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TOPI C 2

DIFFERENTIATION
1



PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN





2.0 INTRODUCTION

Differentiation is used widely in solving problems especially in Engineering, Medical,
Commerce, Agriculture, and many other fields. When you find the rate of change of a
quantity with respect to another quantity, you are actually doing differentiation. Another
name for differentiation is the derivative of the function.

If a person is running up a hill, his vertical height will change with respect to his horizontal
height. This rate of change of vertical height with respect to horizontal height is called its
gradient.


height horizontal of change
height vertical of change
= Gradient

Generally, to find the differentiation of y with respect to x, just write the symbol
dx
dy
to
represent it.








Differentiation concepts are applied in displacement and velocity . Velocity, v, is the
differentiation of displacement s, unto time, t, and is written as ds/dt , whilst acceleration,
a, is the differentiation of velocity, v, unto time, t, and is written as dv/dt.




UNIT 2 : DIFFERENTIATION

If y is a function of x, then, y = f(x),
The differentiation of y with respect to x,
dx
dy
, can be written as f '(x) .
Therefore,
dx
dy
= f '(x)

TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN




2.1 IDENTIFY BASIC DIFFERENTIATION FORMULAE.

2.1.1 THE BASIC RULE OF DIFFERENTIATION
Differentiation of simple algebraic functions is quite easy. Look at the samples below.

If y = x
1
,
dx
dy
= 1x
0
= 1.
If y = x
2
,
dx
dy
= 2x
1
= 2x.
If y = x
3
,
dx
dy
= 3x
2
.

From the pattern shown above, if y = x
4
,
then
,
dx
dy
= 4x
3
.
The first Rule of Differentiation is:

i. Multiply the index of x with the constant for x.
ii. Decrease the index of x by 1 unit.

Thus:


, for all values of n.


, where a is a constant.











TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



Example 2.1
Find
dx
dy
for the cases below :
a) y = x
6

dx
dy
= 6x
6 1
= - 2x
5
.

b) y = - 2x
5

dx
dy
= 5 x (

2 ) x
5 1
= 10x
4


c) y =
x
5

y =
x
5
= 5x
1


dx
dy
= 1 (5x
1 1
) = 5x
2
or
2
5
x


c) y = x
1/3

3
2
3
1

= x
dx
dy



d) y = 4

y = 4 = 4 x
0
dx
dy
= 0 (4) x
0 1
= 0

f)



g)

()



h)



i)


j)



TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



k)

()



l)



m)

()





2.1.2 DERIVATIVE OF A CONSTANT FUNCTION





Example 2.2
Find the derivative for each of the following functions :
a)



b)



c)



TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN





2.1.3 DERIVATIVE OF AN IDENTITY FUNCTION


, where a is a constant




Example 2.3
Find the derivative for each of the following functions :
a)



b)



c)




d)


e)






2.1.4 DERIVATIVE OF ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FUNCTIONS.

() ()

()

()






TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



Example 2.4

Find the derivative for each of the following functions :

a. y = 2x
4
+ 6x
=
dx
dy
(4)(2)x
3
+ 1(6)x
0
= 8x
3
+ 6
b. y =
x
x x
3
2
3
+
=
dx
dy
3(x)
2
2 (x)
0
+ 3( -1)x
-2
= 3x
2
- 2 -3x
2


c. y = 4 5
2
1
+

x
=
dx
dy
4 5
2
1
1
2
1
+

x


= 4
2
5
2
2
2
1
+

x


=
2
3
2
5

x =
2
3
2
5
x

d. y = 7 - 9x
3

=
dx
dy
7 27 x
2
= 27 x
2











2.1.3 APPLY THE DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES OF DIFFERENTIATION

(i) DERIVATIVE OF A COMPOSITE FUNCTION.
The Rules you have learned in the earlier part of this unit however may not be able to solve
compound functions like y = (1+x)
4
or
2
1 x y + = .

So, we can say for (

, where k is more than 2 , fraction number and


negative number, we can solve the equation by using :

a) Chain Rule





b ) Extended Power Rule (E.P.R)

)

1
2
3
4
TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN





a) Chain Rule.

The Chain Rule states that if y = f (u), where u is a function of x, then





Example 2.5

Find
dx
dy
for the following functions.




( )


a) y = ( 2x + 3 )
4


Let u = 2x + 3 ,
then y = u
4

2 =
dx
du
,
3
4u
du
dy
=

du
dy
dx
du
dx
dy
- =
) 4 ( 2
3
u
dx
dy
- =





b) 4
2
+ = x y

Let u = 4
2
+ x ,
then y =
2
1
u

2 =
dx
du
x ,
2
1
2
1

= u
du
dy

du
dy
dx
du
dx
dy
- =
)
2
1
( 2
2
1

- = u x
dx
dy


TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



b) ALTERNATIVE WAY (DIFFERENTIATION OF A COMPOSITE FUNCTION) / EXTENDED
POWER RULE
The examples shown above can also be solved using an alternative way to use the Chain
Rule. Where the solution :-










Using same question as above but use altenative way :-


) ( ) ( ) (
1
b ax
dx
d
b ax k b ax
dx
d
n k n k n
+ + = +



a.
4
) 3 2 ( + x
dx
d
=
1 4
) 3 2 ( 4

+ x

) 3 2 ( + x
dx
d
= 2


1 1
) (

+ =
k n n
b ax kanx

= 2 ) 3 2 ( 4
3
- + x
=
3
) 3 2 ( 8 + x



) ( ) ( ) (
1
b ax
dx
d
b ax k b ax
dx
d
n k n k n
+ + = +



b. 4
2
+ x
dx
d
=
2 / 1 2
) 4 ( + x
dx
d
= ) 4 ( ) 4 (
2
1
2
2
1
2
+ +

x
dx
d
x


1 1
) (

+ =
k n n
b ax kanx

1 1
) (

+ =
k n n
b ax kanx
dx
dy
) ( ) ( ) (
1
b ax
dx
d
b ax k b ax
dx
d
n k n k n
+ + = +




TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



= x x 2 ) 4 (
2
1
2 / 1 2
- +


=
4
2
+ x
x

Example 2.6
Find the derivative for each of the following functions by using Extended Power Rule :
a. y = ( 2x + 3 )
4


) 3 2 ( ) 3 2 ( 4
3
+ + = x
dx
d
x
dx
dy

= ) 2 ( ) 3 2 ( 4
3
+ x
= 8(2x + 3)
3







b. y = ( 2 + x
2
)
3

) 2 ( ) 2 ( 3
2 2 2
x
dx
d
x
dx
dy
+ + =
= 3( 2 + x
2
)
2
( 2x )

= 6x (2 +x
2
)
2


= 6x ( 4 + 4x
2
+ x
4
)

= 24 x + 24x
3
+6x
5



(ii) DERIVATIVE OF PRODUCT OF FUNCTIONS


If y is formed by multiplying the functions u and v, i.e. y = uv, then







(PRODUCT RULE)








dx
du
v
dx
dv
u
dx
dy
+ =

TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



Example 2.7

Find
dx
dy
for the following functions

a) y = x
4
( 3x + 5 )

Let u = x
4
and v = ( 3x + 5 )
6

Therefore,
3
4x
dx
du
= and ) 3 ( ) 5 3 ( 6
5
+ = x
dx
dv


Therefore, ) 4 ( ) 5 3 ( ) 5 3 )( 18 (
3 6 5 4
x x x x
dx
dy
+ + + =
= ) 4 ( ) 5 3 ( ) 5 3 ( 18
3 6 5 4
x x x x + + +
= | | ) 5 3 ( 2 9 ) 5 3 ( 2
5 3
+ + + x x x x
= | | 10 6 9 ) 5 3 ( 2
5 3
+ + + x x x x

dx
dy
= | | 10 15 ) 5 3 ( 2
5 3
+ + x x x


b) y = ( x 4 )
2
( 2x
3
3x + 5 ) . y = ( x 4 )
2
( 2x
3
3x + 5 )

Let u = ( x 4 )
2
and v = 2x
3
3x + 5
Therefore, ) 1 )( 4 ( 2 = x
dx
du
and 3 6
2
= x
dx
dv

Therefore, ) 4 ( 2 ) 5 3 2 ( ) 3 6 ( ) 4 (
3 2 2
+ + = x x x x x
dx
dy

)] 5 3 2 ( 2 ) 3 6 )( 4 [( ) 4 (
3 2
+ + = x x x x x

dx
dy
) 22 9 24 10 ( ) 4 (
2 3
+ = x x x x


c) y = . y =

Let u = 2x and v = (3x + 1)
1/2
dx
du
v
dx
dv
u
dx
dy
+ =

(3x +5)
5
Greatest
Common Factor.
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DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



Therefore, 2 =
dx
du
and
2
1
1) - (3x
2
3

=
dx
dv


Therefore, 2 1) + (3x 1) - (3x
2
3
2
2
1
2
1
- + - =

x
dx
dy


1) + (3x 2 1) - (3x 3
2
1
2
1
+ =

x
dx
dy


| | 1) + (3x 2 3 1) - (3x
2
1
x
dx
dy
+ =



| | 2 9 1) - (3x
2
1
+ =

x
dx
dy


1 3
2 9

=
x
x
dx
dy
















TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



(iii) DERIVATIVE OF QUOTIENT OF FUNCTIONS

If y =
v
u
, where u and v are functions of x, then






(QUOTIENT RULE)



Example 2.8

Differentiate the following:

a) y =
10
) 1 ( + x
x


Let u = x and v = ( x + 1)
10

Then, 1 =
dx
du
and
9
) 1 ( 10 + = x
dx
dv

Using the Product Rule
2
v
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v
dx
dy

= ,

Then,
2 10
9 10
) ) 1 ((
10 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
+
+ +
=
x
x x x
dx
dy


2 10
9 10
) ) 1 ((
) 1 ( 10 ) 1 (
+
+ +
=
x
x x x
=> ]
) 1 (
10 ) 1 (
[ ) 1 (
20
9
+
+
+
x
x x
x

dx
dy
=
11
) 1 (
) 9 1 (
x
x
+




2
v
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v
dx
dy

=
TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



b) y =
1
) 1 2 (
4 3

+
x
x


Let u = ( 2x
3
+ 1 )
4
and v = x 1
Then, ) 6 ( ) 1 2 ( 4
2 3 3
x x
dx
du
+ = and 1 =
dx
dv

Using the Product Rule
2
v
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v
dx
dy

=
Then,
2
4 3 3 3 2
) 1 (
) 1 ( ) 1 2 ( ) 1 2 )( 24 )( 1 (

+ +
=
x
x x x x
dx
dy


2
3 2 3
) 1 (
] ) 1 2 ( ) 1 ( 24 [ ) 1 2 (

+ +
=
x
x x x x

=
2
3 2 3 3
) 1 (
] 1 2 24 24 [ ) 1 2 (

+
x
x x x x



dx
dy
=
2
3 2 3 3
) 1 (
] 1 2 24 22 [ ) 1 2 (

+
x
x x x x

TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN




























2.2 APPLY THE DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA FOR TRIGONOMETRIC, LOGARITHMIC
AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS.

2.2.1 APPLY THE FORMULA TO SOLVE RELATED PROBLEMS

(a) DERIVATIVE OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

So far, you have learned how to differentiate algebraic functions. However, there are
functions in other forms that require different formulas to solve. You are going to learn
how to find the derivative of trigonometric functions. Basically, you need to remember the
following formula:









x x
dx
d
cos sin =

x ecx ecx
dx
d
cot cos cos =



x x
dx
d
sin cos =

x x x
dx
d
tan sec sec =


x x
dx
d
2
sec tan =

x ec x
dx
d
2
cos cot =




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DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



Example 2.9

Find
dx
dy
for each of the following functions:


a. y = sin 3x

By using the Chain Rule,
du
dy
dx
du
dx
dy
. =

Let u = 3x then y = sin u

3 =
dx
du
and u
du
dy
cos =
u
dx
dy
cos 3 =

x
dx
dy
3 cos 3 =



Or by using the extended trigonometric rule
:


())







b. y = cos ( 3x +1 )


Let u = 3x + 1 , then y = cos u

Then, 3 =
dx
du
, u
du
dy
sin =

) sin ( 3 u
dx
dy
= => ) 1 3 ( sin 3 + = x
dx
dy




Or by using the extended trigonometric rule
:
( )

( ))(( ))

( )


c. y = tan ( x
2
+ 2 )

Let u = x
2
+ 2 , then y = tan u
x
dx
du
2 = u
du
dy
2
sec =



Or by using the extended trigonometric rule
:
(

)

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DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



u x
dx
dy
2
sec 2 = =>
) 2 ( sec 2
2 2
+ = x x
dx
dy

))(

))

)




Note: From the answers in the example above, you will find that the following are true:












By making use of the Chain Rule, the derivative of trigonometric functions can be done
using the following properties:
















) cos( ) sin( b ax a b ax
dx
d
+ = +
) sin( ) cos( b ax a b ax
dx
d
+ = +
) ( sec ) tan(
2
b ax a b ax
dx
d
+ = +
x x n x
dx
d
n n
cos sin sin
1
=
x x n x
dx
d
n n
sin cos cos
1
=

x x n x
dx
d
n n 2 1
sec tan tan

=
and

) cos( ) ( sin ) ( sin
1
b ax b ax an b ax
dx
d
n n
+ + = +

) sin( ) ( cos ) ( cos
1
b ax b ax an b ax
dx
d
n n
+ + = +

) ( sec ) ( tan ) ( tan
2 1
b ax b ax an b ax
dx
d
n n
+ + = +


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DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN













Example 2.10

Find
dx
dy
for each of the following functions.


a)



()



Let ,



When ,

and



By using Chain Rule :

()



TRIGONOMETRY IDENTITIES
1. 1 cos sin
2 2
= + u u 2. u u
2 2
tan 1 sec + = 3. u u
2 2
cot 1 cos + = ec
4.
u u u cos sin 2 2 sin =
5.
u u u
2 2
sin cos 2 cos =
u
2
sin 2 1 =
1 cos 2
2
= u
6.
u
u
u
2
tan 1
tan 2
2 tan

=
7.
( ) o u u u + = + sin cos sin a R b
8.
( ) o u u u = sin cos sin a R b

9.
( ) o u u u = + cos sin cos a R b

10.
( ) o u u u + = cos sin cos a R b


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DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN




b)

( )

( ( ))



Let ( ) ,

( )

When ( ),

and



By using Chain Rule :

( ) , ( )

( ) ( )





c)

( )

( ( ))



Let ( ) ,

( )

When ( ),

and



By using Chain Rule :

( ) , ( )

(( ))

( )

( )

( )



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DIFFERENTIATION
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d) 3

()



Let ,


When ,

and

, (cancel out 2 and 8)









(b) DERIVATIVE OF LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS

Lets move on to logarithmic functions. To find their derivatives, you will need another set
of formulas. Study the following formula:


x
x
dx
d 1
ln =








Before we want to solve the logarithmic function questions, we need to know some natural
logarithm rules and properties. Then, apply the rules and properties to the questions and
solve the question by using differentiation.

( )

, where a and b is a constant


TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN




Rule name Rule
Product rule ln(x y) = ln(x) + ln(y)
Quotient rule ln(x / y) = ln(x) - ln(y)
Power rule ln(x
y
) = y ln(x)



Example 2.11

Find the derivative of the following logarithmic functions:


a) y = ln x
4
=> y = 4 ln x

Using the formula,

Therefore,

)
1
( 4
x dx
dy
= =>
x
4


b) y = ln ( 2x
2
+ 5 )
3
(Power Rule)

y = 3 ln ( 2x
2
+ 5 )

Therefore, )
5 2
4
( 3
2
+
=
x
x
dx
dy
5 2
12
2
+
=
x
x




c) y = ln
x 3 1
=
( )2
1
3 1 ln x (Power Rule)
y = ) 3 1 ln(
2
1
x

Therefore, )
3 1
3
(
2
1
x dx
dy

=

) 3 1 ( 2
3
x

=



d) y = ln
x
2
(Quotient Rule)
y = ln 2 ln x

Therefore,
x dx
dy 1
0 =

x
1
=

e) (Lets try this in class) f) ( )( )
(Lets try this in class)





x
x
dx
d 1
ln =

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DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN














(c) DERIVATIVE OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS

An exponential function is a function in the form y = e
x
. To find its derivative, you will have
to remember the following rule:

Given y = e
x
, then
x x
e e
dx
d
=

and
ax ax
ae e
dx
d
=




b ax b ax
ae e
dx
d
+ +
=




Example 2.12

Differentiate these functions:


a) y = e
3x

x
e
dx
dy
3
3 =

b) y = e
1 - 2x


x
e
dx
dy
2 1
2

=


c) y = e
2x +1


d)



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DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



1 2
2
+
=
x
e
dx
dy


()


e)

(Lets try this in class)









f)

(Lets try this in class)










2.2.2 USE VARIOUS DIFFERENTIATION TECHNIQUES TO SOLVE PROBLEMS


We also can use other method such as product rule and quotient rule to solve the
trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions.

Example 2.13 :

a)



By using Product Rule :

)( ) ()(

( )

b) ( )

( )


By using Product Rule :

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DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



( )

( )

()

( )



( ) ,

()(( ))

( )

( )

(( ) ( ) ( )

( )

[( ) ( ) ( )]



c)





By using Quotient Rule :

,

( ) ( ) ( )()
( )

( )


( )



d)

By using Product Rule :

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DIFFERENTIATION
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,

() (

) ( )()

( )



e) ( )

By using Chain Rule:

Let ,



When , and





f)



By using Extended Power Rule :




g)



By using Product Rule :
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DIFFERENTIATION
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PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN




) (

) ()(

((

) )


h)



By using Quotient Rule :

,

)() ()(

)
(

()
( )


( )













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2.3 UNDERSTAND PARAMETRIC EQUATION.

If a curve is defined parametrically by two equations, x=f(t) and y=g(t), where f and g are
functions of parametert, the derivative

can be obtained by applying the chain rule.









For example, if x = 2at
2
and y = 4at, find


In this case,

= 4at and so


Also

.
Hence:




Example 2.14 : (Lets try this in class)
Find

in terms of t

a)














b) ( ) ( )

)
(

)

Ans :


Ans :( )


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DIFFERENTIATION
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c)

















d)















e)














f)































Ans :


Ans :
Ans :


Ans :


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2.4 SECOND ORDER DIFFERENTIATION
We can find the second derivative by using various technique of differentiation.




Finding the second derivative for parametric equation is a little trickier.
We use the fact that:

For example, to find the second derivative in the above example, therefore:

)
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DIFFERENTIATION
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Example 2.15 : (Lets try this in class)
Find second derivative for the following functions :
a)





b)


c)











d)










e) (

)





f)




Ans :


Ans :
Ans :


Ans :
Ans :


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Activity 2(a)

1. Find the derivatives (differentiation) of the cases below:

a. 4x b. 2x
5

c.
x
6
d. x
8
e. 10 f. 5x
1/5

2. Differentiate these functions with respect to x:
a. 4x
5
b.
6
5
2
x
c.
3
4
1
x
d.
2
3
x



e.
2
5
12
x

e.
5
2
4
5
3
x


















TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
31



PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN



Feedback for Activity 2(a)

. a. dy = 4
dx
b. dy = 10x
4

dx
c.
dx
dy
=
2
6
x



d.
dx
dy
= - 8x
9

e.
dx
dy
= 0
f.
dx
dy
=
5 / 4
1
x

2. a.
dx
dy
= 20x
6

b.
dx
dy
=
5
5
12
x
c.
dx
dy
=
4
4
3
x


d.
dx
dy
=
3
6
x

e.
dx
dy
=
3
5
24
x

f.
dx
dy
=
5
2
3
25
16
2 x



TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
32


PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN





Activity 2(b)

Find
dx
du
,
du
dy
and
dx
dy
for

a.
8
)
2
( x
x
y + = b. y = (5x x
3
)
5

c. x y = 2 d. ) 3 ( + = x x y

e.
3
1
2

=
x
y f.
2
3
2
x
x y + =


Feedback for Activity 2(b)
a. 1
2
2
+
x
, 8u
7
, ) 1
2
( )
2
( 8
2
7
+ +
x
x
x


b. 5 3x
2
, 5u
4
, 5(5x x
3
)
4
( 5 3x
2
)

c. 1,
2
1
2
1

u ,
x

2 2
1


d . 2x + 3,
2
1
2
1

u , ) 3 2 ( ) 3 (
2
1
2
1
2
+ +

x x x
e. 2x ,
2
3
2
1

u
,
2
3
2
) 3 (

x x

f. 3x
2
- 4x
3
,
2
1
2
1

u ,
2 3
3 2
2 2
4 3

x x
x x

TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
33


PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN





Activity 2(c)

Differentiate the following

a. y = x ( 4 x )
8


b. y = ( 3x + 1 )
3
( x + 2 )
5


c. y = x x
5
) 1 2 ( +


d. y = x x 6 ) 1 2 (
2


e. m = (n 3 )( 5 2n )
6



Feedback for Activity 2(c)

a. (4 x )
7
(4 9x )

b. (3x + 1 )
2
( x + 2 )
4
(24x + 23)

c.
x
x x
2
) 1 22 ( ) 1 2 (
4
+ +


d.
x
x x


6 2
) 10 49 )( 1 2 (


e. (5 2x )
5
(41 14x)








JMSK,PUO BA201
DIFFERENTIATION
PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN


Activity 2(d)

Find the derivatives of the following functions

a.
x 2
3


b.
2
3 2
1
t +


c.
1
2
z
z


d.
1
1
2
+
+
x
x


e.
4
3 2

+
x
x


f.
1
1 2
+

k
k

Feedback for Activity 2(d)

a.
2
) 2 (
3
x


b.
2 2
) 3 2 (
6
t
t
+



c.
2
) 1 (
2

z


d.
2 2
2
) 1 (
1 2
+
+
x
x x


e.
2
) 4 (
11

x



f.
3
) 1 ( 2
5 2
+
+
k
k
















TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
35


PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN


Activity 2(e)

Find the derivative of the following trigonometric functions

a. sin 5x
b. cos
4
x

c. tan 3x

d. 2 tan x + 3 sin 2x

e cos ( 2x 5 )

f. sin x + tan ( 2x + 1)

g. sin ( 3 4x
3
)

h. cos ( 3x
2
+ 2 )

i. tan ( 2x
2
+ 3x + 1 )


2. Differentiate these trigonometric functions with respect to x

a. sin
3
4x

b. cos
6
2x

c. tan
2
3x

d. cos
2
( x
2
+ 1 )

e. sin
2
( 2x + 1 )

f. cos ( x
3
)





TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
36


PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN


Feedback for Activity 2(e)

1. a. 5 cos 5x
b.
4
sin
4
1 x

a. 3 sec
2
3x

b. 2 sec
2
x + 6 cos 2x

c. 2 sin ( 2x 5 )

d. cos x + 2 sec
2
( 2x + 1 )

e. 12 x
2
cos ( 3 4x
3
)

f. - 6x sin ( 3x
2
+ 2 )

i. ( 4x + 3 ) sec
2
(2x
2
+ 3x + 1 )



2. a. 12 sin
2
4x cos 4x

b. 12 cos
5
2x sin 2x

c. 6 tan 3x sec
2
3x

d. 4x cos (x
2
+ 1 ) sin ( x
2
+ 1 )


e. 4 sin ( 2x + 1 )cos ( 2x + 1)

f. 3x
2
sin ( x
3
)


















TOPIC 2
DIFFERENTIATION
37

PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN

Activity 2(f)

1. Differentiate the following functions

a. ln 3x

b. ln ( 1 2x )

c.
4
) 3 5 (
3
ln
x


d.
) 3 4 (
9
ln
x


e. ln (x 1 )(x + 2)
5




Feedback for Activity 2(f)


1. a.
x
1


b.
x 2 1
2



c.
x 3 5
12



d.
x 3 4
3



e.
) 2 )( 1 (
) 1 2 ( 3
+

x x
x


TOPIC 2
DIFFERENTIATION
38

PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN

Activity 2(g)


1. Differentiate these functions

a. e
2x


b. e
x/3


c. e
3x + 1


d. e
1 2x


e. 2e
3x
+ 8e
2x


f. e
x
e
x



Feedback for Activity 2(g)



1. a. 2e
2x


b.
3
3
1
x
e

c. 3e
3x + 1


d. -2e
1 2x


f. 6e
3x
-16e
2x

g. e
x
+ e
x




TOPIC 2
DIFFERENTIATION
39

PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN

SELF ASSESSMENT 2(a)

1. Find
dx
dy
for each of the following

a. y = 10x
5

b. y =
3
4
1
x
c. 5x
3

d. y = - 6x
-2

2. Differentiate these functions

a. y = 2x
2
x + 1

b. y = ( x 4 )
2



c. s = t
3
( t + 4 )
d.
x
x x
y
2
3
+
=
e. z = ( k + 1 )( 2k 3)
f. p = )
3
2 (
2
q
q q +

3. Find
dx
dy
for each of the following

a. y = ( 7x 3 )
5


b. p = 5 ( q 3 )
3

c.
5
) 2 3 (
4
x
y

=
d. y = ( 3x
2
5 )
7


e.
) 1 2 (
1
+
=
x
y
f.
x
x
y
3
3

=
TOPIC 2
DIFFERENTIATION
40

PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN

SOLUTIONS TO SELF ASSESSMENT 2(a)

1. a. 50x
4

b.
2
4
3
x
c. 15x
4

d. 12x

2. a. 1 4 = x
dx
dy

b. ) 4 ( 2 = x
dq
dp

c. ) 3 ( 4
2
+ = t t
dt
ds

d. x
dx
dy
2 =

e. 1 4 = k
dk
dz

f. 3 6
2
+ = q
dq
dp



3. a. 35 ( 7x 3 )
4


b. 15(q 3 )
2


c. 40(3 2x )
-6


d. 42x(3x
2
5)
6


e.
3
) 1 2 (
1
+

x

f .
2
3
2
x
x +
TOPIC 2
DIFFERENTIATION
41

PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN

SELF ASSESSMENT 2(b)

1. Use the Product Rule to find the derivatives of these functions

a.
5
) 1 ( x x
b. 1 + x x
c.
5
) 3 )( 2 ( + x x
d. 1 3 2 x x
e.
7 2 2
) 3 ( x x
f. ) 3 ( ) 5 2 (
2 2
+ x x


2. Use the Quotient Rule to find the derivatives of these functions

a.
2
) 1 ( x
x


b.
2 2
) 3 ( + k
k


c.
1
3
l
l


d.
1
1

+
p
p


e.
) 1 (
5 1
2
2
m
m

+


f.
1
5 2
+

z
z




















TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
42

PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN

SOLUTIONS TO SELF ASSESSMENT 2(b)

1. a. ( x 1 )
4
( 6x 1)

b.
1 2
2 3
+
+
x
x


c. ( x 3 )
4
( 6x + 7 )

d.
1 3
2 9

x
x


e. 2x( x
2
3 )
6
( 8x
2
- 3 )

f. 2 (2x 5 ) ( 4x
2
5x + 6 )

2 a.
3
) 1 (
1


x
x


b.
3
2
) 1 (
) 1 ( 3
+

k
k


c.
2
) 1 ( 2
2 3

l
l

d.
2
) 1 (
2

p


e.
2 2
) 1 (
14
m
m



f.
3
) 1 ( 2
) 3 2 ( 3
+
+
z
z

TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
43

PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN

SELF ASSESSMENT 2(c)

1. Differentiate these functions

a. cot x

b.
x
x sin

c. tan
2
( 5x + 3 )

d. sin
2
x + 2 cos
2
( x- 1)


2. Find the derivative for

a. ln 7x
b. 1 ln
2
+ x
c.
2
) 3 4 (
2
ln
x

d. ln (2x 3)(x + 5)
4


3. Differentiate with respect to x

a. e
x + 1


b. e
x
+ e
-x


c. ( e
x
+ e
-x
)
2


d.
x
x
e
e
+


2
1


TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
44

PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN


SOLUTI ONS TO SELF ASSESSMENT 2(c)

1. a. cosec
2
x

b.
2
sin cos
x
x x x


c. Let y = tan
2
( 5x + 3 )
dy/dx = 5(2) tan (5x + 3 ) sec
2
(5x + 3 )
= 10 tan ( 5x + 3 ) sec
2
( 5x + 3 ) .

d. sin 2x 10 cos
4
(x 1 ) sin ( x 1)


2. a.
x
1

b.
1
2
+ x
x


c.
3 4
8

x


e. Let y = ln (2x 3)(x + 5)
4

Therefore, y = ln ( 2x 3) + 4 ln (x + 5 )

Then, dy/dx = )
5
1
( 4
) 3 2 (
) 2 ( 1
+
+
x x

=
) 5 )( 3 2 (
) 3 2 ( 4 ) 5 ( 2
+
+ +
x x
x x

) 5 )( 3 2 (
12 8 10 2
+
+ +
x x
x x


=
) 5 )( 3 2 (
) 1 5 ( 2
+

x x
x





TOPI C 2
DIFFERENTIATION
45

PREPARED BY MOHD IZWANNI B. SARIMAN

3. a. e
x + 1


b. e
x
- e
-x


c. Let y = ( e
x
e
x
)
2

Therefore y = e
x
. e
x
+ e
x
. e
- x
e
x
e
x
e
x
e
x

= e
2x
+ e
2x
2
dy/dx = 2e
2x
+(-2 ) e
2x

= 2 ( e
2x
e
-2x
)


d.
2
) 2 (
2 2
x
x x
e
e e
+
+