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MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS OF TOBACCO

From genus Nicotiana, only two species Nicotiana tabacum L. and Nicotiana rustica L. are grown commercially in the world. ALTERNATE USE OF TOBACCO Provide pesticides (Nicotine Sulphate and Tobacco dust) Pharmaceutical products such as solenosol and its derivatives, nicotinamide and vitamin K Tobacco leaf protein for food (About 300 qt green protein/ha) Tobacco seed oil Tobacco based cosmetics and toiletries like deodorants. I Soil pests of Tobacco 1. Rove beetle (Bledius latiusculus) Beetle is a soil inhabiting pest. Very active in sandy and sandy loam soil. Beetles cause damage during germination of seeds in the nursery. They create characteristic burrows in soil, excavate soil particles, which cover tender seedlings and disturb the root system. The damage becomes more serious at each watering or when there is rain. The population of seedlings reduced up to 80%. Control: Chlorpyriphos 0.05% Fenitrothion 0.05% and Quinalphos 0.05% 2. Tobacco cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) Caterpillar cuts the stalk of seedlings as well as transplanted plants at ground level. They feed only at night and may be found in the day time either just below soil level or under leaves. Control: Endosulfan dust 1.25 kg a.i./ha as soil application around the plant base at 15 and 35 days after transplanting and two application of Chlorpyriphos 0.16 kg a.i./ha 3. Mole cricket (Gryllotalpa africana) Feed on roots and near ground plant parts. Main harm is through physical damage to seedbeds. Burrows are created under the surface at night when come for feed which uproot germinating seedlings. Preference for damp conditions makes seedbed areas attractive. Control: Drenching of Chlorpyriphos 0.04% and Endosulfan 0.07%.

II Above ground pests of tobacco 1. Tobacco leaf eating caterpillar (Spodoptera litura) Worst enemy of tobacco nurseries. They cut the seedlings. They voraciously feed on the leaves. Entire seedbeds defoliated within a week. The pest causes damage to an extent of 80100% in the nurseries and 10-25% in the field crop. Control : Ploughing in summer. Collection and destruction of egg masses. Clipping of leaves having swarms of tiny larvae. Use Monocrotophos and Clorpyriphos baits for Spodoptera litura. Application of Methofenozide 0.01% in nursery. 2. Tobacco stem borer, (Scrobipalpa heliopa ) Tiny caterpillars of the stem borer bore inside the stem and mid ribs. They feed on internal tissues hence swelling appears outside where the borer stays. It causes stunting and unusual branching of the seedlings. The transplanted crop also affected cause economical loss up to 25%. Control : Remove and destruct the stubbles after harvesting of crop which avoids carry over of infestation in next season. Chelonus heliopae parasitizes the stem borer larvae to 3.72 to 49.6%. Application of carbaryl 0.15% at an interval of 15 days. 3. Whitefly (Bemasia tabaci ) Seen on the underside of leaves. They will fly immediately when the plant is disturbed. The adult fly sucks the sap from leaves. Transmits the leaf curl virus diseases from infected to healthy seedlings. Control : Removal and destruction of curled plants and alternate hosts. Dimethoate 0.045% or Methyl-s-demeton 0.0375% or Monocrotophos 0.06% at 15 days interval in nurseries starting from 30 days after seeding and in field crop, 2 to 3 sprays of the same insecticides at 10 days interval commencing from 15 days after planting.

4. Aphid (Myzus persicae) Sucks the sap and make the plants pale, sickly and retards growth. Growth of black sooty mould develops on leaves makes them unfit for curing. If cured the quality of leaf gets reduced considerably. Control: Methomyl, Monocrotophos, Triazophos and Profenophos 5. Mealy bug, (Phenacoccus solenopsis ) Nymph and adult feed on phloem and excrete honey dew which encourages the development of sooty mould that reduces plant photosynthetic abilities which ruins the plants appearance makes the leaves unfit for curing. Control: Clean cultivation and burn the residues or weed host plant around the main field. Biological control such as ladybird beetles, Aenasiusbambawale, Chrysoperla carnia etc. Carbaryl 0.02%, Prophenophos 0.1% and Methomy 0.08% 6. Tobacco budworm/capsule borer (Helicoverpa armigera ) Caterpillars bore the bud as well as capsule and destroy the seeds. Under the severe infestation they feed on leaves also. Control: HaNPV (7.5 X 1012) reduces the per cent capsules damage per plant. Chemosterilant Tepa 0.05% and Thiotepa 0.05% induce cent per cent sterility.

FENOFAZA VRIJEME PRIMJENE

PREPARAT

KONC. ILI DOZA

NAPOMENA

HERBICIDI Prije rasaivanja Prije rasaivanja uz inkorporaciju Nakon nicanja Jednogodinji i GLYPHOGAN 480 1,5 4 l/ha viegodinji irokolisni i travni SL korovi PENDIGAN 330 EC AGIL 100 EC ili LEOPARD 5 EC 5 -7 l/ha Jednogodinji travni i neki irokolisni korovi

0,5-2 Jednogodinji (3 5 listova) i l/ha0,8- 3 viegodinji (20 30 cm) l/ha travni korovi Zemljini tetnici-injaci, sovice, rovci,hrut uz obavezno unoenje u tlo, sovice pozemljue, lisne ui (zelena breskvina u) Lisne ui (zelenabreskvina), tripsi*Pamukov titasti moljac*, duhanov titasti moljac*

INSEKTICIDI Prije rasaivanja, u vegetaciji prema potrebi 6 -8 l/ha irom1,5 l/ha

PYRINEX 48 EC

Nakon nicanja rasada, u vegetaciji prema potrebi

0,25 0,5 KOHINOR 200 SL l/ha1- 1,25 l/ha LAMDEX 5 EC MAVRIK 2F* RIMON 10 EC*

U vegetaciji prema potrebi Nakon pojave Nakon pojave

Lisne ui*, sovice pozemljue, 0,1-0,2 kukuruzna sovica, kukuruzni l/ha0,3 l/ha moljac, duhanov resiar trips 0,2 l/ha 0,3 l/ha Lisne ui Tripsi, sovice (kukuruzna)

FUNGICIDI Proizvodnja rasada MERPAN 80 WDG -zalijevanje klijalita, 1 dan 0,2% u 3-4 ili FOLPAN 80 prije sadnje i nakon sadnje l vode/m WDG u razmacima 7-10 dana OSTALO NU-FILM-17 * 0,025 0,075 % U EU registriran kao pomono sredstvo (ovlaiva/ljepilo) dodatak svim kropivima Bolesti polijeganja rasada