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# Ilmenau University of Technology Communications Research Laboratory Prof. Dr.-Ing.

Martin Haardt

CRL

Mobile Communications

Homework 03 due on May 21, 2013 (Please hand in your homework in the ofﬁce H3513, H3504 or H3502 before 4 pm.) Note: Homework points are only valid in the same semester, they do not carry over to the next. If you are taking the exam one semester later you cannot get homework bonus points. 1. (10p) Perform a baseband Rayleigh fading simulation (M ATLAB). The AWGN samples (nI (t), nQ (t), t = 1..10000) for the I (inphase) and Q (quadrature) branch are lowpass ﬁltered by the Doppler ﬁlter. This introduces some intersample correlation by restricting the maximum rate of change at the ﬁlter outputs (aI (t), aQ (t)). (a) (2p) Generate the AWGN samples nI (t) and nQ (t). (b) (2p) The Doppler ﬁlter can be modeled as an IIR ﬁlter. Use the following coefﬁcients:

% Poles, Zeros, Numerator and Denominator Polynomials of Jakes Filter Poles = [ 0.990155 + j * 4.50092E-02 0.990155 - j * 4.50092E-02 0.980484 + j * 1.87576E-02 0.980484 - j * 1.87576E-02 0.996529 + j * 5.49384E-02 0.996529 - j * 5.49384E-02 0.998280 + j * 5.66694E-02 0.998280 - j * 5.66694E-02 ]; Zeros = [ 0.998358 + j * 5.72764E-02 0.998358 - j * 5.72764E-02 0.997444 + j * 7.14561E-02 0.997444 - j * 7.14561E-02 0.994404 + j * 0.105644 0.994404 - j * 0.105644 0.965308 + j * 0.261113 0.965308 - j * 0.261113 ]; B = real(poly(Zeros)); A = real(poly(Poles));

and ﬁlter nI (t) and nQ (t) separately using M ATLABs filter function. (c) (3p) Plot the phase (linear) and the magnitude (logarithmic) of the fading simulation. √ a(t) = (aI (t))2 + (aQ (t))2 and α(t) = arctan aQ (t) , aI (t)

where aI (t) and aQ (t) are the output samples of the Doppler ﬁlter. (d) (3p) Plot a histogram of the amplitudes a(t) and phases α(t) using 100 bins (quantization values). What do the distributions look like? 2. (12p) A very important step in the development of future mobile communication systems is the test of various algorithms under realistic conditions. Since building prototypes and testing them

You can ﬁnd an outline for the script in the “homework3. the focus is on stochastic channel models. (a) (4p) Write a Matlab script that implements a stochastic channel model following the steps described above.m the main ﬁle which provides you with an outline dopplerﬁlter. in a computer the time (t) and delay time (τ ) are not continuous but sampled. • Stochastic channel models: For this type of channel model. In order to do so we require realistic channels that can represent all types of propagation conditions that are relevant. τ .zip” which you can download at our website. t) in time direction with an ∫∞ t ⃝ appropriate ﬁlter g (t). This task requires a suitable channel model. Our goal will be to implement a simple channel model that can generate random channels following a certain power delay proﬁle as well as a certain Doppler power spectrum. This is a computationally very demanding task and quickly becomes infeasible for larger scenarios. One option is to use measured channels but this is not always feasible. t) can be divided into the following steps: − Generate random samples w(τ. Therefore given √ a desired delay power spectrum φh (τ ) the normalized channel is given by h(τ. such that the delay power spectrum speciﬁcations. the actual electromagnetic propagation phenomena are ignored. In there you will ﬁnd: channelmodel.g. i.in the real world is too expensive. Rayleigh. For example. i. − Introduce correlation in time by ﬁltering the sequence w(τ.g. t) = w(τ. t − t1 ) · g (t1 )dt1 (use filter). It also requires very precise knowledge about all interacting objects which is often unavailable.e. In this task. IlmProp is a hybrid channel model: It includes geometrical information through a ray-based propagation model but the scattering coefﬁcients are modeled as random numbers.. delay power spectrum). 2 .g. f . fD . It is described by appropriate characterizations such as amplitude distributions (e. ﬁt the variance of the channel for a certain delay time τ to the desired variance.. the channel is treated as a random process.mat a ﬁle to load to get the ﬁlter coefﬁcients makeaxis. t). The generation of a random channel h(τ. h1 (τ. Of course. Rice) and are independent identically distributed.e. so that the amplitude distribution is Rayleigh and the phase distribution is uniform (as in the previous homework). • Hybrid channel models: These represent a mixture of both. path loss.. The variance after the ∫ follows the 1 2 2 second step is σh (τ ) = limT →∞ T T |h1 (τ. Therefore the automatic generation of mobile radio channels is a very important task in communications research. t) = φh ( τ ) 2 (τ ) σh · h1 (τ. Assume that there is no line of sight. correlation functions (e.. t) ∗ g (t) = −∞ w(τ. Instead. the average over the time variable t.m a helper function to generate the correct axes in t.g. Rayleigh). researchers usually prefer to test their methods in computer simulations. the goal is to compute the actual propagation conditions by solving Maxwell’s equations. t) such that all samples have the desired distribution (e.. − Finally. Jakes’ model) and power distributions (e. Channel models can coarsely be divided into the following categories: • Deterministic channel models: Here. t)| dt.

t). t). Compute the remaining three Bello functions H (f. τ .. why not? (c) (2p) Compute a histogram of the amplitude and of the phase of h(τ = 0.(b) (4p) Use your script to generate a random channel h(τ. What can you see from its shape? Is this a realistic model for the Doppler power spectrum? 3 . t) for NT = 1000. Plot all four Bello functions along with the correct axis for t. fD )|2 dfD ∫ ΦH (fD ) = |h(τ. Do they agree? Also compute the estimated Doppler power spectrum. Also note the ordering of the elements. fD ).). Does it follow your expectation (to get a smooth histogram you can increase NT)? (d) (2p) Estimates of the Doppler power spectrum and the delay power spectrum are given by: ∫ φh (τ ) = |h(τ. Do the Bello functions look realistic? Why. To get a correct DFT use fft(. h(τ. and H (f. f and fD (Hints: Matlab provides an implementation of the Fast Fourier transform by the command fft. which can be corrected using fftshift. Note that the normalization is different from the one used in our lecture. fD )|2 dτ Compute the estimated delay power spectrum and compare it with the desired one for NT = 1000. fD ).)/N..

• In complex baseband terminology. xlabel. Useful M ATLAB functions: randn.-Ing. • Label your plots.-number for easier association. ylabel. Always indicate your name and your Mat. separate graphics in JPEG and PNG format (including them in one document is preferred). 2013 (Please hand in your homework in the ofﬁce H3513. To get complex Gaussians you need normal distributed (pseudo-) random variables. hist. Martin Haardt CRL Mobile Communications Hints 03 due on May 21. the real part is referred to as the inphase component. Do not send . which are returned by randn. Hand in printouts of your programs and the resulting plots.) 1.Ilmenau University of Technology Communications Research Laboratory Prof. Electronic submissions are accepted in PDF and Word format (PDF preferred). The magnitude is therefore equal to the square root of the sum of the squared inphase and the squared magnitude. plot. 4 .FIG ﬁles. • The MATLAB command rand returns uniformly distributed (pseudo-) random variables. Dr. filter. semilogy. A good labeling (as an example) would have been Magnitude on the horizontal and Frequency of occurrence on the vertical axis. Label your axis correctly. H3504 or H3502 before 4 pm. the imaginary part is called quadrature component.