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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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1. (a) Given the data for the vacancy formation, interstitial formation and binding energies for copper [see class notes], depict the temperature dependence [between 300oC and the melting point] of the concentrations of monovacancies, divacancies and self-intersitials as Arrhenius Plot. (b) If the activation energy for vacancy formation in Fe is 35 kCal/mole what is the vacancy concentration at (i) 900 oC and (ii) 400 oC. (c) Calculate the number of vacancies per unit cell at 900 oC. 2. For MX type ionic solid, show [text - Olander, p.63] that XvmXvx = exp {-s/kT} where Xvm and Xvx are the vacancy concentrations in the cation and anion sublattices, and s is the activation energy for formation of a Schottky defect pair. 3. In alkali halides such as NaCl, one finds intrinsic and extrinsic vacancies (cation vacancies) due to divalent impurity such as Ca. On an Arrhenius plot show (schematically) the temperature variation of vacancy (cation) concentration indicating the extrinsic and intrinsic regions. Note down the equations relevant to these regions. 4. On a neat sketch of a hcp crystal, show the following (clearly depict the axes): (a) Prism plane ( 10 1 0 ) and a close packed direction in that plane what are the Miller Indices of the direction chosen and what is the interatomic distance. (b) Pyramidal plane ( 11 2 2 ) and a close packed direction in that plane what are the Miller Indices of the direction chosen. (c) A basal plane and close packed direction in that plane what are the Miller Indices of the plane and direction chosen. 5. a. Prove that c =

A r2 exp( ) satisfies Fick's second law for diffusion in cylindrical coordinates. 4 Dt 4 Dt b. Show that it satisfies the initial condition for c = 0 at t = 0 for 0 r .

concentration of B is given by c( x, t ) =

4. A piece of pure A is joined to pure B. Assuming that it is a pair of semi-infinite solids show that the

[Recall the initial boundary conditions; c=0 for x<0 and c=c' for x>0 at t=0] 5. Steel surfaces can be hardened by carburization, the diffusion of carbon into the steel from a carbon-rich atmosphere. During one such treatment at 1000oC, there is a drop in carbon concentration from 5 to 4% carbon between 1mm and 2mm from the surface of the steel. Estimate the flux of carbon into the steel in this near-surface region to be 2.45x1019 atoms/m2-s. [The density of -Fe at 1000oC is 7.63 g/cc.] 6. a. Given the diffusion data (D in cm2/s) for yttrium in chromium oxide at different temperatures, find the activation energy and diffusion coefficient (Do): 1.2x10-13@800C, 5.4x10-13@850C, 6.7x10-13@900C, 1.8x10-12@950C and 4.6x10-12@1000C. b. Find D at 925C.

Show that the ideal c/a ratio for hcp crystals is 1.633? Give 6 examples of metals with hcp structure and what are their c/a ratios. For BCC iron, compute (a) the interplanar spacing, and (b) the diffraction angle for the (220) set of planes. [lattice parameter for iron is 0.2866 nm; assume that monochromatic radiation with a wavelength of 0.1790 nm is used and the order of reflection is 1]. (a) Describe the experimental methods for determining the vacancy concentration and diffusion in metals and alkali halides. (b) How can the energy for migration of vacancies be determined experimentally?

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