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A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory. Some states are sovereign, while others are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony (where ultimate sovereignty lies in another state). The denomination state is also employed to federated states that are members of a federal union, which is the sovereign state. Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia, however for most of pre-history people lived in stateless societies. The first states arose about 10,000 years ago at the same time as agriculture, patriarchy, slavery, and organized religion. Over time, a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications for their existence (such as divine right, the theory of the social contract, etc.). Today, however, the modern nation-state is the predominant form of state which people are subject to. Anarchists oppose the existence of the state, based on the belief that the state is inherently an instrument of domination and repression, no matter who is in control of The frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan it, and that it is unnecessary for organizing human relations. They propose instead that humans organize themselves into stateless societies, based on free association and cooperation, instead of statist authoritarianism.
There is no academic consensus on the most appropriate definition of the state. The term "state" refers to a set of different, but interrelated and often overlapping, theories about a certain range of political phenomena. The act of defining the term can be seen as part of an ideological conflict, because different definitions lead to different theories of state function, and as a result validate different political strategies. The most commonly used definition is Max Weber's, which describes the state as a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain territory. General categories of state institutions include administrative bureaucracies, legal systems, and military or religious organizations. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a state is "a an organized political community under one government; a commonwealth; a nation. b such a community forming part of a federal republic, esp the United States of America". Confounding the definitional problem is that "state" and "government" are often used as synonyms in common conversation and even some academic discourse. According to this definitional schema, the states are nonphysical persons of international law, governments are organizations of people. The relationship between a government and its state is one of representation and authorized agency.
ideological struggle. the activities of intellectuals. in that they have transferred a portion of their sovereign powers to a federal government. In some societies. Louis Althusser argued that civil organizations such as church. Spencer details almost a Shakespearean academic analysis of the standoff and the consequences of interrelationships between the state and men who live under it. sociologist. and arbitrate conflicts. That is. The government is the particular group of people. The state and government The concept of the state can be distinguished from the concept of government. Many states are federated states which participate in a federal union. Jürgen Habermas. Such states differ from sovereign states. biologist and writer Herbert Spencer wrote of the many aspects of the character of the state as opposed to the character of man in his book The Man Versus The State. and the family are part of an "ideological state apparatus" which complements the "repressive state apparatus" (such as police and military) in reproducing social relations. States and nation-states States can also be distinguished from the concept of a "nation". and the people therein who perceive themselves as having a common identity. that the activities of civil organizations conditioned the activities of political parties and state institutions. States are served by a continuous succession of different governments. who monopolize political decision-making. Thus in the modern thought the state is contrasted with civil society." and that civil society was the nexus connecting the economic and political sphere. and the construction of hegemony take place. He stated that politics was not a "one-way process of political management" but. Each successive government is composed of a specialized and privileged body of individuals. Antonio Gramsci believed that civil society is the primary locus of political activity because it is where all forms of "identity formation. and are separated by status and organization from the population as a whole. Given the role that many social groups have in the development of public policy and the extensive connections between state bureaucracies and other institutions. the administrative bureaucracy. and the creation of new regulatory bodies also change the boundaries of the .State (polity) 2 Types of states States may be classified as sovereign if they are not dependent on. Other states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony where ultimate sovereignty lies in another state. schools. that controls the state apparatus at a given time. A federated state is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation. rather. nationalization. but there is frequent turnover of the people actually filling the positions. Privatization. it has become increasingly difficult to identify the boundaries of the state. which Gramsci differentiates from the notion of the state as a polity. while the modern thought distinguished the nation state as a political society from civil society as a form of economic society. governments are the means through which state power is employed. Arising out of the collective actions of civil society is what Gramsci calls "political society". which refers to a large geographical area. Their function is to enforce existing laws. the political roles remain. The man versus the state English philosopher. and were conditioned by them in turn. this group is often a self-perpetuating or hereditary class. legislate new ones. In it. The state and civil society In the classical thought the state was identified with both political society and civil society as a form of political community. such as democracies. In other societies. or subject to any other power or state. spoke of a public sphere that was distinct from both the economic and political sphere.
no matter who is in control of it. depicting an anti-capitalist perspective on statist/capitalist social structures Marxist perspective Marx and Engels were clear in that the communist goal was a classless society in which the state would have "withered away". Anarchist Anarchism is a political philosophy which considers the state immoral. Often the nature of quasi-autonomous organizations is unclear. such as Jacques Ellul. generating debate among political scientists on whether they are part of the state or civil society.State (polity) state in relation to society. Unlike Marxists. . and emphasize the relation between economic power and political power. unnecessary. Anarchists believe that the state is inherently an instrument of domination and repression. not future social forms. while atheist anarchists. there is no single "Marxist theory of state". and harmful and instead promotes a stateless society. 3 Theories of state function Most political theories of the state can roughly be classified into two categories. Marxist theories on the other hand. and an alternative set of social relations created. 1911). have identified the State and political power as the Beast in the Book of Revelation. speculation about which is generally anathema to groups considering themselves Marxist but who. Some political scientists thus prefer to speak of policy networks and decentralized governance in modern societies rather than of state bureaucracies and direct state control over policy. which are not based on state power at all. anarchists believe that revolutionary seizure of state power should not be a political goal. such as Mikhail Bakunin have more often pointed out the relationships of Church and State and analyzed it's legimimacy both appeals to and ultimately substitutes the God-idea in practice. Various Christian anarchists. and then concentrate on the function of states in capitalist society. IWW poster "Pyramid of the Capitalist System"(c. but rather many different "Marxist" theories that have been developed by adherents of Marxism. Their views are scattered throughout the Marx/Engels Collected Works and address past or the then extant state forms from an analytical or tactical viewpoint. not having conquered the existing state power(s) are not in the situation of supplying the institutional form of an actual society. which treat capitalism as a given. see politics as intimately tied in with economic relations. To the extent that it makes sense. The first are known as "liberal" or "conservative" theories. They see the state as a partisan instrument that primarily serves the interests of the upper class. Anarchists note that the state possesses the monopoly on the legal use of force. They believe instead that the state apparatus should be completely dismantled. These theories tend to see the state as a neutral entity separated from society and the economy. or anarchy.
it asserts that all groups have an opportunity to pressure the state. and when they do." He thought that political theory was focusing too much on abstract institutions. Michel Foucault believed that modern political theory was too state-centric. The pluralist approach suggests that the modern democratic state's actions are the result of pressures applied by a variety of organized interests.State (polity) Marx's early writings portrayed the state as "parasitic". Dahl called this kind of state a polyarchy. saying "Maybe. such as churches. Nicos Poulantzas. and working against the public interest. who are competing for political power. He felt that the modern state plays a large role in structuring the economy. his own framework came under criticism for its . schools. For Marxist theorists. Robert Dahl developed the theory of the state as a neutral arena for contending interests or its agencies as simply another set of interest groups. political theorists should be examining changes in the practice of government to understand changes in the nature of the state. Gramsci's theories of state emphasized that the state is only one of the institutions in society that helps maintain the hegemony of the ruling class. and that state power is bolstered by the ideological domination of the institutions of civil society. Ralph Miliband argued that the ruling class uses the state as its instrument to dominate society by virtue of the interpersonal ties between state officials and economic elites. Although pluralism recognizes the existence of inequality. used by many Marxist theorists to describe the relation between the state and the economy. He believed that instead of trying to understand the activities of governments by analyzing the properties of the state (a reified abstraction). Poulantzas' main contribution to the Marxist literature on the state was the concept of 'relative autonomy' of the state. He also wrote that the state mirrors class relations in society in general. the role of the non-socialist state is determined by its function in the global capitalist order. by regulating economic activity and being a large-scale economic consumer/producer. State officials therefore share the same interests as owners of capital and are linked to them through a wide array of social. They then view the state as a neutral body that simply enacts the will of whichever groups dominate the electoral process. state policy is a product of recurrent bargaining. and mass media. after all. and through its redistributive welfare state activities. 4 Pluralism Pluralists view society as a collection of individuals and groups. economic. the state is dominated by an elite that comes from the same background as the capitalist class. The Communist Manifesto claimed that the state is nothing more than "a committee for managing the common affairs of the bourgeoisie. Contemporary Critical Perspectives Jürgen Habermas believed that the base-superstructure framework. and acts as a tool of political power and domination for the ruling class. built upon the superstructure of the economy. a Greek neo-Marxist theorist argued that capitalist states do not always act on behalf of the ruling class. Within the pluralist tradition. the state had no essence. whose importance is a lot more limited than many of us think. was overly simplistic. but because the 'structural' position of the state is configured in such a way to ensure that the long-term interests of capital are always dominant. the state is no more than a composite reality and a mythologized abstraction. it is not necessarily the case because state officials consciously strive to do so. Heavily influenced by Gramsci. and not enough on the actual practices of government. Pluralism has been challenged on the ground that it is not supported by empirical evidence. acts as a regulator and repressor of class struggle. critics of pluralism claim that the state serves the interests of the upper class rather than equitably serving the interests of all social groups. Citing surveys showing that the large majority of people in high leadership positions are members of the wealthy upper class. and political ties. Habermas felt that the state cannot be looked at as passively responding to economic class interests. Because of the way these activities structure the economic framework. With power competitively arranged in society. For Miliband. While Poulantzas' work on 'state autonomy' has served to sharpen and specify a great deal of Marxist literature on the state. In Foucault's opinion.
Hobbes in particular went further and argued that political power should be justified with reference to the individual. not just to the people understood collectively. whereby legitimacy is derived from the belief that a certain group has been placed in power in a legal manner. not advocating democracy. The first. Theories of state legitimacy States generally rely on a claim to some form of political legitimacy in order to maintain domination over their subjects. and that their actions are justifiable according to a specific code of written laws. like Sir Robert Filmer in England. legitimacy based on charismatic leadership is devotion to a leader or group that is viewed as exceptionally heroic or virtuous. legitimacy based on traditional grounds is derived from a belief that things should be as they have been in the past. In other words. The second. . Early modern defenders of absolutism such as Thomas Hobbes and Jean Bodin undermined the doctrine of the divine right of kings by arguing that the power of kings should be justified by reference to the people. especially concerning the changing understanding of legitimate state power. and has interests of its own. such as the works of Theda Skocpol.' 5 State autonomy (institutionalism) State autonomy theorists believe that the state is an entity that is impervious to external social and economic influence. suggest that state actors are to an important degree autonomous. and given the dependence of many groups in civil society on the state for achieving any goals they may espouse. "New institutionalist" writings on the state. Weber believed that the modern state is characterized primarily by appeals to rational-legal authority. and that those who defend these traditions have a legitimate claim to power." and cites empirical studies showing a high degree of overlap between upper-level corporate management and high-level positions in government. and agribusinesses is a theoretical mistake based in empirical inaccuracies. Rational-legal authority Max Weber identified three main sources of political legitimacy in his works.State (polity) 'structural functionalism. corporations. Divine right The rise of the modern state system was closely related to changes in political thought. Both Hobbes and Bodin thought they were defending the power of kings. but their arguments about the nature of sovereignty were fiercely resisted by more traditional defenders of the power of kings. state personnel have interests of their own. which they can and do pursue independently of (at times in conflict with) actors in society. Since the state controls the means of coercion. state personnel can to some extent impose their own preferences on civil society. G. William Domhoff claims that "The idea of the American state having any significant degree of autonomy from the owners and managers of banks. The third is rational-legal authority. who thought that such defenses ultimately opened the way to more democratic claims.
The first known states were created in Ancient Egypt. History The earliest forms of the state emerged whenever it became possible to centralize power in a durable way. which are uninhabited or inhabited solely or mostly by indigenous people (and some of them remain uncontacted)." With the revival of the Roman law in the 14th century in Europe. federated states and autonomous areas within states. the vast majority of which are represented in the United Nations. and others. and these "stateless" forms of political organization have in fact prevailed for all of the prehistory and much of the history of the human species and civilization. even within present-day states there are vast areas of wilderness. "state" is a contraction of the word "estate". both of which signify that a person has status and therefore estate. like Inca quipus) because it made possible the centralization of vital information. Mesopotamia. and writing (or the equivalent of writing. common. the Inca civilization). In English. and clerical). but it is only in relatively modern times that states have almost completely displaced alternative "stateless" forms of political organization of societies all over the planet. one set of ideals and one set of laws have been imposed by force or threat over diverse nations by a civilian and military bureaucracy. quite large land areas had been either unclaimed or uninhabited. India. generally those with the most wealth and social rank. Also. this Latin term was used to refer to the legal standing of persons (such as the various "estates of the realm" . Agriculture and writing are almost everywhere associated with this process: agriculture because it allowed for the emergence of a class of people who did not have to spend most of their time providing for their own subsistence. Staat in German) ultimately derive from the Latin status. Roving bands of hunter-gatherers and even fairly sizable and complex tribal societies based on herding or agriculture have existed without any full-time specialized state organization. Initially states emerged over territories built by conquest in which one culture. or inhabited by nomadic peoples who were not organised as states. The word was also associated with Roman ideas (dating back to Cicero) about the "status rei publicae". virtually the entirety of the world's inhabitable land has been parcelled up into areas with more or less definite borders claimed by various states. Currently the international community comprises around 200 sovereign states. and in particular the special status of the king.noble. Estado in Spanish. The highest estates. China. the word lost its reference to particular social groups and became associated with the legal order of the entire society and the apparatus of its enforcement. However. Currently. there are states which do not hold de facto control over all of their claimed territory or where this control is challenged. like the Amazon Rainforest. Earlier. état in French. meaning "condition" or "status. the "condition of public matters". which is similar to the old French estat and the modern French état. were those that held power. Since the late 19th century. The early 16th century works of Machiavelli (especially The Prince) played a central role in popularizing the use of the word "state" in something similar to its modern sense.State (polity) 6 Etymology The word state and its cognates in other European languages (stato in Italian. . In time. that is not always the case and there are multinational states.
in a now rather dated anthropological idiom. It was the world's first literate civilization. community ties based on residency rather than kinship. Then supra-village aggregation began in earnest. The anthropologist Robert L. standardized forms of art and culture. In the past. and the use of pottery and more complex tools. it had increased to some 600. writing. it was suggested that the centralized state was developed to administer large public works systems (such as irrigation systems) and to regulate complex economies. In the light of this trend. ruling classes. Early states were characterized by highly stratified societies. long distance trade. meaning that it contained cities. However.000 to 157. signifying that organized warfare was common.8 percent of human history people lived exclusively in autonomous bands and villages. and the absence of large inequalities in economic and political power. full-time division of labor. social concentration of wealth into capital. the number of these autonomous political units must have been small. monumental architecture. increasing population densities. including the development of agriculture. domestication of plants and animals. Carneiro comments: "For 99." The Neolithic period During the Neolithic period. unequal distribution of wealth. is fundamentally against the state.. Sedentary agriculture led to the development of property rights. waiting to be completed by the evolutionary development of a state apparatus. By the middle of the 4th millennium B. Rather. patriarchal societies. as Pierre Clastres has put it.C. people have lived in stateless societies. . the principal of their socialty. pointing to the existence of several non-stratified and politically decentralized complex societies.State (polity) 7 Pre-historic stateless societies For most of human history. At the beginning of the Paleolithic [i. the formation of sedentary societies and fixed settlements. most Mesopotamian settlements were fortified. but by 1000 B. The ruling classes began to differentiate themselves through forms of architecture and other cultural practices that were different from those of the subordinate laboring classes. and mathematics and science. the stone age]. that hunter gatherers live in 'stateless societies'. with a privileged and wealthy ruling class that was subordinate to a monarch. It also provided the basis for the centralized state form by producing a large surplus of food. the continued decrease from 157 to 1 seems not only inescapable but close at hand".e. and in barely three millenia the autonomous political units of the world dropped from 600. modern archaeological and anthropological evidence does not support this thesis. human societies underwent major cultural and economic changes. which created a more complex division of labor by enabling people to specialize in tasks other than food production. and formed the first sets of written laws. The anthropologist Tim Ingold writes: "It is not enough to observe.C. The state in ancient Eurasia Mesopotamia is generally considered to be the location of the earliest civilization or complex society. and larger family sizes. characterized by a lack of concentrated authority.000. as though their social lives were somehow lacking or unfinished.
the Greeks were the first people known to have explicitly formulated a political philosophy of the state. Beginning in the 15th century. and to have rationally analyzed political institutions. and the relationship between lord and vassal became central to social organization. is not synonymous with nation state. . Several important political innovations of classical antiquity came from the Greek city-states and the Roman Republic. characterized by parliaments in which key social groups negotiated with the king about legal and economic matters. and in Athens these rights were combined with a directly democratic form of government that was to have a long afterlife in political thought and history. the state was organized on the principle of feudalism.State (polity) 8 The state in classical antiquity Although primitive state-forms existed before the rise of the Ancient Greek empire. states have largely been organized on a national basis. this centralizing process gives rise to the absolutist state. Feudalism led to the development of greater social hierarchies. These estates of the realm sometimes evolved in the direction of fully-fledged parliaments. Prior to this. or the state of Estates. however. leading to greater centralization of lawmaking and military power in his hands. The Feudal state During Medieval times in Europe. Even in the most ethnically homogeneous societies there is not always a complete correspondence between state and nation. The Greek city-states before the 4th century granted Painting of Roman Senators encircling Julius Caesar citizenship rights to their free population. Since the absolutist period. but sometimes lost out in their struggles with the monarch. The modern state Cultural and national homogenization figured prominently in the rise of the modern state system. The formalization of the struggles over taxation between the monarch and other elements of society (especially the nobility and the cities) gave rise to what is now called the Standestaat. hence the active role often taken by the state to promote nationalism through emphasis on shared symbols and national identity. states were described and justified in terms of religious myths. The concept of a national state.
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Quentin (1989).de/ urn:nbn:de:0159-2010102576).com/books?id=Lc_nMFoGcYkC).google. (1991). Brian T. Taylor & Francis. Theda. A Dictionary of Marxist thought (2nd ed.google.L.google. • Hall.google. John A. Yale University Press.. "Classical Theories of the State and Civil Society" (http://books. (2001).. ISBN 978-1-4039-7189-0. 10 • • • • • • • • Skinner. Andrew (1992). ISBN 0-521-35978-3. Encyclopedia of government and politics..com/books?id=1QrSKH_Q5M8C&pg=PA90). T. Nelson. Malešević.com/books?id=oiLYu2-uc8IC). ed. Issues in international relations (http://books. ISBN 978-0-521-38966-2. (2002). .google. Tony (2009). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. The state: critical concepts (Vol.State (polity) pp.com/ books?id=EFmfJlNFEKgC). Ferdinand J. Psychology Press.google. In Paynter. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-415-08683-7.com/ books?id=ayz0kWKhKacC). Penny & Ward.google. Taylor & Francis US.com/ books?id=_fjCczhvWj0C&pg=PA32). In Ball. State. Joseph. Crime.com/books?id=q4QwNP_K1pYC& pg=PA520). ISBN 978-0-8223-2798-1. James C. ISBN 978-90-04-13705-9. R. 90–131. ed.. Further reading • Barrow. In Aronowitz. ISBN 978-1-4129-4805-0. Political Innovation and Conceptual Change. In Coleman. Stanley & Bratsis.google.com/books?id=_MdR_fvPxZoC& pg=PA48). Jonathan (2004). Paradigm lost: state theory reconsidered. Power.com/ books?id=cvtYZmiOjT8C). Rueschemeyer. "Conceptions of the State" (http://books.. Political sociology: a critical introduction. (2003). ISBN 0-521-31313-9. Roy et al. • Vincent. "Violence and the State" (http://books. • Friedeburg.com/ books?id=UVv1oS3afmIC).com/ books?id=ZhxIDseBcpcC&pg=PA116). Peter (2006). The law's beginning (http://books. (1994). NYU Press. Dietrich.google. Wiley-Blackwell. and Hanson. State Forms and State Systems in Modern Europe (http://nbn-resolving.google. 1469–1475. Duke University Press. Cambridge University Press. M. ISBN 978-0-8147-4277-8. Cambridge University Press.com/books?id=ic5UOphbKHsC). (2009).google.com/ books?id=DG_HMgPYMlMC). com/books?id=bk-aaMVGKO0C). • Hansen. The state and justice: an essay in political theory (http://books. Bringing the State Back In (http://books. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-7146-5215-3. • Faulks. (2006). Skocpol. ISBN 978-0-415-43126-2. Social theory: an introduction (http://books. "The state" (http://books. States of imagination: ethnographic explorations of the postcolonial state (http://books. com/books?id=occGXv3T0ycC&pg=PA3).google. ISBN 978-1-59451-219-3. Keith (2000). • Feldbrugge. Thomas Blom & Stepputat. ISBN 978-0-415-24352-0. SUNY Press. Against the state: an introduction to anarchist political theory (http://books. Milton (1989). Farr.google. T. Robert von (2011). • Bottomore.google. B. legitimacy and the new state: Yugoslavia. Clyde W. Peter. 1 & 2) (http://books. SAGE. Palgrave Macmillan. Trevor C. Siniša (2002). ed. ed. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7914-7447-1. google.google. Scott. (2008).). Salmon. "The Miliband-Poulantzas Debate: An Intellectual History" (http://books.google. ISBN 978-0-415-07224-3. • Fisk.com/books?id=pk9W2W6LCpIC). Crispin (2008). Institute of European History. ISBN 978-0-8166-3293-0. University of Minnesota Press. Evans. Ideology. Paradigm. The making of the modern state: a theoretical evolution (http://books. • Green. "The State" (http://books. • Bratsis. Peter B. pp. Everyday Life and the State (http://books.com/books?id=sYgTwHQbNAAC). (1985). ISBN 978-0-300-15228-9. Serbia and Croatia (http://books. ISBN 978-0-8147-2709-6. The art of not being governed: an anarchist history of upland Southeast Asia (http:// books. ISBN 978-0-631-18082-1. Sartwell.com/books?id=mh_zAAAAMAAJ). John et al. J. Finn. google.
ISBN 978-0-8476-8165-5. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John (2004). Seeing like a state: how certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed (http://books. anarchy. Allgemeine Staatslehre. Black Rose Books. University of Minnesota Press. Polity Press. Community.google. Mechanisms. • Poulantzas. and Results" (http:// books. For and against the state: new philosophical readings (http://books. Verso. Kevin T. and liberty (http://books. J. power.google. • Uzgalis.com/books?id=PUev30VZ04kC). google. ISBN 978-0-300-07815-2.google.html). "John Locke" (http://plato. • Oppenheimer. Franz (1975).com/books?id=PqcPCgsr2u0C). ISBN 978-0-919618-59-6. James C. C. Munich. • Mann.com/books?id=nHu8uwrBO6gC). space. Reorienting State Power. • Sanders. 11 . Bob (1990). • Zippelius. The state (http://books. Craig. In Leicht. John (1995). ISBN 978-0-8166-5317-1. ISBN 978-0-7619-4942-8. John A. State theory: putting the Capitalist state in its place (http://books. Stuart. socialism (http://books. State. Rowman & Littlefield. Brenner.google.stanford.com/ books?id=TG6OQgAACAAJ). Cambridge University Press.State (polity) • Hoffman. ISBN 978-0-521-27014-4. Citizenship beyond the state (http://books. Henri (2009). • Hoffman.).google. Roderick T. ISBN 978-3-406-60342-6. (2008). 2007).google. Michael (1982). Springer. world: selected essays (http://books.google.com/books?id=5cYnB3KsqdkC). The State: critical concepts.com/books?id=EFmfJlNFEKgC&pg=PA331). Handbook of Politics: State and Society in Global Perspective. • Scott. & Jenkins.com/books?id=U5_HatyUydwC&pg=PA41). Patrick (2000). Yale University Press. Politikwissenschaft (16th ed.com/ books?id=eI9xYg7CwiwC). ISBN 978-0-271-00735-9.H. Jan (1996). and Rethinking the State" (http://books.google. Neil & Elden. (1998).com/ books?id=HcxBBhXjAUcC).com/books?id=_dJXaqobz4AC). Nicos & Camiller. Tibor R. In Hall. & Machan. & Narveson.com/ books?id=ejTYwLoZtY4C). ISBN 978-0-415-08680-6. • Taylor. • Jessop.google.edu/entries/locke/index. William (May 5. Ashgate Publishing. ed. SAGE. Taylor & Francis. google. ISBN 978-0-7546-6066-8. Beck. ISBN 978-0-7456-1181-5. John T. ISBN 978-0-387-68929-6. Michael (1994). Beyond the state: an introductory critique (http://books. ISBN 978-1-85984-274-4. Penn State Press.com/books?id=7k_gBlYQwOcC). • Long. State. Anarchism/minarchism: is a government part of a free country? (http://books. "The Autonomous Power of the State: It's Origins. "Redesigning the State. Volume 1. Bob (2009). google. • Jessop. Reinhold (2010). • Lefebvre.
BD2412. JPaestpreornJeolhlna. Rich257. Bigrabid. Maximaximax. Liu Tao. FETuriousness. Qureus1. Confiteordeo. Reddi. KPH2293. CWY2190. Canthusus.org/w/index. Bretonbanquet. Lam-ang. Grace Note. Philip Trueman. Docu. BlueSunRed. Golbez. RainbowOfLight. C mon. Cdc. Tobias Conradi. Paul-L. Quixoto. Kajk. Hephaestos. Cantus. Mkruijff. Qutezuce. Mangrove22. Func. RJII. Somedifferentstuff. Piotrus. JMCC1. Wdyoung. Johnbod. Xmarquez. Michael Hardy. Midnitecry7.Article Sources and Contributors 12 Article Sources and Contributors State (polity) Source: http://en. Alaexis.134. Ndaco. Licenses and Contributors File:Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes. Betterusername. Ike9898. Beland. File:Karl Theodor von Piloty Murder of Caesar 1865. Moe Epsilon. Dvavasour.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Cristiano64. Jackson Peebles. Hogeye. Ideal gas equation. Winhunter. Ranveig. Interpretix. Lectert.wikipedia. Maurice Carbonaro. Sandy Scott. Rettetast. Pretzelpaws. Shoreranger. 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