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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 378-386

International Journal of Computing Algorithm

THE EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL HAZARDS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE USING FUZZY ASSOCIATIVE MEMORIES (FAM)
Charles Robert Kenneth1, R.C Thivyarathi2 1 Department of Mathematics, Loyola College, Chennai 2 Department 0f Science And Humanities, R.M.D Engineering College,Chennai Abstract The concept of Sustainable development based on an integrated view of environmental policies and development strategies intends to minimize the risks and hazards to the environment. The time has come for efforts to be made on the environmental front towards sustainable development without endangering the ecological assets of the future generation. In this paper we analyze the effects of health hazards in sustainable development of agriculture using Fuzzy Associative Memories (FAM). We arrive at the conclusions by this study how sustainable development is being affected by the pollutions.This paper has four sections. In section one we recall the notion of Fuzzy Associative Memories (FAM) and its properties. In section two we describe the problem. In Section three we adopt FAM to this problem and analyze the problem. Section four gives the conclusions based on our study. Keywords: Sustainable development, Fuzzy Associative Memories (FAM)., Demographic stabilization, Land Utilization, Forestry, Energy conservation, special fuzzy matrix. 1. Fuzzy Associative Memories (FAM) and its Properties. In this section we give the essential definitions and results so as to make the paper a selfcontained one. The Unit hypercube In = [0, 1]n = [0, 1] ... [0, 1] product of [0, 1] taken n-times consists of the set of all vectors of length n and the coordinates are taken from the unit interval [0, 1].In general fuzzy setsare maps from a universal set X to the unit interval [0,1]. i.e., : X [0, 1]. Throughout the paper by a fuzzy set we mean a point in the unit hypercube. Thus in this paper we do not take the usual fuzzy sets i.e., a map from a universal set X to the unit interval [0, 1]. Fuzzy system defines mappings between cubes. Fuzzy system S maps fuzzy sets to fuzzy sets. Thus the fuzzy system S is a transformation. i.e., S : I where n and p are finite positive integers. The n-dimensional
n n p

x i R, i=1,...,n. Similarly I consists of all the fuzzy subsets of the range space Y = {y1,...,yp}; yi R, i=1,...,p. Hence X denotes a subset of R and Y denotes the subset of R . The function f maps n-vectors in X to pvectors in Y. The continuous function f maps small changes in input to small changes in output i.e., if the input patterns are close to one another then the output patterns are close to one another. The system maps similar inputs to similar outputs and so estimates continuous functions. Fuzzy Associative Memories (FAM) Fuzzy system S : I maps balls of fuzzy sets in I to balls of fuzzy sets in . These continuous fuzzy systems are haves as an associative memory known as fuzzy associative memory. Let A and B be the fuzzy subsets of X and Y respectively where X = {x1, ... ,xn} and Y= {y1,...,yp}. A defines a point in the ndimensional unit hypercube I and B defines a point in the p-dimensional unit hypercube I .
p n n p n p n p

unit hypercube I consists of all the fuzzy subsets of the domain space X = {x1, ... ,xn} ;

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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 378-386 Equivalently A and B define the membership functions m and m respectively that map the
A B

International Journal of Computing Algorithm which consists of not only elements of nature such as air, water and soil but also the social and cultural conditions in which he lives. Over the years this relationship has gone through a metamorphosis and the man, who in the beginning could live in complete harmony with his environment, has shattered its equilibrium irreversibly in the wake of growing population, augmented need of food supply and fast industrial and technological development. It is an undisputable fact that human beings all over the world consuming natural resources are trying to conquer nature instead of preserving and protecting it. In India we did not develop a culture for pollution control. Consequently we have with us today a huge backlog of 57 years of pollution and ecological degradation since independence. The time has come for efforts to be made on environmental front towards sustainable development without endangering the ecological assets of future generation. We relate Sustainable Development as the function of i.Demographic stabilization ii.Land Utilization iii.Forestry iv.Energy conservation Hence, in our attempt in this paper four thrust areas have been identified where priority action is needed for Sustainable Development. Demographic stabilization India today possesses about 2.4% of the total land area of the world but she has to support about 16% of the world population. According to 2001-population census we have already crossed 102 (102.7 cores) cores at the rate of growth of population of 1.93 %. Indias population at the beginning of 20th century is known from the table.1.

elements x of X and y of Y to [0,1] . The


i j

membership values will be known as fit values which indicates how much x belongs to or fits
i

in the subset A and how much y belongs to or


j

fits in the subset B. Therefore we say that {x1, ... ,xn} is the fit vector that represents A and {y1,...,yp} is the fit vector that represents B . We describe this with the abstract functions mA : X [0, 1] mB: Y [0, 1]. Since in this paper the fuzzy sets A and B are points in unit hypercube, one can view A and B as natural vectors. Represent A and B by numerical fit vectors (if the fit values are given numerical values then the fit vector is known as numerical fit vector). A = {a1, ... ,an }and B = {b1, ... ,bp}, where ai = mA(xi) and bj = mB(yj). The fuzzy set association (Ai, Bi) is named as a rule. The antecedent term Ai in the fuzzy set association (Ai, Bi) is known as input associant and the consequent term Bi is known as output associant. The FAM system maps points Aj near Ai to points Bj near Bi. The closer Aj is to Ai, the closer the point (Aj, Bj) is to (Ai, Bi) in the product space I I . In this sense FAMs map balls in I to balls in I . That is only FAM can give results which are graded or it not only gives the solutions but the gradation of importance of each solution.
n p n p

2. Description of the Problem Introduction Ever since man came into existence, he has been trying continually to adopt and adapt his relationship with the changing environment, Table 1.Growth of Population in India Census Year Population in Increase/decrease in %Increase/ decrease million million 1981 236

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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 378-386 1901 1911 1921 (1891-1921) 1931 1941 1951 (1921-1951) 1961 1971 1981 (1951-1981) 1991 2001
2020 2000 1980 1960 1940 1920 1900 1880 1860 1840 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

International Journal of Computing Algorithm 0.0 +5.7 -0.3 +0.19 +11 +14.2 +13.3 +1.22 +21.5 +24.8 +24.7 +2.14 +23.5 +21.3
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 10 11 12
Census Year % increase / decrease

236 252 251 279 319 361 439 548 683 844 1027

0.0 +16 -1 +15 +28 +40 +110 +78 +109 +135 +322 +161 +161 +183

Table 2.Compound annual growth rate of population Year Compound annual growth 1891-1921 0.19 1921-1951 1.22 1951-1981 2.15 1981-1991 2.11 1991-2001 1.93

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0


1891-1921

Compound annual growth

1921-1951

1951-1981

1981-1991

1991-2001 Compound annual growth

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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 378-386

International Journal of Computing Algorithm

A study of growth rate of Indias population falls into 4 phases: 1891-1921: Stagnant population 1921-1951: Steady growth 1951-1981: Rapid high growth 1981-2001: High growth with definite sign of slow down The rate of growth slightly declined to 2.11% during 1981-91 decade. Subsequently, during the next decade 1991-2001 population grew from 844 million to 1027 million an increase of 183 million. The average rate of growth registered a decline to 1.93%. This is a welcome trend which should be strengthened. Another interesting fact is that China number one in terms of total population today is having 1.2% growth rate. At this rate India will be overtaking China in terms of total population by the year 2025. The high growth rate in India has already resulted in housing problems, water problem and proliferation of slums. This together with the lack of resources to invest on social and economic overheads* is rapidly deteriorating the environment especially as regards housing, health, water and sewage facilities. These demographic pressures lead to environmental and economic pressures in the economy, which we cannot afford. Table-3: Land utilization pattern, 1990-91 Particulars 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Total geographical area Total reported area Area under forest Permanent pastures and grazing land Cultivable waste land Fallow lands Net area sown Area sown more than once Total cropped area (7+8) Barren land not available for cultivation

The crux of the matter is that future population growth has to be related to our resource base. A zero population growth holds the key to our prosperity and to achieve this, the government must be prepared for a measure of unpopularity. An effective population policy involving birth control strategies, education and vocation for women, biotechnology and immunology is required and inevitable. *Social and economic overheads are areas related to education, health and infrastructure. Land Utilization According to the ministry of agriculture Government of India, the total geographical area of India is about 329 million hectares. Statistical information regarding land classification is available for only about 305 million hectares. Now out of 305 million hectares, net area sown is only 142 million hectares or 46% of the total land area. Total cropped area represents total area covered with crops and it is the sum total of all the land covered by all the individual crops; area sown with crops more than once during the year being counted as separate areas for each crop. Table-3 shows that the total cropped area in India in 1990-91 was 185 million hectares.

Area (million hectares) 329 305 68 12 19 23 142 43 185 41

% 100 22 4 6 8 46 14 60 13

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International Journal of Computing Algorithm

Source: Indian Agriculture in Brief (Ministry of Agriculture), 25th edition 1994.


Area under forest Permanent pastures and grazing land Cultivable waste land Fallow lands Net area sown Area sown more than once Total cropped area (7+8)

The census of India 2001 estimated the rare of growth of population at 1.93. This necessitates the production of 240 to 250 million tones of food grains. Agricultural scientists have generally felt confident that India can meet the challenge, as it has vast land. But the fact is that most of our land remains under utilized, unirrigated, single cropped and low yielding. Also apart from soil erosion, Indian soils suffer from the problem of salt effervescence and water logging. We can no longer afford to neglect our most important natural resource, land, for it is not simply an environmental problem but one, which is basic to the future of our country. Forestry Forests are a renewable resource and play a vital role in enhancing the quality of environment by influencing life-supporting systems. Forests control floods and protect the soil against erosion. They supply fodder, timber, fuel wood and wide range of nonwood products. Forest areas in India extend over 68 million hectares, which in terms of geographical area is approximately 22% of the total land area. Appreciating the necessity of developing forests Government of India has decided to raise steadily the area under forests to 100 million hectares or 33 percent for the country

as a whole. Unfortunately deforestation and degradation of forests instigated by British, continued unabated even after independence. Deforestation is one of the many maladies affecting our country and has arisen from four principal causes: i. Eccessive felling of trees for timber ii. Overgrazing iii. Forest fire iv. Clearance of forest for transportation, cultivation and pasture. It should be remembered that however much we try; we will not be able to restore the deforested areas to their original state. What we can do is to relate the degraded forest with tree cover and eliminate the major causes of deforestation. If our reforestation programmers are to be a success, the local communities have to be wooed and their co-operation and participation should be ensured, keeping in mind that for almost 48 million people, forest has continued to be an important source of livelihood. Energy conservation As energy is an essential input for economic development, the production and the consumption of energy has increased rapidly after the introduction of economic planning 1950-51. Broadly there are two sources of energy namely conventional and nonconventional. It would be appropriate to cite the current paradigm as regards energy, the

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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 378-386 GROSSCON (Growth Oriented supply-Sided consumption) that emphasizes on the consumption of energy and not on its conservation. It does not scrutinize the distribution of benefits of energy among the different income groups in the society. Also it is imbalanced because it looks only at the supply of energy and not at how this energy is being used. A major environmental concern today is that the threat of climate change caused by emissions of greenhouse gases of which carbon dioxide produced by burning of fossil fuels is the most important. Industrial and commercial activities of the country are largely to blame. The present national energy of the Government has been extremely lopsided, as it seeks to solve essentially the oil shortage on one side and coal and power shortage on the Table.4.Non-Conventional energy potential

International Journal of Computing Algorithm other. The major consideration has been the energy needs of industry, transport and of the higher income group in urban areas. The national energy policy has virtually ignored the cooking energy needs of the poor in urban and rural areas. If energy is to become an instrument for sustainable development the emphasis has to shift to energy demand, based on the DEFENDUS(Development Focused End-Use Oriented Service directed) Paradigm laying emphasis on non-conventional energy sources like solar, Bio-gas wind energy and energy from wastes. The ninth five-year plan (19982002) gives the following figures of nonconventional sources of energy in India. Table.4. gives the present assessment of the potential of these sources and their status of exploitation.

Source Potential /Availability Solar energy 20mw/sq.km Bio Gas plants 12million Wind energy 45,000 MW Energy from wastes 1700 MW Source: Tenth Five year plan (2002-07) vol-II.p-763.

Potential/Exploitation 1.7MW 3.2million 1370MW 16.2MW

100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4
Potential/Exploitation Potential /Availability

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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 378-386 It is clear from the table that a large potential of non-conventional sources of energy exists in the country. Only an insignificant portion of these resources has been exploited till now. The answer may lie in a new energy culture designed to pursue an alternative, low-cost, high benefit and more sustainable energyfuture, for which there will need to be government policies and action, which must be supported by the public at all levels. Hence the concept of sustainable development based on an integrated view of environmental policies and development strategies intends to maximize the economic benefits from a given ecological milieu and minimize the risks and hazards to the environment. Mans ruthless exploitation of natural resources provided for a life in abundance in developed countries during the course of past decades. The same was followed in developing countries to cater to the needs of expanding population. Such greeds and needs have resulted in catastrophic trends, which called for a world wide attention. The UNEP conference on THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT at Stockholm 1972 considered the issue in its entirety and focused attention on the well-being of human health in relation to his environment, which was being recklessly exploited through the introduction of new traumas in the form of various toxicants used in productive fertilizers pesticide sprays, pharmaceutical agents and industrial and technological aggressions. The world has seen one of the greatest air pollution during Bhopal Disaster . All technologies and scientific endeavors stand in speechless silence in the face of such natural and /or man-made calamities. Many human lives are lost while others and their progeny suffer and have to suffer from umpteen infirmities due to resultant contaminated atmospheric changes. Did we ever stop to ponder for a moment what would happen if more and more soil area is used for storage of industrial wastages? Did we ever think what would happen if untreated waste water released in water sources such as ponds, rivers and oceans? We have to pay very heavily if

International Journal of Computing Algorithm ecological balance is altered drastically. The Fuzzy concepts, i.e. attributes are first given in the form of matrix relational equations and then solved. Thus we study this problem of Sustainable development mainly in the context of health hazards . 3. Adaptation of FAM to the Problem

Let us consider there are n attributes say x1, ... ,xn where n is finite associated with the health hazards and let y1, ... ,yp be the attributes associated with the Sustainable development, where p is finite. On the suggestion of the experts and the agricultural labourers the following attributes are taken. C1-To reduce excess mortality, morbidity and disability. C2-To promote healthy lifestyles. C3-Creating an institutional environment for the health sector. C4-Protect human health from environmental and occupation hazards. C5-Improve the nutritional status of populations and food safety. G1-Demographic stabilization. G2-Land utilization. G3-Forestry. G4 Energy conservation.
Here we analyze this problem only on the aspect of health hazards and sustainable development s. The related fuzzy matrix M formulated using the experts opinion is as follows:

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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 378-386

International Journal of Computing Algorithm

and to protect human health from environmental and occupation hazards. Now suppose we consider the fit vector B1= (1 0 0 0 1),to reduce excess morality, morbidity and disability and improve the nutritional status of population and food safety. Consider B1 o M , as before we compute by recalling fit vector as
Consider a fit vector B = (1 0 1 0 1)
T

B1 o M = (.8. 9. 6 .4) = A1.

i.e. To reduce excess mortality , morbidity and disability, Creating an institutional environment for the health sector and Improving the nutritional status of populations and food safety -related health problems are taken as on state of the fit vector. We compute the recalled component by taking the fuzzy inner product of fit vector B with j column of M for each column. B o M = A = (.8 .9 .6 .4) According to the fit vector A, we see that the Governemnt has not taken any legal remedies to prevent non utilization of land which has the maximum value 0.9. Secondly the fit vector reads no steps taken by Government to demographic stabilization with second maximum value 0.8. The Government has not taken any steps in deforestation is the third graded value. Taking the resultant A as the fit vector now we calculate A o M. i.e., A o M = (.8 .8 .6 .8 .9). Since 0.9 is the largest value it implies the priority is given to improve the nutritional status of population and food safety. Thus according to this expert, the first place is given to C5. The next largest value is 0.8 given to the attributes C1,C2 and C4 where to reduce excess mortality, morbidity and disability and to promote healthy lifestyles
T th

Thus from this resultant fit vector we see that the on state of C3 does not influence the model the resultant fit vector is the same. Suppose we take A1= (1 0 1 1) which implies that demographic stabilization, forestry and energy conservation, or in the on state we get A2 o M = (0 0 .2 .9 .9). The resultant vector means that the highest grade is being given to protect human health from environmental and occupation hazards and to improve the nutritional status of population and food safety.
4. Conclusions and Suggestions. The concept of Development without destruction , and Environment planning for sustainable Development are to be given top priority in all our self-destruction a fact which needs to be seriously appreciated by all. Hence Demographic stabilization, land utilization, Forestry, Energy conservation can contribute for sustainable development only if they are free from the pollutions. Therefore our environment has a limit to bear the onslaught of its exploitation is to be to be unmistakably understood. Nevertheless the fact that environmental resources are not limitless is always to be kept in mind during all development programme and planning processes. References [1].KOSKO, NETWORKS

BART (1992). NEURAL AND FUZZY SYSTEMS,

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Volume: 02, October 2013, Pages: 378-386 PRENTICE HALL, ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS, NEW JERSEY. [2]Kosko, Bart (!986), Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, International Journal of Man Machine Studies, 34, 65 75. [3].Starr M.K (1978) Operations Management, Prentice Hall Inc., USA. [4]Talley.W.K.(1988) An Economic Theory of the public transit firm Industrial Research 22 B, (55 72) [5]Tsandiras, A.K.and Mararitis , K.G.(1996). Using Crtainty neurons in Fuzzy Cognitive Maps , Neural Network World , 6,719 728. [6]Agarwal.A.,R.Chopra and K.Sharma,(eds).The state of Indias Environment 1982: A citizens Report. New Delhi centre of Science and Environment,1982.

International Journal of Computing Algorithm [7]Craik,K.H. The Comprehension of the Everyday Physical Environment. Journal of the American Institute of planners,34,2937,1968. [8]De,R In:IAEA-TECDOC-235,Technical Document Issued by International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (1980),1979. [9]Khoshoo,T.N.Perspectives in Environmental Management, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.Pvt, Ltd, New Delhi, 1987. [10]Lovejoy, Thomas.E.Conservation beyond our borders, The Nature Conservancy News 29:4 - 7, 1979. [11]Ripley, S.Dillon, Conservation and Preservation in India. In: The canvas of Culture, (Ed) W.Dillon.Smithsonian Institution: Washington, D.C., 1985.

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