You are on page 1of 2

MANE-4030: Elements of Mechanical Design: Worksheet #2

1/27/11: Ductile material behavior In a tension test of a steel specimen having a 7-mm radius circular cross section and using a gage length of 20 cm, the data shown below was recorded. Using this data, you are to (a) find the nominal (0.2% offset, engineering) yield stress, (b) find the nominal (engineering) ultimate tensile strength, (c) find the modulus of elasticity, and (d) compute the true stress at the maximum load. (a) To find the nominal yield stress, first, figure out what the deflection is associated with a 0.2% offset strain. Then, you need to draw a line parallel to the elastic loading line starting from this deflection, and find what the load is at this offset (where offset line intersects load line). Using this load and the known dimensions, compute the nominal yield stress. (b) To find the ultimate tensile strength, find the maximum load and compute the corresponding stress. This stress is referred to as the ultimate tensile strength because it is associated with the maximum load that a uniaxially loaded specimen can carry in tension. (c) To find the elastic modulus, simply find the slope of the load deflection curve in the beginning linear region, and then normalize to convert this to stress/strain. (d) Using the change in length and the approximation that the volume is about the same, estimate the average cross-sectional area in the gage region. Use this area to compute the true stress at the maximum load.

70

70

60

60

50

50

load (kN)

load (kN)
0 0.5 1 elongation (mm) 1.5 2

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 elongation (mm)

Detail of small elongation region.

Worksheet #2 solutions
Jan. 27, 2011 (a) The elongation at 0.2% strain is f = 0.002 200mm = 0.4mm Draw a line parallel to the elastic loading line, starting from point (0.4mm,0kN). Measure the y cordinate of the intersection point of this line and the load line, we get: load F 36kN This is the force associated with the 0.2% oset yield stress. The yield stress is then Sy = F 36, 000 N = = 230 M P a A0 (0.007 m)2

(b) Get the ultimate tensile strength, by measuring the second gure, the maximum load is about 65kN , so the ultimate tensile strength is: Su = Fmax 65, 000 N = = 420 M P a A0 (0.007 m)2

(c) To get elastic modulus, by measuring the elastic loading line, we get kax 29kN = 145 (kN/mm) 0.2mm

E=

145(kN/mm)200mm kN kax l0 = = 188 = 188 GP a 2 A0 (7mm) mm2

(d) Get the true stress at the maximum load. The true area at the maximum load is calculated based on the approximation that the volume is constant. The elongation at the maximum load is about 25mm. A0 l0 = (7 mm)2 (200 mm) = Al = A(200 mm + 25 mm) Thus, at maximum load, A = 137 mm2 . So the true stress at the maximum load is true = Fmax 65, 000 N = = 475 M P a A 137 mm2