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Mathematical methods for the life sciences

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

Introduction

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

Why Mathematics?
Mathematics is like a language Using mathematics we can describe many natural phenomena Mathematical equations are like precise statements

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

Mathematics as a language
In plain English we would say: Bacterial colony is growing slow Bacterial colony is growing fast/very fast But these are qualitative statements

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

Mathematically, we can make a quantitative statement :

N =2

kt

N : Number of bacteria at time t k : growth rate

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

In this course, we will learn how to use mathematical equations to make precise statements

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

Experimental results : quantification


Experimental results are typically presented as a graph -- not as a set of statements. A graph conveys much more information than a set of statements It is more quantitative.

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

Graphical representation
A graph, in principle, can be represented by a mathematical equation. Understanding that equation, we can learn more about the experimental data/biological system.

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

Using mathematics, how do we extract more information from the experimental data ?

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Growth of fish population


At what population density, we will get maximum yield ?

To answer this question, one should know the idea of derivative in mathematics
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay
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Let us see how certain ideas/phenomena can be represented using graphs

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Seasons

Periodic in nature
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay
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Molecular motor walking along microtubule

Average position of Kinesin


(y)

Time (t)
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay
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Free energy (G)

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Gene expression

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Actin/Microtubule : Force-velocity

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Membrane Potential

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Growth curve

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Function
Each of the curves can be represented by a mathematical equation y = mx + constant : a relation between y and x V = A log (C) N(t) = A-exp(-kt) Function is a relation between quantities that we plot in X and Y axis
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay
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Molecular motor walking along microtubule

Average position of Kinesin (y)

y=vt+ constant

Time (t)
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay
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Membrane Potential
How potential across Membrane varies with concentration of ions

We can say : Membrane potential is a function of ion concentration


Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay
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Growth curve
How number of cells increases with time

We can say : Number of cells is a function of time


Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay
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Actin/Microtubule : Force-velocity

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Summary: Idea of a function


A graph represents a mathematical function A function is a relation between two quantities

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Why mathematics ? : Structure of bio molecules

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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3-dimensional configuration of proteins

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Why mathematics ? : Statistics

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Statistics
Most biological processes can only be described statistically. Almost all measurements we do involves statistical variability Hence the need to understand statistics to extract meaningful information from available data

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Size variability

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Probability
Probability of an enzyme (protein) binding to a target

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Summary
Why mathematics ? Describe natural phenomena 3D structure of bio-molecules Statistical analysis

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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In this course, we will learn how to use Mathematics to understand different biological systems

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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