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Telugu Alphabet

Telugu Learning Kit
Workbook for Module 1
..... ...».
C P Brown Academy
The Alpha Foundation
Hyderabad
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Telugu Alphabet Learning Kit Workbook for Module-1
Transliterator: G Ramesh Babu
Managing Editor: GRK Murty
Consulting Editor: SS Prabhakar Rao
Editorial Support:
C Rama Devi, Y Anand
T Rajendra Prasad
Chief Visualizer: A Bangaru Babu
Visualizer: S Ganesh
Illustrations: B Anjaneyulu
@ 2008 C.P. Brown Academy. All Rights Reserved.
Although every care has been taken to avoid errors and omissions, this publication is being sold on
the condition and understanding that the information given in this book is merely for reference and
must not be taken as having authority of or binding in any way on the authors, editor, publisher or
sellers.
Neither this book nor any part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming and recording or by any information
storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the copyright holder.
Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are
used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.
Only the publishers can export this book from India. Infringement of this condition of sale will lead to
civil and criminal prosecution.
First Edition: 2008
Printed in India
Published by
C P Brown Academy
8, Dwarakapuri Colony, Punjagutta
Hyderabad - 500 082, India.
Website: www.alphacharities.org
Printed at:
M/s. ICIT Software Centre Private Ltd.
1, Technocrat Industrial Estate
Balanagar Cross Roads
Hyderabad-500 037, India.
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Foreword
The Module-1, “Telugu Varnamala”, is intended to help the Telugu
speakers, who cannot read/write Telugu, to pick up a reasonable level of
linguistic competence, through Roman script. The symbols used in this
book are intended to facilitate the transliteration template of the vowels,
consonants, gunintamulu and the vowel-consonant clusters, i.e., vottulu.
The relationship of the Roman character with the Telugu letter and its
pronunciation have been clearly explained with examples to aid phonetics.
For instance, the symbol ‘a’ stands for the Telugu letter ‘.’ that sounds
like ‘o’ as in the word ‘come’. Let us take another example. The symbol
‘c’ stands for the Telugu letter ‘.’ that sounds like ‘ch’ as in the word
‘church’. The Module-1 is thus quite self-explanatory and is certain to
help those who desire to learn Telugu through the medium of English.
The workbook provided along with it is scientifically designed for practice
to help the learners pickup reading and writing of Telugu, satisfactorily.
We know that some of the alphabet and their sounds are difficult to
pronounce and quite a few are not in popular use. They do not even matter
in the acquisition of linguistic skills. However, we have included all the
Telugu letters irrespective of their usage in order to introduce them all to
the learners.
Enjoy!
SS Prabhakar Rao
.
-
.
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Vowels (-.·e·: Acculu)
..... ...».
TELUGU ALPHABET
.
*
a
come
.

far
a o
c
o
... ..»
.
.
e
ø
. .
..
..
i
i
bit feel
u
wood
u
cool
ru
rusi root
.
.lu

a

ru
.

.lu

e
e

get stake mite
ai
oat rotate out
half some
o o
au
am ah

. .
look loop
* ‘a’ stands for ‘.’ and sounds like ‘o’ as in ‘come’. The same pattern applies to all other vowels.
. .
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Consonants (.·e·e· : Hallulu)
36 Characters
*
k
silk
kh
khaki
g
go
gh
ghost
n
prajna
c
church
ch
witch
j
jug
t
take
th
nilakantha
d
bird
dh
asadha
n
prana
t
tabala
th
thumb
d
though
dh
dhoti
n
nature
- .
.
. .

-
.
.
. . . . .
. . .
- -
.
-
.
.
.
. . .
. =
.
. .
.
.
* ‘k’ stands for ‘. ’ and sounds like ‘k’ as in ‘silk’. The same pattern applies to all other consonants.
.c
.capa
.
.j
.jabili
.

- -
jh
jhansi
n
sanjna
~
~ -
..
a
-
-
.
5
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y
young
r
rust
l
lump
l
kalimata
v
levy
s
sastry
s
ship
s
sun
h
home
ksh
raksha
r
error
- -
-
.
.
.
..
. .
.
.
. . . .

- .
p
cup
ph
phone
b
bat
bh
bharat
m
month
. . .
.
..
-
Semi-Vowels or Semi-Consonants
.c..»-.·..Ubhayaksharalu)
.... = . Sunna) ...... = : Arasunna) .ø.. = . Visarga)
Note: Five Telugu characters are not in general use.
They are . .
– –
..»
6
.lu .lu
-
.c
.j
ru
-
.
´
´
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a
come
far
a

i
bit
feel
i

wood
u
How to write Vowels?
..¸. . :...· ¸.·.-c:
u

cool
ru
.
rusi
root
ru
.
.

.
7
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e
get
ai
mite
e
stake
-
o
rotate
o
oat
- au
out
some
am
half
ah
.
.
8
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k
silk
kh
khaki
gh
ghost
g
go
n
prajna
.
c
church
ch
witch
j
jug
jh
jhansi
sanjna
n
~
How to write Consonants?
.·.. . :...· ¸.·.-c:
.


~
9
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t
take
th
nilakantha
. .
d
bird
.
dh
asadha
n
prana
.

t
tabala
th
thumb
d
though
dh
dhoti
n
nature
.
. .
.



.

10
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p
cup
ph
phone
b
bat
bh
bharat
m
month
young
y
r
rust
l
lump
l
kalimata
.

v
levy
s
sastry

.


11
´
´
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s
s
sun
h
home
ksh
raksha
r
error
ship
.
.
12
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How to write Vowels?
For practice
i
a

a
i

13
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e
e
ru
.

u
u

ru
.
14
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ai
o
o

au
am
.
ah
.
15
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How to write Consonants?
For practice
kh
g
k
gh
n
.
16
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c
ch
j
jh
n
~
17
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t
.
th
.
d
.
dh
.
n
.
18
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t
d
dh
n
19
th
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p
ph
b
bh
m
20
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y
r
l
.
l
v
21
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s
s
.
s
h
k
s
h
r
.
22
´
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Exercise 1: Identify the Vowels
.
.

. .
-
.
:
.
¬
.
.
..
·
÷
.
.
·
..
÷
.
-
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
:
.
.
.
...
-
=
.
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Exercise 2: Identify the Consonants
.
.
·

-
.
÷
. .
÷
-
÷
.
.
.
.
-
.
.
:
.
=
:
..
¬
..
..
...
.
..-
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
..
.
:
..
..
.
.
.
24
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Exercise 3: Differentiate the Letters
. o : au
. o . b
- n . j
= n - i
. j . o
. . jh .. gh
. dh . th
· n ¬ n
. l . l
. r - r
. r . th
. s . s
~
25
´
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. s . s
÷ u ÷ i
.. am .. ah
.. m .. y
. ph . bh
. l : t
. kh . bh
. p . e
. k . ksh
. th . th
. e . e
. e - ai
26
´
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Symbols of Gunintamulu
Telugu Letter Roman Character Symbol How to write Symbol For practice
. a
· a
- i
÷ i
÷ u
÷ u
... ru
..- ru
. e
. e
- ai
. o
. o
: au
.. am
.. ah
.
.
.
.




.

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.¬..:.. (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (ka-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . ka
. - · . ka
. - - . ki
. - ÷ . ki
. - ÷ . ku
. - ÷ · ku
. - ... . ¸ kru
. - ..- . ¸ kru
. - . · . ke
. - . · . ke
. - - · . kai
. - . . ko
. - . . ko
. - : . kau
. - .. . . kam
. - .. .. kah
.



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.


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For practice ka Gunintamu (. ·... ..)
. . . . . · . ¸ .¸ · . · . ·. . . . . . . .
.
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (kha-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . kha
. - · . kha
. - - e khi
. - ÷ e khi
. - ÷ .. khu
. - ÷ .- khu
. - ... .¸ khru
. - ..- .¸ khru
. - . . khe
. - . . khe
. - - . khai
. - . . kho
. - . . kho
. - : . khau
. - .. .. kham
. - .. .. khah




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For practice: kha Gunintamu ( . ·... ..)
. . e e .. .- .¸ .¸ . . . . . . .. ..
.
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) .¬ .. .. (ga-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
- . ga
- · ga
- - gi
- ÷ gi
- ÷ . gu
- ÷ - gu
- ... ¸ gru
- ..- ¸ gru
- . · ge
- . · ge
- - · gai
- . go
- . go
- : gau
- .. . gam
- .. . gah
.


.



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For practice: ga Gunintamu ( ·... .)
. - ¸ ¸ · · · . .













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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . . .¬ .. .. (gha-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. . - . . . gha
. . - · . - gha
. . - - . . ghi
. . - ÷ . . ghi
. . - ÷ . . ghu
. . - ÷ . · ghu
. . - ... . .¸ ghru
. . - ..- . .¸ ghru
. . - . . . ghe
. . - . . . ghe
. . - - . . ghai
. . - . . . gho
. . - . . . gho
. . - : . . ghau
. . - .. . .. gham
. . - .. . .. ghah
.


.



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For practice: gha Gunintamu ( . . ·... . ..)
.. .- . . . . .. .· ..¸ ..¸ .. .. . . . . .. .. ... ...
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (ca-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . ca
. - · . ca
. - - . ci
. - ÷ . ci
. - ÷ . . cu
. - ÷ .- cu
. - ... . ¸ cru
. - ..- . ¸ cru
. - . . ce
. - . . ce
. - - . cai
. - . . co
. - . . co
. - : . cau
. - .. . . cam
. - .. . . cah




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For practice: ca Gunintamu ( . ·... ..)
. . . . . . . - . ¸ . ¸ . . . . . . . . . .
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (cha-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . cha
. - · . cha
. - - . chi
. - ÷ . chi
. - ÷ . . chu
. - ÷ .- chu
. - ... . ¸ chru
. - ..- . ¸ chru
. - . . che
. - . . che
. - - . chai
. - . . cho
. - . . cho
. - : . chau
. - .. . . cham
. - .. .. chah
.





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For practice: cha Gunintamu ( . ·... ..)
. . . . . . . - . ¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . ..
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (ja-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . ja
. - · . ja
. - - . ji
. - ÷ . ji
. - ÷ . ju
. - ÷ . ju
. - ... .¸ jru
. - ..- .¸ jru
. - . . je
. - . . je
. - - . jai
. - . . jo
. - . . jo
. - : . jau
. - .. .. jam
. - .. .. jah
.





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For practice: ja Gunintamu ( . ·... ..)
. . . . . . .¸ .¸ . . . . . . .. ..
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) .. .¬ .. .. (jha-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
.. - . .. jha
. . - · . . jha
. . - - .. jhi
. . - ÷ :. jhi
. . - ÷ . .. jhu
. . - ÷ . .- jhu
. . - ... . .¸ jhru
. . - ..- . .¸ jhru
.. - . ·.. jhe
.. - . ·.. jhe
. . - - · .. jhai
. . - . · ... jho
. . - . · .. jho
. . - : .. jhau
. . - .. . .. jham
. . - .. . .. jhah
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For practice: jha Gunintamu ( .. ·... ...)
.
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. . .. :. . ... .- . .¸ . .¸ · ..
· .. · ... · .. . . . .. . ..
~¡-
· ..
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) : .¬ .. .. (ta-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
. .
: - . : ta
: - · : ta
: - - : ti
: - ÷ : ti
: - ÷ :. tu
: - ÷ :- tu
: - ... :¸ tru
: - ..- :¸ tru
: - . . te
: - . . te
: - - . tai
: - . : to
: - . : to
: - : : tau
: - .. :. tam
: - .. :. tah
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For practice: ta Gunintamu ( : ·... :.)
: : : : :. :- :¸ :¸ . . . : : : :. :.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (tha-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
. .
. - . . tha
. - · . tha
. - - . thi
. - ÷ : thi
. - ÷ . . thu
. - ÷ . - thu
. - ... . ¸ thru
. - ..- . ¸ thru
. - . ·. the
. - . ·. the
. - - ·. thai
. - . . tho
. - . . tho
. - : . thau
. - .. . . tham
. - .. .. thah
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For practice tha Gunintamu (. ·... ..)
. . . : .. .- .¸ .¸ ··. ·. ·. . . . .. ..
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (da-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
. .
. - . . da
. - · . da
. - - . di
. - ÷ . di
. - ÷ . . du
. - ÷ . - du
. - ... . ¸ dru
. - ..- . ¸ dru
. - . . de
. - . . de
. - - . dai
. - . . do
. - . . do
. - : . dau
. - .. . . dam
. - .. . . dah
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For practice: da Gunintamu ( . ·... ..)
. . . . . . . - . ¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . . .
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (dha-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
. .
. - . . dha
. - · . dha
. - - . dhi
. - ÷ . dhi
. - ÷ . . dhu
. - ÷ . - dhu
. - ... . ¸ dhru
. - ..- . ¸ dhru
. - . . dhe
. - . . dhe
. - - . dhai
. - . . dho
. - . . dho
. - : . dhau
. - .. . . dham
. - .. .. dhah
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For practice: dha Gunintamu ( . ·... . .)
. . . . . . . - . ¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . ..
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) ¬ .¬ .. .. (na-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
. .
¬ - . ¬ na
¬ - · ¬ na
¬ - - ¬ ni
¬ - ÷ ¬ ni
¬ - ÷ ¬. nu
¬ - ÷ ¬- nu
¬ - ... ¬¸ nru
¬ - ..- ¬¸ nru
¬ - . ¬ ne
¬ - . ¬ ne
¬ - - ¬ nai
¬ - . ¬ no
¬ - . ¬ no
¬ - : ¬ nau
¬ - .. ¬. nam
¬ - .. ¬. nah
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For practice: na Gunintamu ( ¬ ·... ¬.)
¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬. ¬- ¬¸ ¬¸ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬. ¬.
¬
¬
¬
¬
¬
¬
¬
¬
¬
¬
¬
¬
¬
¬
¬
¬
. .
53
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (ta-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . ta
. - · . ta
. - - o ti
. - ÷ o ti
. - ÷ . . tu
. - ÷ . - tu
. - ... . ¸ tru
. - ..- . ¸ tru
. - . . te
. - . . te
. - - . tai
. - . . to
. - . . to
. - : . tau
. - .. . . tam
. - .. . . tah
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54
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For practice: ta Gunintamu (. ·... ..)
. . o o . . .- . ¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . ..
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (tha-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . tha
. - · . tha
. - - . thi
. - ÷ : thi
. - ÷ . . thu
. - ÷ . - thu
. - ... . ¸ thru
. - ..- . ¸ thru
. - . . the
. - . . the
. - - . thai
. - . . tho
. - . . tho
. - : . thau
. - .. . . tham
. - .. .. thah
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56
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For practice: tha Gunintamu ( . ·... ..)
. . . : . . . - . ¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . . .
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57
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (da-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . da
. - · . da
. - - . di
. - ÷ : di
. - ÷ . . du
. - ÷ . - du
. - ... . ¸ dru
. - ..- . ¸ dru
. - . . de
. - . . de
. - - . dai
. - . . do
. - . . do
. - : . dau
. - .. . . dam
. - .. .. dah
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58
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For practice: da Gunintamu (. ·... ..)
. . . : . . . - . ¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . . .
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59
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (dha-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . dha
. - · . dha
. - - . dhi
. - ÷ : dhi
. - ÷ . . dhu
. - ÷ . - dhu
. - ... . ¸ dhru
. - ..- . ¸ dhru
. - . . dhe
. - . . dhe
. - - . dhai
. - . . dho
. - . . dho
. - : . dhau
. - .. . . dham
. - .. .. dhah
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60
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For practice: dha Gunintamu (. ·... . .)
. . . : . . .- .¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . . .
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61
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) · .¬ .. .. (na-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . · na
· - · . na
· - - . ni
· - ÷ . ni
· - ÷ ·. nu
· - ÷ ·- nu
· - ... ·¸ nru
· - ..- ·¸ nru
· - . . ne
· - . . ne
· - - . nai
· - . . no
· - . . no
· - : . nau
· - .. ·. nam
· - .. ·. nah
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62
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For practice: na Gunintamu ( · ·... ·.)
· . . . ·. ·- ·¸ ·¸ . . . . . . ·. ·.
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
.
63
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (pa-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . pa
. - · . pa
. - - . pi
. - ÷ . pi
. - ÷ . pu
. - ÷ . · pu
. - ... . ¸ pru
. - ..- . ¸ pru
. - . . pe
. - . . pe
. - - . pai
. - . . po
. - . . po
. - : . pau
. - .. . . pam
. - .. . . pah
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64
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For practice: pa Gunintamu ( . ·... .. )
. . . . . . · .¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . ..
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (pha-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . pha
. - · . pha
. - - . phi
. - ÷ . phi
. - ÷ . phu
. - ÷ . · phu
. - ... . ¸ phru
. - ..- . ¸ phru
. - . . phe
. - . . phe
. - - . phai
. - . . pho
. - . . pho
. - : . phau
. - .. . . pham
. - .. . . phah
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66
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For practice: pha Gunintamu (. ·... . .)
. . . . . .· .¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . ..
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67
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (ba-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . ba
. - · . ba
. - - t bi
. - ÷ t bi
. - ÷ .. bu
. - ÷ .- bu
. - ... .¸ bru
. - ..- .¸ bru
. - . . be
. - . . be
. - - . bai
. - . . bo
. - . . bo
. - : . bau
. - .. .. bam
. - .. .. bah
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For practice: ba Gunintamu (. ·... ..)
. . t t .. .- .¸ .¸ . . . . . . .. ..
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (bha-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . bha
. - · . bha
. - - t bhi
. - ÷ t bhi
. - ÷ . . bhu
. - ÷ . - bhu
. - ... . ¸ bhru
. - ..- . ¸ bhru
. - . . bhe
. - . . bhe
. - - . bhai
. - . . bho
. - . . bho
. - : . bhau
. - .. . . bham
. - .. . . bhah
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70
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For practice: bha Gunintamu (. ·... ..)
. . t t . . .- .¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . . .
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71
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) .. .¬ .. ..(ma-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. . - . .. ma
.. - · .- ma
.. - - .. mi
.. - ÷ .. mi
.. - ÷ .. mu
.. - ÷ .· mu
.. - ... ..¸ mru
.. - ..- ..¸ mru
.. - . . . me
.. - . . . me
.. - - . . mai
.. - . . . mo
.. - . . - mo
.. - : .. mau
.. - .. ... mam
.. - .. ... mah
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72
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For practice: ma Gunintamu (.. ·... ...)
.. .- .. .. .. .· ..¸ ..¸ . . . . .. .. . - .. ... ...
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
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73
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . . .¬ .. .. (ya-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. . - . . . ya
. . - · . - ya
. . - - .. yi
. . - ÷ .· yi
. . - ÷ . . yu
. . - ÷ . · yu
. . - ... . .¸ yru
. . - ..- . .¸ yru
. . - . . . ye
. . - . . . ye
. . - - . . yai
. . - . . . yo
. . - . . - yo
. . - : . . yau
. . - .. . .. yam
. . - .. . .. yah
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74
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For practice: ya Gunintamu (.. ·... ...)
. . . - .. .· . .. ·. .¸ . .¸ . . . . . . . .. - . . . ... ..
. .
. .
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. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
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75
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (ra-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . ra
. - · . ra
. - - . ri
. - ÷ : ri
. - ÷ . . ru
. - ÷ . - ru
. - ... . ¸ rru
. - ..- . ¸ rru
. - . · . re
. - . · . re
. - - ·. rai
. - . . ro
. - . . ro
. - : . rau
. - .. . . ram
. - .. .. rah
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76
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For practice: ra Gunintamu (. ·... ..)
. . . : . . .- . ¸ .¸ · . · . · . . . . .. ..
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77
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (la-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
78
. - . . la
. - · . la
. - - c li
. - ÷ c li
. - ÷ .. lu
. - ÷ .- lu
. - ... .¸ lru
. - ..- .¸ lru
. - . . le
. - . . le
. - - . lai
. - . . lo
. - . . lo
. - : . lau
. - .. .. lam
. - .. .. lah
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79
For practice: la Gunintamu (. ·... ..)
. . c c .. .- .¸ .¸ . . . . . . .. ..
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (la-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
80
. - . . la
. - · . la
. - - : li
. - ÷ : li
. - ÷ . lu
. - ÷ .- lu
. - ... . ¸ lru
. - ..- . ¸ lru
. - . . le
. - . . le
. - - . lai
. - . . lo
. - . . lo
. - : . lau
. - .. . . lam
. - .. . . lah
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81
For practice: la Gunintamu (. ·... . .)
. . : : . . - .¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . ..
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (va-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . va
. - · . va
. - - . vi
. - ÷ . vi
. - ÷ . vu
. - ÷ .· vu
. - ... .¸ vru
. - ..- .¸ vru
. - . . ve
. - . . ve
. - - . vai
. - . . vo
. - . . vo
. - : . vau
. - .. .. vam
. - .. .. vah
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82
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For practice: va Gunintamu (. ·... ..)
. . . . . .· .¸ .¸ . . . . . . .. ..
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83
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (sa-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . sa
. - · . sa
. - - . si
. - ÷ . si
. - ÷ . su
. - ÷ . - su
. - ... . ¸ sru
. - ..- . ¸ sru
. - . . se
. - . . se
. - - . sai
. - . . so
. - . . so
. - : . sau
. - .. . . sam
. - .. . . sah
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For practice: sa Gunintamu (. ·... ..)
. . . . . .- . ¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . . .
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (sa-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
. .
. - . . sa
. - · . sa
. - - . si
. - ÷ . si
. - ÷ . . su
. - ÷ . - su
. - ... . ¸ sru
. - ..- . ¸ sru
. - . . se
. - . . se
. - - . sai
. - . . so
. - . . so
. - : . sau
. - .. . . sam
. - .. . . sah
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86
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For practice: sa Gunintamu (. ·... ..)
. . . . .. .- .¸ . ¸ . . . . . . . . ..
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87
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (sa-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . sa
. - · . sa
. - - . si
. - ÷ . si
. - ÷ . . su
. - ÷ . - su
. - ... . ¸ sru
. - ..- . ¸ sru
. - . . se
. - . . se
. - - . sai
. - . . so
. - . . so
. - : . sau
. - .. . . sam
. - .. . . sah
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88
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For practice: sa Gunintamu ( . ·... . .)
. . . . . . . - . ¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . . .
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (ha-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . ha
. - · . ha
. - - . hi
. - ÷ . hi
. - ÷ . . hu
. - ÷ . ¬ hu
. - ... . ¸ hru
. - ..- . ¸ hru
. - . . he
. - . . he
. - - . hai
. - . . ho
. - . . ho
. - : . hau
. - .. . . ham
. - .. . . hah
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90
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For practice: ha Gunintamu (. ·... . .)
. . . . .. .¬ .¸ .¸ . . . . . . . . . .
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91
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) . .¬ .. .. (ksha-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
. - . . ksha
. - · . ksha
. - - . kshi
. - ÷ . kshi
. - ÷ . kshu
. - ÷ · kshu
. - ... . ¸ kshru
. - ..- . ¸ kshru
. - . · . kshe
. - . · . kshe
. - - · . kshai
. - . . ksho
. - . . ksho
. - : . kshau
. - .. . . ksham
. - .. .. kshah
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92
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For practice: ksha Gunintamu ( . ·... . .)
. . . . . · .¸ .¸ ·. · . ·. . . . . . ..
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. - .. ... (Gunintamulu)
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu) - .¬ .. .. (ra-Gunintamu)
.
Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter For practice
.
.
- - . - ra
- - · - ra
- - - - ri
- - ÷ - ri
- - ÷ -. ru
- - ÷ -- ru
- - ... -¸ rru
- - ..- -¸ rru
- - . - re
- - . - re
- - - - rai
- - . - ro
- - . - ro
- - : - rau
- - .. -. ram
- - .. -. rah
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For practice: ra Gunintamu ( - ·... -.)
- - - - -. -- -¸ -¸ - - - - - - -. -.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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95
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96
Symbols of Vottulu
kh
.

g

gh
..

n
-
-
c
.

ch
.

j
.

jh
..
. .
n
=
=
t
:

th
.

d
.

dh
.
.
n
¬

t
.

th
.

d
.

dh
.

n
·

p
.
¸
ph
.
¸
b
.

bh
.

m
..
¸
y
..
¸
r
.

l
.

l
.

v
.
¸
s
.

s
.

s
.

h
.

ksha
.

ra
-

k
.
¸
.
~
. .
. .
.
.
.
.
´
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VOTTULU for "k" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
. ¸ kka
. kkha
. kga
. kgha
. kca
. kcha
. kja
. kjha
. kta
. ktha
. kda
. kdha
. kna
. kta
. ktha
. kda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
. kdha
. kna
. ¸ kpa
. ¸ kpha
. kba
. kbha
. ¸ kma
. ¸ kya
. kra
. kla
. kla
. ¸ kva
. ksa
. ksa
. ksa
. kha
97
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VOTTULU for "kha" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.¸ khka
. khkha
. khga
. khgha
. khca
. khcha
. khja
. khjha
. khta
. khtha
. khda
. khdha
. khna
. khta
. khtha
. khda
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. khdha
. khna
.¸ khpa
.¸ khpha
. khba
. khbha
.¸ khma
.¸ khya
. khra
. khla
. khla
.¸ khva
. khsa
. khsa
. khsa
. khha
.
.
98
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VOTTULU for "ga" consonant
.... ..... For Practice
¸ gka
gkha
gga
ggha
gca
gcha
gja
gjha
gta
gtha
gda
gdha
gna
gta
gtha
gda
.
.
. .
gdha
gna
¸ gpa
¸ gpha
gba
gbha
¸ gma
¸ gya
gra
gla
gla
¸ gva
gsa
gsa
gsa
gha
.
.
.
.
.
99
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VOTTULU for "gha" consonant
. . .... ..... For Practice
..¸ ghka
.. ghkha
.. ghga
.. ghgha
.. ghca
.. ghcha
.. ghja
. . ghjha
.. ghta
.. ghtha
.. ghda
. . ghdha
.. ghna
.. ghta
.. ghtha
.. ghda
.
.
.
.
.
. .
.. ghdha
.. ghna
..¸ ghpa
..¸ ghpha
.. ghba
.. ghbha
..¸ ghma
..¸ ghya
.. ghra
.. ghla
.. ghla
..¸ ghva
.. ghsa
.. ghsa
.. ghsa
.. ghha
.
.
100
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VOTTULU for "ca" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.¸ cka
. ckha
. cga
. cgha
. cca
. ccha
. cja
. chja
. cta
. ctha
. cda
. cdha
. chna
. cta
. ctha
. cda
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. cdha
. cna
.¸ cpa
.¸ cpha
. cba
. cbha
.¸ cma
.¸ cya
. cra
. cla
. cla
.¸ cva
. csa
. csa
. csa
. cha
.
.
101
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VOTTULU for "cha" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.¸ chka
. chkha
. chga
. chgha
. chca
. chcha
. chja
. chjha
. chta
. chtha
. chda
. chdha
. chna
. chta
. chtha
. chda
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. chdha
. chna
.¸ chpa
.¸ chpha
. chba
. chbha
.¸ chma
.¸ chya
. chra
. chla
. chla
.¸ chva
. chsa
. chsa
. chsa
. chha
.
.
102
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VOTTULU for "ja" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.¸ jka
. jkha
. jga
. jgha
. jca
. jcha
. jja
. jjha
. jta
. jtha
. jda
. jdha
. jna
. jta
. jtha
. jda
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. jdha
. jna
.¸ jpa
.¸ jpha
. jba
. jbha
.¸ jma
.¸ jya
. jra
. jla
. jla
.¸ jva
. jsa
. jsa
. jsa
. jha
.
.
103
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VOTTULU for "jha" consonant
.. .... ..... For Practice
..¸ jhka
.. jhkha
.. jhga
.. jhgha
.. jhca
.. jhcha
.. jhja
.. jhjha
.. jhta
.. jhtha
.. jhda
.. jhdha
.. jhna
.. jhta
.. jhtha
.. jhda
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.. jhdha
.. jhna
..¸ jhpa
..¸ jhpha
.. jhba
.. jhbha
..¸ jhma
..¸ jhya
.. jhra
.. jhla
.. jhla
..¸ jhva
.. jhsa
.. jhsa
.. jhsa
.. jhha
.
.
104
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VOTTULU for "ta" consonant
: .... ..... For Practice
.
:¸ tka
: tkha
: tga
: tgha
: tca
: tcha
: tja
: tjha
: tta
: ttha
: tda
: tdha
: tna
: tta
: ttha
: tda
.
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. .
.
.
.
.
.
: tdha
: tna
:¸ tpa
:¸ tpha
: tba
: tbha
:¸ tma
:¸ tya
: tra
: tla
: tla
:¸ tva
: tsa
: tsa
: tsa
: tha
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
105
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VOTTULU for "tha" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
.¸ thka
. thkha
. thga
. thgha
. thca
. thcha
. thja
. thjha
. thta
. ththa
. thda
. thdha
. thna
. thta
. ththa
. thda
.
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
. thdha
. thna
.¸ thpa
.¸ thpha
. thba
. thbha
.¸ thma
.¸ thya
. thra
. thla
. thla
.¸ thva
. thsa
. thsa
. thsa
. thha
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
106
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VOTTULU for "da" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
. ¸ dka
. dkha
. dga
. dgha
. dca
. dcha
. dja
. djha
. dta
. dtha
. dda
. ddha
. dna
. dta
. dtha
. dda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. ddha
. dna
. ¸ dpa
. ¸ dpha
. dba
. dbha
.¸ dma
. ¸ dya
. dra
. dla
. dla
. ¸ dva
. dsa
. dsa
. dsa
. dha
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
107
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VOTTULU for "dha" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. .
.
.
.
. ¸ dhka
. dhkha
. dhga
. dhgha
. dhca
. dhcha
. dhja
. dhjha
. dhta
. dhtha
. dhda
. dhdha
. dhna
. dhta
. dhtha
. dhda
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. dhdha
. dhna
. ¸ dhpa
. ¸ dhpha
. dhba
. dhbha
.¸ dhma
. ¸ dhya
. dhra
. dhla
. dhla
. ¸ dhva
. dhsa
. dhsa
. dhsa
. dhha
.
108
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VOTTULU for "ta" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
.¸ tka
. tkha
. tga
. tgha
. tca
. tcha
. tja
. tjha
. tta
. ttha
. tda
. tdha
. tna
. tta
. ttha
. tda
.
.
.
.
. .
. tdha
. tna
.¸ tpa
.¸ tpha
. tba
. tbha
.¸ tma
.¸ tya
. tra
. tla
. tla
.¸ tva
. tsa
. tsa
. tsa
. tha
.
.
109
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VOTTULU for "tha" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
. ¸ thka
. thkha
. thga
. thgha
. thca
. thcha
. thja
. thjha
. thta
. ththa
. thda
. thdha
. thna
. thta
. ththa
. thda
.
. .
.
.
.
. thdha
. thna
. ¸ thpa
. ¸ thpha
. thba
. thbha
. ¸ thma
. ¸ thya
. thra
. thla
. thla
. ¸ thva
. thsa
. thsa
. thsa
. thha
.
.
110
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VOTTULU for "da" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
. ¸ dka
. dkha
. dga
. dgha
. dca
. dcha
. dja
. djha
. dta
. dtha
. dda
. ddha
. dna
. dta
. dtha
. dda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. ddha
. dna
. ¸ dpa
. ¸ dpha
. dba
. dbha
.¸ dma
. ¸ dya
. dra
. dla
. dla
. ¸ dva
. dsa
. dsa
. dsa
. dha
.
111
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VOTTULU for "dha" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
. ¸ dhka
. dhkha
. dhga
. dhgha
. dhca
. dhcha
. dhja
. dhjha
. dhta
. dhtha
. dhda
. dhdha
. dhna
. dhta
. dhtha
. dhda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. dhdha
. dhna
. ¸ dhpa
. ¸ dhpha
. dhba
. dhbha
.¸ dhma
. ¸ dhya
. dhra
. dhla
. dhla
. ¸ dhva
. dhsa
. dhsa
. dhsa
. dhha
.
112
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VOTTULU for "na" consonant
· .... ..... For Practice
.
·¸ nka
· nkha
· nga
· ngha
· nca
· ncha
· nja
· njha
· nta
· ntha
· nda
· ndha
· nna
· nta
· ntha
· nda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
· ndha
· nna
·¸ npa
·¸ npha
· nba
· nbha
·¸ nma
·¸ nya
· nra
· nla
· nla
·¸ nva
· nsa
· nsa
· nsa
· nha
.
113
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VOTTULU for "pa" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
. ¸ pka
. pkha
. pga
. pgha
. pca
. pcha
. pja
. pjha
. pta
. ptha
. pda
. pdha
. pna
. pta
. ptha
. pda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. pdha
. pna
. ¸ ppa
. ¸ ppha
. pba
. pbha
.¸ pma
. ¸ pya
. pra
. pla
. pla
. ¸ pva
. psa
. psa
. psa
. pha
.
114
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VOTTULU for "pha" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
.¸ phka
. phkha
. phga
. phgha
. phca
. phcha
. phja
. phjha
. phta
. phtha
. phda
. phdha
. phna
. phta
. phtha
. phda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. phdha
. phna
. ¸ phpa
. ¸ phpha
. phba
. phbha
. ¸ phma
. ¸ phya
. phra
. phla
. phla
. ¸ phva
. phsa
. phsa
. phsa
. phha
.
115
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VOTTULU for "ba" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
.¸ bka
. bkha
. bga
. bgha
. bca
. bcha
. bja
. bjha
. bta
. btha
. bda
. bdha
. bna
. bta
. btha
. bda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. bdha
. bna
.¸ bpa
.¸ bpha
. bba
. bbha
.¸ bma
.¸ bya
. bra
. bla
. bla
.¸ bva
. bsa
. bsa
. bsa
. bha
.
116
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VOTTULU for "bha" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
.¸ bhka
. bhkha
. bhga
. bhgha
. bhca
. bhcha
. bhja
. bhjha
. bhta
. bhtha
. bhda
. bhdha
. bhna
. bhta
. bhtha
. bhda
.
.
.
.
. .
.
. bhdha
. bhna
.¸ bhpa
.¸ bhpha
. bhba
. bhbha
.¸ bhma
.¸ bhya
. bhra
. bhla
. bhla
.¸ bhva
. bhsa
. bhsa
. bhsa
. bhha
.
117
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VOTTULU for "ma" consonant
.. .... ..... For Practice
.
..¸ mka
.. mkha
.. mga
.. mgha
.. mca
.. mcha
.. mja
.. mjha
.. mta
.. mtha
.. mda
.. mdha
.. mna
.. mta
.. mtha
.. mda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.. mdha
.. mna
..¸ mpa
..¸ mpha
.. mba
.. mbha
..¸ mma
..¸ mya
.. mra
.. mla
.. mla
..¸ mva
.. msa
.. msa
.. msa
.. mha
118
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VOTTULU for "ya" consonant
. . .... ..... For Practice
.
..¸ yka
.. ykha
.. yga
.. ygha
.. yca
.. ycha
.. yja
.. yjha
.. yta
.. ytha
.. yda
. . ydha
.. yna
.. yta
.. ytha
.. yda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.. ydha
.. yna
..¸ ypa
..¸ ypha
.. ypba
.. ybha
..¸ yma
..¸ yya
.. yra
.. yla
.. yla
..¸ yva
.. ysa
.. ysa
.. ysa
.. yha
.
119
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VOTTULU for "ra" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
.¸ rka
. rkha
. rga
. rgha
. rca
. rcha
. rja
. rjha
. rta
. rtha
. rda
. rdha
. rna
. rta
. rtha
. rda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. rdha
. rna
.¸ rpa
.¸ rpha
. rba
. rbha
.¸ rma
.¸ rya
. rra
. rla
. rla
.¸ rva
. rsa
. rsa
. rsa
. rha
.
120
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VOTTULU for "la" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
121
.
.¸ lka
. lkha
. lga
. lgha
. lca
. lcha
. lja
. ljha
. lta
. ltha
. lda
. ldha
. lna
. lta
. ltha
. lda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. ldha
. lna
.¸ lpa
.¸ lpha
. lba
. lbha
.¸ lma
.¸ lya
. lra
. lla
. lla
.¸ lva
. lsa
. lsa
. lsa
. lha
.
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VOTTULU for "la" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
122
.
.¸ lka
. lkha
. lga
. lgha
. lca
. lcha
. lja
. ljha
. lta
. ltha
. lda
. ldha
. lna
. lta
. ltha
. lda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. ldha
. lna
.¸ lpa
.¸ lpha
. lba
. lbha
.¸ lma
.¸ lya
. lra
. lla
. lla
.¸ lva
. lsa
. lsa
. lsa
. lha
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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VOTTULU for "va" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
.¸ vka
. vkha
. vga
. vgha
. vca
. vcha
. vja
. vjha
. vta
. vtha
. vda
. vdha
. vna
. vta
. vtha
. vda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. vdha
. vna
.¸ vpa
.¸ vpha
. vba
. vbha
.¸ vma
.¸ vya
. vra
. vla
. vla
.¸ vva
. vsa
. vsa
. vsa
. vha
.
123
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VOTTULU for "sa" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.¸ ska
. skha
. sga
. sgha
. sca
. scha
. sja
. sjha
. sta
. stha
. sda
. sdha
. sna
. sta
. stha
. sda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. sdha
. sna
.¸ spa
. ¸ spha
. sba
. sbha
.¸ sma
.¸ sya
. sra
. sla
. sla
.¸ sva
. ssa
. ssa
. ssa
. sha
.
.
124
´ ´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
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VOTTULU for "sa" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
. ¸ ska
. skha
. sga
. sgha
. sca
. scha
. sja
. sjha
. sta
. stha
. sda
. sdha
. sna
. sta
. stha
. sda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. sdha
. sna
. ¸ spa
. ¸ spha
. sba
. sbha
.¸ sma
. ¸ sya
. sra
. sla
. sla
. ¸ sva
. ssa
. ssa
. ssa
. sha
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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VOTTULU for "sa" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.
.¸ ska
. skha
. sga
. sgha
. sca
. scha
. sja
. sjha
. sta
. stha
. sda
. sdha
. sna
. sta
. stha
. sda
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. sdha
. sna
.¸ spa
.¸ spha
. sba
. sbha
.¸ sma
.¸ sya
. sra
. sla
. sla
.¸ sva
. ssa
. ssa
. ssa
. sha
.
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VOTTULU for "ha" consonant
. .... ..... For Practice
.¸ hka
. hkha
. hga
. hgha
. hca
. hcha
. hja
. hjha
. .
. hta
. htha
. hda
. hdha
. hna
. hta
. htha
. hda
.
.
.
.
.
. hdha
. hna
.¸ hpa
.¸ hpha
. hba
. hbha
.¸ hma
.¸ hya
. hra
. hla
. hla
.¸ hva
. hsa
. hsa
. hsa
. hha
.
.
127
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. . ..
-=¬ . - ÷ .... ..... ..¸. ..... .. ..:
.:. .......· .¸.¸...·. -.¸...
NOTE
The vowel- consonant clusters for the Telugu letters viz.,
n, n, n, ksha, r are not given since they are not
in much usage.
.
~
.
.
128
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