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MANE 4030 HW3 Solutions Spring 2011

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MANE 4030 HW3 Solutions Spring 2011

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You are on page 1of 5

Due 2/17

5-20, 4-32, 4-35, 4-36

5-20 First, compute the torque. Let H represent the power.

H = 42 hp

6, 600 in lb/s

1 hp

= 27, 720 in lb/s = T = T(3400 rev/min)

_

2 rad

rev

__

min

60 s

_

T = 778.5 in lb

(a) Using Table 4.5, case 3 with b = a for square cross-section:

Q =

8a

4

4.8a

= 1.667a

3

for the hollow square section:

Q = Q

outer

Q

inner

= 1.667

_

_

1.25

2

_

3

_

1.00

2

_

3

_

= 0.1986 in

3

Note that this gives quite a dierent result from that obtained if case 5 was chosen (thin

hollow tube). The reason is because for a square (or angular) cross-section, the assumption

of uniform stress in the wall of the hollow tube used in case 5 is not a good assumption. So

rather than getting

max

, you would get

ave

. Using (4-42):

max

=

T

Q

=

778.5 in lb

0.1986 in

3

= 3920 psi

From Table 3.3, S

yp

= 35, 000psi. Assuming the yield stress in shear is about half this value,

yp

= 17, 500psi. The existing safety factor is:

(n

ex

)

yp

=

yp

max

=

17, 500

3920

= 4.46

(b) Using case 3 of Table 4.5, for square section:

K = a

4

_

16

3

3.36

_

1

1

12

__

= 2.253a

4

for the hollow square:

K = K

outer

K

inner

= 2.253

_

_

1.25

2

_

4

_

1

2

_

4

_

= 0.203 in

4

1

Using (4-44), also get G = 10.6 10

6

psi from Table 3-9:

=

TL

KG

=

(778.5 in lb)(20 in)

(0.203 in

4

)(10.6 10

6

lb/in

2

)

= 0.00724 rad = 0.41

M

L

P

13 kN

Figure 1: Force and moment on section A-A.

From force balance

P = 13 kN

Assume the reaction force and moment act through the centroid of the cross-section (this is

not exactly correct, but since the centroid is usually quite close to the neutral surface, it is

a good approximation for computing the moment). Find out the location of the centroid r

c

.

The reference point is at the center of curvature, and r

i

= 38 mm, r

o

= 66 mm.

Ar

c

=

j

A

j

r

c

j

(10 25 + 10 18)r

c

= 10 25 (38 + 5) + 10 18 (38 + 10 + 9)

r

c

= 48.8605 mm

M = 13, 000(90 + 48.8605) = 1.805 10

6

N-mm

Check Table 3.3, ultimate strength in tension is 345 MPa, in compression is 1172 MPa. Thus,

easier to fail in tension at the inner surface.

2

Using Table 4.3 case 5:

A = (10 25 + 10 18) = 430 mm

2

_

dA

r

= b

1

ln

r

i

+h

1

r

i

+b

2

ln

r

o

r

i

+h

1

= (25) ln

_

38 + 10

38

_

+ (10) ln

_

66

38 + 10

_

= 9.02491 mm

r

n

=

A

_

dA

r

= 47.6459 mm

e = r

c

r

n

= 1.215 mm

c

i

= r

n

r

i

= 9.646 mm

c

o

= r

o

r

n

= 18.3541 mm

i

=

Mc

i

eAr

i

+

F

A

=

(1.805 10

6

)(9.646)

(1.215)(430)(38)

+

13000

430

= 907N/mm

2

= 907MPa

o

=

Mc

o

eAr

o

+

F

A

=

(1.805 10

6

)(18.3541)

(1.215)(430)(66)

+

13000

430

= 931 MPa

Comparing with the ultimate tensile strength, the part is predicted to fail at the inner surface.

4-35 The contact force is just the weight of the steel sphere. AISI 1020 steel is low-carbon

steel (see Table 3.3), and its weight density (Table 3.4) is w = 76.81 kN/m

3

. Thus, the

contact force is just

F = wV = w

_

4

3

r

3

_

where r is the radius of the sphere. Using Eqn. (4-67), we nd the size of the circular contact

area for a sphere on at surface, with both materials being the same to be

a =

3

3F(2)

_

1

2

E

_

8

_

1

d

_ =

3

3

4

Fd

_

1

2

E

_

=

3

3

4

w

_

4

3

r

3

_

(2r)

_

1

2

E

_

=

3

2wr

4

_

1

2

E

_

where, for steel, = 0.3 and E = 207 GPa (Table 3.9). The maximum interface pressure at

3

the point of contact is

p

max

=

3F

2a

2

=

4wr

3

2

_

2w

_

1

2

E

_

2/3

r

8/3

=

2w

1/3

r

1/3

_

2

_

1

2

E

_

2/3

Lets assume yielding occurs when the maximum shear stress equals half the yield stress.

The maximum shear stress in terms of p

max

can be found using Fig. 4.16

max

0.32p

max

For yield to occur,

max

= S

yp

/2. For 1020 HR steel, S

yp

= 207 MPa (Table 3.3). Thus,

yield is predicted when

max

=

(0.32)(2)w

1/3

r

1/3

_

2

_

1

2

E

_

2/3

=

(0.32)(2)(76, 810 N/m

3

)

1/3

r

1/3

_

2

_

1(0.3)

2

20710

9

N/m

2

__

2/3

max

= 2.977 10

8

N/m

7/3

r

1/3

=

S

yp

2

= 103.5 10

6

N/m

2

r = 0.042 m = 42 mm

So the allegation is true, and the sphere need not be all that big to induce yielding at the

location of maximum shear stress slightly below the surface. If we only considered yielding

at the surface, then from Fig. 4-16,

max

0.1p

max

. Using this in the equations above

instead results in a sphere of much larger radius, r = 1.38 m, to cause yielding at the surface

of the sphere.

4-36 (a) Two spur gears in contact may be approximated as two cylinders in contact.

Assuming both gears to be steel,

1

=

2

= = 0.30, E

1

= E

2

= E = 207 GPa. The contact

width is

b =

_

4F(1

2

)

EL

_

1

d

1

+

1

d

2

_ =

2

)

(207 10

9

Pa)(0.025 m)

_

1

0.024 m

+

1

0.032 m

_ = 0.0235 mm

(b)

p

max

=

2F

bL

=

(2)(180 N)

(0.0235 mm)(25 mm)

= 195 MPa

4

(c) Looking at Figure 4.18 and reading in text,

max

0.3p

max

= 58.5 MPa

d 0.75b = 0.0176 mm

5

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