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Over There By George M. Cohan

Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your gun, Take it on the run, on the run, on the run, Hear them calling you and me, Ev'ry son of liberty. Hurry right away, no delay, go today, Make your daddy glad to have had such a lad, Tell your sweetheart not to pine, To be proud her boy's in line.

Verse Johnnie get your gun, get your

Over there over there Send the word, send the word over

there That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming, The drums rum-tumming ev'rywhere So prepare say a pray'r Send the word, send the word to beware We'll be over, we're coming over,

gun, get your gun, Johnnie show the Hun you're a son of a gun, Hoist the flag and let her fly, Yankee Doodle do or die. Pack your little kit, show your grit, do your bit, Yankees to the ranks from the towns and the tanks, Make your mother proud of you And the old Red White and Blue.

Essay Question

A. B. C. D. E.

Mobilization for WWI altered the lives of millions of civilians. Describe the impact on the American society to three of the following: Women and the war effort (military, munitions manufacturing) African Americans (Great Migration, push pull factors) Critics-Curbing dissent (Civil Liberties- Espionage ActSedition Act) Funding for the war (Income, Corporate, excise taxes, War Bonds, Loans) Administration of Resources -Fuel and food (Food Administration, Wheat, sugar, meat)

The most colossal, murderous, mismanaged butchery that

has ever taken place on earth. Ernest Hemmingway Make the world safe for democracy.
Woodrow Wilson

AP Outline
The First World War Problems of neutrality Submarines Economic ties Psychological and ethnic ties Preparedness and Wilson's Fourteen Points Treaty of Versailles Ratification fight Postwar demobilization Red scare Labor strife

pacifism Mobilization
Fighting the war Financing the war War boards Propaganda, public opinion,

civil liberties

World War I 1914-1919

Secret Alliances (Triple Alliance/Triple Entente) Rivalries-Empires Militarism/ Arms Race Revenge- Franco-Prussia War (1971) Nationalist movement touches off a giant war (Serbia- the

Black Hand Gavrillo Princip)

Pre World War I Map Interactive Map of War

Woodrow Wilson 1912-1919

Democrat (Progressive) PHD-Professor then President of Princeton-

Political Science Governor of New Jersey Want foreign policy to shape morality in the World. Very religious Committed to Peace in the world.

Moral or Missionary Diplomacy

Wilson, It would be the irony of fate if my

administration had to deal chiefly with foreign affairs. Hoped to change relations with Latin Americadidnt like the Big Stick diplomacy Wanted to restore Latin American Confidence in the US American Economic Expansion with American Democracy, and Christianity, to civilize the world. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan (Christian, Pacifist- reflected the Moral/Missionary vision)

Missionary Diplomacy
Wilson saw American influence in the world as a

moral crusade Wanted to help create a New World Order guided by fair play and cooperation Wanted to spread democracy and hope to less fortunate lands Pledged, The United States would never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest.

Wilson and Morality

Americans are meant to carry liberty and justice and the

principles of humanity wherever convert them to principles of America. America must use its enormous moral and material power to create a new order.

American Neutrality
Most Americans did not want to get involved in

the War Wilson didnt want war but didnt want Brits to lose Anglo-Americans pro-Allies (Brits) Irish Americans (4.5 million) were Anti-British and pro-German (1916, Easter Rising, Irish will use German Weapons to attack British in Dublin) German Americans pro-German (8 million) American Industrialists- were making millions on war goods

American Neutrality
Wilson said, A German victory would be destructive to American ideals.

Economic Ties=Tacit Neutrality

U. S. Bankers

Immediately after the War bogged down into stalemate, the Allies

sought to build their armies. They needed money and material to do it. They also needed supplies in large quantities. What they couldn't produce they bought from the United States and they bought on credit from U. S. Banks. Trade with Germany 1914 = $169,000,000 1916 = $1,158,000 1917 $27 million in credit Trade with Allies 1914 = $824,000,000 1916 = $3,214,000,000 1917 = $2.3 billion in credit
When the War looked bad for the Allies the bankers became worried

that they might lose their money if the Allies lost the War and started to pressure the United States government to get more involved.

Sinking of the Lusitania May 1915

Wilson wants to maintain neutrality but also cited the

necessity to maintain freedom of the seas Causes Americans to become more hostile to Germans

Effect of Lusitania
Wilson protests and demands German apology,

reparations, commitment to stop attacking passenger vessels Germans comply for time being Americans still trade with Allies and Germans Wilson desires Peace and Preparedness begins to prepare for war with appropriations

Election of 1916
Link nited-statespresidentialelection-1916
Wilson playing

both sides Preparedness and Peace Beats the Republican Hughes Very close race 277-254 electoral votes 9.1 mill- 8.5 mill pop votes

Propaganda Grows

Zimmerman Telegram
January 1917 German diplomat suggests to Mexico Alliance If US enters the war against Germany Mexico declares war on US and if Germany and

US win, Mexico will receive Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico Telegram is leaked to papers Outrages many Americans = more support for entering war

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

1917 Germany is getting desperate Wants to force British negotiated peace or victory Announces new policy of Unrestricted Submarine

Warfare= All ships going to Allied countries possible targets. Germans thought this might cause US to enter war, but thought war would end before they could mobilize.

Video of Submarine

Wilson Supports War

Wilson- Very pro-British- saw the war concerning

the survival of democracy. US Bankers and industrialists supported entrance into war Wilson wanted to see a New World Order emerge He cited the Freedom of the seas The American cause was to vindicate the principles of peace and justiceThe world must be made safe for democracy. Asks Congress for a Declaration of War

Americans want to keep out of War

Woodrow Wilson was re-elected in 1916 on the platform

He Kept Us Out of War!

In 1917, however, Wilson sought a declaration of war. Citing Freedom of the seas. A War to Make the World Safe for Democracy

Congress Vote
April 1917 Senate 92-6 House 473-50 US is at war against Germany

Financing the War Raised Income Taxes Corporate Taxes Loans War Bonds $24 Billion- cost of war $11 Billion in war loans War boards organize

War Industries Board

Huge bureaucracy Manages war time economy

Food Administration Herbert Hoover Managed food supply Controlling Wheat, Meat, Sugar Railroad Board Fuel Administration Shipping Board (Merchant


Ships) National War Labor Board

Prohibition and the war

War industries board WIB - huge bureaucracy Food Administration- headed by Herbert Hoover Wanted to limit private consumption of goods that

could be used for the war effort such as: wheat, grains, and sugar so that it could be used for the war effort 18th Amendment proposed- outlaw the making of alcohol Volstead Act- federal legislation that enforces the 18th amendment

Shaping Public Opinion

In order to mobilize support for the War Committee Public Information The American Governments propaganda arm Created to produce hatred for Germans and support for

the war effort

Civil Liberties
US has a history of limiting civil liberties, (liberties of free

speech, suspending Habeas Corpus) John Adams 1798- Alien Sedition Acts Lincoln- Civil War- suspends Habeas Corpus World War I Wilson pushes Sedition Acts (limits freedom of speech) Web site on suspension of civil liberties Espionage and Sedition Acts

Three Act Play

Alien Act 1798- Adams government, deport enemy aliens Espionage Act 1917 = allows for fines and prison for

obstruction of war effort Sedition Act 1918 = allows up to 20 years

Civil Liberties Attacked

A portion of the amendment to Section 3 of the Espionage

Act of June 15, 1917. SECTION 3. Whoever, when the United States is at war,, . . .(hinder) the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, or . . . shall willfully utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the form of government of the United States, or the Constitution of the United States, by word or act oppose the cause of the United States therein, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both....

Espionage and Sedition Acts

The Supreme court upholds the Espionage and Sedition

acts in the Schenck vs. United States.

Critics of the War

War to Make the World Safe for Armaments and

Munitions Manufacturers. People like Emma Goldman, Eugene Debs, and Jane Addams vigorously criticized the decision to enter the war. Debs will be put in prison because of his views

Conscription or Selective Service Act

Selective Service Act: All males 18-45 were ordered to

register for the draft More men who served in the war were conscripted. Draftees were un Unmarried, 13% black 24 million registered 2.8 million drafted 2 million volunteered

African Americans During the War

Great Migration= large numbers move North Nothing here but money, and it is not hard to

get. New York/Chicago Push: poor conditions, floods, race oppression Pull: more economic opportunity, jobs, higher pay Migration causes -hostility among other groupsimmigrants Segregated in military-

Blacks in the Military

260,000 enlist or are drafted 50,000 were sent to France- most worked in

service/menial tasks Some Combat regiments Segregated Units White officers Suffer racial abuse

American Troops Fight

Videos on the Web American Expeditionary Force (AEF) name of the US

forces in Europe Doughboys nickname for Americans in WWI

Black Jack Pershing- American Commanding General

American Significance in War

1916 Russians loosing (weak, poor); sending

troops w/out weapons to the front line; 1916 Russians pull out with treaty Brest Litovsk 1917 1916 French mutiny, 300 killed for refusing to attack fighting Trench warfare causing mass amounts of deaths; No mans land and Machine Guns, high explosives, and poison gas If Germany had taken Paris they would have won, but American reinforcements (1 million troops) stopped the Germans and save the Allies

American Battles
By early 1918 American troops arrive in France The AEF fight in a few important engagements Chateau-Thierry Bellau Wood The Argonne Forrest St. Mihiel

Trench Warfare

Women and the War

Women enter the military services Secretaries, nurses, telephone operators More opportunity for civilian work 1 million women in industry munitions

November 11, 1918 Germans facing invasion ask for a negotiated end of war

based on Wilsons Fourteen Points

War is effectively over.

The Fourteen Points and Treaty of Versailles

Wilson attempted to see his Missionary ideals in the settlement of

the war. His New World Order We entered this war because violations of right had occurred which touched us to the quick and made the life of our own people impossible unless they were corrected and the world secured once for all against their recurrence.
What we demand in this war, therefore, is nothing peculiar to

ourselves. It is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it be made safe for every peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live its own life, determine its own institutions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples of the world as against force and selfish aggression. for our own part we see very clearly that unless justice be done to others it will not be done to us. The program of the world's peace, therefore, is our program
Do unto others

All the peoples of the world are in effect partners in this interest, and

Fourteen Points
Idealist expression of

To correct errors that

created the war and to support the creation of a new world order based on Wilsons missionary principles
Contained in Treaty

Some of the Points Self Determination = independence for colonies Freedom of Seas Greater freedom of trade No Secret Treaties Reduction of armaments League of Nations to solve international problems

of Versailles

Harsh Treaty Punishes Central Powers

Austria-Hungary lose empire Germany loses land, pays large war debt Takes full blame for the war Turkey loses empire

Post War Map

Ratification Battle
Republican Senator, Henry Cabot Lodge Didnt like Wilson Wanted to change/weaken the League of Nations

Covenant- (Charter) Was concerned about American Sovereignty

Immigration Tariffs Ability use force (limited by the league)

Wanted to Weaken the Democratic Party

Wilson Commits Infanticide

Wilson would not compromise with the Lodge and the

Republicans in Senate He goes on a speaking tour to create public pressure on the Senate Has a massive stroke and is incapacitated The league of Nations/internationalism is dead American policy and popular opinion will reflect the concept of Isolationism- till World War II

Influenza Epidemic 1918

World War I claimed an estimated 16 million lives. The influenza epidemic that swept the world in


[an estimated 20 to 60 million people]. One fifth

of the world's population was attacked by this deadly virus. Within months, it had killed more people than any other illness in recorded history. Web Site 1918 Flu

Red Scare

Red Scare
After the Communist Revolution in Russia and Establishment of the Communist International

(Comintern) Americans become frightened of Communism in the US 1918- Anarchist mail bombing campaign Mitchell Palmer, US Attorney General, was one of the recipients- prompts hysterical reaction roundups of 6000 alleged radicals 500 deported J. Edgar Hoover is and assistant to Palmer, (will later head the FBI)

Red Scare Fuels Nativism and Xenophobia

Two victims of the Red Scare were Saco and Vanzetti Two anarchists accused of murder (not related to the

bombs) Executed in the electric chair

(invented by Edison)