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# Fuzzy sets I

## Prof. Dr. Jaroslav Ramk

Fuzzy sets I

Content
Basic definitions Examples Operations with fuzzy sets (FS) t-norms and t-conorms Aggregation operators Extended operations with FS Fuzzy numbers: Convex fuzzy set, fuzzy interval, fuzzy number (FN), triangular FN, trapezoidal FN, L-R fuzzy numbers

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Basic definitions
Set - a collection well understood and distinguishable objects of our concept or our thinking about the collection. Fuzzy set - a collection of objects in connection with expression of uncertainty of the property characterizing the objects by grades from interval between 0 and 1.
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Fuzzy set
X - universe (of discourse) = set of objects A : X [0,1] - membership function
~ A = {(x, A(x))| x X} - fuzzy set of X (FS)

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Examples
1. 2. 3. 4. Feasible daily car production Young man age Number around 8 High profit

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## Example1. Feasible car production per day

X = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} - universe

~ A

= {(3; 0), (4; 0), (5; 0,1), (6; 0,5), (7; 1), (8; 0,8), (9; 0)}
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## Example 2. Young man age

X = [0, 100] - universe (interval)

Approximation of empirical evaluations (points): 20 respondents have been asked to evaluate the membership Fuzzy sets I 7 grade

## Example 3.Number around eight

X = ]0, +[ - universe (interval)

~ A = {( x, ( x )) R 2 A ( x ) =

1 } 1 + ( x 8) 2

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## Example 4.High profit

X = [0, +[ - universe (interval)
1 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

1 ~ A = {( x, ( x )) R 2 A ( x ) = 1 } 1+ x

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Crisp set
Crisp set A of X = fuzzy set with a special membership function: A : X {0,1} - characteristic function Crisp set can be uniquely identified with a set: (non-fuzzy) set A is in fact a (fuzzy) crisp set

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## Support, height, normal fuzzy set

~ ~ Support of fuzzy set A, supp(A) = {xX| A(x) > 0} support is a set (crisp set)! ~ ~ Height of fuzzy set A , hgt(A) = Sup{A(x) | xX } see Example 4! ~ Fuzzy setA is normal (normalized), if there exists x0X with A(x0) = 1 ~ ~ Ex.: Support of A from Example 1: supp(A) = {5, 6, 7, 8} ~ ~ hgt(A) = A(8) = 1 A is normal!
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## -cut (- level set, aspiration level)

~ ~ [0,1], A - fuzzy set, A = {x X|A(x)} - -cut of A ~ A

<

A A
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## Operations with fuzzy sets

(X) -Fuzzy power set = set of all fuzzy sets of X ~ ~ A, B (X) ~ ~ A = B A(x) = B(x) for all x X - identity ~ ~ A B A(x) B(x) for all x X - inclusion Properties:
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ (A B and B A )A = B ~ ~ ~ ~ A B sup p( A ) sup p( B)
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~ ~ B AB A

~ ~ (A B and

~ ~ ~ ~ B C) A C - transitivity
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~ ~ A, B (X)

## Properties: Commutativity, Associativity, Distributivity, Union = fuzzy OR Intersection = fuzzy AND

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Example 5.

~ A = {(3; 0), (4; 0), (5; 0,1), (6; 0,5), (7; 1), (8; 0,8), (9; 0)} - feasible production ~ B = {(3; 1), (4; 1), (5; 0,9), (6; 0,8), (7; 0,4), (8; 0,1), (9; 0)}- high costs

% A

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## Complement, Cartesian product

~ A (X)
~ ~ CA CA(x) =1 - A(x) - complement of A

## - Cartesian product (CP)

CP is a fuzzy set of XY ! Extension to more parts possible e.g. X, Y, Z,
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Cartesian product A B

~ ~

A ~ ~ ( x , y) B
B ~ ( y)

1
A ~ (x)

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Cartesian product

~ ~ B C

Complementarity conditions
~ A (X)
1. 2.

~ ~ A CA = ~ ~ A CA = X

Min and Max do not satisfy 1., 2. ! (only for crisp sets) later on bold intersection and union will satisfy the complementarity

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Examples

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## Extended operations with FS

Intersection and Union = operations on(X) Realization by Min and Max operators generalized by t-norms and t-conorms

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t-norms
A function T: [0,1] [0,1] [0,1] is called t-norm if it satisfies the following properties (axioms):
T1: T2: T3: T4: T(a,1) = a a [0,1] - 1 is a neutral element - commutativity T(a,b) = T(b,a) a,b [0,1]

## T(a,T(b,c)) = T(T(a,b),c) a,b,c [0,1] - associativity T(a,b) T(c,d) whenever a c , b d - monotnicity

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t-conorms
A function S: [0,1] [0,1] [0,1] is called t-conorm if it satisfies the following axioms:
S1: S2: S3: S4: S(a,0) = a a [0,1] - 0 is a neutral element - commutativity S(a,b) = S(b,a) a,b [0,1]

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## Examples of t-norms and t-conorms #1

1. TM = Min, SM = Max - minimum and maximum

## - drastic product, drastic sum

Property: TW(a,b) T(a,b) TM(a,b) , SM(a,b) S(a,b) SW(a,b) for every t-norm T, resp. t-conorm S, and a,b [0,1]
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## Examples of t-norms and t-conorms #2

SP (a,b) = a+b - a.b - product and probabilistic sum 4. TL(a,b) = Max{0,a+b - 1} SL (a,b) = Min{1,a+b} 3. TP(a,b) = a.b

## - Lukasiewicz t-norm and t-conorm (satisfies complementarity!)

(bounded difference, bounded sum) Also: b - bold intersection, b - bold union Properties: Let T*(a,b) = 1 - T(1-a,1-b) , S*(a,b) = 1 - S(1-a,1-b) If T is a t-norm then T* is a t-conorm ( T and T* are dual ) If S is a t-conorm then S* is a t-norm ( S and S* are dual )
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## Examples of t-norms and t-conorms #3

1 Tq (a , b) =Max 0, 1 (1 a ) q + (1 b) q q 1 a,b [0,1] Sq (a , b)=Min 1, a q + b q q Yagers t-norm and t-conorm

5. q [1,+)

6. Einstein, Hamacher, Dubois-Prade product and sum etc. 7. Average (a+b)/2 is not a t-norm !! Properties: If q =1, then Tq, (Sq) is Lukasiewicz t-norm (t-conorm) If q = +, then Tq, (Sq) is Min (Max)
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## Extended Union and Intersection of fuzzy sets

~ ~ A, B (X), T = t-norm, S = t-conorm ~ ~ A S B AsB(x) =S(A(x), B(x)) - S-union ~ ~ A T B ATB(x) =T(A(x), B(x)) -T-intersection

## Properties: Commutativity, Associativity?,

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Aggregation operators
A function G: [0,1] [0,1] [0,1] is called

aggregation operator
if it satisfies the following properties (axioms):
A1: A2: A3: G(0,0) = 0 - boundary condition 1 G(1,1) = 1 - boundary condition 2 G(a,b) G(c,d) whenever a c , b d - monotnicity

NO commutativity or associativity conditions! All t-norms and t-conorms are aggregation operators! May be extended to more parts,Fuzzy e.g. a,b,c, sets I
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Compensative operators (COs) #1 CO = Aggregation operator G satisfying Min(a,b) G(a,b) Max(a,b) Examples. Averages:
1: 2: 3: G(a,b) = (a +b)/2 - arithmetic mean (average) G(a,b) = G(a,b) =
1 a

S Max G

a.b
1 +1 b

T

Min

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1:

2:

## a+b 2 a+b SW(a,b) = .Max(a,b) + (1- ) 2 ATS(a,b) = .T(a,b) + (1 - ).S(a,b)

TW(a,b) = .Min(a,b) + (1- ) PTS(a,b) =T(a,b) . S(a,b)1-

## CO compensate trade-offs between conflicting evaluations extension to more elements possible

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Fuzzy numbers
~ A - fuzzy set of R (real numbers)
- A is convex (i.e. interval) for all [0,1] - normal (there exists x0 R with A(x0) = 1) - A is closed interval (with the end points) for all [0,1] Then A is called

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## Moreover if there exists only one x0 R with A(x0) = 1

~ then A is called

Fuzzy numbers
graphs of membership functions in R
triangular bell shaped

a 1

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## Positive and negative fuzzy numbers

~ A - fuzzy number is
- positive if A(x) = 0 for all x 0 - negative if A(x) = 0 for all x 0

~ B<0
0

~ A>0

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## Example 6. Fuzzy number About three

x 1 2 6 x A (x) = 3 0

## for x [1, 3] for x ]3, 6] otherwise

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Example 6. Continuation

mean value

x 1 2 6 x A (x) = 3 0

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## L-R fuzzy intervals

L, R : [0,+) [0,1] - non-increasing, non-constant functions (bell)-shape functions L(0) = R(0) = 1, m, n, > 0, > 0 - real numbers ~ A - fuzzy interval of L-R-type, or bell-shaped f. i. if mx L if x m, 1 if m < x < n, ~ (x) = A xn R if x n. fuzzy number of L-R-type if m = n, L, R - decreasing functions
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## Example 7. L-R fuzzy number Around eight

A (x) =

1 1 + ( x 8) 2

L( x ) = R ( x ) =

1 , m = n = 8, = = 1 1+ x2
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## Example 8. L-R fuzzy number About eight

A (x) = e

( x 8 )2

L( x ) = R ( x) = e

x m

, m = n = 8, = = 1
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## L-R fuzzy numbers Around eight diffrence

1,2 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 0 -0,2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

L( x) =

1 1 + x2
2

L( x) = e x

f1(x) f2(x)

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## Example 9. L-R fuzzy interval

1

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

L( x ) = e

x 4 2

, R ( x ) = e ( x 5 ) , m = 4, n = 5, = 2, = 1
2

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## Example 10. Fuzzy intervals M and N

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Summary
Basic definitions: set, fuzzy set, membership function, crisp set, support, height, normal fuzzy set, -level set Examples: daily production, young man age, around 8 Operations with fuzzy sets: fuzzy power set, union, intersection, complement, cartesian product Extended operations with fuzzy sets: t-norms and t-conorms, compensative operators Fuzzy numbers: Convex fuzzy set, fuzzy interval, fuzzy number (FN), triangular FN, trapezoidal FN, L-R fuzzy numbers
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References
 J. Ramk, M. Vlach: Generalized concavity in fuzzy optimization and decision analysis. Kluwer Academic Publ. Boston, Dordrecht, London, 2001.  H.-J. Zimmermann: Fuzzy set theory and its applications. Kluwer Academic Publ. Boston, Dordrecht, London, 1996.  H. Rommelfanger: Fuzzy Decision Support - Systeme. Springer - Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 1994.  H. Rommelfanger, S. Eickemeier: Entscheidungstheorie Klassische Konzepte und Fuzzy - Erweiterungen, Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 2002.
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