Language Concordance - Maya of Meso and South Americas and Bharath - India Languages - Part I - Overview Kedarnath Jonnalagadda

, B.Sc.(Agri.),M.Sc.(Genetics) ©2009 CEO, Vaidika Gramam, smartxpark@yahoo.com Preview Book at :- https://www.createspace.com/Preview/1058590 Abstract : http://www.scribd.com/doc/17451732/Language-Concordance-Maya-ofMeso-South-America-and-Languages-of-India-Bharath-Part-I-Overview-Abstract Abstract An amazing concordance between the Mayan languages of South and Meso America and Bharath India languages is found. This book, Part I - Overview gives an overview of the work and results by the author. The author has studied a number of Maya language dictionaries in Spanish and English available on the web. 1.The likelihood of chance favoring concordance is worked out. 2.The pattern of concordance is analyzed - Early Sanskrit - Veda and later forms. So called Dravidian Tamil - Telugu, Kannada, Tulu, Konkani and other Bharath - India language linkages. 3. The work shows significant concordance with Sanskrit and Sanskrit based languages as analyzed with Panini's [dhAtupATha] and looking up Sanskrit - English, SanskritFrench dictionaries. 4. Most surprisingly, Maya words being used today were found useful in understanding etymology of some Sanskrit words found in Veda literature. 5. Significant concordance is also found with divisively called Dravidian languages Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Tulu and often tribal languages of the sub continent. 6. Surprisingly again, were found everyday Maya words useful to understand etymology of many words in divisively called Dravidian languages. These words are not in common use in "Sanskrit and Sanskrit derived languages" within quotes, but present in Veda, Purana, Ramayana or Mahabharata and Dravidian such as Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Tulu! This may lead to reconsideration of theories of their being borrowed but lost over time in "Sanskrit and Sanskrit derived languages".

From the Concordance in the first place to any Bharath Indian language and furthermore concordance patterning with a wide spectrum of India's languages presents a number of significant issues for consideration. 1. Maya of South and Meso America lived in an ecological niche and isolation till about only 400 years back. This is what history tells us. 2. That their language can be amenable to the [barakhaDi] phonetic classification and teaching system of India could show a universal application of the [barakhaDi] system. This would be applicable to any language system that is built around phonetically based [akshara] but not alphabetic systems such as a,b,c,...z. And phonetically based [akshara] systems may not even have a native script but are amenable to any machine readable transliteration scheme. Such a system is traditionally used for teaching from early childhood in India. Traditionally, learning to be literate begins with simply pronouncing [svara] [a A i I u U e E Ru o O aM aH] and [vya~jjana] [ka kha ga gha ca cha ja jha Ta Tha Da Dha ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sha sa ha] in any native script. To call these vowels and consonants in English may be inadequate. Each [svara] and [vya~jjana] has meaning! And this is quite opposite to the system using alphabets in English. 3. Maya languages have short and long forms of [svara] [e E] and [o O] similar to Dravidian languages but significantly absent in so called Aryan languages including Sanskrit. Veda and other Sanskrit literature written in Devanagari script with correct [anudatta], [udatta], [svarita] and other intonation marks may point out to original presence of these [svara]. 4. The [ga] [vya~jjana] is significantly absent in Mayan literature as recorded in Roman script transliterations by earlier Spanish and other researchers. This is similar to the absence of need for [ka] [ga] in written script of Tamil. By and large this does not pose too much difficulty to know the semantic content equivalence in Indian languages. 5. The [ja] [vya~jjana] is significantly absent in Mayan literature too. Linguists have used [tza]. This can be treated as a variant belonging to [ca varga], [ca] class of the Indian [barakhaDi] system. It does not pose too much difficulty for knowing the semantic content equivalence in Indian languages. 6. The presence of pan continental, America and Asia India language linkage leads to considering many key issues. 7. If there was contact at all between the two civilizations, "When"? and "What Time

Scales" are involved. And "when did it stop"? 8. If not, "is there something so fundamental in evolution of human speech", retained naturally and with care in the two distant ancient civilizations that it has defied time? What are those simple fundamentals that a billion plus native people in America and Bharath India can speak their mother tongues today? And can be easily taught to read and write and be "literate". 9. Debates are galore on Aryan invasions, Veda, Indo European, Proto Sanskrit and Dravidian languages of the sub continent. Maya language linkage with Veda, Sanskrit, and Dravidian languages could be eye openers. This may well imply AIT, Aryan Invasion Theories and other divisive theories needing reconsideration. Or proponents of divisive theories needing to come up with implausible Aryan Invasion Theory for the Americas too. But, that would need earlier Dravidian Invasions from the sub continent to the Americas or vice versa. 10. Possibilities are discussed whether the yuga concept of Bharath - India, which Maya civilization also has, and its timescales of cataclysmic cycles on Earth are indeed unthinkable for the history and geography of this billion year old planet. This has direct bearings on appreciating and treating our environment a little better. And hoping the future will have greater understanding for damage already done. 11. Suggestions for further work in study of concordance of Maya - India for astrology, astronomy, maths and pre colony religion are given. "Maya" the word has been referenced meaning a people many places in Veda, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Purana and other ancient literature in India. 12. The expected outcome of this work and findings is India centered research and development. Often times, a very distant look on this fragile planet, NASA like from space is needed to appreciate the beauty of home. It is hoped, much needed applications will be developed to preserve the heritage of ancient and modern languages and literature of India. Of particular importance is understanding and using components of ancient learning and teaching methods of India in context of modern times. This would include applications software for artificial intelligence, robotics, machine learning and teaching. It is said, "a picture can speak a thousand words". Well, a single word in both Maya language and Bharath India languages can speak a thousand words too. They have been doing so for thousands of years.

Showcase This section is called by this rather pompous name because it is indeed that. It gives a glimpse of the glory of the gift of language to us. All of us are, in a way, window shoppers. The more we have, the more we can have, unendingly. The transliterations scheme shown below is Baraha software transliteration scheme © for Maya, [dhAtupATha] and Monier Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary. In addition, schemes of Dr.S.Kalyanraman and Whitney are used for [dhAtupATha], Reconstruction column is left blank after first few entries. This is to enable reader to apply his or her own self, as exercise, if you like to call it that. The primal principle in [vAk] speech is [para] the seed of thought or concept, [pashyanti] its growth and consolidation. growth until it can be "literally" seen in the mind, [mAdhyama] the medium for best expression involving process of search in vocabulary base and eventually fructifying into [vAk] speech. The same principle is applicable for reconstruction of Maya words. First we have concept generally spelt out by the Maya English Dictionaries as dictionary meaning. We need to let that sink in into our minds. Then look up the [dhAtupATha] for the [dhAtu] elements that describe the concept best. The good news is that you may find it. If you do not, at first go, the good news again is that you need more verbose Sanskrit English Dictionaries. If you do not even then, Indian Lexicon with over 200,000 entries ought to help. If it does not, then you have a unique Maya element [dhAtu]. And such Maya sourced elements can be used to understand the not understandable or misunderstood Sanskrit words in literature. All this may appear tedium but it is not. The section Materials and Methods gives very simple search techniques using no specially developed software but using tools that are already in your computer. If you do not have these simple tools you should update yourself and get them. Work on Maya Concordance with Bharath India languages started in real earnest after a strange discouraging response from a member of an e-group. The author of this book had posted a note that Maya could be understood better if the [barakhadi] system of [svara] [vya~jjana] taught traditionally in India were applied. The response was a bit caustic and referred an article written by somebody that "nothing should be made of languages in distant places having some common words". Statistics and probabilities were quoted for this. And he was right too!

So how is this work different? This work does no aim to find same sounding words with a common meaning in the two rather very, very unequal sets. And could not too! Available vocabulary of all Maya languages in South and Meso America, as given in the Maya Preliminary Etymological dictionary has about 40,000 entries. No single dictionary of any Maya language dictionary has more than 7000 -8000 listed words! On the other hand, Monier Williams Dictionary has more than 3,00,000 entries. Indian Lexicon compiled by Dr.S.Kalyanraman has 2,19,000 entries. The [dhAtupATha] lists 2000 odd [dhAtu]. Whitney, lists only 813 entries. He said the rest were never used at all in either ancient or later Sanskrit! Then how come there are so many [dhAtu]? A highly significant initial help was received from article mentioned before. "Nothing should be made of languages in distant places having some common words". Here was a case of very few when Maya and Indian languages are compared! When one small population of words is compared with another that is huge there should be greater likelihood of finding more same sounding words with same meaning. This is under normal laws of probability. But it was most surprising to find so few. What does this mean? This could imply that the two sets are different. Are we comparing mangoes with llamas? That is one limited viewpoint to close shop. Ought we to do that? What if the elements of mangoes were to be compared with the elements of llamas? Technically, and scientifically there should be very great commonality. Hence, [dhAtu] from [dhatupATha] was used. True enough a very high degree of commonality and concordance was found. This is not the end of the story but its beginning. [dhAtu] elements need to be structured to form [shabda] words and [shabda] words with other [shabda] words. There must some method or grammar. There will be dealt with in later chapters.

Chakchiquel Maya & Bharath Languages - Sanskrit Chakchiquel Maya a | [Achya] _v._ To receive (Brasseur); to give with.#10 dhAtupATha ~> Ac{}Ac{}to worship; to honour or to revere @ I. (group 1155 dhAtu)~> yaj{}yaj{}to make an oblation to a deity; to associate with; to sacrifice; to worship; to give; deri. is.t.a; yas.t.avya; ya_jya; yas.t.um; samijya; is.t.va_ @ I. (group 1155 dhAtu) ~> Ac{}Ac{}to worship; to honour or to revere @ I. (group 1155 dhAtu)~> yaj{}yaj{}to make an oblation to a deity; to associate with; to sacrifice; to worship; to give; deri. is.t.a; yas.t.avya; ya_jya; yas.t.um; samijya; is.t.va_ @ I. (group 1155 dhAtu) ~> ah{}ah{}to pervade @ V (group 40 dhAtu)~> aha{}vyAptau @ Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Reconstruction Dictionary 00025842 * [Acya]1[^acya] ind. Give with p. ( fr. [^ac] ), bending ( the knee ) humility #ŚBr. #ĀśvGṛ.00025843 * [AcyA]2[^'acyA] Ved. ind. p. id. #RV. x, 15, 6

a | [Achyaic] _n._ That which is given along with something else; _yaic_, passive verbal from _ya_, to give.#11

00025843 * [Acya]1[^acya] ind. Given with p. ( fr. [^ac] ), bending ( the knee ) humility #ŚBr. #ĀśvGṛ.00025843 * [AcyA]2[^'acyA] Ved. ind. p. id. #RV. x, 15, 6

a | [ahauh] _n._ Ruler, chief, lord. See p. 36.#14

00032214 * [AhUrya]2[A-hUrya] one to whom mfn. one to whom homage is to be homage is to paid[---]00032215 ~> to be made be paid favourable #RV. i, 69, 4[---]

Chakchiquel Maya

dhAtupATha dhAtupATha

Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Reconstruction Dictionary 00032214 * [AhUrya]2[A-hUrya] one to whom mfn. one to whom homage is to be homage is to paid[---]00032215 ~> to be made be paid favourable #RV. i, 69, 4[---]

a | [ahauarem] ~> ah{}ah{}to _n._ Majesty, pervade @ V power.#15 (group 40 dhAtu)~> aha{}vyAptau @ dhAtupATha a | [ahilah] _v._ To count or reckon with grains of corn or cacao, after the Indian fashion.#17 ~> ah{}ah{}to pervade @ V (group 40 dhAtu)~> aha{}vyAptau @ dhAtupATha~> il{}il{}to sleep; to throw @ VI (group 165 dhAtu)~> ila{}preraNe @ dhAtupATha~> ila{}svapnakShepa nayoH @ dhAtupATha~> hila{}bhAvakaraNe @ dhAtupATha

00023659 * [ah]1[ah]2 cl. 5. P. [ahnoti], to pervade or occupy[---] [---]00035291 00033944 * [Ir]1[Ir] cl. 2. Ā. ['Irte] ( 3. pl. ['Irate] #AV. #RV. ), [iraM-cakre], [iriShyati], [airiShTa], [Iritum][---]00033945 ~> Ved. inf. [ir'adhyai] #RV. i, 134, 2, to go, move, rise, arise from #RV.[---] 00033946 ~> to go away, retire #AV. xix, 38, 2[---]00033947 ~> to agitate, elevate, raise ( one's voice ) #RV. : Caus. P. [Ir'ayati] ( #√ [Il] ), to agitate, throw, cast[---]00033948 ~> to excite #RV. #AV. #MBh. #R. &c.[---] 00033949 ~> to cause to rise[---] 00033950 ~> to bring to life[---] 00033951 ~> to raise one's voice, utter, pronounce, proclaim, cite #RV. #ChUp. #Ragh. #Suśr. &c. [170,3][---]00033952 ~> to elevate #RV. #VS. #TS. #ŚBr. : Ā. to raise one's self #AV. #VS.[---] 00033953 * [Ira]2[Ira] m. wind[---]* [ilA]1['ilA] f. ( closely connected with ['iDA] and ['irA], qq.v. ) flow[---]00035292 ~> speech[---]00035293 ~> the earth, &c.[---]00035294 ~> See [iDA][---]00033902 * [ID]1[ID]1

This is form of divination reckoning with higher purpose?

Chakchiquel Maya

dhAtupATha

Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Reconstruction Dictionary cl. 2. Ā. ['ITTe] ( 2. sg. pres. [IDiSe], Ved. [ILiSe], pf. [ID'e] fut. [IDiShyate] aor. [aiDiShTa]. inf. [IDitum], Ved. [ILe], &c. ) to implore, request, ask for ( with two acc. )[---]00033903 ~> to praise #RV. #AV. #VS. #R. #BhP. &c. : Caus. P. [IDayati], to ask[---] 00033904 ~> to praise #BhP.[---] 00033905 * [ID]2[ID]2 [T] f. praise, extolling #RV. viii, 39, 1[---]00033906 * [IDana]2[IDana] n. the act of praising #L.[---] 00033907 * [IDA]2[IDA] f. praise, commendation #L.[---] 00033908 * [IDita]2[IDita] or mfn. implored, requested #RV.[---] * [laND]1[laND] ( #[olaND] ), cl. 10. P. [laNDayati], to throw or toss up #Pāṇ. Dhātup. xxi, ii, 9[---]~> to speak #ib. xxxiii, 125[---]

a | [ahilan] ~> ah{}ah{}to _v._ To count, pervade @ V to number.#18 (group 40 dhAtu)~> aha{}vyAptau @ dhAtupATha~> il{}il{}to sleep; to throw @ VI (group 165 dhAtu)~> ila{}preraNe @ dhAtupATha~> ila{}svapnakShepa nayoH @ dhAtupATha~> hila{}bhAvakaraNe @ dhAtupATha

00023659 * [ah]1[ah]2 cl. 5. P. Ordinary [ahnoti], to pervade or occupy[---] reckoning ? [---]00035291 00033944 * [Ir]1[Ir] cl. 2. Ā. ['Irte] ( 3. pl. ['Irate] #AV. #RV. ), [iraM-cakre], [iriShyati], [airiShTa], [Iritum][---]00033945 ~> Ved. inf. [ir'adhyai] #RV. i, 134, 2, to go, move, rise, arise from #RV.[---] 00033946 ~> to go away, retire #AV. xix, 38, 2[---]00033947 ~> to agitate, elevate, raise ( one's voice ) #RV. : Caus. P. [Ir'ayati] ( #√ [Il] ), to agitate, throw, cast[---]00033948 ~> to excite #RV. #AV. #MBh. #R. &c.[---] 00033949 ~> to cause to rise[---]

Chakchiquel Maya

dhAtupATha

Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Reconstruction Dictionary 00033950 ~> to bring to life[---] 00033951 ~> to raise one's voice, utter, pronounce, proclaim, cite #RV. #ChUp. #Ragh. #Suśr. &c. [170,3][---]00033952 ~> to elevate #RV. #VS. #TS. #ŚBr. : Ā. to raise one's self #AV. #VS.[---] 00033953 * [Ira]2[Ira] m. wind[---]* [ilA]1['ilA] f. ( closely connected with ['iDA] and ['irA], qq.v. ) flow[---]00035292 ~> speech[---]00035293 ~> the earth, &c.[---]00035294 ~> See [iDA][---]00033902 * [ID]1[ID]1 cl. 2. Ā. ['ITTe] ( 2. sg. pres. [IDiSe], Ved. [ILiSe], pf. [ID'e] fut. [IDiShyate] aor. [aiDiShTa]. inf. [IDitum], Ved. [ILe], &c. ) to implore, request, ask for ( with two acc. )[---]00033903 ~> to praise #RV. #AV. #VS. #R. #BhP. &c. : Caus. P. [IDayati], to ask[---] 00033904 ~> to praise #BhP.[---] 00033905 * [ID]2[ID]2 [T] f. praise, extolling #RV. viii, 39, 1[---]00033906 * [IDana]2[IDana] n. the act of praising #L.[---] 00033907 * [IDA]2[IDA] f. praise, commendation #L.[---] 00033908 * [IDita]2[IDita] or mfn. implored, requested #RV.[---] * [laND]1[laND] ( #[olaND] ), cl. 10. P. [laNDayati], to throw or toss up #Pāṇ. Dhātup. xxi, ii, 9[---]~> to speak #ib. xxxiii, 125[---]

a | [ahlabal] ~> labh{}labh{}to 00191487 * [lAbh]1[lAbh] cl. 10. ah- prefix is _n._ Warrior, get; to obtain; to P. [lAbhayati], to throw, direct indicator - The fighting man. take; to have to #Pāṇ. Dhātup. xxxv, 8 81[---] person with

Chakchiquel Maya See _Labal_.#19

dhAtupATha find; to be able; to know; der. labdha; labhya; labdhrima (produced by gain); labha_ (gain) @ I. (group 1155 dhAtu)

Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Reconstruction Dictionary 00191488 * [labh]1[labh] ( #√ attributes [see [rabh] ), cl. 1. Ā. ( #Pāṇ. Dhātup. highlighted xxiii, 6 ) [labhate] ( ep. also [°ti] words] and [lambhate][---]00190500 ~> pf. [lebh'e], ep. also [lalAbha][---] 00190501 ~> aor. [alabdha], [alapsata] #Br.[---]00190502 ~> Prec. [lapsIya] #Pāṇ. 8-2, 504 #Sch.[---]00190503 ~> fut. [labdhA] Gr.[---]00190504 ~> [lapsyate], [°ti] #Br. &c.[---] 00190505 ~> [labhiShyati] #Kāv[---]00190506 ~> inf. [labdhum] #MBh.[---]00190507 ~> ind. p. [labdhv'A] #AV. &c.[---]00190508 ~> [-labhya], [-lambham] #Br. &c.[---] 00190509 ~> [lAbham] #Pāṇ. 71, 69 ), to take, seize, catch[---] 00190510 ~> catch sight of, meet with, find #Br. &c. &c. ( with [antaram], to find an opportunity, make an impression, be effective[---]00190511 ~> with [avakAsham], to find scope, be appropriate[---]00190512 ~> with [kAlam], to find the right time or moment )[---]00190513 ~> to gain possession of, obtain, receive, conceive, get, receive ( ` from ', abl.[---]00190514 ~> ` as ', acc. ), recover #ib. ( with [garbham], ` to conceive an embryo ', ` become pregnant '[---]00190515 ~> with [padam], to obtain a footing )[---] 00190516 ~> to gain the power of ( doing anything ), succeed in, be permitted or allowed to ( inf. or dat., e. g. [labhate draShTum], or

Chakchiquel Maya

dhAtupATha

Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Reconstruction Dictionary [darshanAya], ` he is able or allowed to see ' ) #ChUp. #MBh. &c.[---]00190517 ~> to possess, have #Sāh. #MārkP.[---]00190518 ~> to perceive, know, understand, learn, find out #Kathās. #Kull. : Pass. [labhy'ate] ( ep. also [°ti][---]00190519 ~> aor. [alAbhi] or [alambhi], with prep. only [alambhi][---]00190520 ~> ##Pāṇ. 7-1, 69 #Kāś. ), to be taken or caught or met with or found or got or obtained #Br. &c. &c.[---]00190521 ~> to be allowed or permitted ( inf. sometimes with pass. sense, e. g. [n^adharmo labhyate kartum], ` injustice ought not to be done ', #above ) #Kathās[---]00190522 ~> to follow, result #Sāh. #Sarvad[---]00190523 ~> to be comprehended by ( abl. ) #Bhāshāp. : Caus. [lambhayati], [°te] ( aor. [alalambhat] ), to cause to take or receive or obtain, give, bestow ( generally with two acc.[---]00190524 ~> rarely with acc. and instr. = to present with[---]00190525 ~> in #Kir. ii, 55 with two acc. and instr.[---] 00190526 ~> ##Vām. v, 2, 10 ) #MBh. #Kāv. &c.[---]00190527 ~> to get, procure ( #[lambhita] ) [---]00190528 ~> to find out, discover #Mn. viii, 109[---] 00190529 ~> to cause to suffer #MW.[---]00190530 ~> Desid. [l'ipsate] ( m. c. also [°ti] #TBr. [lIpsate] ), to wish to seize or take

Chakchiquel Maya

dhAtupATha

Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Reconstruction Dictionary or catch or obtain or receive ( with acc. or gen.[---]00190531 ~> ` from ', abl. ) #TBr. &c. &c. : Intens. [lAlabhyate], [lAlambhIti] or [lAlabdhi] Gr. [Gk. ? ; Lat. [labor] ; Lith. [l'abas], [l'obis].] [896 ,2][---]

a | [abah] _n._ A stone; a jar; the private parts.#2

~> bhRu{}bhr.{}to support; to bear; to have; to fill; deri. bhr.ta; bha_rya; bhartum; bhr.tva_ @ I. (group 1155 dhAtu)

00009617 * [ab]2[ab] for words beginning thus, s. v. [ab-indhana], [ab-ja], &c.[---]00009618 * [apa]1['apa] ind. ( as a prefix to nouns and verbs, expresses ) away, off, back ( opposed to ['upa], ['anu], [sam], [pra] )[---]00009619 ~> down ( opposed to [ud] )[---] 00011806 * [abahir]1[a-bahir] ind. ` not outside ', in interior, in one's heart #BhP.[---]* [bhara]1[bh'ara] mf ( [A] ) n. ( √ [bhRu] ) bearing, carrying, bringing[---]~> a burden, load, weight ( also a partic. measure of weight = [bhAra], q.v. #L. ) #Hariv. #Kāv. &c. ( acc. with √ [kRu], to place one's weight, support one's self #Hit. )[---] 00023659 * [ah]1[ah]2 cl. 5. P. [ahnoti], to pervade or occupy[---] 00023660 * [aha]1['aha]1 ind. ( as a particle implying ascertainment, affirmation, certainty, &c. ) surely, certainly #RV. #AV. #ŚBr.[---] 00023661 ~> ( as explaining, defining ) namely #ŚBr.[---] 00023662 ~> ( as admitting, limiting, &c. ) it is true, I grant, granted, indeed, at least #ŚBr. [For rules of accentuation necessitated in a phrase by particle ['aha], cf.

That which has attributes [see highlighted words]

a | [ahpop] _n._ The head chief. “_El cacique mayor._[TN33] See p. 36.#21

The person that is in position and has attributes [see highlighted words]

Chakchiquel Maya

dhAtupATha

Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Reconstruction Dictionary #Pāṇ. 8-1, 24 seqq.][---]00023663 * [aha]1['aha]2 n. ( only #Ved.[---] 00023664 ~> nom. pl. ['ahA] #RV. #AV.[---]00023665 ~> gen. pl. ['ahAnAm] #RV. viii, 22, 13 ) = ['aHar], q.v., a day[---]00023666 ~> often ifc. [ah'a] m. ( e. g. [dvAdash^ah'a], [try-ah'a], [ShaDah'a], &c. ) or n. ( e. g. [puNy^ah'a], [bhadr^ah'a], and [sudin^aha] )[---]00023667 ~> also [ahna] s. v.[---]* [popuva]2[popuva] mfn. ( fr. Intens. ) purifying much or repeatedly #Pāṇ. 1-1, 4 #Sch.[---]

a | [ah-tzih] ~> ah{}ah{}to _n._ Speaker, pervade @ V orator. See p. (group 40 dhAtu) 37.#23

00089009 * [jihva]1[jihv'a] mfn. ( said of Agni ) #MaitrS. i, 3, 35 ( for [yahv'a] of #Padap. and #RV. iii, 2, 9 )[---]00089010 ~> m. the tongue #Hariv. 6325 f.[---] 00089011 ~> ( ['A] ) f. ( = [juh'U] ) id. #RV. #AV. &c. ( ifc. f. [A] #MBh. iii, 16137 #Hcat. )[---] 00089012 ~> the tongue or tongues of Agni, i. e. various forms of flame ( 3 are named #RV. iii, 20, 2[---]00089013 ~> generally 7 #VS. xvii, 79 #MuṇḍUp. i, 2, 4 [[kAlI], [karAlI], [mano-javA], [sulohitA], [su-dhUmra-varNA], [sphuli~gginI], [vishvarUpI]] #Hemac[---]00089014 ~> #[sapt'a-jihva][---]00089015 ~> also identified with the 7 winds [pra-], [A-], [ud-], [saM-], [vi-], [pari-], and [ni-vaha] )[---] 00089016 ~> the tongue of a balance #Hcat. i, 5, 163[---]

ah - indicator of elevated postion. using [see highlighted words]

Chakchiquel Maya

dhAtupATha

Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Reconstruction Dictionary 00089017 ~> speech ( #Naigh. i, 11 ) #RV. iii, 57, 5[---]00089018 ~> the root of Tabernaemontana coronaria #L.[---]00089019 ~> #[dv'i-], [m'adhu-], [su-][---] 00089020 ~> [agni-jihv'a] &c. ; [#Lat. [lingua] ; Goth. [tuggo1].][---]

a | [ah[kh]ib][TN34] _n._ A scribe.#24

~> khava{}bhUtaprAd urbhAve @ dhAtupATha 00169725 * [bhUta]2[bhUt'a] mf ( [A] ) n. become, been, gone, past ( n. the past ) #RV. &c. &c.[---]00169726 ~> actually happened, true, real ( n. an actual occurrence, fact, matter of fact, reality ) #Yājñ. #R. &c.[---]

00077985 * [khav]1[khav] ( cl. 9. P. [khaunAti], or [khunAti] ), v. l. for √ [khac] #Pāṇ. Dhātup. xxxi, 59[---]00077086 * [khac]1[khac] cl. 1. P. [°cati] ( only p. p. [°cat] ), to come forth, project ( as teeth ) #Kathās. xxiii[---] 00077087 ~> xxvi: cl. 9. P. [khacJAti], to be born again #Pāṇ. Dhātup. xxxi, 59[---]00077088 ~> to cause prosperity #ib.[---] 00077089 ~> to purify #ib. : cl. 10. P. [khacayati], to fasten, bind #ib. xxxv, 84[---]

a | [akah] _n._ ~> 00077823 * [khard]1[khard] cl. 1. A hornet.#25 khard{}khard{}to P. [°dati], to bite, sting, sting bite; to sting @ I. venomously #Pāṇ. Dhātup. iii, 23 (group 1155 dhAtu)~> kharda{}dandashU ke @ dhAtupATha00247 147 * [shUka]1[shUka] m. n. ( g. [ardharc^adi][---]

Chakchiquel Maya

dhAtupATha 00247148 ~> derivation doubtful ) the awn of grain #R. #Sarvad. #KātyŚr. #Sch.[---]00247149 ~> a bristle, spicule, spike ( esp. the bristle or sharp hair of insects &c. ) #W.[---]00247150 ~> the sheath or calyx of a bud #L.[---]00247151 ~> pity, compassion ( in [niH-shUka] ) #L.[---]00247152 ~> m. a species of grain ( #[dIrghash°] ) #Suśr. #Bhpr.[---] 00247153 ~> sorrow, grief. #L.[---]00247154 ~> = [abhi-Shava] #L.[---]00247155 ~> ( [A] ), f. scruple, doubt #L. [1085,3][---] 00247156 ~> Mucuna Pruritus #L.[---]00247157 ~> the sting of an insect ( #above ), anything that stings or causes pain #Suśr. #Car.[---] 00247158 ~> a

Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Reconstruction Dictionary

Chakchiquel Maya

dhAtupATha partic. insect ( produced in water and applied externally as an aphrodisiac ) #ib. #Bhpr.[---] 00247159 ~> a kind of grass #L.[---]

Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Reconstruction Dictionary

a | [akan] _n._ ~> kaN{}kan.{}to Leg, foot.#26 go or approach @ I. (group 1155 dhAtu)[---]~> kaNa{m}&{}gatau @ dhAtupATha

* [ak]1[ak] cl. 1. P. [akati], to move tortuously ( like a snake ) [---]~> #Cf. √ [ag] and √ [a~jc][---]* [aka]1[aka]1 suffix [aka] ( [akac] )[---]* [an]1[an]2 cl. 2. P. ['aniti] or ['anati], [ana], [aniShyati], ['AnIt] [#RV. x, 129, 2], to breathe, respire, gasp[---]~> to live[---]~> to move, go [#cf. Gk. ? [24 ,1] Lat. [animus]]: Caus. [Anayati]: Desid. [aniniShati] 00018046 * [al]1[al] cl. 1. P. 21-09-07 [alati], to adorn[---]00018047 ~> to be competent or able[---] 00018048 ~> to prevent [The root is evidently invented for derivation of [alam], q.v.][---][---] 00029998 * [Ala]1[Ala] n. spawn[---]00029999 ~> any discharge of poisonous matter from venomous animals #Suśr. #Kauś[---]00030000 ~> yellow arsenic, orpiment #Suśr.[---] 00030001 ~> m. N. of an ape #Kathās. 57, 136[---]00030002 ~> ( mfn. ) not little or insignificant, excellent #L.[---]

a | [al] _n._ Son, child.#27

~> al{}al{}to adorn; to be competent or able @ I. (group 1155 dhAtu)~> ala{}bhUShaNapar yAptivAraNeShu @ dhAtupATha

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