1, j

=n 1 r((m 2, n 3) | C) =r((m 3, n 2) |

C). Thus cyr(G) >1.

Theorem 5. 1: cyr(AM(m, n)) =2, m 4.

Proof:

In view of Lemma 5. 1, cyr(AM(m, n)) >1.

Assume that S = C

3

1

C

3

2

where C

3

1

={(0, 0),

(0, 1), (1, 0)} and C

3

2

={(0, m 1) (0, m 2)

(1, m 1)}.Here C

3

1

and C

3

2

are cycles of

length 3. Any two distinct vertices in the same

row or column have distinct representation

with respect to C

3

1

. But d(x, (i, j)) =d(x, (l, i

(l 1)) for x C

3

1

, 2 i <m, j =1, 1 l <i

and d(x, (i, j)) =d(x, (l, m l +i)) for 2 i <m

1, j =m 1, i +1 l m.

Now pairs of vertices having the same

representation are resolved by any vertex of

C

3

2

. Since C

3

is a cycle of minimumlength and

S induces 2C

3

, cyr(AM(m, n)) =2.

An augmented grid graph AM(6, 6) with its

cyclic resolving set is depicted in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Cyclic Resolving Set in AM(6, 6)

Theorem 5. 2: cyr(AM(m, n))=2, m 3, n 4.

Proof of Theorem 5. 2 is similar to that of

Theorem5 1.

Corollary 5. 1: For m = 2, n 2 and n = 2, m

2, cyr(AM(m, n)) =1.

Corollary 5. 2: cyr(AM(m, n)) =2, whenever

n = 3, m 3.

6. Conclusion

The cyclic resolving number has been

introduced in this paper and the cyclic

resolving number of Grid graph and

Augmented grid graph has been determined.

The cyclic resolving number for other

interconnection networks such as Torus,

Butterfly, Hypercube derived networks are

under investigation.

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