You are on page 1of 28

How to Make Yeast Bread

With a few simple tips, it's easy to make yeast bread. These step-by-step instructions will help you get it right every time.By Lisa Holderness Step 1: Choose a bread recipe

The first step is to choose your bread type. Are you a fan of soft-textured white bread, hearty artisanal breads, mixed-grain loaves, sourdough, or sweet bread? Each style of bread has a slightly different method, but most of them start with the same key ingredients -- flour and yeast. Count on kneading and rising to create texture. White Bread recipe Artisanal Pepper-Cheese Bread recipe Whole Grain Bread recipe Sourdough Bread recipe Chocolate Challah recipe French Bread recipe

Step 2: Choose a yeast

Yeast feeds on sugar in the dough to make little carbon dioxide bubbles that get trapped in the dough and make it rise. It works slowly and helps develop flavorful dough. Active Dry Yeast: This is the most common yeast for home baking because it's easy to use and yields reliable results. These tiny, dehydrated granules come in packets and larger jars and are mixed with flour or dissolved in warm liquid before they are used. Quick-Rising Yeast: (also called fast-rising or instant yeast): A more active strain of yeast, it cuts the rise time by about a third. Quick-rising yeast can be substituted for active dry yeast, except in recipes requiring the dough to rise in the refrigerator and in dough using sourdough starter. Compressed Yeast: (also called fresh yeast): This type of yeast comes in small foil-wrapped square cakes and is sold in the refrigerator section of the grocery store. It works well for bread, especially loaves with long rise times, but this style of yeast has a short shelf life and must be refrigerated. Soften it in warm water, according to the package directions, before using. Starters: Sourdough bread is made without added yeast. A starter allows wild yeast to grow, which enables the bread to rise naturally, giving the bread a tug-apart texture as well as sour, tangy flavor. The starter is made of yeast, warm water, flour, and honey or sugar, and it ferments over five to 10 days. You can keep the starter going for a long period of time by adding honey or sugar every 10 days to "feed" it (if you're sharing the bread recipe, for instance). Step 3: Create the best environment for yeast To make sure your bread rises, follow these tips:

Use the yeast before the expiration date on the package and keep any opened yeast in the refrigerator. Check the temperature of the yeast/water mixture with an instant-read thermometer. The acceptable range is 105F to 115F. If it's too hot the yeast will die and your bread won't rise. If it's too cold the yeast won't activate, also causing it not to rise.

Step 4: Prepare your bread dough

Use an electric mixer to beat a portion of the flour and the remaining ingredients together, making sure all of the flour and yeast are moistened. Use a wooden spoon to stir in as much of the remaining flour as you can (avoid an electric mixer at this stage because it can strain the motor). Stir the batter until the dough looks ropey and pulls away from the sides of the bowl.

Tip: Always add the minimum amount of flour in the range. If you add too much flour during mixing and kneading, the bread can become heavy and dry. Step 5: Knead the bread dough

To knead the dough, fold it and push down with the heel of your hand. Flip over dough, fold it, and push down again. Repeat process over and over, adding enough of the remaining flour as needed, until the dough reaches the stiffness specified and is smooth and elastic.

o o

Moderately soft dough is slightly sticky and used for rich, sweet breads. It requires 3 to 5 minutes of kneading. Moderately stiff dough is used for most nonsweet breads. It is slightly firm to the touch and requires 6 to 8 minutes of kneading.

Tip: Lightly flour your hands before kneading to keep the dough from sticking to them. Tip: You're finished kneading when your dough is soft and smooth but not dry, and holds together nicely in a ball Step 6: Shape the dough

Shape the dough in a ball and place it in a greased bowl that is twice as large as the ball of dough. Turn the dough over to grease the surface, which will keep it from drying out. The greased bowl keeps the dough from sticking. Cover dough with plastic wrap that's been sprayed with nonstick cooking spray so it won't stick to the wrap. Now your dough is ready to rise. Tip: For best results, round dough into a smooth ball with your hands before you put it into a bowl to rise. A rough surface can allow gases to escape, which will prevent the bread from rising. Step 7: Let the dough rise

A lot is happening as your bread rises. The yeast is multiplying and creating carbon dioxide bubbles, and the gluten is reinforcing the bread's structure as it balloons in size. The dough is also developing flavor. Place your yeast bread dough to rise in a warm (80F to 85F), draft-free place. An unheated oven with a bowl of warm water on the rack below works well. For the first rise, the dough should double in size. It is ready when indentations stay after two fingers are pressed 1/2 inch into the center Tip: Rising times are only an estimate. It's important to continually check the bread dough. The temperature and humidity outside, the temperature of the rising spot and of the ingredients, and the ingredients in the dough can all affect the rise time. Step 8: Punch down the dough

Once the dough is double in size, deflate it by punching your fist into the center of the dough, pulling the edges in. (Deflating the dough after it rises releases the carbon dioxide built up in the dough and relaxes the gluten, making it easier to shape.) At this point in the process, most recipes require that you let the dough rest about 10 minutes. Letting the dough rest also relaxes the gluten, making the dough easier to shape. Step 9: Bread dough's second rise

Once your loaf is shaped and in a pan (if you're using one), cover the dough and let it rise again in a warm place. This time, let it rise just until nearly double in size. If dough doesn't double in size for this second rise, your bread will rise higher when baking (this is called "oven spring"). Step 10: Bake and cool bread

Place the loaf of unbaked bread in a preheated oven and bake until the bread sounds hollow when lightly tapped with your finger. If the loaf is browning too fast but doesn't sound hollow, create a loose tent out of foil, loosely cover the loaf, and continue baking (yeast breads containing butter and/or sugar often need this step). Immediately remove the bread from the pan and cool it completely on a wire rack. This allows air to circulate around the bread, keeping the crust crisp as the bread cools.

Yeast's Crucial Roles in Breadbaking

It acts as a leavener, dough developer, and flavor builder
by Shirley Corriher Yeast is the driving force behind fermentation, the magical process that allows a dense mass of dough to become a well-risen loaf of bread. And yet yeast is nothing more than a single-celled fungus. How does it do it? Yeast works by consuming sugar and excreting carbon dioxide and alcohol as byproducts. In bread making, yeast has three major roles. Most of us are familiar with yeast's leavening ability. But you may not be aware that fermentation helps to strengthen and develop gluten in dough and also contributes to incredible flavors in bread.

Yeast makes dough rise

Yeast cells thrive on simple sugars. As the sugars are metabolized,

carbon dioxide and alcohol are released into the bread dough, making it rise. Photo by: Scott Phillips.

The essentials of any bread dough are flour, water, and of course yeast. As soon as these ingredients are stirred together, enzymes in the yeast and the flour cause large starch molecules to break down into simple sugars. The yeast metabolizes these simple sugars and exudes a liquid that releases carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol into existing air bubbles in the dough. If the dough has a strong and elastic gluten network, the carbon dioxide is held within the bubble and will begin to inflate it, just like someone blowing up bubblegum. As more and more tiny air cells fill with carbon dioxide, the dough rises and we're on the way to leavened bread.

Yeast strengthens bread dough

When you stir together flour and water, two proteins in the flourglutenin and gliadingrab water and each other to form a bubblegum-like, elastic mass of molecules that we call gluten. In bread making, we want to develop as much gluten as we can because it strengthens the dough and holds in gases that will make the bread rise. Once flour and water are mixed together, any further working of the dough encourages more gluten to form. Manipulating the dough in any way allows more proteins and water to find each other and link together. If you've ever made homemade pasta, you know that each time you roll the dough through the machine, the dough becomes more elastic; in other words, more gluten is developed. And

with puff pastry dough, every time you fold, turn, and roll the dough, it becomes more elastic. Yeast, like kneading, helps develop the gluten network. With every burst of carbon dioxide that the yeast releases into an air bubble, protein and water molecules move about and have another chance to connect and form more gluten. In this way, a dough's rising is an almost molecule-by-molecule kneading. Next time you punch down bread dough after its first rise, notice how smooth and strong the gluten has become, in part from the rise. At this stage, most bakers stretch and tuck the dough into a round to give it a smooth, tight top that will trap the gases produced by fermentation. Then they let this very springy dough stand for 10 to 15 minutes. This lets the gluten bonds relax a little and makes the final shaping of the dough easier. This rounding and resting step isn't included in many home baking recipes, but it's a good thing to do.

Yeast in winemaking
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search

The process of fermentation at work on Pinot noir. As yeast consume the sugar in the must it releases alcohol and carbon dioxide (seen here as the foaming bubbles) as by products.

The role of yeast in winemaking is the most important element that distinguishes wine from grape juice. In the absence of oxygen yeast convert the sugars of wine grapes into alcohol and carbon dioxide through the process of fermentation.[1] The more sugars in the grapes, the higher the potential alcohol level of the wine if the yeast are allowed to carry out fermentation to dryness.[2] Sometimes winemakers will stop fermentation early in order to leave some residual sugars and sweetness in the wine such as with dessert wines. This can be achieved by dropping fermentation temperatures to the point where the yeast are inactive, sterile filtering the wine to remove the yeast or fortification with brandy to kill off the yeast cells. If fermentation is unintentionally stopped, such as when the yeasts become exhausted of available nutrients, and the wine has not yet reached dryness this is considered a stuck fermentation.[3] The most common yeast associated with winemaking is Saccharomyces cerevisiae which has been favored due to its predictable and vigorous fermentation capabilities, tolerance of relatively high levels of alcohol and sulfur dioxide as well as its ability to thrive in normal wine pH between 2.8 and 4. Despite its widespread use which often includes deliberate inoculation from cultured stock, S.cerevisiae is rarely the only yeast species involved in a fermentation. Grapes brought in from harvest are usually teeming with a variety of "wild yeast" from the Kloeckera and Candida genera. These yeasts often begin the fermentation process almost as soon as the grapes are picked when the weight of the clusters in the harvest bins begin to crush the grapes, releasing the sugar-rich must.[4] While additions of sulfur dioxide (often added at the crusher) may limit some of the wild yeast activities, these yeasts will usually die out once the alcohol level reaches about 5% due to the toxicity of alcohol on the yeast cells physiology while the more alcohol tolerant Saccharomyces species take over. In addition to S. cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus is a species of yeast that can tolerate alcohol levels of 1720% and is often used in fortified wine production such as ports and varieties such as Zinfandel and Syrah harvested at high Brix sugar levels. Another common yeast involved in wine production is Brettanomyces whose presence in a wine may be viewed

by different winemakers as either a wine fault or in limited quantities as an added note of complexity.[5]

The role of yeast in wine production

Yeast is an unsung hero. It hangs around, invisible to the eye (40,000 of them can fit on the head of a pin!) and then after we crush grapes, it goes to work turning their sugars into alcohol. There would be no wine without yeasts. In fact, there would be no alcohol at all. Winemakers use either the ambient (naturally present) or cultivated yeasts when making wine. The yeasts take all the natural sugars in the grapes, convert them to alcohol, and in the process give off CO2 and a lot of heat. The yeasts continue to work until they are either stopped by the winemaker (usually by shocking the wine with a dose of sulphur dioxide or by cooling the wine down to a temperature where the yeasts cannot survive, thus stopping the conversion process and stabilizing the wine) or they actually kill themselves off: yeasts cannot live in an environment of over 16% alcohol, so once the wine reaches this level, the alcohol actually kills the yeast which created it. I think any parent would tell you that this is simply a metaphor for having children

Ambient yeasts in cellars, like this one at Famila di Tomasso in the Maipu region of Mendoza, can act to naturally ferment the grapes into wine without any interference from the winemaker. Assuming that the yeasts were not killed off by high alcohol levels or stabilization, yeasts continue their job even after they have converted a wines sugars into alcohol. In the barrel, they interact with the oak itself, sometimes even absorbing some of the harsher tannin flavors that a new oak barrel can impart on wine. Their interactions add even more complexity to the wine.

After the yeasts have done their job, they still remain in the wine as dead particles. They must be removed in order for the winemaker to create the final, particle-free product; however, some winemakers actually leave these dead yeasts (called the lees) in the barrels for four months to a year because it gives the wine a nice full mouth feel. On some bottles of wine you will see the phrase sur lie, which translate from French as on the lees, meaning that the winemaker chose to leave these yeasts in with the wine after they expired to impart that fleshy flavor into the wine. Thank you, little yeasts, for your undying love of sugar and for the end result of your sweet tooth!

How to Make Cheap Wine

Edited by Sondra C, Jack Herrick, Krystle, Harold R and 51 others


This basic wine is certainly not for connoisseurs, but its a fun, cheap, easy project with educational value. This article gives step-by-step instructions on how to make cheap wine; once this procedure is understood, you can also use the shortcut method that follows.

Edit Ingredients
The following quantities will make a gallon of wine:

2 cans of juice concentrate at room temperature; you can use any type of concentrate (grape, strawberry, etc.) as long as it doesn't contain any preservatives, which will inhibit fermentation; you might also want to avoid artificial coloring and flavoring since higher quality ingredients will produce tastier results 2 cups of sugar 1 packet of champagne yeast (more will not increase alcohol content but will impart a bad "yeasty" flavor); if you use bread yeast, it will taste like dirty socks, so be sure you use only champagne yeast 1 gallon of water; reverse-osmosis water, which can be purchased at the store in a gallon jug, is preferable but unnecessary

Edit Steps 1. 1


Carefully sterilize your containers and utensils. Sanitizing everything will help keep unwanted bacteria from setting up camp as your wine ferments.

o o o

The easy way to sanitize everything at once is to use your dishwasher at the high heat setting, with appropriate detergent. Some dishwashers are designed especially to sanitize your dishes at 183 degrees F; this will clean the equipment and make the task really easy. After the machine finishes the dry cycle, you will be ready to start making the wine. If you do not have an automatic dishwasher, wash with detergent, then bleach the funnel, glass jug, and anything else you may use. Air dry. If youre using a plastic water jug you just bought at the store, you wont need to sanitize it. Keep your jug covered or closed between uses to limit the amount of time that the container is exposed to possible contamination.

2. 2

Boil the water

Boil the water. Using your thermometer, bring it to 144 degrees F and keep it there for 22 minutes.

Add juice

Add the room-temperature juice concentrate to the clean, dry jug. Use the funnel if needed.

3. 4

Add sugar

While the water is hot, dissolve the sugar into it. Stir while pouring.

4. 5

Activate the yeast

Activate the yeast. If available, follow the directions on the packet; otherwise, activate the yeast by dissolving 1 teaspoon of sugar to 1/4 cup of lukewarm water in a separate bowl, adding the yeast, and letting it sit for 10 minutes (or until it becomes very frothy).

5. 6


Let the boiled water cool before pouring it into the gallon jug containing juice concentrate. To gauge the temperature, wait until it stops steaming and the pot barely radiates heat. When the sides of the pot are cool enough to touch, it should be ready. (Keeping the lid on during this time will help prevent contamination.)

o o

Pouring very hot water into a cool glass container might shatter it, particularly if the glass is thick. (Contrary to what you might expect, thick glass is actually less safe because it heats unevenly, causing internal stresses.) Pouring very hot water into your plastic jug could melt it or cause particulates to leech into the water.

6. 7
Add the dissolved sugar-water to the jug. Stir well with a sterile utensil or by capping the jug and shaking it.

Add the yeast

Add the yeast. Again, stir well with a sterile utensil or by capping the jug and shaking it.

7. 9

Balloon method

Remove the cap from the bottle and replace with a fermentation-friendly capping system. Since the fermentation produces CO2, the jug must be capped in a way that allows CO2 to escape.

o o o

Option 1 (Preferred): Place the airlock in the mouth of the jug. The airlock not only keeps the jug capped in a way that allows CO2 to escape, but also allows you to monitor the rate of fermentation by watching the bubbles pass through. Option 2: Place a balloon over the mouth of the jug and secure it with a rubber band or tape. It is very important to poke a hole in the balloon with a needle; this will keep the pressure positive in the jug, preventing air from entering while allowing the release of CO2. Option 3: Use clay to seal a tube into the mouth of the jug, then place the other end of the tube in the bottom of a glass of water. As with the airlock, bubbles will be seen occasionally as the CO2 exits.

8. 10
Keep the jug at room temperature away from direct sunlight. If it doesnt start to bubble after a few days, throw it away and try again, being careful to use more sanitary equipment. Otherwise, wait 10 to 14 days, when the mixture will suddenly go from cloudy to clear. Then transfer into another bottle or smaller bottles (leaving the sediment on the bottom of the first bottle) and enjoy!

Shortcut Method

Instead of using frozen concentrate, buy pasteurized grape juice with no additives, preservatives, or added sugar. Your enemy in the winemaking procedure is sulfur dioxide, so make sure the juice is natural. Pasteurization, which also kills wild molds and yeasts, is the desired alternative to sulfur dioxide.

Buying it in a one-gallon jug will kill two birds with one stone, since the juice and jug are already sanitary. Add activated champagne yeast. Close with the capping system of your choice and ferment. Voila!

Bread is the staple food in Europe, European-derived cultures such as the Americas, and the Middle East and North Africa, as opposed to East Asia whose staple is rice. Bread is usually made from a wheat-flour dough that is cultured with yeast, allowed to rise, and finally baked in an oven. Owing to its high levels of gluten (which give the dough sponginess and elasticity), common wheat (also known as bread wheat) is the most common grain used for the preparation of bread. Bread is also made from the flour of other wheat species (including durum, spelt and emmer), rye, barley, maize (corn), and oats, usually, but not always, in combination with wheat flour. Spelt bread (Dinkelbrot) continues to be widely consumed in Germany, and emmer bread was a staple food in ancient Egypt. Canadian bread is known for its heartier consistency due to high protein levels in Canadian flour.

White bread is made from flour containing only the central core of the grain (endosperm). Brown bread is made with endosperm and 10% bran. It can also refer to white bread with added colouring (often caramel colouring) to make it brown; this is commonly labeled in America as wheat bread (as opposed to whole-wheat bread).[10] Wholemeal bread contains the whole of the wheat grain (endosperm, bran, and germ). It is also referred to as "whole-grain" or "whole-wheat bread", especially in North America. Wheat germ bread has added wheat germ for flavoring. Whole-grain bread can refer to the same as wholemeal bread, or to white bread with added whole grains to increase its fibre content, as in "60% whole-grain bread". Roti is a whole-wheat-based bread eaten in South Asia. Chapatti is a larger variant of roti. Naan is a leavened equivalent to these. Granary bread is made from flaked wheat grains and white or brown flour. The standard malting process is modified to maximise the maltose or sugar content but minimise residual alpha amylase content. Other flavour components are imparted from partial fermentation due to the particular malting process used and to Maillard reactions on flaking and toasting. Rye bread is made with flour from rye grain of varying levels. It is higher in fiber than many common types of bread and is often darker in color and stronger in flavor. It is popular in Scandinavia, Germany, Finland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Unleavened bread or matzo, used for the Jewish feast of Passover, does not include yeast, so it does not rise. Sourdough bread is made with a starter. Flatbread is often simple, made with flour, water, and salt, and then formed into flattened dough; most are unleavened, made without yeast or sourdough culture, though some are made with yeast. Crisp bread is a flat and dry type of bread or cracker, containing mostly rye flour.

Hemp bread includes strongly-flavored hemp flour or seeds. Considered one of the "superior elixirs of immortality," hemp has been used for thousands of years in Traditional Chinese Medicine.[11] Hemp flour is the by-product from pressing the oil from the seeds and milling the residue. It is perishable and stores best in the freezer. Hemp dough won't rise due to its lack of gluten, and for that reason it is best mixed with other flours. A 5:1 ratio of wheat-tohemp flour produces a hearty, nutritious loaf high in protein and essential fatty acids.[12] Hemp seeds have a relatively high oil content of 25-35%, and can be added at a rate up to 15% of the wheat flour. The oil's omega-6-to-omega-3 ratio lies in the range of 2:1-to-3:1, which is considered ideal for human nutrition.[13]

Quick breads
Main article: Quick bread

The term quick bread usually refers to a bread chemically leavened, usually with both baking powder and baking soda, and a balance of acidic ingredients and alkaline ingredients. Examples include pancakes and waffles, muffins and carrot cake, Boston brown bread, and zucchini and banana bread.

In the production of baked goods, yeast is a key ingredient and serves three primary functions: Production of carbon dioxide: Carbon dioxide is generated by the yeast as a result of the breakdown of fermentable sugars in the dough. The evolution of carbon dioxide causes expansion of the dough as it is trapped within the protein matrix of the dough. Causes dough maturation: This is accomplished by the chemical reaction of yeast produced alcohols and acids on protein of the flour and by the physical stretching of the protein by carbon dioxide gas. This results in the light, airy physical structure associated with yeast leavened products. Development of fermentation flavor: Yeast imparts the characteristic flavor of bread and other yeast leavened products. During dough fermentation, yeast produce many secondary metabolites such as ketones, higher alcohols, organic acids, aldehydes and esters. Some of these, alcohols for example, escape during baking. Others react with each other and with other compounds found in the dough to form new and more complex flavor compounds. These reactions occur primarily in the crust and the resultant flavor diffuses into the crumb of the baked bread.

Types of Wine
What are all the different types of wine, and what are their main characteristics? What food can you pair them with? What are the types of red wine, white wine, sparkling wine, and what other wine types are there? Find out in this summary below. Also, if you are new to wine, you may find this summary of wine basics useful. A visit to any wine or liquor store will show that there are literally thousands of different types of wine. It can be quite confusing to figure out the differences, and how to select the right wine. To help in your understanding of the various wine types available, here is an overview:

Wine Labeling
One of the sources of confusion about different wine types is due to the different labeling of wine from different parts of the world. In America and other parts of the "New World" (for example in California wines) wine is typically labeled according to the variety of grape (eg, "Chardonnay"). However, in Europe wine is labeled by the region where the wine was produced (eg, "Chablis" which is a French wine from the Chardonnay grape, or "Rioja" which is a Spanish winemade primarily from the Tempranillo grape). In addition, many types of wine are actually blends of grape varieties, with brand names invented by the winery. Often the label will indicate the types of grapes in the blend, but not always.

Types of Red Wine

Red wines are made from "black" (red-colored) grapes fermented with the skin included. The skin is what imparts the red color to the wine.

Red wines typically have a more robust flavor, and pair well with food that is similarly robust, such as red meats (beef, lamb), hearty pasta dishes, etc. They are usually drunk at or just below room temperature. Types of red wine include:

Beaujolais this is a fruity French wine made with Gamay grapes Bordeaux - a French red wineincluding Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet
Franc grapes

Burgundy - a French wine made from Pinot Noir grapes Cabernet Franc an elegant purplish red wine that is most often seen blended with
other reds.

Cabernet Sauvignon this is a robust, big red wine with a strong character and

Carignan Chianti - an Italian wine excellent with pasta and pizza Grenache Malbec - Argentina's flagship red wine which is rapidly increasing in popularity Merlot a popular red wine with fruitiness and softer tannins than Cabernet

Petite Sirah Pinot Noir this is a lighter, dry red wine with berry overtones Syrah or Shiraz Zinfandel

Types of White Wine

White wines are from either "black" (red-colored) or "white" (green-colored) grapes, fermented without the skin. White wines are usually drunk cold, with lighter foods such as poultry and fish. White wines include:

Chardonnay one of the worlds most popular types of wine, Chardonnay is a fruity,
often oaky, and usually dry white wine

Chenin Blanc Muscadet a very dry white from the Loire Valley in France which is an excellent
combination with oysters and other shellfish

Muscat Blanc Pinot Grigio or Pinot Gris

Riesling often considered by wine lovers as a truly top tier wine, Riesling is made in
many different styles from light, dry whites to sweet dessert wines. Some of the best examples come from Germany

Sauvignon Blanc or Fum Blanc a clean, crisp, usually quite dry white wine. Sweet
versions are also available

Semillon a white wine typically seen from Australia or France (white Bordeaux
wines) in either dry or sweet versions

Viognier White Burgundy a French wine made from Chardonnay grapes White Bordeaux a French wine made from Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon grapes

Ros Wines
Ros wines are pink or blush-colored. The pink color comes from the fact that the grape skin is included for just the first few hours of the fermentation process, or sometimes due to the wine being a mixture of red and white wines. Most ros wines are medium-sweet, especially in the US. But some of the best European ross can be very dry. The sweeter ross tend to be favorites of people who are new to wine, because they are often light and somewhat sweet. For this reason, they are a good choice if you are new to wine.

Sparkling Wine
Champagne is probably the best known sparkling wine. Although many dry sparkling wines are referred to as champagne, technically Champagne is sparkling wine from the Champagne region of France. Other types of sparkling wine are Prosecco, a dry Italian sparkling wine, and Asti, a sweet Italian sparkling wine. Cava is a sparkling Spanish wine.The "sparkles" in sparkling wine are bubbles of carbon dioxide, which is a natural byproduct of the fermentation process.

Dessert and Fortified Wines

Dessert wines are very sweet, and intended to be drunk with or as a dessert course.

Fortified wines, as their name implies, are types of wine with brandy or other spirits added during fermentation. Many are quite sweet, depending on when the spirits are added, since that ends the fermentation process. Dessert and fortified wines include:

Port Sherry (dry, medium, or sweet) Madeira Late-harvest Rieslings Ice wines

Orange Muscat and other Muscat varieties

What is yeast?

Yeast is a fungus composed of a single cell that is .006 to .008 mm wide. This microorganism has been used in making bread for more than 5,000 years, according to, though bakers had no idea, until recently, how yeast impacted the bread-making process.

How it Works

The strain of yeast used in making bread is called saccharomyces cerevisiae. It operates by consuming any sugar it comes in contact with, including sugars from wheat products, and in exchange it releases carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol. Yeast operates most effectively under warm conditions, and the presence of salt helps to keep its activity in check.

Sponsored Links

Gluten Free
Shop at New World. Recipe Ideas, Healthy Eating - Find out more now!
Role in Bread

Perhaps the most important role yeast plays in bread making is to help bread dough rise. As the yeast consumes sugar and releases carbon dioxide and alcohol, those byproducts meet the dough's air bubbles. There, the gasses begin to inflate and are trapped by the dough. As a result, the dough begins to expand, or rise. Yeast also contributes to the flavor and aroma of the bread. The fermentation process of yeast creates molecules such as organic acids and amino acids. These molecules are smaller and more flavorful than the molecules the dough began with. Bacteria in the dough also contributes to the bread's flavor, but yeast can interfere with bacteria's ability to survive by consuming all of the sugars in the dough. The more slowly the yeast works and the longer the dough takes to rise, the longer the bacteria can work to create flavors in the bread, too.

Other Uses

Yeast and its fermentation is key in other products, too, especially alcoholic beverages. In beer and whiskey, for example, the yeast consumes the sugar of the grains used to make these beverages and releases carbon dioxide and alcohol. In making wine, the yeast consumes the sugar of the grapes, and the carbon dioxide by-product is allowed to escape form the liquid.

Yeast Gone Bad

Making bread with yeast can be a delicate procedure. If the baker adds too much yeast, the loaf can fall flat or have empty pockets of air, or, if he adds too little yeast, the loaf can turn out thick and chewy. In addition, temperatures must be carefully controlled when adding yeast to a recipe. If the yeast is too cold, it won't be activated and will be unable to work inside the dough. On the other hand, if the temperature is too hot, it will kill the yeast.

Read more: The Role of Yeast in Breadmaking |


Yeast are live, single-celled organisms classified as fungi. There are a wide variety of different yeast -- well over a thousand species -- some of which have been used to produce food and drink since at least the time of the ancient Egyptians. They do not require sunlight and obtain their energy by using simple sugars as a food source. Yeast occur naturally in many places, including on the skins of fruits and on some plants.

Yeast in Wine

Wine is typically made from a liquid mixture of crushed grapes. The grapes will already contain some naturally occurring yeast on their outer skins, but other strains of artificially cultured yeast are almost always added to make the flavor and type of wine produced more predictable. Sponsored Links

Brochure Print & Delivery

Brochures Printed & Delivered To Your Audience. Get A Quote Online.
Alcohol from Yeast

The biggest difference between wine and grape juice is the presence of alcohol in wine. Yeast is responsible for making that alcohol. In a process known as fermentation, yeast "eats" sugar either naturally present or added to the wine mixture, and excretes alcohol. As fermentation progresses, the alcohol level in the wine increases until it reaches a level that is poisonous to the yeast and they die. Most strains of yeast will die at about 15 percent alcohol, so this is the maximum alcohol level of typical wines.

Carbonation from Yeast

Besides producing alcohol, yeast also provide the fizz in sparkling wines such as Champagne. During the fermentation process, yeast produce carbon dioxide gas as a by-product of their metabolism. Normally, this gas is allowed to escape during the fermentation process. To make sparkling wines, additional yeast and sugar are added to the wine just before bottling, so that fermentation takes place in the bottle to produce the dissolved carbon dioxide gas that results in bubbly wine.

Read more: What Are the Functions of Yeast in Wine Making? |