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EMD homework solutions#3

Due 2/17
5-20, 4-32, 4-35, 4-36
5-20 First, compute the torque. Let H represent the power.
H = 42 hp
6, 600 in lb/s
1 hp
= 27, 720 in lb/s = T = T(3400 rev/min)
_
2 rad
rev
__
min
60 s
_
T = 778.5 in lb
(a) Using Table 4.5, case 3 with b = a for square cross-section:
Q =
8a
4
4.8a
= 1.667a
3
for the hollow square section:
Q = Q
outer
Q
inner
= 1.667
_
_
1.25
2
_
3

_
1.00
2
_
3
_
= 0.1986 in
3
Note that this gives quite a dierent result from that obtained if case 5 was chosen (thin
hollow tube). The reason is because for a square (or angular) cross-section, the assumption
of uniform stress in the wall of the hollow tube used in case 5 is not a good assumption. So
rather than getting
max
, you would get
ave
. Using (4-42):

max
=
T
Q
=
778.5 in lb
0.1986 in
3
= 3920 psi
From Table 3.3, S
yp
= 35, 000psi. Assuming the yield stress in shear is about half this value,

yp
= 17, 500psi. The existing safety factor is:
(n
ex
)
yp
=

yp

max
=
17, 500
3920
= 4.46
(b) Using case 3 of Table 4.5, for square section:
K = a
4
_
16
3
3.36
_
1
1
12
__
= 2.253a
4
for the hollow square:
K = K
outer
K
inner
= 2.253
_
_
1.25
2
_
4

_
1
2
_
4
_
= 0.203 in
4
1
Using (4-44), also get G = 10.6 10
6
psi from Table 3-9:
=
TL
KG
=
(778.5 in lb)(20 in)
(0.203 in
4
)(10.6 10
6
lb/in
2
)
= 0.00724 rad = 0.41

4-32 A free body diagram is shown in Figure 1.


M
L
P
13 kN
Figure 1: Force and moment on section A-A.
From force balance
P = 13 kN
Assume the reaction force and moment act through the centroid of the cross-section (this is
not exactly correct, but since the centroid is usually quite close to the neutral surface, it is
a good approximation for computing the moment). Find out the location of the centroid r
c
.
The reference point is at the center of curvature, and r
i
= 38 mm, r
o
= 66 mm.
Ar
c
=

j
A
j
r
c
j
(10 25 + 10 18)r
c
= 10 25 (38 + 5) + 10 18 (38 + 10 + 9)
r
c
= 48.8605 mm
M = 13, 000(90 + 48.8605) = 1.805 10
6
N-mm
Check Table 3.3, ultimate strength in tension is 345 MPa, in compression is 1172 MPa. Thus,
easier to fail in tension at the inner surface.
2
Using Table 4.3 case 5:
A = (10 25 + 10 18) = 430 mm
2
_
dA
r
= b
1
ln
r
i
+h
1
r
i
+b
2
ln
r
o
r
i
+h
1
= (25) ln
_
38 + 10
38
_
+ (10) ln
_
66
38 + 10
_
= 9.02491 mm
r
n
=
A
_
dA
r
= 47.6459 mm
e = r
c
r
n
= 1.215 mm
c
i
= r
n
r
i
= 9.646 mm
c
o
= r
o
r
n
= 18.3541 mm

i
=
Mc
i
eAr
i
+
F
A
=
(1.805 10
6
)(9.646)
(1.215)(430)(38)
+
13000
430
= 907N/mm
2
= 907MPa

o
=
Mc
o
eAr
o
+
F
A
=
(1.805 10
6
)(18.3541)
(1.215)(430)(66)
+
13000
430
= 931 MPa
Comparing with the ultimate tensile strength, the part is predicted to fail at the inner surface.
4-35 The contact force is just the weight of the steel sphere. AISI 1020 steel is low-carbon
steel (see Table 3.3), and its weight density (Table 3.4) is w = 76.81 kN/m
3
. Thus, the
contact force is just
F = wV = w
_
4
3
r
3
_
where r is the radius of the sphere. Using Eqn. (4-67), we nd the size of the circular contact
area for a sphere on at surface, with both materials being the same to be
a =
3

3F(2)
_
1
2
E
_
8
_
1
d
_ =
3

3
4
Fd
_
1
2
E
_
=
3

3
4
w
_
4
3
r
3
_
(2r)
_
1
2
E
_
=
3

2wr
4
_
1
2
E
_
where, for steel, = 0.3 and E = 207 GPa (Table 3.9). The maximum interface pressure at
3
the point of contact is
p
max
=
3F
2a
2
=
4wr
3
2
_
2w
_
1
2
E
_
2/3
r
8/3
=
2w
1/3
r
1/3
_
2
_
1
2
E
_
2/3
Lets assume yielding occurs when the maximum shear stress equals half the yield stress.
The maximum shear stress in terms of p
max
can be found using Fig. 4.16

max
0.32p
max
For yield to occur,
max
= S
yp
/2. For 1020 HR steel, S
yp
= 207 MPa (Table 3.3). Thus,
yield is predicted when

max
=
(0.32)(2)w
1/3
r
1/3
_
2
_
1
2
E
_
2/3
=
(0.32)(2)(76, 810 N/m
3
)
1/3
r
1/3
_
2
_
1(0.3)
2
20710
9
N/m
2
__
2/3

max
= 2.977 10
8
N/m
7/3
r
1/3
=
S
yp
2
= 103.5 10
6
N/m
2
r = 0.042 m = 42 mm
So the allegation is true, and the sphere need not be all that big to induce yielding at the
location of maximum shear stress slightly below the surface. If we only considered yielding
at the surface, then from Fig. 4-16,
max
0.1p
max
. Using this in the equations above
instead results in a sphere of much larger radius, r = 1.38 m, to cause yielding at the surface
of the sphere.
4-36 (a) Two spur gears in contact may be approximated as two cylinders in contact.
Assuming both gears to be steel,
1
=
2
= = 0.30, E
1
= E
2
= E = 207 GPa. The contact
width is
b =

_
4F(1
2
)
EL
_
1
d
1
+
1
d
2
_ =

(4)(180 N)(1 0.3


2
)
(207 10
9
Pa)(0.025 m)
_
1
0.024 m
+
1
0.032 m
_ = 0.0235 mm
(b)
p
max
=
2F
bL
=
(2)(180 N)
(0.0235 mm)(25 mm)
= 195 MPa
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(c) Looking at Figure 4.18 and reading in text,

max
0.3p
max
= 58.5 MPa
d 0.75b = 0.0176 mm
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