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Structural Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings

Steel and

Composite

Construction

Bungale

S. Taranath
S.E.

Ph.D., RE.,

York

INTERNATIONAL

CRC Press is an

CODE COUNCll?

Taylor

& frauds

imprint of the Group, an informs business

Contents
List of

Figures

XX1

List of Tables Foreword ICC Foreword Preface

xxxix xli xliii xlv xlix li liii

Acknowledgments Special Acknowledgment


Author

Chapter

Lateral Load

Resisting Systems

for Steel

Buildings

1 1 2

Preview 1.1

Rigid Frames
1.1.1 1.1.2 Frames with 1.1.2.1 1.1.2.2
1.1.2.3

Partially Rigid Connections

6 6 7 7
7

Review of Connection Behavior Connection Classification Connection Strength Connection Ductility Structural

1.1.2.4
1.1.3

Analysis and Design

8 10 11 13
14 15

1.2

Beam Line Concept Frames with Fully Restrained Connections 1.2.1


1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6

Special
1.2.1.1

Moment Frame, Historic

Perspective

Deflection Characteristics

Cantilever Shear

Bending Component

Racking Component Methods of Analysis


Drift Calculations Truss Moment Frames

15
16

16
17 17 17 19 21 21 22 23 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 31 32 32 33

1.3

Concentric Braced Frames 1.3.1 1.3.2 Behavior

Types

of Concentric Braces

1.4

Eccentric Braced Frames 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 Behavior Deflection Characteristics Seismic 1.4.3.1 1.4.3.2 1.4.3.3 1.4.3.4 1.4.3.5 1.4.3.6

Design

Considerations

Link Beam

Design
and Beam outside of Links

Link-to-Column Connections

Diagonal Brace
Link Stiffness Columns

Schematic Details

1.5 1.6

Buckling-Restrained Brace Frame


Steel Plate Shear Wall 1.6.1

Low-Seismic Design

1.6.2

High-Seismic Design
1.6.2.1 1.6.2.2

Behavior AISC 341-05

Requirements

for

Special Plate

Shear Walls ....33

1.6.2.3 1.6.2.4 1.7

Modeling for Analysis Capacity Design Methods

33
34

Staggered Truss
1.7.1 1.7.2

35 37 38 38 38 39 39
to

Behavior

Design Considerations
1.7.2.1

1.7.2.2
1.7.2.3 1.7.3

Floor Systems Columns Trusses Seismic Loads

Seismic Design of Staggered Truss System


1.7.3.1

1.8

Response of Staggered Truss System Interacting System of Braced and Rigid Frames
1.8.1 Behavior Core and 1.9.1

39 40
43

1.9

Outrigger Systems

44 46
48 49 51 51 53 53 55 55 58

Behavior

1.9.2

Outrigger Located at Top 1.9.1.2 Outrigger Located at Three-Quarter Height from Bottom 1.9.1.3 Outrigger at Mid-Height 1.9.1.4 Outriggers at Quarter-Height from Bottom Optimum Location of a Single Outrigger 1.9.2.1 Analysis Outline 1.9.2.2 Detail Analysis 1.9.2.3 Computer Analysis
1.9.2.4

1.9.1.1

Conclusions
of Two

1.9.3 1.9.4 1.9.5 1.9.6 1.10 1.10.1 1.10.2 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14

Optimum Locations
1.9.3.1

Outriggers

58

Recommendations for

Optimum Locations

61 62 63 64 66 67 69 71
72 74 74

Vulnerability of Core and Outrigger System to Progressive Collapse


Offset Outriggers

Example Projects
Behavior Shear Lag

Frame Tube Systems

Irregular Tube
Trussed Tube Bundled Tube 1.13.1 Behavior Ultimate High-Efficiency

Systems

for Ultra Tall

Buildings

75

Chapter 2

Lateral

Load-Resisting Systems for Composite Buildings


Members

79 79 79 80 81

Preview 2.1

2.2

Composite 2.1.1 Composite Slabs 2.1.2 Composite Girders 2.1.3 Composite Columns 2.1.4 Composite Diagonals 2.1.5 Composite Shear Walls Composite Subsystems
2.2.1

81
82 83

87 87
89 89

Composite Moment Frames


2.2.1.1
2.2.1.2

Ordinary Special Moment Frames

Moment Frames

2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.3

Composite Braced Frames Composite Eccentrically Braced


Composite Construction

91 Frames 93 94 95 96 96 98 99 100 102 102 104

Temporary Bracing Composite Building Systems


2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3

Reinforced Concrete Core with Steel Surround


Shear Wall-Frame

2.4

Interacting Systems Systems 2.3.4 Vertically Mixed Systems 2.3.5 Mega Frames with Super Columns 2.3.6 High-Efficiency Structure: Structural Concept Seismic Design of Composite Buildings

Composite Tube

Chapter 3

Gravity Systems
Preview
3.1

for Steel

Buildings

105

105 105 105 106 107 108 108 109 110 110 110
Resistance Factor

General Considerations 3.1.1 Steel and Cast Iron: Historical Perspective 3.1.1.1 Chronology of Steel Buildings 3.1.1.2
3.1.1.3 1920 1950

through through

1950 1970

3.1.1.4 3.1.2
3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6 3.1.7 3.1.8 3.2

1970 to Present Loads

Gravity

Design Load Combinations Required Strength


Limit States

Design for Strength Using Load and Serviceability Concerns


Deflections of Members

Design

Ill Ill 112

Design
3.2.1

Subject to Compression

113 113 114 116 117 119 119

Buckling
3.2.1.1 3.2.1.2

of Columns, Fundamentals Euler's Formula

3.2.2

Behavior 3.2.2.1

Energy Method of Calculating Critical Loads of Compression Members Element Instability


Slenderness Ratio, KL/r

3.2.3 3.2.4

Limits

on

Column Curves:

Compressive Strength of Members


119

without Slender Elements 3.2.5 Columns with Slender Unstiffened Elements: Yield Stress Reduction Factor,

3.3

Q Design Examples: Compression Members 3.2.6.1 Wide Flange Column, Design Example 3.2.6.2 HSS Column, Design Example Design of Members Subject to Bending 3.3.1 Compact, Noncompact, and Slender Sections 3.3.2 Flexural Design of Doubly Symmetric Compact I-Shaped Members and Channels Bent about Their Major Axis 3.3.3 Design Examples, Members Subject to Bending and Shear
3.2.6

121 122 124 124 128 130

130 133 133 135 137

3.3.3.1 3.3.3.2 3.3.3.3

General Comments

Simple-Span Simple-Span Beam,

Beam, Braced Top Flange


Unbraced

Top Flange

3.4

Tension Members

139 140 140 142 143 144 146 147 149 151 152

3.4.1

Design Examples
3.4.1.1 3.4.1.2 3.4.1.3 3.4.1.4 3.4.1.5 3.4.1.6 Plate in Tension, Bolted Connection Plate in Tension, Welded Connection

Double-Angle Hanger Bottom Chord of a Long-Span Truss


Pin-Connected Tension Member

Eyebar

Tension Member

3.5

Design
3.5.1 3.5.2

for Shear, Additional Comments Transverse Stiffeners Tension Field Action of Members for Combined Forces and Torsion for

3.6

Design Design
3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 3.7.4 3.7.5 3.7.6

(in

Other 152 154 154 158 158 159 159

Words, Members Subjected to Torture)


3.7

Stability
of Columns

Behavior of Beam Columns

Buckling

Second-Order Effects Deformation of the Structure Residual Stresses Notional Load Geometric Imperfections

160
161 162

3.7.7
3.7.8 3.8

Leaning

Columns Provisions

AISC 360-10 3.8.1


3.8.2 3.8.3

Stability

162 162 163 163 163

Second-Order Analysis Reduced Stiffness in the Analysis

3.8.4
3.8.5 3.9

Application of Notional Loads Member Strength Checks

Step-by-Step

Procedure for Direct

Analysis Method

164 164

Understanding
for

How Commercial Software Works

Chapter

Gravity Systems
Preview 4.1 4.2

Composite Buildings

167 167

Composite
4.1.1

Metal Deck

168 169 170

SDI Specifications
Beams AISC

Composite
4.2.1

Design

Criteria:

Composite Beams with Metal


Comments

Deck 174 176 178 179 179 180 181

and Concrete 4.2.1.1

AISC

Topping Requirements, General

4.2.1.2 4.2.1.3
4.2.1.4 4.2.1.5

Effective Width Positive Flexural

Strength Negative Flexural Strength


Shear Connectors Deflection Considerations

4.2.1.6
4.2.1.7

Design

Outline for

Composite

Beam

183 186 186 186 189 190

4.3

4.4 4.5 4.6

Composite Joists and Trusses 4.3.1 Composite Joists 4.3.2 Composite Trusses Other Types of Composite Floor Construction

Composite Beams Nonprismatic Composite Beams


Continuous

and Girders

191

4.7

Moment-Connected

Composite Haunch Girders

192 193 195 197 200 200 201 201 202 202

4.8

Composite
4.8.1 4.8.2 4.8.3 4.8.4

Stub Girders

Behavior and

Analysis Stub Girder Design Example


Moment-Connected Stub Girder
of Stub Girder

4.9

Strengthening Composite Columns


4.9.1 4.9.2

Behavior AISC Design Criteria, Encased Composite Columns 4.9.2.1 Limitations 4.9.2.2 4.9.2.3 4.9.2.4 4.9.2.5 4.9.2.6 4.9.2.7

Compressive Strength
Tensile Strength Shear Strength Load Transfer

203
204 204

204 204 205 205


205

Detailing Requirements

4.9.3

Strength of Stud Shear Connectors AISC Design Criteria for Filled Composite Columns
4.9.3.1 4.9.3.2 4.9.3.3 4.9.3.4 4.9.3.5 Limitations

Compressive Strength
Tensile Shear

205 206 206 206


Column

Strength Strength

Load Transfer of

4.9.4

Summary
4.9.4.1 4.9.4.2 4.9.4.3

Composite Design

206 206
207

Nominal

Strength of Composite Sections Encased Composite Columns Filled Composite Columns

208
209

4.9.5

Combined Axial Force and Flexure

Chapter

Wind Loads Preview


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

211 211 Considerations 211 212 213 215 218 221 224 227 227

Design

Variation of Wind Velocity with Height (Velocity Profile) Probabilistic Approach


Vortex

Shedding Analytical Procedure: Method 2, Overview Analytical Method: Step-by-Step Procedure Wind Speed-Up over Hills and Escarpments: Kzt Factor
Gust Effect Factor 5.5.4.1 Gust Effect Factor G for

ASCE 7-05 Wind Load Provisions 5.5.1

5.5.2
5.5.3 5.5.4

Rigid Structure:
228

Simplified
5.5.4.2

Method

Gust Effect Factor G for

Rigid Structure:
228
or

Improved Method
5.5.4.3 Gust Effect Factor

Gf

for Flexible

Dynamically
230 233 234 234 235 238

5.5.5 5.5.6 5.6

Sensitive Buildings Along-Wind Displacement and Acceleration

Summary

of ASCE 7-05 Wind Provisions

Wind-Tunnel Tests
5.6.1 5.6.2

Types of Wind-Tunnel Tests Option for Wind-Tunnel Testing

5.6.3

Lower Limits 5.6.3.1 5.6.3.2

on

Wind-Tunnel Test Results


on

238
238

Lower Limit Lower Limit and

Pressures for Main Wind-Force


Pressures for

Resisting System
on

Components
238 238

Cladding

5.7
5.8 5.9

Building Human Response


Structural

Drift

to

Wind-Induced Building Motions


for Wind-Tunnel Data

239

5.9.1 5.9.2
5.9.3 5.9.4

Properties Required Frequencies Mode Shapes


Natural Mass Distribution

Analysis

240 240 240

240 241 241 241 243 243 244


244

Damping Ratio
Miscellaneous Information

5.9.5
5.10 5.11

Period Determination for Wind

Design

ASCE 7-10 Wind Load Provisions 5.11.1 5.11.2 5.11.3 New Wind Return

Speed Maps of Exposure D

Wind-Borne Debris

Chapter

Seismic Preview 6.1

Design

245 245 246 247

Structural Dynamics 6.1.1

Dynamic
6.1.1.1 6.1.1.2 6.1.1.3

Loads

Concept

of Dynamic Load Factor

247 250 253 254 255

Difference between Static and Dynamic Analysis Dynamic Effects due to Wind Gusts

6.1.2 6.1.3

Characteristics of a

Dynamic

Problem

Multiple
6.1.3.1

Strategy of Seismic Design

Example
to

of Portal Frame

Subject
256 258

Ground Motions

6.1.4 6.1.5 6.1.6

Concept

of

Dynamic Equilibrium

Free Vibrations

259 260 261 261 264 266 268 272 273 275 275 276 279 281
282

Earthquake Excitation
6.1.6.1

6.1.7

6.1.8

Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems Numerical Integration, Design Example 6.1.6.3 Numerical Integration: A Summary 6.1.6.4 Summary of Structural Dynamics Response Spectrum Method 6.1.7.1 Earthquake Response Spectrum 6.1.7.2 Deformation Response Spectrum 6.1.7.3 Pseudo-Velocity Response Spectrum 6.1.7.4 Pseudo-Acceleration Response Spectrum 6.1.7.5 Tripartite Response Spectrum: Combined Displacement-Velocity-Acceleration Spectrum 6.1.7.6 Characteristics of Response Spectrum 6.1.7.7 Difference between Design and Actual Response Spectra 6.1.7.8 Summary of Response Spectrum Analysis Hysteresis Loop
6.1.6.2

283

6.2

Seismic 6.2.1

Design
Seismic

Considerations

286 288 289 290 290

Response

of

Buildings Separation

6.2.1.1 6.2.1.2
6.2.1.3 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.2.6 6.2.7 6.2.8 6.2.9 6.3 ASCE 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4

Building Motions and Deflections


Building Drift and Adjacent Buildings

Continuous Load Path

290
291 293

Building Configuration
Influence of Soil

Ductility Redundancy Damping Diaphragms Response of Elements Attached to Buildings 7-05 Seismic Design Criteria and Requirements: Overview Seismic Ground Motion Values, Ss and S{ Site Coefficients Fa and Fv Site Class SA, SB, Sc, SD, SE, and SF Response Spectrum for the Determination of Design
Base Shear

295 296 296 299 301 303 304 305 306 306

6.3.5 6.3.6 6.3.7

Site-Specific Importance Factor IE Occupancy Categories


6.3.7.1 Seismic

Ground Motion

Analysis

309 312
312

Protected Access for

Occupancy Category
A

IV

312 315

6.3.8 6.3.9

Design Category Design Requirements for SDC


6.3.9.1 Lateral Forces

Buildings Investigation

316

318 319
320 321 322 322 324 327 330 Basis

6.3.10

Geologic
6.3.10.1 6.3.10.2

Hazards and Geotechnical Seismic

6.3.11

6.3.12 6.3.13

Design System Selection Building Irregularities 6.3.11.1 Plan (Horizontal) Irregularity 6.3.11.2 Vertical Irregularity Redundancy Reliability Factor, p
Structural Seismic Load Combinations 6.3.13.1 6.3.13.2 Vertical Seismic Load,

0.025DS
or

331 331 Frames 332 332 332 334 335 335 335 338 339

Overstrength

Factor

Q.0

6.3.14
6.3.15

Elements

Supporting
Loading

Discontinuous Walls

Direction of

6.3.16 6.3.17
6.3.18 6.3.19 6.3.20 6.3.21 6.3.22 6.3.23

Period Determination Inherent and Accidental Torsion

Overturning
PA Effects

Drift Determination Deformation

Compatibility

Seismic Response Modification Coefficient, R Seismic Force Distribution for the Design
of

Lateral-Load-Resisting System

339 340 340 342

6.3.24 6.3.25

Seismic Loads due to Vertical Ground Motions Seismic Force for the 6.3.25.1

Design

of

Diaphragms
Diaphragm Design....

Distribution of Seismic Forces for

6.3.25.2 6.3.25.3

General Procedure for Diagram Design

342

Diaphragm Design Summary: Buildings Assigned


to SDC C and

Higher

343 345 345 347 348 349


351 351 351

6.3.26

Catalog
6.3.26.1 6.3.26.2 6.3.26.3 6.3.26.4 6.3.26.5 6.3.26.6

of Seismic Design Requirements

Buildings
SDC B SDC SDC SDC SDC

in SDC A

Buildings C Buildings D Buildings E Buildings F Buildings

6.3.27

Analysis

Procedures

Chapter 7

Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Preview


7.1 AISC 341-10 Seismic 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.1.4 7.1.5 7.1.6 General

Buildings,

ANSI/AISC 341-10

355 355

Provisions, Overview Requirements

357 357 358 359 359 360 360 Frames

Member and Connection Moment Frames

Design

Stability

of Beams and Columns

Intermediate Moment Frames

Special Truss Moment Frames 7.1.6.1 Special Concentric Braced

360 361 361


363 363 364 365 367

7.1.7 7.1.8 7.1.9 7.1.10 7.2

Eccentrically Buckling-Restrained Braced


Special Plate Shear Walls Composite Structural Steel
Moment Frame Systems 7.2.1.1 SMF Design 7.2.1.2 7.2.1.3 7.2.1.4
7.2.1.5 AISC

Braced Frames Frames

and Reinforced Concrete Systems

AISC 341 -10, Detailed Discussion 7.2.1

Prequalified

Connections

368 368 369 369 369 369 370

Ductile Behavior

Seismically Compact Sections


Demand Critical Welds Protected Zones Panel Zone of Beam-to-Column Connections

7.2.1.6 7.2.1.7 7.2.2


7.2.2.1

Moment Frame

Systems Ordinary Moment Special Special

Frames

370 372 373 377 379 380 380

7.2.2.2
7.2.2.3 7.2.2.4

Intermediate Moment Frames Moment Frames Truss Moment Frames

7.2.3

Braced-Frame and Shear-Wall 7.2.3.1 7.2.3.2

7.2.3.3
7.2.3.4

Systems Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frames Special Concentrically Braced Frames Eccentrically Braced Frames Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames

383
388

7.2.4 7.2.5

Special
7.2.5.1

Plate Shear Walls

391 395 395 395

Composite Systems
7.2.5.2

Composite Ordinary Moment Frames Composite Intermediate Moment Frames

7.2.5.3 7.2.5.4 7.2.5.5 7.2.5.6 7.2.5.7 7.2.5.8

Composite Composite Composite Composite Composite Composite

Special Moment Frames Partially Restrained Moment Frames Ordinary Braced Frames Special Concentrically Braced Frames Eccentrically Braced Frames Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Shear
Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls

397 399 399 400


400

Walls with Steel Elements 7.2.5.9

401 403 404 406 406


407

Composite Special Composite

with Steel Elements 7.2.5.10 7.3 7.4 7.5 Steel Plate Shear Walls

Prequalified List of Significant Technical


Additional Comments 7.5.1
on

Seismic Moment Connection Provisions of AISC 341-05/10

Seismic

Design

of Steel

Buildings

Concentric Braced Frames

407

Chapter

Seismic Rehabilitation of Preview 8.1 8.2

Existing

Steel

Buildings

411 411
413 413 414 415 415 415

Social Issues in Seism ic Rehabilitation General 8.2.1 8.2.2

Steps

in Seismic Rehabilitation

Initial Considerations Rehabilitation 8.2.2.1 8.2.2.2 8.2.2.3 8.2.2.4 8.2.2.5

Objective

Performance Levels Seismic Hazard

Selecting

Rehabilitation

Objective

415 416 416 416 417 417 417 417

Rehabilitation Method Rehabilitation Procedures

Strategy

8.2.3

Analysis

8.2.4 8.2.5

Verification of Rehabilitation Nonstructural Risk 8.2.5.1 Disabled

Design Mitigation Access Improvements


and

8.2.5.2 8.2.5.3
8.2.5.4 8.3

Hazardous Material Removal

Design, Testing Management Fees

Inspection,

and 417 417

Historic Preservation Costs

Seismic Rehabilitation of 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3

Existing Buildings
Methods

ASCE/SEI Standard 41-06.... 418 425 427 428 429 429 429

Overview of Performance Levels


Permitted

Design

Systematic
8.3.3.1 8.3.3.2 8.3.3.3 8.3.3.4

Rehabilitation

Determination of Seismic Ground Motions Determination of As-Built Conditions

Secondary Components Primary Setting Up Analytical Model and Determination of Design Forces
Combined Gravity and Seismic Demand
Actions

and

430 432 433 434 436 442 447

8.3.3.5 8.3.3.6 8.3.3.7

8.3.4 8.3.5

Component Capacities gCE, (2<xand Design Capacity versus Demand Comparisons 8.3.3.8 Development of Seismic Strengthening Strategies ASCE/SEI 41-06: Design Example Summary

Chapter

Special Topics
Preview 9.1 9.2
9.3 Architectural Review of Tall Evolution of Tall

449

449

Buildings

449 451 452 453 459


460 460 462 463 465 467 470 472

High-Rise Buildings

Architecture

9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.3.5 9.3.6 9.3.7 9.3.8

World Trade Center

Towers, New York Empire State Building, New York Bank One Center, Indianapolis, Indiana
MTA

Headquarters, Los Angeles, California Building, New York City, New York Miglin-Beitler Tower, Chicago, Illinois
AT&T One Detroit Jin Mao Tower,

Center, Detroit, Michigan Shanghai, China 9.3.9 Petronas Towers, Malaysia 9.3.10 One-Ninety-One Peachtree, Atlanta, Georgia
9.3.11 9.3.12

Nations B ank Plaza, Atlanta,

Georgia Library Square,

472 475 477 480 482


482

U.S. Bank Tower First Interstate World Center, Los Angeles, California
21st

9.3.13 9.3.15

Century Tower, China 9.3.14 Torre Mayor Office Building, Mexico City

Angeles, California 9.3.16 Figueroa at Wilshire, Los Angeles, California 9.3.17 California Plaza, Los Angeles, California 9.3.18 Citicorp Tower, Los Angeles, California
Taipei Financial Center, Taiwan 9.3.20 Caja Madrid Tower, Spain 9.3.21 Federation Tower, Moscow, Russia
9.3.22 9.3.23 9.3.24 9.3.25 9.3.26 9.3.27 9.3.28 9.3.29 9.3.30 9.3.31 9.3.32 9.3.33 9.3.34 9.3.35 9.3.36 9.3.37 9.3.38 9.3.39 The New York Times Pacific Gate 9.3.19

Fox Plaza, Los

483
487 490 494

Tower A

496
496

Building, New York First Center, Seattle, Washington Square, Seattle, Washington

497
497

Way Center Plaza, Dallas, Texas of China Tower, Hong Kong Houston, Texas

Two Union InterFirst Bank

497 498 499 500 502 504 506 506 507 507 510 514 516
518 521 521 525 526 527

Bank of Southwest Tower, First

City Tower, Houston, Texas

America Tower, Houston, Texas


The Bow Shard

Tower, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Tower, London, United Kingdom Hearst Tower, New York
Standard Oil of Indiana

Building, Chicago, Illinois The Renaissance Project, San Diego, California Tokyo City Hall, Tower 1, Japan Bell Atlantic Tower, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Norwest Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota
First Bank Place, Minneapolis, Minnesota Allied Bank Tower, Dallas, Texas
Future of Tall Buildings

9.3.40
9.3.41

9.4 9.5

Building Motion Perception


Structural

Damping

9.6

Performance-Based Design 9.6.1 Alternative Design Criteria: 2008 LATBSDC 9.6.2


Recommended Administrative Bulletin
on

528 529

the Seismic

Design
9.6.3

and Review of Tall

Buildings Using Nonprescriptive


530 530 531 532 533 534

Procedures AB-083

9.7

Analysis 9.6.4 Concluding Remarks Preliminary Analysis Techniques


9.7.1 9.7.2 9.7.3 9.7.4 9.7.5 9.7.6 9.7.7 Portal Method Cantilever Method

Pushover

Design Examples:
Framed Tubes Vierendeel Truss

Portal and Cantilever Methods

536 538 540 544 550 558 559 560


573 573

9.7.8

9.7.9

Preliminary Wind Loads Preliminary Seismic Loads 9.7.7.1 Building Height, Hn 160 ft 9.7.7.2 Buildings Taller than 160ft Differential Shortening of Columns 9.7.8.1 Simplified Method of Calculating Ar Axial Shortening of Columns Derivation of Simplified Expression for Az 9.7.8.2 Column Length Corrections, Ac 9.7.8.3 Column Shortening Verification during Construction 9.7.8.4 Unit Weight of Structural Steel for Preliminary Estimate 9.7.9.1 Concept of Premium for Height
=

579
582 582

585

Chapter

10

Connection Details Preview

589 589 621 625

References

Index