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1. Describe the basic functions of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the federal and state
governments. State the difference between formal powers and informal powers.

2. Describe the main problems with the Articles of Confederation and how the Constitution rectified 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.
those main problems. Explain the significance of Shays Rebellion to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. Describe the scene of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787. Describe the main compromises during the writing of the Constitution (3/5s compromise, Great Compromise, Virginia Plan, Connecticut Plan). Identify the significance of the following guiding principles found in the U.S. Constitution: popular sovereignty, separation of powers, checks and balances, federalism and the rule of law. Provide examples. Explain the birth of political parties (i.e. Federalist & Anti-Federalists). What does the Constitution say? Explain how the U.S. Constitution can be both formally and informally changed. Explain the importance and significance of natural rights in the Constitution. Know the difference between procedural and substantive due process. Explain the significance of the Federalist Papers. What are the lessons of Federalist #10? #51? Know the difference between pluralism and elitism. Explain the differences between a direct democracy and a republic? Describe how the constitution balances majority rule with minority rights. Know the Bill of Rights. What was the controversy over its inclusion? Identify the significance of the Civil War Amendments Explain the significance of the 14th Amendment. Explain the difference between civil liberties and civil rights. Define selective incorporation. Trace its path from Barron (1833) to Gitlow (1925). List other examples. Know the provisions of the First Amendment. Why is speech given a preferred position? What is the clear and present danger test? Define and state the significance of symbolic speech. Know the difference between libel and slander. Identify and state the significance of prior restraint. Under what circumstances can the government deny free press? Describe the difference between the establishment clause and the free exercise clause found in the First Amendment? What is the significance of the exclusionary rule? What rights are guaranteed in the 5th and 6th Amendments? Trace the legal precedent of the right to privacy. Explain the difference between de jure vs. de facto segregation. Assess the various tactics used by the civil rights movement. Explain the significance of the Baker v. Carr (1962). Define and state the significance of affirmative action programs. How were civil rights advanced with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965? How does federalism affect civil rights in American society?

33. Explain how the courts have used the strict scrutiny test in the area of civil rights 34. Whose rights did Title IX programs affect? Explain. 35. Know the precedent from the following landmark Supreme Court cases: Marbury; McCulloch; 36. 37. 38.
Plessy; Schenck; Tinker; Everson; Mapp; Miranda; Gideon; Griswold and Roe; Brown v. Brd of Ed. Demonstrate your ability to interpret charts, graphs and political cartoons. Demonstrate your ability to read, analyze and interpret primary source documents. Demonstrate your ability to write FRQs for an Advanced Placement Government test.