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MANE-4030: Elements of Mechanical Design: Worksheet #8

2/17/11: Castiglianos method The figure shows a sketch of a loaded shaft. The shaft is an alloy steel with a modulus of elasticity of 30 Mpsi. In this problem, you want to determine the diameter d so that the maximum deflection does not exceed 0.01-in using Castiglianos theorem. (a) Where do you expect the maximum deflection to be? Is there currently a point load there? If not, apply an imaginary load Q at that location. (In this problem you will need to apply an imaginary load Q.) Note, while for determining the reactions at the supports, you can substitute the distributed load with a point load at the center, you can not make this substitution when computing the deflection because the deflection due to a point load at the center is not the same as for a distributed load. (b) Solve for the reactions R1 and R2 in terms of the point load (Q) and the known distributed load w. (c) What type of loads are acting on the shaft? Axial? Bending? Torsion? What is (are) the main contributor(s) to the shaft deflection? (The answer is bending.) (d) Since bending (M) is the main contributor to the deflection, neglecting transverse shear (V) (which is almost always negligible), you need to find the bending moment as a function of Q along the length of the shaft. Express M(x) over the different sections of the shaft (and note that because of symmetry, you only need to consider half the shaft), i.e. for 0 x 4 in, M1(x) = ...; and for 4 in x 10 in, M2(x) = ... (e) Express the strain energy, U, for the shaft in terms of the bending moments M1 and M2. Note that because of symmetry, the strain energy is equal to twice the strain energy for half the shaft; 0 x 10 in. (f) By Castiglianos method, the deflection at the location of the applied load Q in the direction of this load is =
U Q Q= 0

where, after differentiation (but before integrating) Q

is set to zero because it is imaginary (if it were a real force, it would be set to the specified value of the force at this time). Determine the deflection in terms of the unknown diameter d. (g) Set the deflection to the maximum allowable value and solve for the diameter d.
w = 150 lb/in

3/4 d 4 in R1

d 6 in 6 in 4 in R2

EMD worksheet solutions #8

Feb. 17, 2011 (a) Maximum deection will be at the center. There is currently no point load there (only distributed load), so we apply an imaginary point load Q at the center. (b) 1 R1 = R2 = 0.5(150 lb/in 12 in + Q) = 900 lb + Q 2 (c) Bending (d) For 0 x 4 in (in units of in-lb): M1 (x) = R1 x = and for 4 x 10 in: 1 M2 (x) = R1 x (150)(x 4)2 = 75x2 + 2 (e)
4 10 4

1 Q + 900 x 2

1 Q + 1500 x 1200 2

U =2

2 M1 dx + 2 2EI1

2 M2 dx 2EI2

(f) U = Q

Q=0 0

1 M1 M Q



dx + 2
Q=0 4

2 M2 M Q



M1 Q


1 x 2

M2 Q


1 = x 2

M1 (x)|Q=0 = 900x

M2 (x)|Q=0 = 75x2 + 1500x 1200



2 EI1

450x2 dx +

2 EI2


(37.5x3 + 750x2 600x) dx

4 10 4

2 2 4 (150x3 ) 0 + (9.375x4 + 250x3 300x2 ) EI1 EI2 19, 200 (30 106 )(/64)(0.75d)4 +

19, 200 234, 900 + EI1 EI2

234, 900 0.2007 = 6 4 (30 10 )(/64)d d4 1

(g) = 0.01 = 0.2007 d4 d = 2.12 in

So minimum shaft diameter is d = 2.12 in.