Fourth Quarter 2006 Volume 1, Issue 4

Quarterly Newsletter
Inside this issue:

CHPPM-W support for Hurricane Recovery

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CHPPM-West Industrial Hygiene Support to Corps of Engineers Ensures Safety of Hurricane Recovery Operations
CPT Richard Ramos of CHPPM-W deployed in October 2006 as the Industrial Hygienist for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Louisiana Recovery Field Office (LA-RFO). The LA-RFO operates at the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to execute assigned missions under Emergency Support Function #3 (ESF-3), of the National Response Plan, Public Works and Engineering support for emergency response and recovery operations. In the immediate aftermath of hurricanes Katrina and Rita, the highest priority was saving lives and the relief of human suffering. The Corps activated an Emergency Operations Center in its Memphis District and the LA-RFO provided the logistical support for receipt and distribution of ice and potable water to the affected communities, and installation of emergency power generators to critical facilities. Under ESF-3, the Corps provided emergency clearance of debris, including repairs to bridges, streets, airfields, and ports. Concurrently, the LARFO deployed teams to manage the installation of temporary roofing of residential structures, effect debris removal, and repair public facilities and/or install temporary critical public facilities. The destruction caused by Katrina generated over 50 million cubic yards of debris in the southern part of Louisiana including over 850,000 homes damaged or destroyed. Much of this damage was a result of the massive flooding that occurred along the Mississippi river. The type of waste generated included municipal solid waste (general household trash and personal belongings); construction and demolition (C&D) debris (building materials to include asbestos containing materials, drywall, lumber, carpet, furniture, mattresses, and plumbing); vegetative debris (trees, branches, shrubs, and logs); household hazardous waste (oils, pesticides, paints, cleaning agents); white goods (refrigerators, freezers, washers, dryers, stoves, water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners); and electronic waste (computers, televisions, printers, stereos, DVD players, and telephones). Each type of waste poses a threat to the environment and humans. There are federal and state standards for which hazardous construction debris, particularly asbestos-containing material, must be handled. “The Safety Team works diligently, 6-days a week, 12-hours a day, to ensure the process does not injure or contaminate hurricane recovery workers” said CPT Ramos.

Medical Military History 2 MiniVol vs. Deployable Particulate Sampler Pandemic Flu (pt. 2) AFPMB Pesticide list update Decipher the DA code 2 3 4 4

CHPPM-W working with the Corps of Engineers
Presently, the LA-RFO is focused on demolition of unsafe private residential structures and debris removal, household hazardous waste disposal and cutting down salt water killed trees. “I was part of an integral safety network of caring professionals who proudly report fewer than 5 government and 47 contractor recordable injuries after more than 5.4 million man-hours as of December 2006” said CPT Ramos. Direct regular interaction with the City of New Orleans, FEMA, EPA, OSHA and other state and federal agencies is credited for the Corps’ outstanding occupational health and safety record. “I’m very proud of the Corps’ accomplishments and to have been a member of the recovery effort for people of New Orleans” said CPT Ramos.

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Quarterly Newsletter

Volume 1, Issue 4

Medical Military History
William Beaumont (1785 1853) was a surgeon in the US Army who became known as the "Father of Gastric Physiology" following his research on human digestion. In 1819, he was assigned to Fort Mackinac, Michigan where an employee of the American Fur Company named Alexis St. Martin was accidentally shot in the stomach. Dr. Beaumont treated his wound and St. Martin survived with a hole in his stomach that never fully healed, but a flap of skin grew over it. Unable to continue work for the American Fur Company, he was hired as a handyman by Dr. Beaumont. Dr. Beaumont began to perform experiments on digestion using the stomach of St. Martin. Most of the experiments were conducted by tying a piece of food to a string and inserting it through the hole into St. Martin's stomach. Every few hours, Beaumont would remove the food and observe how well it had been digested. Beaumont also extracted a sample of gastric acid from St. Martin’s stomach for analysis. In September of 1825, Alexis St. Martin left Dr. Beaumont and moved to Canada, leaving Beaumont to concentrate on his duties as an army surgeon. Dr. Beaumont left the service in 1839, and maintained a private practice in St. Louis until his death in 1853. His patient, Alexis St. Martin died in 1880. Several institutions are named for William Beaumont, including the William Beaumont Hospital in Royal Oak and Troy Michigan, and the William Beaumont Army Medical Center in El Paso, Texas.

Dr. William Beaumont

MiniVol vs. Deployable Particulate Sampler (DPS)
The Army field particulate air sampling procedures are getting a significant update the following year as the Airmetrics MiniVol is slowly phased out and eclipsed by SKC’s DPS. Below is a comparison of the two samplers. DPS (above) will replace the MiniVol (below) 1. Capabilities. MiniVol: Collects PM 2.5, 10 or TSP samples. DPS: Collects PM 10 and 2.5 samples. 2. Weight. MiniVol: 18 lbs. DPS: 13.5 lbs. 3. Battery Life. MiniVol: 24 hours. DPS: 24 hours. 4. Flow Rate. MiniVol: 5L/min. DPS: 10L/min. 5. Dimensions. MiniVol: 7” diameter x 20” length. DPS: 18.5x 14.1x 6.9 inches. 6. Sampling Media. MiniVol: Cassette filter. DPS: Cassette filter. 7. Power. MiniVol: AC or DC operation. Sealed rechargeable lead-acid batteries that fully charge in less than 16 hours. DPS: Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-Ion) battery. Although the above information does not demonstrate any significant differences between the samplers, certain specifications make the DPS more suitable for Army needs. Primarily, the portability and fast setup make this a very attractive sampler. Where the MiniVol requires a large case during transportation, the DPS system is contained in one easily carried case that has been customized for convenient system operation. In fact, the pump remains in the lockable heavy-duty splash and dust resistant Pelican case, during sampling. In addition, the DPS requires no cleaning or greasing since it is equipped with a disposable pre-oiled impaction substrate. The above features coupled with significantly lower shipping costs, make the DPS an excellent choice for Army field particulate air sampling.

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Quarterly Newsletter

Volume 1, Issue 4

Page 3

What You Need to Know about Pandemic Flu Part II: What will happen during an outbreak?
Currently, a number of federal and international agencies (including the US Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization) are watching for the sudden emergence of an avian flu virus that causes illness in humans and is transmitted from person to person (the H5N1 strain of avian flu or “bird flu” has infected humans, but is not yet capable of person to person transmission). If such a virus does emerge, we hope to recognize it quickly and begin vaccine development and implementation of public health measures to slow the spread of the pandemic flu virus and reduce the number of human infections. Past experience with pandemic flu and, as well as with seasonal flu, tells us that we may not be able to stop the worldwide spread of a new pandemic flu virus. However, we can potentially slow the spread of the virus and reduce the number of humans infected through effective public health measures. Vaccine development will take time (an estimated 6-9 months) leaving public health measures as our only means of combating this new flu virus during the early days of the pandemic. Pandemic flu is expected to spread worldwide in just a few months, helped along by the ability to travel across the globe in under 24 hours. Travelers will not even know that they are sick until 1-2 days after returning home – by which time they will likely have passed the virus along to family, friends, and co-workers. Past experience also tells us that once the pandemic flu virus arrives in a community, it could spread rapidly through the local population infecting up to 50% of the population before seemingly disappearing 1-2 months later. The worst pandemic flu in modern times was the 1918 Flu Pandemic which killed 20-40 million people worldwide. We can look to this Pandemic for guidance as to what to expect with the next pandemic and how best to protect our communities from pandemic flu. Specifically, let’s examine the effects of the 1918 Pandemic on the most severely affected of all U.S. cities (Philadelphia). Pandemic flu arrived in Philadelphia in late September 1918, but was primarily seen in local military units. Though the Pandemic was already raging in Boston, city officials in Philadelphia believed that the Pandemic would remain limited to military populations and not greatly affect their city. City officials did not immediately ban public gatherings, close schools and churches, or take other strict public health measures. In fact, Philadelphia even held a public parade in support of World War I that was attended by over 400,000 of the city’s 1.5 million citizens on September 28, 1918. A few days after this parade, over 600 new cases of influenza were reported among non-military residents of Philadelphia. By early October, influenza was infecting thousands of residents each day (and killing hundreds), and city officials realized they needed to implement public health measures. Churches, schools, and theatres were closed and public gatherings were banned. As the Pandemic continued in Philadelphia through October, essential city services collapsed. Medical personnel, policemen, firefighters, garbage collectors, and city administrators fell ill or failed to show up for work. Hospitals and morgues were filled beyond capacity. Dead bodies piled up the hallways outside the morgue until prisoners were forced to bury them without ceremony (or caskets). Businesses shut down due to lack of employees and transport of goods, and the telephone company restricted phone calls to those of a medical nature only due to a greatly reduced number of switchboard operators. Modern American cities are not so much different from Philadelphia in 1918 – high urban populations, specialized work forces that are not easily replaced, medical and civic services that are designed to meet normal daily needs rather than extraordinary needs. When a new pandemic flu does arrive, we should expect that public health measures will be quickly and strictly imposed. Schools could close and public gatherings may be restricted. Travel may also be limited or restricted. Hospitals and medical clinics will most likely be overwhelmed with sick persons seeking treatment. Businesses must plan for loss of employees due to illness or fear, and residents must realize the city services may collapse with the absence of city workers. Part III of this article will be featured in the next newsletter.

“ When a new pandemic flu does arrive, we should expect that public health measures will be quickly and strictly imposed.”

I had a little bird, its’ name was Enza I opened the door, and in-flew-Enza.

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USACHPPM-West, MS115 5th & Blaine Bldg 9030 Fort Lewis WA 98433-9500 Phone: 253-966-0008 Fax: 253-966-0163 E-mail: Jason.faulkenberry@us.army.mil

The U.S Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine West (CHPPM-W), provides technical support and expertise to military units and installations throughout 19 States in the Western U.S. CHPPM-W is organized into four divisions, each having a distinctive mission. Industrial Hygiene Division (IHD) addresses air quality and other toxic industrial chemical concerns. Entomological Sciences (ESD) concentrates on vectors and vector-borne illnesses. The Environmental Health Engineering Division (EHED) concentrates on environmental compliance and hygiene of fixed facilities and military installations. Finally the Field Preventive Medicine Division’s (FPMD) mission is to train PM units and PM soldiers organic to tactical units in our area of responsibility. FPMD is the proponent of this publication.

USACHPPM-West’s Website: http://chppm-www.apgea.army.mil/dsa-west/

Contact Information:
• • • • •
LTC Thomas Honadel, Commander Thomas.honadel@amedd.army.mil MAJ Craig Gehrels, Chief of Industrial Hygiene Craig.gehrels@amedd.army.mil

Pesticide List Update
The Armed Forces Pest Management Board (AFPMB) pesticide list has been updated and is currently found at http://www.afpmb.org/ The list has been changed so that one can click on a specific pesticide category (i.e. herbicides) rather then having to scroll down to find a particular pesticide.

CPT Jason Faulkenberry, Chief of Field Preventive Medicine Jason.faulkenberry@amedd.army.mil LTC Sonya Schleich, Chief of Entomological Sciences Sonya.Schleich@amedd.army.mil MAJ Christopher Gellasch, Chief of Environmental Health Engineering Christopher.Gellasch@amedd.army.mil

Decipher the DA Code
Bewildered by Army acronyms? Test your DA vo- c. Table of Distribution and Allowances cabulary. 5. PBAC 1. ALARACT. a. Program Budget Advisory Committee a. All Army Actions b. Programmed Budgeted Accounting Codes b. Allowed Army Actions c. Programmed Bewildering Accounting Codes c. All Army Activities 6. MASH 2. ULLS a. Military Advanced Service Hospital a. Unfunded Logistics Level System b. Mobile Army Surgical Hospital b. United Logistics Level System c. Modular Army Surgical Hospital c. Unit Level Logistics System 7. DEPMEDS 3. TRADOC a. Deployment Medications a. Traditional Operations Command b. Deployable Medical System b. Training Developmental Operations Command c. Dependable Medical Surveillance c. Training and Doctrine Command 8. PROFIS 4. TDA a. Professional Officer Filler System a. Table of Divisional Allowances b. Proficient Filler System b. Tablet and Distribution of Appliances c. Professional Filler System

1.c 2.c 3.c 4.c 5.a 6.b 7.b 8.c

Decipher the DA code

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