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MSE 450 / Final ID#

MAY 3, 2004 NAME

Total Points: 100

Please show your work and intermediate steps clearly so that you may get partial credit even if the final answer is wrong. Write your answers in the space(s) below the questions and use the back side(s) if additional space is needed. Relevant equations and information are on the last page - tear it for convenience 1. True or false questions / Mark (X) the correct answer (1 point each) ----------------------------- [15] a. Fracture toughness (KIC) decreases with increase in specimen thickness until plane strain critical fracture toughness is reached. ------------------------- True b. Goodman diagram is commonly used to characterize creep failure. ------------ True or false or false

c. A screw dislocation glides perpendicular to itself. --------------------------------- True or false d. Lomer-Cottrell reaction in fcc metals results in a sessile dislocation. ----------- True e. Fatigue life may be increased by compressive surface residual stresses. ------- True f. Larson-Miller parameter can be used for low cycle fatigue life prediction. ---- True
a

or false or false or false

g. Frank partials in fcc with b=3 <111> are sessile dislocations.--------------------- True or false h. In general, appropriate alloying decreases the stacking fault energy and thus dislocations can cross-slip easily. ----------------------------------------------- True or false i. A prismatic loop has Burger's vector perpendicular to the plane of the loop and thus cannot glide in that plane under an applied shear stress. --------------- True j. or false

Like screw dislocations repel each other. -------------------------------------------- True or false

k. KIc is a valid fracture toughness parameter for ductile materials where process zone is larger than K-zone. --------------------------------------------------- True or false l. An edge dislocation may change its glide plane by cross-slip. -------------------- True or false

m. Superplastic materials have high strain-rate sensitivity. ---------------------------- True or false n. Kinks and jogs on dislocations make the crystal softer. --------------------------- True or false o. Some jogs on screw dislocations have screw character ---------------------------- True or false

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2. In a laboratory creep experiment at 1200 oC, a steady-state creep-rate of 0.2% per hour is obtained and the specimen failed at 1500 hours. The creep mechanism for this alloy is known to be dislocation climb with an activation energy of 25 kCal/mol. The service temperature of the alloy is 600 C. a. Evaluate the creep-rate at the service conditions. ------------------------------------------------------------[3]

b. Evaluate the Larson-Miller Parameter for the laboratory test. ---------------------------------------------[2]

c. Estimate the service life (in years) of the material. ---------------------------------------------------------[2]

3.a. Draw the S-N curves for austenitic stainless and ferritic steels showing the salient differences between them. -------------------[2]

b.

On figure below, show the effect of coldwork on S-N curve for austenitic stainless steel. -----------------------------------------------[1]

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c. A steel with an yield strength (Sy) of 30,000 psi, tensile strength (Su) of 50,000 psi and true fracture strain of 0.3 is to be used under cyclic loading at a constant strain-range. Evaluate the limit on the total cyclic strain range if the steel is to withstand 4.9x105 cycles; E=30x106 psi. -----[3]

4. a. A tensile stress of 300 MPa acts on a sheet sample of an Al alloy (fcc : E = 200 GPa; o = 350 MPa; GIc = 8 kJ/m2) with a central crak of length 5 mm. Is the sample going to fail in a britlle manner (assume Y = 1) ? -----------------------------------------[3]

b. Evaluate the plastic zone size (rp) in mm for the case in #a ? ------------------------------------------- [3]

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5. The following data were obtained for an aluminum alloy: TM= 660.4 C QD (lattice diffusion) = 34,500 Cal/mole Qb (boundary diffusion) = 19,750 Cal/mole Qs (solute diffusion) = 36,000 Cal/mole d = grain-size. d, m 100 100 100 50 , MPa 150 150 300 300 T, K 900 780 900 900 s, s-1 3.32 x 10-7 1.70 x 10-8 6.64 x 10-7 2.56 x10-6

a. Using these data, evaluate the parameters n and Q in the power-law creep equation. ------------ [3+4]

b.

Identify the underlying creep mechanism {Nabarro-Herring, Coble, Harper-Dorn, Dislocation Climb (pure metals and class-M alloys), glide (class-A alloys) or GBS}. ------------------------------[3]

c.

In another case, same n and Qc values were obtained for a bulk single crystalline aluminum alloy. What would be the underlying creep mechanism in this case? -------------------------------------------[1]

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6. A mild steel plate contains an initial through thickness edge crack of 0.5 mm and was subjected to uniaxial fatigue loading : max = 180 MPa and R = 0. If the material follows the Paris crackgrowth relation,
da dN

(m/cycle) = 5.185x10-13 (K)2 , with K in MPa m .

a. Derive the expression for the number of cycles to failure? ---------------------------------------------[2] b. Evaluate the number of cycles required to break the plate (assume Y = 1)? -------------------------[3]

7.

Calculate the hardening (c) in a nickel alloy {fcc, G = 110 GPa, a = 3.6 } with 3 at % solutes 9 -2 (c = 0.005) and a dislocation density of 2x10 cm with =1. ----------------------------------------[6]

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8. Refer to figure below in an fcc metal, and consider the 2 edge dislocations, a a [ 1 10] on (111) plane and [101] on ( 1 11) plane. The two dislocations (#s 1 and 2) glide on 2 2 the two planes to interact with each other to become one dislocation (b3) : b1 + b2 b3 a. Write down the reaction and show that the above reaction is energetically favorable (i.e., follows Franks rule). ---------------------------------------------[1+2]

b. What is the line vector of the product dislocation (#3)? -----------------------------------------------[2]

c. Find the glide plane of the dislocation #3, and is this a sessile or glissile dislocation?---------[2+1]

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1 9. Assume that the stress state ij = 4 0

4 0 5 0 acts on (111) plane of a Ni crystal 0 0

(fcc, G = 110 GPa, a = 2.828 ). A screw dislocation with Burgers vector along [1 1 0] lies in the (111) plane. a. What is the magnitude (in cm) of the Burgers vector of the screw dislocation? --------------------[3]

b.

Is the dislocation a perfect dislocation or a partial dislocation? -------------------------------------[2]

c.

Is this a glissile or a sessile dislocation ? ---------------------------------------------------------------[2]

1 4 0 d. Evaluate the force acting on the dislocation due to ij = 4 5 0 , and comment on how 0 0 0 the dislocation may move due to the force? -------------------------------------------------------------[4]

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e.

Compute the hydrostatic part (ij

1 ) of the stress tensor ij = 4 0

4 0 5 0 ? -----------------[3] 0 0

1 4 f.. Compute the deviatoric part ( dev ) of the stress tensor = ij ij 0

4 0 5 0 ? ---------------------[3] 0 0

and comment on how may the g. What is the force on the screw dislocation due to ij dislocation move under this force? ------------------------------------------------------------------------[4]

hydro

h. Evaluate the force on the screw dislocation due to the deviatoric part ( dev ij ) of the stress tensor, and comment on how may the dislocation move under this force? -------------------------[4]

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10. A 10 mm diameter tensile specimen has a 50 mm gage length. The load corresponding to the 0.2% offset is 68 kN and the maximum load is 84 kN. Fracture occurred at 73 kN. The diameter after fracture is 6 mm and the gage length at fracture is 65 mm. The diameter away from the fracture was 9 mm. The material followed the standard work-hardening law (=Kn). Calculate the following parameters: (1.5 points each) ------------------------------------------------------[6] (a) UTS (MPa) (c) Reduction in Area (%)

(b) Yield Strength (MPa)

(c) Strain-Hardening Parameter (n)

2 1 0 11. The principal stresses, 1, 2 and 3, for the stress state ij (MPa) = 1 0 0 are found to 0 0 5 be : 1= 5, 2= 2.414, 3= 0.414 MPa. The uniaxial yield stress is 5.5 MPa. a. Does Tresca criterion predict yielding? [2] b. Does von-Mises criterion predict yielding? [3]

end

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Relevant Equations
E G= 2(1 + ) E K= 3(1 2)

= K n P-N =

2 Uel = 2E

f J=Kn+1

n+1

RSS = cos cos F = b a


3
D

S = .n, = S.m, N = S.n Eel (screw) = Gb2 82r2

F = G x t = ( . b) x t h= Gb 8(1-)xy L=

2G 2w exp(- b ) = Gb2, 0.5 1 1- Gb2 Gb a Eel (edge) = 2 R= 6 <112> , 8 (1-)r2 1 b2 D2 v =( )m =L2 c = 2 fv = 2 L L o = o+ ky d f = 2Gb = L 2Es a n=bxt

<111>

=b v

nGb xy

K = Y a

KIC= 2 E s

K |crack-tip= f() 2r

Y=

1 K2 w a tan rp = 2 2 a w o

GIc = oc

K2 J=G= E

2A J = Bb

= 2 f (2N)c = t e-Q/RT L D =b v D

PLM = T (logtr + C), C=20


D Coble=ACoble

D = A n e-Q/RT

Su -0.12 0.6 -0.6 = 3.5 E Nf + f Nf DL D NH=ANH 2 D HD=AHDDL d


D glide =AglideDs3

Dgb d3

D GBS =AGBS

Dgb 2 d2

D climb = Aclimb DL 5

R = 1.987 Cal/mole-K

k=13.8x10-24J/K=8.31J/mole-K

NA =6.02x1023

1N=0.224lb=0.102kgf, 1J=0.239Cal/mole=6.24x1018eV 106J/m2 = MPa-m 1Pa=1N/m2=0.145x10-3psi 1psi=6.895x103Pa=6.895x104dy/cm2=7.03x10-2kgf/cm2 Pr. 9


1 ij = 4 0 4 0 5 0 acts on (111) plane of a Ni crystal (fcc, G = 110 GPa, a = 2.828 ). 0 0

A screw dislocation with Burgers vector along [1 1 0] lies in the (111) plane. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Stress Fields Around Dislocations   ) ) i; t=k Edge Dislocation ( b = b Screw Dislocation ( b = bk ; t=k Gb 3x2+y2 Gb y Gb sin = y xz = zx = = xx (x2 + y2)2 2(1) 2 x2 + y2 2 r Gb x2 - y2 Gb x Gb cos = y yy yz = zy = = (x2 + y2)2 2(1) 2 x2 + y2 2 r Gb x2 - y2 x (x2 + y2)2 xy = yx = 2(1) zz = (xx + yy)