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Home Work #9 - Fatigue and Creep (last one 2 pages) due: Mon 4/20/2009 Final exam: Monday, 4/27th at 9am

Points: 20

1. Text 12.10 2. Determine the parameters in the Coffin-Manson law for the low-cycle fatigue data for Type 347 stainless steel given in Fig.12-13. 3. For the cyclic strain-strain curve in Fig.12-10, the point B corresponds to 75MPa (B) and 0.000645 (B). If f=0.30 and E=22x104 MPa, determine (a) E and p; and (b) the number of cycles to failure. (ref. example on p.391). 4. An alloy plate containing a center crack of length 2a = 0.4 mm fractures in tension at 423 MPa. The alloy is to be used for aircraft components under cyclic stress conditions where R = -0.3 and max = 150 MPa. The proposed design life is 5 x 106 cycles. What is the minimum surface crack size that must be detectable in the fabricated components using NDT (non-destructive testing) methods? The Paris law for the alloy is, da/dN = 3x10-13 (K)3 m/cycle, K in MPa m . 5. Fatigue life is usually estimated from Mansons method of universal slopes relating the fatigue life to the tensile parameters: (ref. Callister) : =

For a steel, y = 30ksi, u = 50ksi, f=0.30 and E=30Mpsi. Estimate the limit on the total cyclic strain range if the steel is to withstand 4.9x105 cycles. 6. It is observed experimentally that "static fatigue" (constant tensile stress ) in cold-worked brass in a corrosive environment is given by da/dt = AK2 where A is a constant. Show that the time-to-failure tf is given by (in terms of A, ao, and KIC), t f =

2 K IC . ln 2 A a o

7. Text 13-6; 8. Text 13-9; 9. Text 13-11 10. The following rupture times were obtained for stress rupture tests on a steel alloy : (Text. 13-3) [Ref. S.S.Manson, et al., Trans. ASM, 51 (1959) 924] Stress, psi Temp. oF Rupture time, hr (a) Estimate the value for the activation energy for 80,000 1080 0.43 creep (Q). 80,000 1030 6.1 80,000 1000 22.4 (b) Establish the validity of Larson-Miller Parameter and 80,000 975 90.8 plot the data appropriately ( vs P). 10,000 1400 1.95 10,000 1350 6.9 10,000 1300 26.3 10,000 1250 84.7 11. In a laboratory creep experiment at 1000 oC, a steady-state creep-rate of 0.5% per hour is obtained and the specimen failed at 1000 hours. The creep mechanism for this alloy is known to be dislocation climb with an activation energy of 200 kJ/mol. Predict the creep rate at a service temperature of 600 oC and estimate the service life in hours. 12. At the test conditions in a nickel-base alloy, the average climb velocity of dislocations is v = 2 x 10-10 m/s. Estimate the power-law creep rate (climb plus glide mechanism) if D (climb-height)=0.5m, L=3m, =bv). =1x1012 m/m3 and b = 0.25 nm (recall 13. 4140 steel bolts in a steam-pipe flange are torqued so that the initial tensile stress is o = 100 MPa. The length of the bolts remains fixed in service. At 1000 K , the steady-state, power-law creep rate in 4140 is ss = 3 x 10-18 4 ( ss in s-1 and in MPa). The elastic modulus E = 200 GPa for 4140. What is the stress in the bolts after 1000 hrs operation?

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14. The following creep data were obtained for a bulk aluminum alloy single crystal: TM= 660.4 C (933.4 K) , MPa T, K QD (lattice diffusion) = 34,500 Cal/mole 150 900 Qb (boundary diffusion) = 19,750 Cal/mole Qs (solute diffusion) = 36,000 Cal/mole 150 780

s, s-1

3.32 x 10-7 1.70 x 10-8

300 900 6.64 x 10-7 a. Using these data, evaluate the parameters n and Q in the power-law creep equation b. Identify the underlying creep mechanism. c. If in another example, a thin polycrystalline sample exhibited essentially the same n and Q, what would be the controlling creep mechanism. (do not hand in) a. Describe (with relevant sketches) the mechanism(s) underlying fatigue crack initiation and propagation emphasizing the differences between Stage I and Stage II fatigue crack growth? b. Write down and describe the equations for predicting the fatigue life of materials (Basquin, Coffin-Manson, Universal Slopes and Characteristic Slopes). C. Describe the ways in which fatigue failures may be avoided or minimized? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ref. Quizzes; class-work practice problems; Tests 1, 2; HWs: 9:2-9,10-14; 8:1-3,7-12; 7:1-7,9; 6:1-8, optional; 5:1-4,6-8; 4:3,6,7,10,11; 3:1,2,4; 2:1,2; 1:1-6 Old Final (web) Plastic Deformation; Fatigue & Fracture; Creep & Stress Rupture; Dislocation theory strengthening mechanisms & c calculation; reactions; Shockley and Frank partials, stacking faults; forces on dislocations due to ij; Burgers vectors (representation & magnitude); FR source; Jogs and Kinks; Dislocation reactions & glide plane; Strain-aging (see Dislocations-Review); Hydrostatic, Deviatoric and Principal stresses; cut-surface method; von-Mises and Tresca criteria for yielding; mechanical properties; True / False questions (dislocation theory, mechanical properties, creep, fatigue and fracture)

Coble=ACoble = A n e-Q/RT

= t e-Q/RT L =b v D

DL NH=ANH 2 d

HD=AHDDL

Dgb d3

GBS =AGBS

Dgb 2 d2

KIC= 2 E s rp =

|crack-tip=

1 K2 GIc = oc 2 2 o 2G 2w Gb2 Gb P-N = exp(- b ) = Gb2, 0.5 1 F = b Eel = 2 2 R= 1- 8 r 2 a 1 b D2 a m <112> , <111> F = G x t = ( . b) x t v =( ) = c = f = v L2 6 3 L2 L2 o ky nGb 2Gb Gb =b v h= L= = o+ = L n = b x t = K n d xy 8 (1 ) xy

, = S.m, N = S. n S = . n

E G= 2(1 + )

2 Uel = 2E

f J=Kn+1

n+1

eff=

1 [(1-2)2+(2-3)2+(3-1)2]1/2 2

da = A( K ) p dN

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